WorldWideScience

Sample records for wastewater discharges dispersion

  1. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  2. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The purification mechanism of wastewater by underwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangil; Ma, Suk Hwal; Huh, Jin Young; Hong, Yong Cheol; National Fusion Research Institute Team; Chonbuk National University Team; Kwangwoon University Team; NPAC Team

    2016-09-01

    There is a continuing need for development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for purification of wastewater. In this regard, the plasmas can be a promising candidate for next-generation method to purify the wastewater. It is well known that the plasmas generate many reactive species and thus they are predominant for degradation of organic pollutants from water. In order to generate plasma in wastewater, the capillary electrodes are used with ac power supply. After plasma treatment, the coagulants are added to purify the wastewater. The efficiency of coagulation is significantly improved by plasma treatment of wastewater. These results may come from the reactions among radicals of plasma-treated water, electron reduction and oxidation of ions in waste water, and coagulant. In order to verify the hypothesis, we measured characteristics changes of water by underwater discharge. In this study, we propose the purification mechanism of wastewater by underwater discharge. We expect that the underwater discharge can be applied to purify wastewater in near future.

  4. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  5. Treatment of Wastewater by Ozone Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is rapid diminishing of water resources in many countries due to, for example, population growth and constant reduction in fresh water supply. The sewage wastewater, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewater are directly and indiscriminately discharged into rivers and lakes and thus primarily cause water pollution in Nepal. This has increased the water crisis and also causes environmental deterioration. Therefore, the need for the development of an effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly process for the treatment of wastewater before discharging into aquatic environment has emerged. Treatment by ozone produced from dielectric barrier discharge is one of the emerging technologies for such application. The ozonation process is more effective for disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. The current study describes the treatment of wastewater of selected site within Kathmandu. Results on various physicochemical and microbial parameters of the inlet and outlet samples are discussed. Our results showed slight increase in pH, decrease in chemical oxygen demand, and significant increase in dissolved oxygen after ozonation. Importantly, ozonation caused total reduction of fecal coliform.

  6. Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Jiang, Song; Liu, Kefu

    2014-07-01

    A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%.

  7. Nonfoaming Bubble Separation for Recovery of Butyl Acetate from Discharged Wastewater During Penicillin Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴华; 常志东; 胡欣; 申淑锋; 刘会洲

    2005-01-01

    Two nonfoaming bubble separation techniques, air stripping and solvent sublation, are presented and discussed in order to recover butyl acetate (BA) from discharged wastewater after solvent extraction of penicillin. Results show air stripping is not suitable for the recovery of BA from the wastewater. Axial concentration of BA had a noted maximum point along the column. In contrast, solvent sublation is very effective to recover BA from the wastewater. In solvent sublation experiments, axial concentration of BA along the column first increased and then decreased from the bottom to the top because of two primary mass transport processes. One is the transport by adsorption or attachment to ascending bubbles, and the other is by dispersion at water-solvent interface and by water film in organic solvent layer. In order to elucidate the high removal efficiency in solvent sublation, the microstructure of the wastewater was studied with optic microscope, which was showed to be an emulsion of BA in water at large concentration of BA. Solvent sublation can be successfully used in the removal of BA from its emulsion in the wastewater. The surface tension of simulated solution composed of lysozyme and BA was studied to understand mutual effect of biological materials and BA. Results show that lysozyme affects the adsorption of BA at air-water interface and they may form a complex between BA and lysozyme molecules.

  8. Dispersal and dilution of wastewater from an ocean outfall at Davis Station, Antarctica, and resulting environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jonathan S; Bridgen, Phil; Dunshea, Glenn; Galton-Fenzi, Ben; Hunter, John; Johnstone, Glenn; King, Catherine; Leeming, Rhys; Palmer, Anne; Smith, James; Snape, Ian; Stark, Scott; Riddle, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The Antarctic Treaty permits the discharge of wastewater into Antarctic marine waters providing that conditions exist for initial dilution and rapid dispersal. We investigated the dilution and dispersal of macerated wastewater around Australia's Davis Station in East Antarctica and examined sediments for evidence of contaminants. Methods used to examine hydrodynamic conditions included current meters, dye release experiments and measurement of sewage-associated microbial markers and surfactants in the water column. We measured marine sediments for metals, nutrients, PBDEs, hydrocarbons and faecal sterols. We propose that if there is adequate dilution and dispersal there would be no significant difference in contaminant concentrations in sediments around the outfall compared to distant control sites. Currents were strongly correlated with prevailing wind conditions. Modelling indicated that diffusivity of wastewater had the greatest effect on dilution factors and that neither discharge rates nor local currents had as much effect. During summer conditions of open water, wastewater is likely to be constrained in a narrow plume close to the coast. Concentrations of sewage bacteria were high around the outfall and detected up to 1.5 km away, along with dye. There were significant differences in sediment concentrations of metals, PBDEs, hydrocarbons, nutrients and faecal sterols between sites within 2 km of the outfall and control sites. We conclude that dilution and dispersal conditions at the Davis outfall are insufficient to prevent the accumulation of contaminants in local sediments and that microbial hazards posed by wastewater are an environmental risk to local wildlife.

  9. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Wastewater and Power Plant Discharge Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Graphical depiction of wastewater and power plant discharge pipelines/outlets locations in Southern California.The shapefile was collected by Everest International...

  10. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Wastewater and Power Plant Discharge Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Graphical depiction of wastewater and power plant discharge pipelines/outlets locations in Southern California.The shapefile was collected by Everest International...

  11. Regulating industrial wastewater discharged to public wastewater treatment plants - A conceptual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes some of the basic principles behind the DEPA Guidelines for discharge of industrial wastewater to public sewers set in operation in 1995 and evaluates some of the experiences with the implementation. It is described how such guidelines support the approach of pollution...... along with its combination with available technology. Finally expression of the environmental requirements are discussed in relation to environmental and technological considerations....

  12. Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater by Using Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge to Water Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Sun MOK; Hyun Tae AHN; Joeng Tai KIM

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the treatment of textile-dyeing wastewater by using an electrical discharge technique (positive pulsed corona discharge). The high-voltage electrode was placed above the surface of the wastewater while the ground electrode was submerged in the wastewater. The electrical discharge starting at the tip of the high voltage electrode propagated toward the surface of the wastewater, producing various oxidative radicals and ozone. Oxygen was used as the working gas instead of air to prevent nitrogen oxides from forming. The simulated wastewater was made up with amaranth, which is a kind of azo dye. The results obtained showed that the chromaticity of the wastewater was almost completely removed within an hour. The ultraviolet/visible spectra of the wastewater treated by the electrical discharge revealed that the total hydrocarbon level also decreased significantly.

  13. Regulating industrial wastewater discharged to public wastewater treatment plants - A conceptual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes some of the basic principles behind the DEPA Guidelines for discharge of industrial wastewater to public sewers set in operation in 1995 and evaluates some of the experiences with the implementation. It is described how such guidelines support the approach of pollution...... prevention and the implementation of cleaner technology by putting a stress on the industry. Further an approach for the balance between environmental and technological considerations is introduced. The need for easily understandable environmental priorities is stressed and a concept for this is presented...

  14. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... and heavy metals has been developed during the past two years. The concept is based on guidelines that are made according to considerations of me environment and the treatment plant system, and that encourage the introduction of a cleaner technology and integrated preventive measures. For most organic...

  15. Analysis of 16S Sediment Microbial Communities from a Southern California Wastewater-Treatment Discharge Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treated sewage effluent from several large wastewater treatment plants in the Los Angeles metropolitan area is discharged into the Pacific Ocean through a network of outfalls located between 5 and 7 miles offshore. To support development of new indicators of wastewater effects o...

  16. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Kwang-Seol [Chemical Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong Eun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑{sub 11}PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411 ng/L) and textile (median: 106 ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49–66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0 ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5 ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146 ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055 ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039 ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010 ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489 ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored. - Highlights: • 11 PFAAs in wastewater and sludge from 5 industrial sectors were investigated. • PFOA and PFOS were the dominant in wastewater while PFOS was predominant in sludge. • The total discharge loads from 5 industrial sectors 0.146 ton/yr. • The textile industry showed the highest discharge load with 0.055 ton/yr.

  17. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored.

  18. Removal of antibiotics in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment: implications for environmental discharge and wastewater recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A J; Murby, E J; Costanzo, S D

    2007-10-01

    Removal of 28 human and veterinary antibiotics was assessed in a conventional (activated sludge) and advanced (microfiltration/reverse osmosis) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brisbane, Australia. The dominant antibiotics detected in wastewater influents were cephalexin (med. 4.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), ciprofloxacin (med. 3.8 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), cefaclor (med. 0.5 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.36 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.34 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Results indicated that both treatment plants significantly reduced antibiotic concentrations with an average removal rate from the liquid phase of 92%. However, antibiotics were still detected in both effluents from the low-to-mid ng L(-1) range. Antibiotics detected in effluent from the activated sludge WWTP included ciprofloxacin (med. 0.6 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), sulphamethoxazole (med. 0.27 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) lincomycin (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%) and trimethoprim (med. 0.05 microg L(-1), freq. 100%). Antibiotics identified in microfiltration/reverse osmosis product water included naladixic acid (med. 0.045 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), enrofloxacin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), roxithromycin (med. 0.01 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), norfloxacin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), oleandomycin (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), trimethoprim (med. 0.005 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), tylosin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 100%), and lincomycin (med. 0.001 microg L(-1), freq. 66%). Certain traditional parameters, including nitrate concentration, conductivity and turbidity of the effluent were assessed as predictors of total antibiotic concentration, however only conductivity demonstrated any correlation with total antibiotic concentration (p=0.018, r=0.7). There is currently a lack of information concerning the effects of these chemicals to critically assess potential risks for environmental discharge and water recycling.

  19. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  20. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOK Young Sun; JO Jin-Oh; LEE Heon-Ju

    2008-01-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  1. Possible impact of treated wastewater discharge on incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwane, T; Urase, T; Yamamoto, K

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli and coliform group bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics were investigated in the Tama River, a typical urbanized river in Tokyo, Japan, and at a wastewater treatment plant located on the river. The percentages of antibiotic resistance in the wastewater effluent were, in most cases, higher than the percentages in the river water, which were observed increasing downstream. Since the possible increase in the percentages in the river was associated with treated wastewater discharges, it was concluded that the river, which is contaminated by treated wastewater with many kinds of pollutants, is also contaminated with antibiotic resistant coliform group bacteria and E. coli. The percentages of resistant bacteria in the wastewater treatment plant were mostly observed decreasing during the treatment process. It was also demonstrated that the percentages of resistance in raw sewage are significantly higher than those in the river water and that the wastewater treatment process investigated in this study works against most of resistant bacteria in sewage.

  2. An Assessment of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Cruise Ship Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    An Assessment of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Cruise Ship Wastewater Discharge Charles D. McGee Orange County Sanitation District* 10844 Ellis...Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative in 1999. This initiative required investigation, understanding and oversight of discharges from large cruise ships...into the waters of Alaska. As part of the overall assessment of impacts from cruise ship waste discharges on the environment, a Science Advisory

  3. Evaluating the vulnerability of surface waters to antibiotic contamination from varying wastewater treatment plant discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batt, Angela L. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Buffalo, 608 Natural Sciences Complex, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States)]. E-mail: abatt@hotmail.com; Bruce, Ian B. [Department of Geography, Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY (United States)]. E-mail: ianbbruce@gmail.com; Aga, Diana S. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Buffalo, 608 Natural Sciences Complex, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States)]. E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu

    2006-07-15

    Effluents from three wastewater treatment plants with varying wastewater treatment technologies and design were analyzed for six antibiotics and caffeine on three sampling occasions. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were detected in the effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.090 to 6.0 {mu}g/L. Caffeine was detected in all effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 9.9 {mu}g/L. These findings indicate that several conventional wastewater management practices are not effective in the complete removal of antibiotics, and their discharges have a large potential to affect the aquatic environment. To evaluate the persistence of antibiotics coming from the wastewater discharges on the surrounding surface waters, samples were collected from the receiving streams at 10-, 20- and 100-m intervals. Ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin (0.043 to 0.076 {mu}g/L) were found as far as 100 m from the discharge point, which indicates the persistence of these drugs in surface waters. - This work investigates the extent of antibiotic concentrations in receiving waters from discharges of wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Evaluation and Optimization of Electrode Configuration of Multi-Channel Corona Discharge Plasma for Dye-Containing Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingyu; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2015-12-01

    A discharge plasma reactor with a point-to-plane structure was widely studied experimentally in wastewater treatment. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of active species and the energy efficiency of this kind of discharge plasma reactor during wastewater treatment, the electrode configuration of the point-to-plane corona discharge reactor was studied by evaluating the effects of discharge spacing and adjacent point distance on discharge power and discharge energy density, and then dye-containing wastewater decoloration experiments were conducted on the basis of the optimum electrode configuration. The experimental results of the discharge characteristics showed that high discharge power and discharge energy density were achieved when the ratio of discharge spacing to adjacent point distance (d/s) was 0.5. Reactive Brilliant Blue (RBB) wastewater treatment experiments presented that the highest RBB decoloration efficiency was observed at d/s of 0.5, which was consistent with the result obtained in the discharge characteristics experiments. In addition, the biodegradability of RBB wastewater was enhanced greatly after discharge plasma treatment under the optimum electrode configuration. RBB degradation processes were analyzed by GC-MS and IC, and the possible mechanism for RBB decoloration was also discussed. supported by China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M562460), the Initiative Funding Programs for Doctoral Research of Northwest A&F University (No. 2013BSJJ121), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21107085)

  5. The effects of wastewater discharge on the microbiological nitrogen cycle of the lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarenheimo, Jatta; Aalto, Sanni L.; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic wastewater inputs alter the natural dynamics of nitrogen (N) cycle by providing high concentrations of nitrate and organic matter to the sediment microbes. It can also change the microbial community composition and N removal potential but this is currently not that well studied. To study these aspects, we conducted ecosystem-scale experiment in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland. In the experiment, the wastewater discharge to the recipient lake was optimized with sediment filtration, which increased the surface and retention time of the nitrified wastewater with the sediment. In addition to N transformation rates, which showed that optimization enhanced denitrification, we studied the microbial responses at the sediment. Genetic potential of nitrogen transformation processes, such as denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and nitrification were studied by targeting the functional genes (i.e. nirS, nirK, nosZI, nosZII, nrfA, amoAarchaea and amoAbacteria) with quantitative PCR and digital droplet PCR. In addition, changes in the microbial community composition along the wastewater gradient were examined by using next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In line with our hypothesis, the relative abundance of denitrifying genes followed the observed denitrification rates, being highest near the nitrate-rich wastewater discharge. Furthermore the microbial community composition in the discharge point differed clearly from the control and downstream sites, having also the highest numbers of rare OTUs. Abundance of nitrifying bacteria was higher than nitrifying archaea near the waste water discharge, whereas the opposite was seen at the control site. The results indicate that wastewater is not only increasing the denitrification rates, but can also alter the structure and genetic potential microbial communities.

  6. The Relationship between Polarographic Reduction Potentials and Discharge Properties of Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Jia-jie; CHENG Wan-li; WANG Hui-zhen; TANG Ren-cheng; FAN Bing-xian

    2005-01-01

    The half-wave potentials of disperse dyes with different structures are measured, the relationship between half-wave potentials and their discharge properties is discussed, then their effect factors are studied, such as the chemical structure types and substituents of disperse dyes and technological parameters. The results indicate that the halfwave potentials of disperse dyes when reduced could be used to characterize their reducing and discharge properties.

  7. Sensitivity of Chinese Industrial Wastewater Discharge Reduction to Direct Input Coefficients in an Input-output Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhipeng; GONG Peiping; LIU Weidong; LI Jiangsu

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastewater discharge in China is increasing with the country's economic development and it is worthy of concern.The discharge is primarily relevant to the direct discharge coefficient of each sector of the economy,its direct input coefficient and the final demand in input-output models.In this study,we calculated the sensitivity of the reduction in the Chinese industrial wastewater discharge using the direct input coefficients based on the theory of error-transmission in an input-outpnt framework.Using input-output models,we calculated the direct and total industrial wastewater discharge coefficients.Analysis of 2007 input-output data of 30 sectors of the Chinese economy and of 30 provincial regions of China indicates that by lowering their direct input coefficients,the manufacturers of textiles,paper and paper products,chemical products,smelting and metal pressing,telecommunication equipment,computers and other electronic equipment will significantly reduce their amounts of industrial wastewater discharge.By lowering intra-provincial direct input coefficients to industrial sectors themselves of Jiangsu,Shandong and Zhejiang,there will be a significant reduction in industrial wastewater discharge for the country as a whole.Investment in production technology and improvement in organizational efficiency in these sectors and in these provinces can help lessen the direct input coefficients,thereby effectively achieving a reduction in industrial wastewater discharge in China via industrial restructuring.

  8. Organic compounds downstream from a treated-wastewater discharge near Dallas, Texas, March 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszka, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Schroeder, M.P.; Becker, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected on March 9 and 10,1987 from one site upstream and three sites downstream of the discharge from a municipal wastewater-treatment plant on Rowlett Creek near Dallas, Texas. To extract and separate organic compounds, purgeand-trap, closed-loop stripping, and pH-adjusted solvent extraction methods were used for water samples; and a Soxhlet-solvent extraction method was used for streambed sediment. These methods were combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify organic compounds in Rowlett Creek. Results from this study confirm the persistence of many organic compounds in water as far as 13.5 kilometers downstream of the wastewater discharge. These include: (1) the volatile organic compounds chloroform, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene; (2) several linear alkylbenzene compounds, octyl phenol, and a tetramethylbutyl phenol isomer that are related to detergent use; (3) 9-phenyl-9H-carbazole, a compound related to coal tars and coal combustion residues; and (4) caffeine. The only compound present in water in concentrations greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels for drinking water was tetrachloroethene (6.0 micrograms per liter) in a sample collected 13.5 kilometers downstream from the waste water discharge. Compounds identified from the streambed-sediment samples include a xylene isomer at 7.7 kilometers downstream and chrysene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and a xylene isomer at 13.5 kilometers downstream from the wastewater discharge.

  9. Industrial Wastewater Discharge Retrieval Based on Stable Nighttime Light Imagery in China from 1992 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastewater (IW discharge, which is a known point source of pollution, is a major water pollution source. Increasing IW discharge has imposed considerable pressure on regional or global water environments. It is important to estimate the IW distribution in grid units to improve basin-scale hydrological processes and water quality modeling. For the first time, we use the nighttime light imagery produced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS to estimate the spatial and temporal variations in the IW distribution from 1992 to 2010 in China. The digital number values per unit area (DNP of each stable light image were calculated using nighttime light imagery and were regressed against the IW per unit area (IWP to estimate the total industrial wastewater (TIW for each province. The results indicated strong positive correlations between the DNP and the IWP for each province during different years. The fitted linear regression models were used to estimate IW discharge in China with reliable accuracy. The IW estimation using the satellite data was consistent with the statistical results. The results also revealed that the IW discharge coverage expanded, whereas the IW discharge intensity decreased from 1992 to 2010 in China.

  10. Marine outfalls monitoring at the CSIR: Evaluating the impact of wastewater discharge on our marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arabi, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] BACKGROUND The CSIR Marine Outfalls Monitoring Programme has a history of 45 years, and comprises a suite of projects in KwaZulu-Natal and Cape coastal waters. Previous work has also been conducted in the Southern African Development Community... to monitor wastewater discharge impacts, including toxicity testing, environmental chemistry, benthic community status and bio-accumulation studies. The CSIR laboratories are accredited for the analysis of marine water, sediment and biological tissue...

  11. Estradiol and testosterone (11-KT) concentrations in catfish associated with wastewater discharges into Hollis Creek and the Noxubee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report discusses the findings concerning possible water contamination and endocrine disruption in catfish associated with discharge of tertiary treated wastewater...

  12. Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai; Crossland, C J

    2010-06-01

    Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage outfalls. The surveys revealed strong gradients in water quality and biotic characteristics associated with tourism concentration levels as well as seasonal variability. Water and reef quality tended to decrease with increasing tourist intensity, but improved with increasing distance from sewage discharge within each of the three study locations. In addition, the effect of wastewater discharge was not localised around the source of pollution, but appeared to be transported to non-developed sites by currents, and exacerbated in the wet season.

  13. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Patnode,; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson,; Lora Zimmerman,; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the

  14. FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

  15. Recovery of astaxanthin from discharged wastewater during the production of chitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Yang, Shengfeng; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, studies were carried out to extract astaxanthin from discharged wastewater during the production of chitin and to reveal the scavenging effect of the obtained pigment on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Different ratios of dichloromethane/methanol (V/V) were used to extract astaxanthin. When the ratio of dichloromethane/methanol was 2:8 and the ratio between the mixed organic solvent (dichloromethane/methanol, 2:8, V/V) and wastewater was 1:1, the highest yield of pigment was obtained (8.4 mg/50 mL). The concentration of free astaxanthin in the obtained pigment analyzed by HPLC was 30.02%. The obtained pigment possessed strong scavenging ability on DPPH radical and IC50 was 0.84mg/ml.

  16. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    that the detections reported for ground-water samples represented low-level field or laboratory contamination, and it would appear that coliphage were effectively attenuated to less than 1 PFU/100 mL over distances of several feet of transport in the La Pine aquifer and (or) overlying unsaturated zone. Organic wastewater compounds were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Of the 63 organic wastewater compounds in the analytical schedule, 45 were detected in the 21 samples of onsite wastewater. Concentrations of organic wastewater compounds reached a maximum of 1,300 ug/L (p-cresol). Caffeine was detected at concentrations as high as 320 ug/L. Fourteen of the 45 compounds were detected in more than 90 percent of onsite wastewater samples. Fewer (nine) organic wastewater compounds were detected in ground water, despite the presence of nitrate and chloride likely from onsite wastewater sources. The nine organic wastewater compounds that were detected in ground-water samples were acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), caffeine, cholesterol, hexahydrohexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), tetrachloroethene, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. Frequent detection of household-chemical type organic wastewater compounds in onsite wastewater provides evidence that some of these organic wastewater compounds may be useful indicators of human waste effluent dispersal in some hydrologic environments. The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in ground water downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment systems demonstrates that a subgroup of organic wastewater compounds is transported in the La Pine aquifer. The consistently low concentrations (generally less than 1 ug/L) of organic wastewater compounds in water samples collected from wells located no more than 19 feet from drainfield lines indicates that the reactivity (sorption, degradation) of this suite of organic waste

  17. Assessment of Wastewater Discharge Impact from a Sewage Treatment Plant on Lagoon Water, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezechiel Longe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the wastewater discharge impact from the University of Lagos campus treatment plant on the lagoon system . In order to achieve this objective water samples were collected from nine sites and analyzed for different wastewater quality variables. The field survey was carried out between July and November in order to capture both the wet and dry seasons. Average removal efficiencies of measured parameters from treated effluents are 26% for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, 73% for Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, 65.8% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and 72% for Total Nitrogen (Total N for the wet season campaign. During the dry season average rem oval efficiencies of measured parameters are 54% for TDS, 54% for BOD, 39% for COD and 42% for Total N. These values are lower than values obtained for the wet season except for TDS. Most parameters in effluents exceeded the National Environmental Protection Regulations, Effluent Limitation standards for discharge into river bodies. Average concentrations of TDS, BOD and COD in lagoon water show higher concentrations than in the treated effluent and are above the regulatory requirements. The research recommends further study on the possible influence of water dynamics and sampling methods on water quality of the lagoon. The overall results from this research conclude that the lagoon is being polluted by effluents discharge from the university treatment plant thereby exposing the health of local residents who use it for recreation and for food production purposes.

  18. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewaters Discharged by Petroleum Industries (HMD/Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellami, MH, E-mail: sellami2000dz@gmail.com [Process Engineering Department, Laboratory of Process Engineering, Ouargla University (Algeria); Loudiyi, K [Renewable Energies Laboratory (REL) Al Akhawayne University, Ifrane (Morocco); Boubaker, MC; Habbaz, H [Process Engineering Department, Laboratory of Process Engineering, Ouargla University (Algeria)

    2015-12-23

    Industrial wastewaters discharged by petroleum industries contains: oil, heavy metals and chemicals used in the process of oil separation and treatment. These waters are a source of soil, water and air pollution, and lead a mortal danger to the ecosystem. Our aim in this work has an aspect that can contribute to the collective effort to address the enormous amount of water purges storage bins and reuse them to avoid any environmental damage. This was achieved by chemical treating of these wastewaters discharged from three different locations of Hassi Messaoud (HMD) petroleum field by flocculation with (C-5563) followed by coagulation with (C-2061) using two different acids as sequestering namely: Ascorbic and Citric acid. After experiments, the results showed that the wastewater can be treated without sequestering by adding 40 ppm of activated silicates. The best result was obtained by addition of 160 ppm of Ascorbic acid as sequestering agent and 20 ppm of activated silicates; resulting in removal of 92.81 % of suspended matter and 95.53 % of turbidity. Finally we concluded that this wastewater was satisfactorily treated and we recommend either inject it for enhanced oil recovery in industrial closest field (North field) to maintain the reservoir pressure and the improved rate recovery of oil reserves or reuse it in garden irrigation. In order to see the impact of the treated water on plants, irrigation tests have conducted on two types of plants (date palm and shaft apocalyptic) for one year. The tests showed that the thick layer of 5 cm and 0.08mm of particles diameter of dune sand removes most of remaining oil. The sand layer that fills the basin surrounding the shaft is removed and replaced every 06 months. So, Dune sand plays the role of natural filter. The garden plants appear and grow normally.

  19. In situ evaluation of wastewater discharges and the bioavailability of contaminants to marine biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranho, L.A., E-mail: lmaranho@gmail.com [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), University of Cádiz, Polygon Río San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Physical Chemical Department, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cádiz, Polygon Río San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); André, C. [Emerging Methods, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, 7th floor, H2Y 2E7 Montreal, Quebec (Canada); DelValls, T.A. [Physical Chemical Department, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cádiz, Polygon Río San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Gagné, F. [Emerging Methods, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, 7th floor, H2Y 2E7 Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Martín-Díaz, M.L. [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), University of Cádiz, Polygon Río San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Physical Chemical Department, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cádiz, Polygon Río San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Marine sediment quality of wastewater discharges areas was determined by using in situ caged clams Ruditapes philippinarum taking into account the seasonality. Clams were caged in sediment directly affected by wastewater discharges at four sites (P1, P2, P3, P4) at the Bay of Cádiz (SW, Spain), and one reference site (P6). Exposure to contaminated sediments was confirmed by measurement of metals and As, PAH, pharmaceutical products and surfactants (SAS) in bottom sediments. Biological effects were determined by following biomarkers of exposure (activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase — EROD, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase — DBF, glutathione S-transferase — GST, glutathione peroxidase — GPX, glutathione reductase — GR and acetylcholinesterase — AChE), effects (lysosomal membrane stability — LMS, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation — LPO), energy status (total lipids — TLP and mitochondrial electron transport — MET), and involved in the mode of action of pharmaceutical products (monoamine oxidase activity — MAO, alkali-labile phosphates — ALP levels and cyclooxygenase activity — COX). In winter, urban effluents were detoxified by phase I biotransformation (CYP3A-like activity), phase II (GST), and the activation of antioxidant defence enzymes (GR). Urban effluents lead to the detoxification metabolism (CYP1A-like), oxidative effects (LPO and DNA damage), neurotoxicity (AChE) and neuroendocrine disruption (COX and ALP levels) involved in inflammation (P1 and P2) and changes in reproduction as spawning delay (P3 and P4) in clams exposed in summer. Adverse effects on biota exposed to sediment directly affected by wastewater discharges depend on the chemical contamination level and also on the reproductive cycle according to seasonality. - Highlights: • Sediment quality of wastewater discharges evaluated by caged clams R. philippinarum • Exposure was confirmed by measurement of metal and organic compounds in sediments. • Winter

  20. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  1. Determination of steel bar dispersed mass in electric discharge with alternative electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirova, G. Yu; Shakirov, Yu I.; Ilyin, V. I.; Valiev, R. A.; Drogaylova, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The mathematical model of plane problem of metal bar dispersion in electric discharge with liquid electrolyte is suggested in this research. The analogy with the plane problem of the theory of jets in an ideal fluid is used to solve the task. It actually means determination of analytic function in the field with one area of unknown boundary. The formula for determination of dispersed metal powder mass assuming the bar axial symmetry has been calculated.

  2. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions are enhanced by wastewater discharge into New York City coastal estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, B. A.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Bird, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Hudson River Estuary (HRE) receives significant inputs of untreated wastewater from sewer overflow from New York City (NYC) and other urban areas. These inputs deliver large, concentrated pulses of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) into the estuary primarily during storm events. We hypothesized that sewage inputs would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) efflux from the HRE via two mechanism: (1) direct input of these gases into estuarine surface waters from NYC's wastewater treatment system; and (2) indirect in-situ microbial production in response to the C and N additions. To test these hypotheses, CO2, CH4, dissolved organic C and inorganic N concentrations were measured in both sewage outflow and in estuarine waters. Efflux of CO2 and CH4 were also quantified from sediment cores sampled from Flushing Bay (FB), which is in close proximity to sewage delivery outlets. Wastewater discharge was found to be both a direct input in wastewater and an indirect source of CO2 and CH4 via microbial respiration. Effluent concentrations of CH4 (125 ppm), CO2 (2200 ρCO2), dissolved organic C, ammonium, and nitrate surface water concentrations, were a minimum of 3 times greater than in estuarine surface water adjacent to the sewage delivery area and up to 20 times greater than concentrations found in regional HRE surface waters. Incubation experiments with FB sediment demonstrated that acetate additions stimulated CO2 efflux by + 1.25 and CH4 efflux by +10 times, compared with unamended controls. The magnitude of CH4 produced was +40 times greater than from sediments incubated from a non-sewage affected area with similar salinity levels. However, total C mineralization (6 µg C day-1 g-1 of dry soil) was a small portion of the C amendment indicating negligible priming. These data warrant study on larger regional scales to assess the broader climate impact likely driven by CH4 efflux that results from discharge of untreated wastewater into urban estuaries.

  4. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2015-09-24

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction–modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  5. Does wastewater discharge have relations with increase of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Intae

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether water and air pollutants have a relationship with an increase in the genetic disorders Turner syndrome and Down syndrome, which are caused by congenital chromosomal abnormalities, and to generate a hypothesis about the genetic health effects of environmental pollutants. A panel regression based on random effect was conducted on Korea's metropolitan councils from 2012 to 2014. The dependent variable was the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases, and the main independent variables were those regarding the water and air pollution. Air pollutants did not have a significant impact on the number of Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases; however, the increase in number of wastewater discharge companies did have a significant relationship with the number of cases. The more the number of wastewater discharge companies, the more the number Turner syndrome and Down syndrome cases were observed. Therefore, scientific investigation on water and air pollutants in relation with genetic health effects needs to be performed.

  6. Non-intrusive characterization methods for wastewater-affected groundwater plumes discharging to an alpine lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, James W; Robillard, Jasen M; Watson, Susan B; Hayashi, Masaki

    2009-02-01

    Streams and lakes in rocky environments are especially susceptible to nutrient loading from wastewater-affected groundwater plumes. However, the use of invasive techniques such as drilling wells, installing piezometers or seepage meters, to detect and characterize these plumes can be prohibitive. In this work, we report on the use of four non-intrusive methods for this purpose at a site in the Rocky Mountains. The methods included non-invasive geophysical surveys of subsurface electrical conductivity (EC), in-situ EC measurement of discharging groundwater at the lake-sediment interface, shoreline water sampling and nutrient analysis, and shoreline periphyton sampling and analysis of biomass and taxa relative abundance. The geophysical surveys were able to detect and delineate two high-EC plumes, with capacitively coupled ERI (OhmMapper) providing detailed two-dimensional images. In situ measurements at the suspected discharge locations confirmed the presence of high-EC water in the two plumes and corroborated their spatial extent. The nutrient and periphyton results showed that only one of the two high-EC plumes posed a current eutrophication threat, with elevated nitrogen and phosphorus levels, high localized periphyton biomass and major shifts in taxonomic composition to taxa that are commonly associated with anthropogenic nutrient loading. This study highlights the need to use non-intrusive methods in combination, with geophysical and water EC-based methods used for initial detection of wastewater-affected groundwater plumes, and nutrient or periphyton sampling used to characterize their ecological effects.

  7. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction-modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants.

  8. Removal of disperse dyes from textile wastewater using bio-sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Srisornsak, Parawee

    2007-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) did not show any significant adsorption ability on the disperse dyes, while resting (living) bio-sludge of a domestic wastewater treatment plant showed high adsorption abilities on both disperse dyes and organic matter. The dye adsorption ability of bio-sludge increased by approximately 30% through acclimatization with disperse dyes, and it decreased by autoclaving. The deteriorated bio-sludge could be reused after being washed with 0.1N NaOH solution. Disperse Red 60 was more easily adsorbed onto the bio-sludge than Disperse Blue 60. The Disperse Red 60, COD, and BOD5 adsorption capacities of acclimatized, resting bio-sludge were 40.0+/-0.1, 450+/-12, and 300+/-10mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. The GAC-SBR system could be applied to treat textile wastewater (TWW) containing disperse dyes with high dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of 93.0+/-1.1%, 88.0+/-3.1%, 92.2+/-2.7% and 51.5+/-7.0%, respectively without any excess bio-sludge production under an organic loading of 0.18 kg BOD5/m3-d. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies increased with the addition of glucose into the system. The dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of the GAC-SBR system with TWW containing 0.89 g/L glucose were 94.6+/-0.7%, 94.4+/-0.6%, 94.4+/-0.8% and 59.3+/-8.5%, respectively, under an SRT of 67+/-0.4 days.

  9. Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

    2013-01-15

    Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and

  10. Intersex and reproductive impairment of wild fish exposed to multiple municipal wastewater discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, Charles J; Shires, K; Knight, B; Servos, Mark R; McMaster, Mark E

    2011-08-01

    The Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, receives and assimilates the outflow of 29 Municipal Wastewater Effluent (MWWE) discharges which is a mixture of domestic and industrial wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative impact of multiple sewage discharges on populations of wild fish. In field studies, responses of fish populations and individual fish responses in terms of growth (condition factor), reproduction (in vitro sex steroid production, gonadosomatic indices, histology [cellular development and intersex]) were assessed upstream and downstream of two municipal discharges. Fish [Greenside Darters Etheostoma blennioides and Rainbow Darters E. caeruleum] collected downstream of two municipal wastewater plants had the potential to have greater growth (longer and heavier) when compared to reference fish collections regardless of sex. Fish were not assimilating additional anthropogenic resources into energy storage (increased condition, liver somatic index). Impacts on ovarian development appeared to be minor with no differences in growth, steroid production or cellular development. Sewage exposed male fish were experiencing impairment in the capacity to produce testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in vitro, and in cellular development (GSI, intersex). Male darters of both species collected in the upstream agricultural region demonstrated no evidence of intersex whereas our urban reference sites had incidence of intersex of up to 20%. Rates of intersex were elevated downstream of both sewage discharges studied (33% and>60%, respectively). Lower rates of intersex at the intermediate sites, and then increases downstream of second sewage discharge suggests that fish populations have to potential to recover prior to exposure to the second sewage effluent. Pre-spawning darters demonstrated dramatically higher incidence of intersex in the spring at both urban reference sites (33% and 50%, respectively), and increased more so downstream of

  11. Direct evidence of histopathological impacts of wastewater discharge on resident Antarctic fish (Trematomus bernacchii) at Davis Station, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Stark, Jonathan S; Mondon, Julie A

    2014-10-15

    During the 2009/2010 summer, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wastewater discharge at Davis Station, East Antarctica was completed. As part of this, histological alteration of gill and liver tissue in Antarctic Rock-cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from four sites along a spatial gradient from the wastewater outfall were assessed. All fish within 800 m of the outfall exhibited significant histological changes in both tissues. Common pathologies observed in fish closest to the outfall include proliferation of epithelial cells with associated secondary lamellar fusion in the gills and multifocal granulomata with inflammation and necrosis as well as cysts in the liver. Fish from sites >800 m from the outfall also exhibited alterations but to a lesser degree, with prevalence and severity decreasing with increasing distance from the outfall. This study highlights the value of histopathological investigations as part of EIAs and provides the first evidence of sub-lethal alteration associated with wastewater discharge in East Antarctica.

  12. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge Combined with Spent Tea Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Li; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-12-01

    Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was performed using the pulsed discharge process (PDP) combined with spent tea leaves (STLs). The effects of STL dosage, concentration of initial solution, and pH were analyzed in the combined treatment. Results showed that the combined treatment was effective for dye wastewater degradation; when the dosage of STLs was 3.2 g/L, the degradation efficiency reached 90% after 15 min treatment, and STLs showed a good repeatability. The degradation rate decreased with increasing initial MB concentration but not related to the solution pH in the combined treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and N2 adsorption suggested that the number of acidic and basic groups in the STL surface increased after the treatment, but the surface area and pore volume remained unchanged.

  13. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  14. "A STUDY OF WASTEWATERS OF INDUSTRIAL UNITS DISCHARGED INTO THE GHATOR RIVER IN KHOY CITY, IRAN "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available To find the quantity and quality of wastewaters of the two main industrial units of Khoy city in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, namely the Slaughterhouse and the Totia Chocolate Factory, ten composite samples were taken in 112 hour intervals between 3.5 and 7.5 A.M. (4 hours working shift from the Slaughterhouse and between 7.5 A.M. and 2 P.M from the Totia Chocolate Factory (8hours working shift. The analyses were done according to the latest (1985 edition of the Standard Methods. The results showed that water consumption rates of the Slaughterhouse and the Chocolate Factory were 29m3 and 31. Sm3, respectively, whereas the means of their wastewater flow rate per hour were 5.9m3 and 2.9m3, discharged directly into the Ghator River and its branches. The means of the fat substances, settleable solids, BOD5 and COD of the slaughter livestock in one working shift was 1451 mg/1. Comparing per capita per day BOD production of humans, reported to be 54 gram per day, we find that the BOD production of humans, reported to be 54 gram per day we find that BOD population equivalent of the Slaughterhouse waste was equivalent to BOD of 770 persons.

  15. Assessment of biomarkers for contaminants of emerging concern on aquatic organisms downstream of a municipal wastewater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G; Gillis, Patricia L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Matsumoto, Jacqueline; de Souza Machado, Anderson A; Giacomin, Marina; Moon, Thomas W; Massarsky, Andrey; Gagné, Francois; Servos, Mark R; Wilson, Joanna; Sultana, Tamanna; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2015-10-15

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and estrogens, are detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. However, analytical monitoring of wastewater and surface water does not indicate whether CECs are affecting the organisms downstream. In this study, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater mussels Pyganodon grandis Say, 1829 (synonym: Anodonta grandis Say, 1829) were caged for 4 weeks in the North Saskatchewan River, upstream and downstream of the discharge from the WWTP that serves the Edmonton, AB, Canada. Passive samplers deployed indicated that concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, an estrogen (estrone) and an androgen (androstenedione) were elevated at sites downstream of the WWTP discharge. Several biomarkers of exposure were significantly altered in the tissues of caged fathead minnows and freshwater mussels relative to the upstream reference sites. Biomarkers altered in fish included induction of CYP3A metabolism, an increase in vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in male minnows, elevated ratios of oxidized to total glutathione (i.e. GSSG/TGSH), and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In mussels, there were no significant changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and the levels of Vtg-like proteins were reduced, not elevated, indicating a generalized stress response. Immune function was altered in mussels, as indicated by elevated lysosomal activity per hemocyte in P. grandis caged closest to the wastewater discharge. This immune response may be due to exposure to bacterial pathogens in the wastewater. Multivariate analysis indicated a response to the CECs Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Trimethoprim (TPM). Overall, these data indicate that there is a 1 km zone of impact for aquatic organisms downstream of WWTP discharge. However, multiple stressors in municipal wastewater make measurement and

  16. Simulation of effects of wastewater discharges on Sand Creek and lower Caddo Creek near Ardmore, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    1999-01-01

    A streamflow and water-quality model was developed for reaches of Sand and Caddo Creeks in south-central Oklahoma to simulate the effects of wastewater discharge from a refinery and a municipal treatment plant. The purpose of the model was to simulate condi tions during low streamflow when the conditions controlling dissolved-oxygen concentrations are most severe. Data collected to calibrate and verify the streamflow and water-quality model include continuously monitored streamflow and water-quality data at two gaging stations and three temporary monitoring stations; wastewater discharge from two wastewater plants; two sets each of five water-quality samples at nine sites during a 24-hour period; dye and propane samples; periphyton samples; and sediment oxygen demand measurements. The water-quality sampling, at a 6-hour frequency, was based on a Lagrangian reference frame in which the same volume of water was sampled at each site. To represent the unsteady streamflows and the dynamic water-quality conditions, a transport modeling system was used that included both a model to route streamflow and a model to transport dissolved conservative constituents with linkage to reaction kinetics similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to simulate nonconservative constituents. These model codes are the Diffusion Analogy Streamflow Routing Model (DAFLOW) and the branched Lagrangian transport model (BLTM) and BLTM/QUAL2E that, collectively, as calibrated models, are referred to as the Ardmore Water-Quality Model. The Ardmore DAFLOW model was calibrated with three sets of streamflows that collectively ranged from 16 to 3,456 cubic feet per second. The model uses only one set of calibrated coefficients and exponents to simulate streamflow over this range. The Ardmore BLTM was calibrated for transport by simulating dye concentrations collected during a tracer study when streamflows ranged from 16 to 23 cubic feet per second. Therefore, the model is expected

  17. Transport of nitrogen in a treated-wastewater plume to coastal discharge areas, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Donald A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    Land disposal of treated wastewater from a treatment plant on the Massachusetts Military Reservation in operation from 1936 to 1995 has created a plume of contaminated groundwater that is migrating toward coastal discharge areas in the town of Falmouth, Massachusetts. To develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the treated-wastewater plume on coastal discharge areas, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, evaluated the fate of nitrogen (N) in the plume. Groundwater samples from two large sampling events in 1994 and 2007 were used to map the size and location of the plume, calculate the masses of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, evaluate changes in mass since cessation of disposal in 1995, and create a gridded dataset suitable for use in nitrogen-transport simulations. In 2007, the treated-wastewater plume was about 1,200 meters (m) wide, 30 m thick, and 7,700 m long and contained approximately 87,000 kilograms (kg) nitrate-N and 31,600 kg total ammonium-N. An analysis of previous studies and data from 1994 and 2007 sampling events suggests that most of biologically reactive nitrogen in the plume in 2007 will be transported to coastal discharge areas as either nitrate or ammonium with relatively little transformation to an environmentally nonreactive end product such as nitrogen gas. Nitrogen-transport simulations were conducted with a previously calibrated regional three-dimensional MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Mass-loaded particle tracking was used to simulate the advective transport of nitrogen to discharge areas (or receptors) along the coast. In the simulations, nonreactive transport (no mass loss in the aquifer) was assumed, providing an upper-end estimate of nitrogen loads to receptors. Simulations indicate that approximately 95 percent of the nitrate-N and 99 percent of the ammonium-N in the wastewater plume will eventually discharge to the Coonamessett River, Backus River, Green

  18. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics.

  19. Reducing bioaerosol dispersion from wastewater treatment and its land application: a review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Richard E; Rubin, Robert

    2005-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems and spray irrigation of treated water may spread microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses through dispersion of aerosol particles. A recent review (Brooks, Josephson, Gerba, & Pepper, 2004) identifies appropriate reports. Teltsch and co-authors report findings that suggest effective management controls involve providing buffer zones, irrigating in the daytime and in times of low humidity, reducing microorganism levels in water used for spraying, and testing for multiple types of viruses and bacteria (Teltsch & Katzenelson, 1978; Teltsch, Shuval, & Tadmor, 1980; Teltsch, Kedmi, Bonnet, Borenzstajn-Rotem, & Katzenelson, 1980). Camann, Moore, Harding, and Sorber support these findings. They also note that fecal streptococci are hardier than fecal coliform and appear frequently in background samples, suggesting that this bacterium is a better indicator of background and downwind conditions than are fecal coliform bacteria. In their study, storage prior to spray irrigation reduced microorganism concentrations by 99 percent. Downwind concentrations of sprayed reservoir water were often comparable to background values (Camann, Moore, Harding, & Sorber, 1988). Italian researchers (Brandi, Sisti, & Amagliani, 2000; Carducci, Gemelli, Cantiani, Casini, & Rovini, 1999; Carducci et al., 2000) confirm variable die-away rates of microorganisms, observe a positive association between fecal streptococci and the presence of viruses, and recommend consideration of submerged aeration for sludge digestion at sewage treatment plants. No reports are available that measure dispersion of bioaerosols from wastewater consistently treated to meet contemporary disinfection standards.

  20. WASTEWATER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acid in the ozonized wastewater were degraded completely by ... wastewater from pulp and paper plants pose serious environmental problems when they are ... support aquatic life (Stern & Gasner 1974), Gupta and Battacharya 1985).

  1. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansley, Shannon L.

    2002-02-20

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  2. Using high-throughput sequencing to assess the impacts of treated and untreated wastewater discharge on prokaryotic communities in an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaohui; Qi, Weixiao; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-02-01

    In many megacities wastewater is an important source of surface water, particularly during drought periods. While changes in surface water chemistry associated with effluent inflow have generally been well-studied, few data have been collected on the effects to prokaryotic communities. The objective of this study was to explore the impacts of treated and untreated wastewater discharges on prokaryotic community in an urban river. High-throughput sequencing was conducted for analyzing the prokaryotic community composition and function in river water, treated wastewater and untreated wastewater. Results revealed that the prokaryotic community compositions in the upstream river reach were dominated by treated wastewater discharge. In the middle- and downstream river reaches, untreated effluent volumes are higher, thus affecting the structure of the prokaryotic community, promoting a rise in Cyanobacteria and Thaumarchaeota. Function annotation revealed a number of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and human diseases were observed in river and wastewater samples, suggesting wastewater discharge to river may pose a risk to human health. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that the treated and untreated wastewater discharges also affected the abundance of ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidation archaea (AOA) in river.

  3. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: Before and after plant shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  4. Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bowen; Price, Amy E; Scott, W Casan; Kristofco, Lauren A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Chambliss, C Kevin; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-01-01

    A comparative understanding of effluent quality of decentralized on-site wastewater treatment systems, particularly for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), remains less understood than effluent quality from centralized municipal wastewater treatment plants. Using a novel experimental facility with common influent wastewater, effluent water quality from a decentralized advanced aerobic treatment system (ATS) and a typical septic treatment system (STS) coupled to a subsurface flow constructed wetland (WET) were compared to effluent from a centralized municipal treatment plant (MTP). The STS did not include soil treatment, which may represent a system not functioning properly. Occurrence and discharge of a range of CECs were examined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry during fall and winter seasons. Conventional parameters, including total suspended solids, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and nutrients were also evaluated from each treatment system. Water quality of these effluents was further examined using a therapeutic hazard modeling approach. Of 19 CECs targeted for study, the benzodiazepine pharmaceutical diazepam was the only CEC not detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples over two sampling seasons. Diphenhydramine, codeine, diltiazem, atenolol, and diclofenac exhibited significant (ptreatment systems was generally not influenced by season. However, significant differences (pwater quality indicators were observed among the various treatment technologies. For example, removal of most CECs by ATS was generally comparable to MTP. Lowest removal of most CECs was observed for STS; however, removal was improved when coupling the STS to a WET. Across the treatment systems examined, the majority of pharmaceuticals observed in on-site and municipal effluent discharges were predicted to potentially present therapeutic hazards to fish.

  5. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Nzila; Shaikh Abdur Razzak; Jesse Zhu

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation...

  6. Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-06-01

    China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and

  7. Statistical Analysis of Reducing Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) on Industrial Rubber Wastewater using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syakur, Abdul; Zaman, Badrus; Yunita Nurmaliakasih, Dias

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma (DBD) is one of type non-thermal plasma (non-equilibrium plasma) or can be referred to as cold plasma. In this research, DBD plasma be utilized to reduce organic compounds like Biochemichal oxygen demand in the wastewater rubber processing. In the environment field DBD plasma has been used as a treatment for reducing air pollutants such as gas COx, NOx and HC. In addition DBD plasma have been developed to processed wastewater as an alternative technology in wastewater treatment. DBD plasma appears when the electrode is given a high voltage so that, it will form electric field in the area of the electrodes which allows the ionization and the presence of high-energy electrons in the area. The presence of these electrons will ionize molecules of H2O into active species such as OH•, H• and H2O2. The active species that can oxidize into CO2 and H2O so, BOD that can be degraded. In this research for wastewater treatment used high voltage are 10kV, 11kV, 12kV and 13kV and variations of processing time for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 (minutes). By increasing the voltage and extend the contact time then the speed variation of electrons to ionize the greater and more active species to be formed to degrade the pollutants to the maximum. This research used quantitative analysis with statistical analysis using SPSS software.

  8. Assessment of the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges using co-integration analysis: a case study for China's Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

  9. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

  10. Modelling the dispersion of treated wastewater in a shallow coastal wind-driven environment, Geographe Bay, Western Australia: implications for environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Ryan J K; Zigic, Sasha; Shiell, Glenn R

    2014-10-01

    Numerical models are useful for predicting the transport and fate of contaminants in dynamic marine environments, and are increasingly a practical solution to environmental impact assessments. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and field data were used to validate a far-field dispersion model that, in turn, was used to determine the fate of treated wastewater (TWW) discharged to the ocean via a submarine ocean outfall under hypothetical TWW flows. The models were validated with respect to bottom and surface water current speed and direction, and in situ measurements of total nitrogen and faecal coliforms. Variations in surface and bottom currents were accurately predicted by the model as were nutrient and coliform concentrations. Results indicated that the ocean circulation was predominately wind driven, evidenced by relatively small oscillations in the current speeds along the time-scale of the tide, and that dilution mixing zones were orientated in a predominantly north-eastern direction from the outfall and parallel to the coastline. Outputs of the model were used to determine the 'footprint' of the TWW plume under a differing discharge scenario and, particularly, whether the resultant changes in TWW contaminants, total nitrogen and faecal coliforms would meet local environmental quality objectives (EQO) for ecosystem integrity, shellfish harvesting and primary recreation. Modelling provided a practical solution for predicting the dilution of contaminants under a hypothetical discharge scenario and a means for determining the aerial extent of exclusion zones, where the EQOs for shellfish harvesting and primary recreation may not always be met. Results of this study add to the understanding of regional discharge conditions and provide a practical case study for managing impacts to marine environments under a differing TWW discharge scenario, in comparison to an existing scenario.

  11. Multiple Discharges of Treated Municipal Wastewater Have a Small Effect on the Quantities of Numerous Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in the Upper Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPara, Timothy M; Madson, Matthew; Borchardt, Spencer; Lang, Kevin S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2015-10-06

    This study evaluated multiple discharges of treated wastewater on the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Upper Mississippi River. Surface water and treated wastewater samples were collected along the Mississippi River during three different periods of 4 days during the summer of 2012, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to enumerate several ARGs and related targets. Even though the wastewater effluents contained 75- to 831-fold higher levels of ARGs than the river water, the quantities of ARGs in the Mississippi River did not increase with downstream distance. Plasmids from the incompatibility group A/C were detected at low levels in the wastewater effluents but not in the river water; synthetic DNA containing an ampicillin resistance gene (bla) from cloning vectors was not detected in either the wastewater effluent or river samples. A simple 1D model suggested that the primary reason for the small impact of the wastewater discharges on ARG levels was the large flow rate of the Mississippi River compared to that of the wastewater discharges. Furthermore, this model generally overpredicted the ARG levels in the Mississippi River, suggesting that substantial loss mechanisms (e.g., decay or deposition) were occurring in the river.

  12. Multi-scale Model Coupling for CFD Simulations of Discharge Dispersion in the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D.; Wood, M.; Piggott, M. D.; Gorman, G.

    2014-12-01

    The processes that influence the dispersion of effluent discharges in the sea occur over a wide range of length and time scales. The distance that effluent can travel before it is considered mixed can be several kilometres, whereas the turbulent eddies that affect the near-field mixing of a discharge can be as small as a few centimetres. The range of scales that are involved mean that it is not generally practical to include all influencing physical phenomena within one model. Typically, the modelling of effluent dispersion is performed using two separate numerical models: a local model of the outlet(s), including the near-field effects of momentum, buoyancy and turbulence; and a larger scale model that can include the far-field effects of tidal-, wind- and wave-driven-currents, water depth variations, atmospheric fluxes, and Coriolis forces. The boundary between the two models is often not strictly defined, but is usually placed at the transition from where the behaviour of the effluent is dominated by the ambient environment, rather than the discharge characteristics and outfall configuration. In most real applications, this transition line varies considerably in time and space. This paper presents the findings of collaborative research between the Applied Modelling and Computation Group (AMCG) at Imperial College London, UK, and HR Wallingford Ltd. Results are presented using a range of coupling methods to link the near- and far-field mixing regions. An idealised domain and tidal conditions are used, with the outfall and ambient conditions typical of those found at small coastal desalination plants. Open-source CFD code Fluidity is used for both the near-field and far-field modelling. Fluidity scales well when run in parallel on large numbers of cores. It also has an anisotropic adaptive mesh capability which allows local control over solution accuracy throughout the domain. This combination means that accuracy can be achieved without excessive time costs, with

  13. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Nzila

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation.

  14. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-08-25

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation.

  15. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation. PMID:27571089

  16. Modeling of the Mixture of Wastewater Discharged from A Submerged Multiport Diffuser in Nantong Sea-Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; WANG Pei-fang

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the mixture of wastewater discharged from a submerged multiport diffuser in the Nantong sea-area. The process was then simulated with a three-dimensional numerical model. The plane or line patch was used to impose the discharge momentum flux in the near field. A comparison of model simulation with laboratory experiments shows that the proposed model can be used to simulate the shapes of pollution plumes, the distributions of excess concentration, and the velocity induced by a coflowing diffuser in proximity to a shoreline boundary. From the numerical simulation and laboratory experiments, it is recommended that the multiport diffuser be placed in a hydrodynamically active sea-area.

  17. Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

    2006-12-01

    Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

  18. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001–2009 Using the LMDI I Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beidou Xi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N, between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity, structure effects (caused by change in economic structure and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector, using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I decomposition method. Results showed that: (1 the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was −2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, −1.39%, and −16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was −4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, −2.88%, and −17.33%, respectively; (2 the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3 the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4 the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub

  19. Upgrading fertilizer production wastewater effluent quality for ammonium discharges through ion exchange with clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beler-Baykal, B; Allar, A D

    2008-06-01

    It had previously been shown that ammonium selective natural zeolite clinoptilolite may be used successfully as an ion exchanger for ammonium removal and nitrogen control from domestic wastewater. The process had been reported to be acceptable either by itself alone or as an upgrade. In this work, the possibility of using clinoptilolite for ammonium removal from fertilizer production wastewater was investigated. The fertilizer plant under consideration was rather a non-typical one with a lower ammonium strength than what is normally expected, and a variable effluent concentration. Batch experiments were performed to assess the capacity of clinoptilolite towards ammonium removal from an industrial wastewater at two different pHs. Flow experiments for the characterization of system behavior under continuous feeding conditions at different contact times were conducted for breakthrough analysis. Both real and simulated fertilizer wastewater samples were investigated and the results have shown that the real one may successfully be represented by the simulated one. Experimental results have shown that surface capacities exceeding 14 mg ammonium g(-1) clinoptilolite could be attained, complete removal of ammonium may be achieved with empty bed contact times of 10 min or higher and ion exchange with clinoptilolite could be used successfully to comply with the effluent standards given for the fertilizer plant.

  20. A small molecule norspermidine in combination with silver ion enhances dispersal and disinfection of multi-species wastewater biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yachuan; Quan, Xiangchun; Si, Xiurong; Wang, Xinrui

    2016-06-01

    Detrimental biofilms have become a great concern in many areas due to their strong resistance and insensitivity to traditional antimicrobial agents. Norspermidine is a potent small molecule for biofilm dispersal. In this study, silver ion, a conventional inorganic biocide, was combined with norspermidine and used for control and removal of multi-species biofilms formed by a mixed culture from wastewater treatment systems. Results showed that silver ion (0.01-1 mg/L) treatment alone failed to remove the existing wastewater biofilms. Norspermidine at the concentrations of 500-1000 μM was capable to disrupt and disperse the existing biofilms with a biofilm reduction of 21-34 % after 24-h exposure. The combined treatment with norspermidine (500 μM) and silver ion (0.01 mg/L) increased biofilm reduction to 48 % (24-h exposure). The combined treatment also enhanced biofilm disinfection ratio (82 %, 2-h exposure) by 2.0- and 2.6-folds compared to norspermidine (27 %) or silver ion (23 %) treatment alone, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) observations found that norspermidine could disrupt biofilm matrix and promote biofilm dispersal via breaking down exopolysaccharides. The combined treatment increased the reduction in biofilm cell density and viability, possibly due to the damage of biofilm matrix, enhanced silver ion diffusion in biofilms, and increased biofilm sensitivity. These findings indicate that the combination of a small molecule norspermidine with a traditional biocide silver ion presents a novel strategy to remove and kill biofilms, which have a potential application in addressing wastewater biofilm-related issues.

  1. Effects of wastewater discharge on formation of Fe plaque on root surface and radial oxygen loss of mangrove roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, N. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tam, N.F.Y., E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.h [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Baptist University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-02-15

    Effects of wastewater discharge on radial oxygen loss (ROL), formation of iron (Fe) plaque on root surface, and their correlations in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Poir and Excoecaria agallocha L. were investigated. ROL along a lateral root increased more rapidly in control than that in strong wastewater (with pollutant concentrations ten times of that in municipal sewage, 10NW) treatment, but less Fe plaque was formed in control for both plants. For B. gymnorrhiza receiving 10NW, Fe plaque formation was more at basal and mature zones than at root tip, while opposite trend was shown in E. agallocha. At day 0, the correlation between ROL and Fe plaque was insignificant, but negative and positive correlations were found in 10NW and control, respectively, at day 105, suggesting that more ROL was induced leading to more Fe plaque. However, excess Fe plaque also served as a 'barrier' to prevent excessive ROL in 10NW plants. - Correlation between Fe plaque formation and ROL.

  2. Assessment of the quality and toxicity of the discharges of a wastewater treatment plant and alternatives to improve its operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Vargas, Daniel; Montoya-Castillo, Sandra Margarita; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Jauregui-Rincón, Juan; Rodríguez-Valadez, Francisco Javier; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies represent a serious ecological problem worldwide. In underdeveloped and developing countries wastewater treatment plants (WTP) only count with basic treatment, leading to the pollution of important aquatic reservoirs causing critical situations. In the present work, a one year evaluation of toxicity and main physical and chemical parameters of one of the major WTP of the state of Aguascalientes was conducted fortnightly, and to assess treatment alternatives for this WTP we tested: a) three white rot fungi (WRF), b) a photo-electrochemical process, c) ion-exchangers resins and activated carbon. The 3 WRF exhibited high COD removal from influents (72 - 95 %) but only Phanerochaete chrysosporium reached significant toxicity removals (70 and 55 %, for an influent and an effluent, respectively). Treatments with electrochemical advanced oxidation processes resulted with the highest toxicity and COD removals (96 % for both parameters) in comparison to biological and physicochemical treatments. Adsorption with activated carbon, zeolite and chelex ion-exchange resins removed 60 - 90 % of COD and 60 - 99 % toxicity. These results could be used to improve operation of the Industrial Park WTP and to plan future modifications to the plant.

  3. Organic matter in a subtropical mangrove-estuary subjected to wastewater discharge: Origin and utilisation by two macrozoobenthic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane, Tarik; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    Total lipid amounts, fatty acid signature analysis, and C:N measurements were used to investigate the sources of organic matter in an Okinawan estuary (Okukubi, Japan) during the 1999 rainy season. This estuary has a mangrove forest and receives agricultural wastewater. Highest concentrations of total lipids and lowest C:N values were simultaneously found near the pipe where the agricultural water is discharged. Fatty acid profiles in the sediments varied among the stations, indicating differences in the contributing organic sources. Small amounts of lipids and low relative contributions of long-chain fatty acids, markers of vascular plants, were found at stations within and adjacent to the mangrove. These results indicate that the export of organic matter from the mangrove litter to the intertidal flat was limited and spatially restricted. The wastewater seems to induce high amounts of bacteria, macroalgae and benthic diatoms, as indicated by their respective fatty acid markers. The fatty acid profiles of the tissues of two dominant intertidal invertebrates, the crab Uca vocans and the gastropod Terebralia sulcata, indicated that their diet was largely comprised of bacteria. Green macroalgae were important food sources for the gastropods; diatoms and mangrove biomass contributed to the nutrition of the crabs, although their contributions were smaller.

  4. Effects of Wastewater Discharge on Heavy Metals Pollution in Fadama Soils in Kano City, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. MASHI; M. M. ALHASSAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To present the results of a research project on 6 heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg, and Cr) at 30 Fadama fields scattered around Kano. Methods Following a reconnaissance conducted, 30 representative Fadama lands being irrigated with wastewater were selected from zones of the city under residential, industrial, commercial, and mixed but argely residential landuses. Five additional Fadama lands not being irrigated with wastewater were selected to serve as control. Using grid sampling procedure, soil samples were selected from 0-15 cm and 20-30 cm depths and analyzed for the above listed heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. T-test was used to compare the mean alues of the metals for the Fadama lands under different landuse zones with those of the control. Results Analyses of the soil data collected showed that the metals were concentrated in higher amounts in the lower (20-30 cm) than the upper (0-15 cm) depths, which was an indication of downward movement of the metals in profile of the soils. In the wosoil epths, Zn was generally the most abundant,followed by Cr, then Pb, Cu, and Cd while Hg was the least. The Fadama soils in areas of mixed landuses with industrial as the dominant ones maintained the highest concentrations of the various metals. Conclusions These results indicate clearly that the Fadama soils are significantly polluted by industrial and household wastewater and that there is a particular threat from Cr and Pb pollution. There is also evidence that the metals are accumulating at lower layers of the soil profile, suggesting that not only plants and soil, but even water bodies could be under the threat of heavy metal pollution in the area.

  5. Novel Gas-liquid Hybrid Discharge Reactor for 4-CP Containing Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve 4-CP degradation efficiency, a novel gas-liquid hybrid discharge (HD) reactor was developed. Removal of 4-CP with spark-spark discharge (SSD) was higher than that with spark-corona discharge (SCD). Amount of H2O2 and O3 produced with SSD were larger than that with SCD. ·OH formation was increased by the combination of H2O2 and O3.The contribution of ·OH (38 % formed by O3 conversion) oxidation on removal of 4-CP accounted for nearly 60 %. The other effects of ultraviolet radiation, intense shock waves and pyrolysis,played partial roles in about 40 % of removal rate.

  6. Inhibition of the nitrification process in municipal wastewater treatment plants by industrial discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, M.; Jorgensen, L.

    1994-01-01

    More than three years of pilot-plant operation has documented that inhibition of nitrification was found to influence the dimensioning of the largest Danish wastewater treatment plant, which serves a major part of Copenhagen. Hence, a program for investigating the sources of substances inhibitory...... to nitrification was initiated. Since the number of substances potentially inhibitory to nitrification is very high, the investigations used direct testing of inhibitory effects on nitrification as a tool for the mapping operations. The overall purpose of the investigation was to determine the types of sources...

  7. Industrial water resources management based on violation risk analysis of the total allowable target on wastewater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wencong; Cai, Yanpeng; Xu, Linyu; Yang, Zhifeng; Yin, Xin'An; Su, Meirong

    2017-07-11

    To improve the capabilities of conventional methodologies in facilitating industrial water allocation under uncertain conditions, an integrated approach was developed through the combination of operational research, uncertainty analysis, and violation risk analysis methods. The developed approach can (a) address complexities of industrial water resources management (IWRM) systems, (b) facilitate reflections of multiple uncertainties and risks of the system and incorporate them into a general optimization framework, and (c) manage robust actions for industrial productions in consideration of water supply capacity and wastewater discharging control. The developed method was then demonstrated in a water-stressed city (i.e., the City of Dalian), northeastern China. Three scenarios were proposed according to the city's industrial plans. The results indicated that in the planning year of 2020 (a) the production of civilian-used steel ships and machine-made paper & paperboard would reduce significantly, (b) violation risk of chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharge under scenario 1 would be the most prominent, compared with those under scenarios 2 and 3, (c) the maximal total economic benefit under scenario 2 would be higher than the benefit under scenario 3, and (d) the production of rolling contact bearing, rail vehicles, and commercial vehicles would be promoted.

  8. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was

  9. Greenhouse gas emission quantification from wastewater treatment plants, using a tracer gas dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Plant-integrated methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission quantifications were performed at five Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants, using a ground-based remote sensing approach that combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the plant with downwind concentration measurements. C...

  10. Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 μg L(-1) for influent and 0.08 μg L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 μg kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1).

  11. Estrogens determination in wastewater samples by automatic in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior silylation and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alba; Avivar, Jessica; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-09-25

    A new procedure for the extraction, preconcentration and simultaneous determination of the estrogens most used in contraception pharmaceuticals (estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol), cataloged as Contaminants of Emergent Concern by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (US-EPA), is proposed. The developed system performs an in-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in-syringe-MSA-DLLME) prior derivatization and gas chromatography (GC-MS). Different extraction (carbon tetrachloride, ethyl acetate, chloroform and trichloroethylene) and disperser solvents (acetone, acetonitrile and methanol) were tested. Chloroform and acetone were chosen as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively, as they provided the best extraction efficiency. Then, a multivariate optimization of the extraction conditions was carried out. Derivatization conditions were also studied to ensure the conversion of the estrogens to their respective trimethylsilyl derivatives. Low LODs and LOQs were achieved, i.e. between 11 and 82ngL(-1), and 37 and 272ngL(-1), respectively. Good values for intra and inter-day precision were obtained (RSDs≤7.06% and RSD≤7.11%, respectively). The method was successfully applied to wastewater samples.

  12. Influence of wastewater treatment plant discharges on microplastic concentrations in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estahbanati, Shirin; Fahrenfeld, N L

    2016-11-01

    The abundance of microplastic particles in the marine environment is well documented, but less is known about microplastics in the freshwater environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may not effectively remove microplastics allowing for their release to the freshwater environment. To investigate concentration of microplastic in fresh water and the impact of WWTP effluent, samples were collected upstream and downstream of four major municipal WWTPs on the Raritan River, NJ. Microplastics were categorized into three quantitative categories (500-2000 μm, 250-500 μm, 125-250 μm), and one semi-quantitative category (63-125 μm). Then, microplastics were classified as primary (manufactured in small size) or secondary (derived from larger plastics) based on morphology. The concentration of microplastics in the 125-250 and 250-500 μm size categories significantly increased downstream of WWTP. The smaller size classes, often not quantified in microplastic studies, were in high relative abundance across sampling sites. While primary microplastics significantly increased downstream of WWTP, secondary microplastic was the dominant type in the quantitative size categories (66-88%). A moderate correlation between microplastic and distance downstream was observed. These results have implications for understanding the fate and transport of microplastics in the freshwater environment.

  13. 工业园区难降解废水的处理%Treatment of Non-degradable Wastewater Discharged by an Industrial Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小亚; 魏春燕

    2012-01-01

    针对某工业园区废水水质变化大,含有浮油和难降解成分、无法达到排放标准要求的现状,通过优化二级处理、对废水进行“臭氧+生物滤池”深度处理,使废水达到了国家标准要求。%Because the wide variation of wastewater discharged by an industrial park, contained floating oil and non-degradable organics,so the new technique trials of ozone/biological aerated filter & additional biological treatment had been carried out in the pilot unit and the optimization used in the wastewater system. The treated wastewater met the requirement of the related national standard.

  14. Estimation of hydrogen sulfide emission rates at several wastewater treatment plants through experimental concentration measurements and dispersion modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llavador Colomer, Fernando; Espinós Morató, Héctor; Mantilla Iglesias, Enrique

    2012-07-01

    The management and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) usually involve the release into the atmosphere of malodorous substances with the potential to reduce the quality of life of people living nearby. In this type of facility, anaerobic degradation processes contribute to the generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), often at quite high concentrations; thus, the presence of this chemical compound in the atmosphere can be a good indicator of the occurrence and intensity of the olfactory impact in a specific area. The present paper describes the experimental and modelling work being carried out by CEAM-UMH in the surroundings of several wastewater treatment plants located in the Valencia Autonomous Community (Spain). This work has permitted the estimation of H2S emission rates at different WWTPs under different environmental and operating conditions. Our methodological approach for analyzing and describing the most relevant aspects of the olfactory impact consisted of several experimental campaigns involving intensive field measurements using passive samplers in the vicinity of several WWTPs, in combination with numerical simulation results from a diagnostic dispersion model. A meteorological tower at each WWTP provided the input values for the dispersion code, ensuring a good fit of the advective component and therefore more confidence in the modelled concentration field in response to environmental conditions. Then, comparisons between simulated and experimental H2S concentrations yielded estimates of the global emission rate for this substance at several WWTPs at different time periods. The results obtained show a certain degree of temporal and spatial (between-plant) variability (possibly due to both operational and environmental conditions). Nevertheless, and more importantly, the results show a high degree of uniformity in the estimates, which consistently stay within the same order of magnitude.

  15. Improving the low temperature dyeability of polyethylene terephthalate fabric with dispersive dyes by atmospheric pressure plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elabid, Amel E.A., E-mail: amelkanzi2014@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang, Jie; Shi, Jianjun; Guo, Ying; Ding, Ke [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang, Jing, E-mail: jingzh@dhu.cdu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure glow-like plasma with fine and uniform filament discharge has been successfully applied to the low temperature dyeing (95 °C) of PET fabric. • Simultaneously the dye uptake was increased as twice as much and the color strength rate was increased by about 20% for less than 3 min plasma treated PET. • Dyeing mechanism research showed the significance of surface roughing and functional group introduction by this kind of discharge. • Results highlight a novel environmentally friendly dyeing process for one of the largest commodity in polymer fabric. - Abstract: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber and textile is one of the largest synthetic polymer commodity in the world. The great energy consumption and pollution caused by the high temperature and pressure dyeing of PET fibers and fabrics with disperse dyes has been caused concern these years. In this study, an atmospheric pressure plasma with fine and uniform filament discharge operated at 20 kHz has been used to improve the low temperature dyeability of PET fabric at 95 °C with three cation disperse dyes: Red 73, Blue 183 and Yellow 211. The dyes uptake percentage of the treated PET fabrics was observed to increase as twice as much of untreated fabric. The color strength rate was increased more than 20%. The reducing of the water contact angle and the raising of the capillary height of treated PET fabric strip indicate its hydrophilicity improvement. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results display nano to micro size of etching pits appeared uniformly on the fiber surface of the treated PET. Simultaneously, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates an increase of the oxygen content in the surface caused by the introduction of polar groups such as C=O and COOH. The rough surface with improved polar oxygen groups showed hydrophilicity and affinity to C.I. dispersive dyes and is believed to be caused by the strong and very fine

  16. Prioritization of Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharges Using Chemical:Gene Interactions in Caged Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Edward J; Habib, Tanwir; Escalon, Barbara L; Cavallin, Jenna E; Thomas, Linnea; Weberg, Matthew; Hughes, Megan N; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kahl, Michael D; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene expression changes in exposed fish. Fathead minnows were deployed in cages for 2, 4, or 8 days at three locations near two different wastewater treatment plant discharge sites in the Saint Louis Bay, Duluth, MN and one upstream reference site. The biological impact of 51 chemicals detected in the surface water of 133 targeted chemicals was determined using biochemical endpoints, exposure activity ratios for biological and estrogenic responses, known chemical:gene interactions from biological pathways and knowledge bases, and analysis of the covariance of ovary gene expression with surface water chemistry. Thirty-two chemicals were significantly linked by covariance with expressed genes. No estrogenic impact on biochemical endpoints was observed in male or female minnows. However, bisphenol A (BPA) was identified by chemical:gene covariation as the most impactful estrogenic chemical across all exposure sites. This was consistent with identification of estrogenic effects on gene expression, high BPA exposure activity ratios across all test sites, and historical analysis of the study area. Gene expression analysis also indicated the presence of nontargeted chemicals including chemotherapeutics consistent with a local hospital waste stream. Overall impacts on gene expression appeared to be related to changes in treatment plant function during rain events. This approach appears useful in examining the impacts of complex mixtures on fish and offers a potential route in linking chemical exposure to adverse outcomes that may reduce population sustainability.

  17. Novel industrial wastewater treatment integrated with recovery of water and salt under a zero liquid discharge concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Sengodagounder

    2016-03-01

    Conventional industrial effluent treatment systems are designed to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) but not total dissolved solids (TDS), mainly contributed by chlorides. In addition to the removal of TDS, it is necessary to recover water for reuse to meet the challenges of shortage of quality water. To recover water, the wastewater needs to be further treated by adopting treatment systems including microfilters, low pressure membrane units such as ultrafiltration (UF), membrane bioreactors (MBR), etc., for the application of reverse osmosis (RO) systems. By adopting the RO system, 75%-80% of quality water with water rejected from the RO system with high TDS concentration is being addressed by methods such as forced evaporation systems. The recovery of water from domestic and industrial waste for reuse has become a reality. The membrane system has been used for different applications. It has become mandatory to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in many states in India and other countries such as Spain, China, etc., and resulted in development of new treatment technologies to suit the local conditions.

  18. Removal of emerging micropollutants from wastewater discharges by powdered and micro-grain activated carbon - Progress of the CarboPlus® project

    OpenAIRE

    Mailler, Romain; Gasperi, Johnny; Coquet, Yves; Deshayes, Steven; Zedek, Sifax; Buleté, Audrey; Vulliet, Emmanuelle; Eudes, Véronique; Bressy, Adèle; Caupos, Emilie; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan; Rocher, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The implementation of a tertiary treatment in conventional wastewater treatment plants is more and more considered by managers to reduce the emerging contaminant discharges into the aquatic environment. In this context, a collaboration between the public sanitation service of Paris conurbation and the Water Environment and Urban Systems laboratory has been initiated since 2013 to study at large scale a pilot (CarboPlus® - SAUR/STEREAU) based on a high concentration flu...

  19. Improving the low temperature dyeability of polyethylene terephthalate fabric with dispersive dyes by atmospheric pressure plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabid, Amel E. A.; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Jianjun; Guo, Ying; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber and textile is one of the largest synthetic polymer commodity in the world. The great energy consumption and pollution caused by the high temperature and pressure dyeing of PET fibers and fabrics with disperse dyes has been caused concern these years. In this study, an atmospheric pressure plasma with fine and uniform filament discharge operated at 20 kHz has been used to improve the low temperature dyeability of PET fabric at 95 °C with three cation disperse dyes: Red 73, Blue 183 and Yellow 211. The dyes uptake percentage of the treated PET fabrics was observed to increase as twice as much of untreated fabric. The color strength rate was increased more than 20%. The reducing of the water contact angle and the raising of the capillary height of treated PET fabric strip indicate its hydrophilicity improvement. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results display nano to micro size of etching pits appeared uniformly on the fiber surface of the treated PET. Simultaneously, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates an increase of the oxygen content in the surface caused by the introduction of polar groups such as Cdbnd O and COOH. The rough surface with improved polar oxygen groups showed hydrophilicity and affinity to C.I. dispersive dyes and is believed to be caused by the strong and very fine filament discharge appearing randomly at one place at an instant but evenly at many places at a longer period. This increases the diffusion and absorption of the C.I. disperse dyes on the PET fiber surface, which improve its low temperature dyeability.

  20. Ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of formaldehyde in wastewaters and detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Majid; Bozorgzadeh, Elahe; Shariati, Shahab; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-12-01

    Spectrophotometry in combination with ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied for the extraction and determination of formaldehyde in real samples. The method is based on the reaction of formaldehyde with methyl acetoacetate in the presence of ammonia. The variation in the absorbance of the reaction product was measured at 375 nm. An appropriate mixture of ethanol (disperser solvent) and ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluoro-phosphate [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] (extraction solvent) was rapidly injected into a water sample containing formaldehyde. After extraction, sedimented phase was analyzed by spectrophotometry. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-20 ng mL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.02 ng mL(-1) and limit of quantification of 0.08 ng mL(-1) for formaldehyde. The relative standard deviation (RSD%, n = 5) for the extraction and determination of 0.8 ng mL(-1) of formaldehyde in the aqueous samples was 2.5%. The results showed that DLLME is a very simple, rapid, sensitive, and efficient analytical method for the determination of trace amounts of formaldehyde in wastewaters and detergents, and suitable results were obtained.

  1. Assessment of gastroenteric viruses from wastewater directly discharged into Uruguay River, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, M; Tort, L F L; García, M; Lizasoain, A; Maya, L; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viral contamination of group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) in sewage directly discharged into Uruguay River and to characterize RVA genotypes circulating in Uruguay. For this purpose, sewage samples (n = 96) were collected biweekly from March 2011 to February 2012 in four Uruguayan cities: Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos. Each sample was concentrated by ultracentrifugation method. Qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR for RVA, NoV, and HAstV were performed. A wide dissemination of gastroenteric viruses was observed in the sewage samples analyzed with 80% of positivity, being NoV (51%) the most frequently detected followed by RVA with a frequency of 49% and HAstV with 45%. Genotypes of RVA were typed using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR as follows: P[8] (n = 15), P[4] (n = 8), P[10] (n = 1), P[11] (n = 1), G2 (n = 29), and G3 (n = 2). The viral load ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) genomic copies/liter, and they were detected roughly with the same frequency in all participant cities. A peak of RVA and HAstV detection was observed in colder months (June to September), whereas no seasonality was observed for NoV. This study demonstrates for the first time, the high degree of gastroenteric viral contamination in the country; highlighting the importance of developing these analyses as a tool to determine the viral contamination in this hydrographic boundary region used by the local populations for recreation and consumption, establishing an elevated risk of gastroenteric diseases for human health.

  2. Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clobert, J.; Danchin, E.; Dhondt, A.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of species to migrate and disperse is a trait that has interested ecologists for many years. Now that so many species and ecosystems face major environmental threats from habitat fragmentation and global climate change, the ability of species to adapt to these changes by dispersing, migrating, or moving between patches of habitat can be crucial to ensuring their survival. This book provides a timely and wide-ranging overview of the study of dispersal and incorporates much of the latest research. The causes, mechanisms, and consequences of dispersal at the individual, population, species and community levels are considered. The potential of new techniques and models for studying dispersal, drawn from molecular biology and demography, is also explored. Perspectives and insights are offered from the fields of evolution, conservation biology and genetics. Throughout the book, theoretical approaches are combined with empirical data, and care has been taken to include examples from as wide a range of species as possible.

  3. Dispersive Tidal Plume Modeling of Brine Discharge from Reverse Osmosis (RO) Desalination System, Coral Bay, St. John, USVI using Finite Segment Steady-state Response Matrix (SSRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Shahvari, A.

    2011-12-01

    This characterization and modeling study of dispersive tidal plume of brine discharge from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system is a part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) for a new reverse osmosis system in the Coral Bay, St. John, USVI (US Virgin Island). Main foci are on developing the tidal longitudinal (perpendicular to the shoreline) and lateral (parallel to the shoreline) dispersion coefficients and subsequently characterize dispersion and mixing characterization of the negatively buoyant brine discharge plume from the proposed reverse osmosis plant to evaluate the level of salinity variations in the nearshore mixing plume in regard to existing coral reef ecosystem. An in situ dye study was conducted by a marine biologist for this purpose to estimate brine discharge plume dispersion coefficients under oscillatory tidal transport and fate flux for current and proposed plant configuration. Additional tidal and surface runoff hydrologic data, bathymetric data and brine discharge characteristics in the vicinity of the brine discharge location are reflected in this study. With estimated dispersion coefficients, eighteen brine discharge scenarios were evaluated to model anticipated dispersive characteristics under varying operational conditions and ambient tidal current conditions for average measured salinity of 33.27 PSU in loco as well as a standard 35 PSU for typical nearshore water salinity variations. Modeling results indicated that the dispersive tidal plume of design brine discharge from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system at a discharge of 150,000 gpd would raise salinity no higher than 0.0123 PSU in receiving nearshore estuarine water (Maximum concentration at the segment 3 = 33.2822 PSU at Δt = 12 hrs and 24 hrs in diurnal tidal cycle under when the brine discharge with Base+25% concentration, 81.25 PSU at brine discharge rate of 0.0066 m3/sec, and with a minimum direct overland flow efflux at 0.003 m3/sec - this is a "worst-case" operating

  4. Evaluation of the levels of alcohol sulfates and ethoxysulfates in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of Tenerife Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ramos, C; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Blanc, R; Navalón, A; Pérez-Trujillo, J P; Vílchez, J L

    2014-02-15

    Alcohol sulfates (AS) and alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) are all High Production Volume and 'down-the-drain' chemicals used globally in detergent and personal care products, resulting in low levels ultimately released to the environment via wastewater treatment plant effluents. They have a strong affinity for sorption to sediments. Almost 50% of Tenerife Island surface area is environmentally protected. Therefore, determination of concentration levels of AS/AES in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of the Island is of interest. These data were obtained after pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Short chains of AES and especially of AS dominated the homologue distribution for AES. The Principal Components Analysis was used. The results showed that the sources of AS and AES were the same and that both compounds exhibit similar behavior. Three different patterns in the distribution for homologues and ethoxymers were found.

  5. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L; Focazio, Michael J; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L(-1) with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L(-1)). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L(-1)) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L(-1)). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L(-1)) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L(-1) total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  6. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  7. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, Shane [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick [Department of Applied Sciences, Dundalk Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Dundalk (Ireland); Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100 m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  8. The Reachability Analysis About Zero Discharge of Wastewater in Xiaoqing Mine%小青煤矿废水零排放可达性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩

    2013-01-01

      煤炭开采在对地方经济做出重大贡献的同时,也对当地的环境质量造成一定破坏。小青煤矿附近区河流流量较小,冬季结冰,水体自净能力较差,其工业广场污废水排入河流后,导致河流水质经常超标。为了从根本上解决地表水污染问题,该矿在洗煤废水闭路循环的基础上提出实现全部废水的零排放,以切断对地表水的污染途径。通过分析该矿废水排放环节及废水治理措施,得出废水零排放的可达性,在煤炭企业中具有一定的推广意义。%Coal mining in the same time to make a significant contribution to the local economy,but also on the quality of the local environment,causing some damage. Small the Xiaoqing coal mine near area rivers flow,winter icing and poor self-purification capacity of the water,the Industrial Plaza sewage and waste into the river, the river water quality is often excessive. In order to fundamentally solve the problem of surface water pollution,mine is proposed on the basis of the coal washing wastewater closed loop wastewater zero emissions,to cut pollution of surface water pathways. Draw the reachability of zero discharge of wastewater through the analysis of the the mine wastewater emissions links and wastewater treatment measures,promotion of coal enterprises have certain significance.

  9. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  10. Diffusion and dispersion heat of hydrotermal discharge from power plant; Difusion y dispersion de calor de la descarga hidrotermal de una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Villalobos, J. Rodolfo

    1996-12-31

    This study describe the numerical simulation results of hydrodynamical behavior of the surface discharge cooling water to the sea incoming from the Tuxpan Power Plant under two different meteorological and oceanographic conditions; Case I, southwest variable winds average speeds of 3 m s-1 and Case II, northwest variable winds average speeds of 11.10 m s-1 . The numerical simulations were made using a three-dimensional model of coastal circulation and heat exchange. The statistical analysis of the wind speed and direction time series measured from January 1, 1981 to December 31, 1983, shows that the larger part of the winds were predominantly from 180 degrees to 315 degrees. Therefore, the southerly winds induce a sea surface circulation towards the north which move the discharged heat water away from the intake. On the contrary, the north winds drives the hydrothermal effluent towards the intake. Comparisons between the numerical simulation results and field data show that under different meteorological and oceanographic conditions, representative of the Tuxpan Site, the model correctly predicts the hydrothermal effluents surface diffusion and Dispersion measured on August 19-20 and 21, 1992 (Case I) and November 26, 1992 (Case II). The model predicts the extent of the impacted areas with cooling water with a precision of {+-} 11%. For all analyzed cases, the real size of the impacted areas that might have adverse effects on the marine ecosystems was not gibber than 0.1 km{sup 2}. Thus, these possible adverse effects are considered to be of local significance only. The simulated vertical profiles of temperature show that the cooling water discharged remains mostly o the surface of the receiving water mass and reaches a maximum depth of 3.5 m. This floatability if a consequence of the low density and small Froude number (Fr << 1), at the discharge, that characterizes the Tuxpan Power Plant Effluent. [Espanol] Este estudio describe los resultados de la simulacion

  11. A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively.

  12. Study of cyanide wastewater treatment by dispersion supported liquid membrane using trioctylamine and kerosene as liquid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo Ping; Xue, Juan Qin; Yu, Li Hua; Liu, Ni Na

    2015-01-01

    A certain amount of cyanide is present in wastewater of various industrial processes, such as wet extraction of gold, coal processing, electroplating and other industries. In this work, an experimental study regarding transport of cyanide through a dispersion supported liquid membrane was performed. A model was established to describe the reaction and transport of CN(I) in the supported liquid membrane and the mass transfer kinetics equations were deduced. Through mass transfer kinetic equation it was derived that, when the carrier concentration was under certain conditions, there was a linear relationship between the reciprocal of the permeability coefficient of CN(I) (1/Pc) and n-th power of the concentration of H+ (cnH+), and the parameters Δa(δa/da) and Δo(δ0/d0) could be obtained from the slope and intercept of the straight line. Then the diffusion coefficient do and the diffusion layer thickness δo of the phase interface between the feed phase and membrane phase could be calculated. Factors affecting migration of CN(I) were analyzed, and the stable removal rate of CN(I) was more than 90% with carrier concentration (%TOA) of 2%, feed phase pH of 4, initial CN(I) concentration of 30 mg/L, stirring time of 1 hour, volume ratio of membrane solution to NaOH solution of 2:1, strip phase concentration of 2 mol/L. The results showed that the overall mass transfer rate increased first and then decreased with an increase of TOA concentration, organic-to-strip volume ratio, and strip concentration. Furthermore, the transport percentage of CN(I) was increased, the stability of membrane was enhanced, and the lifetime of the membrane was extended.

  13. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  14. Feasibility of corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry for direct analysis of samples extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Riahi, Farhad

    2014-05-23

    The capability of corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) for direct analysis of the samples extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was investigated and evaluated, for the first time. To that end, an appropriate new injection port was designed and constructed, resulting in possibility of direct injection of the known sample volume, without tedious sample preparation steps (e.g. derivatization, solvent evaporation, and re-solving in another solvent…). Malathion as a test compound was extracted from different matrices by a rapid and convenient DLLME method. The positive ion mobility spectra of the extracted malathion were obtained after direct injection of carbon tetrachloride or methanol solutions. The analyte responses were compared and the statistical results revealed the feasibility of direct analysis of the extracted samples in carbon tetrachloride, resulting in a convenient methodology. The coupled method of DLLME-CD-IMS was exhaustively validated in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, recovery, and enrichment factor. Finally, various real samples of apple, river and underground water were analyzed, all verifying the feasibility and success of the proposed method for the easy extraction of the analyte using DLLME separation before the direct analysis by CD-IMS.

  15. Modified magnetite nanoparticles with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as superior adsorbent for rapid removal of the disperse dyes from wastewater of textile companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Rajabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports application of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs as a novel adsorbent for removal of two types of disperse dyes, including disperse red 167, and disperse blue 183, from wastewater of textile companies. The effect of parameters including type of surfactant, pH of solution, surfactant concentration, and amount of salt, was investigated and optimized. The obtained results showed that the ratio of initial dye concentration to CTAB amounts has critical effect on removal processes so that removal efficiencies higher than 95% can be achieved even at high concentration of dyes as high as 500 mg l-1 when the ratio is optimum. Removal of dyes is very fast, and equilibrium is reached at times less than 10 min even for high concentration of the dyes. Very high adsorbent capacity (as high as 2000 mg g-1 was yielded for maximum tested concentration of the dyes (500 mg g-1. The obtained result was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis data. This study showed that CTAB coated Fe3O4 NPs is a very efficient adsorbent for removal of dyes from wastewater of textile companies and has high capacity under optimum conditions.

  16. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological

  17. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of hospital wastewater: a proposed framework for raw effluents discharging into urban sewer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, E; Perrodin, Y; Keck, G; Blanchard, J-M; Vermande, P

    2005-01-14

    In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients, reach the wastewater. This form of elimination may generate risks for aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to present: (i) the steps of an ecological risk assessment and management framework related to hospital effluents evacuating into wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without preliminary treatment; and (ii) the results of its application on wastewater from an infectious and tropical diseases department of a hospital of a large city in southeastern France. The characterization of effects has been made under two assumptions, which were related to: (a) the effects of hospital wastewater on biological treatment process of WWTP, particularly on the community of organisms in charge of the biological decomposition of the organic matter; (b) the effects on aquatic organisms. COD and BOD5 have been measured for studying global organic pollution. Assessment of halogenated organic compounds was made using halogenated organic compounds absorbable on activated carbon (AOX) concentrations. Heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc) were measured. Low most probable number (MPP) for faecal coliforms has been considered as an indirect detection of antibiotics and disinfectants presence. For toxicity assessment, bioluminescence assay using Vibrio fischeri photobacteria, 72-h EC50 algae growth Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 24-h EC50 on Daphnia magna were used. The scenario allows to a semi-quantitative risk characterization. It needs to be improved on some aspects, particularly those linked to: long term toxicity assessment on target organisms (bioaccumulation of pollutants, genotoxicity, etc.); ecotoxicological interactions between pharmaceuticals, disinfectants used both in diagnostics and in cleaning of surfaces

  18. "Zero Discharge" Process for Reverse Osmosis-Concentrated Petrochemical Wastewater%石化污水反渗透浓水“零排放”技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 彭海珠; 孙杰; 赵辉; 龚小芝; 侯秀华

    2012-01-01

    采用微滤—反渗透(RO)—蒸发—结晶工艺处理某石化企业的RO浓水,实现了RO浓水的“零排放”.试验结果表明:经加碱、微滤后,污水硬度平均减小率为98.8%,排出的滤渣平均质量分数为9.4%,减少了污水中有机物和微生物对后续RO膜的污染;微滤产水无需降低pH,可直接进入RO系统,电导率减小率可达98.0%;蒸发可将总固体质量浓度由13 290 mg/L增至172 155 mg/L,产水电导率为66 μS/cm.%Reverse osmosis(RO) concentrated wastewater from a petrochemical plant was treated by microfiltration-RO-evaporation-crystallization process realizing "zero discharge" . The test results show that: After alkali addition and microfiltration, the average decreasing rate of the wastewater hardness is 98.8%, the average mass fraction of the filter residue is 9,4%, therefor the fouling of RO membrane due to organic compounds and microorganism in the wastewater is reduced; The microfiltration effluent can flow into the RO system without pH reducing, the decreasing rate of RO effluent conductivity can reach 98.0%; In the evaporation process, the total solid mass concentration is increased from 13 290 mg/L to 172 155 mg/ L, its effluent conductivity is 66 μS/cm.

  19. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop followed by ICP-MS for the simultaneous determination of heavy metals in wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Zhu, Hui; Al-Hamadani, Sulala M. Z. F.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn. The influences of analytical parameters, including pH, extraction solvent volume, disperser solvent volume, concentration of chelating agent on the quantitative recoveries of Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn were investigated. The effect of the interfering ions on the analytes recovery was also investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were 0.97-2.18 ng L-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.62-4.51% (n = 7, C = 20 ng L-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of ultra trace metals in wastewater samples.

  20. [Evaluating exposure of population to dust, with consideration of components and dispersion contents of industrial discharges from enterprise extracting and processing mineral raw materials (discussion)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, I V; Zagorodnov, S Iu; Popova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article covers results of study concerning disperse content of solid components of discharges from main dust- generating technologic operations in extraction and processing of mineral raw materials (pouring ore to conveyor, drying with combustion gas in fluid-bed, pouring of end product, sorting ore on riddle, drying on vibration dry and cool device, etc). Findings are that fractions under 10 and 2.5 micrometers approach 50% in general structure of dust discharges. Maximal share of low-disperse dust enters ambient air from vibraion dry and cool devices, riddles and pouring places. Exceeded reference values for acute and chronic exposure are registered on TSP and PM10 at a sanitary protection zone border and in the nearest living area points--that can forecast intolerable risks for health of population exposed and necessitate instrumental confirmation of the detected jeopardy level.

  1. Determination of cyclic and linear siloxanes in wastewater samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortada, Carol; dos Reis, Luciana Costa; Vidal, Lorena; Llorca, Julio; Canals, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    A fast, simple and environmentally friendly ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (USA-DLLME) procedure has been developed to preconcentrate eight cyclic and linear siloxanes from wastewater samples prior to quantification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A two-stage multivariate optimization approach has been developed employing a Plackett-Burman design for screening and selecting the significant factors involved in the USA-DLLME procedure, which was later optimized by means of a circumscribed central composite design. The optimum conditions were: extractant solvent volume, 13 µL; solvent type, chlorobenzene; sample volume, 13 mL; centrifugation speed, 2300 rpm; centrifugation time, 5 min; and sonication time, 2 min. Under the optimized experimental conditions the method gave levels of repeatability with coefficients of variation between 10 and 24% (n=7). Limits of detection were between 0.002 and 1.4 µg L(-1). Calculated calibration curves gave high levels of linearity with correlation coefficient values between 0.991 and 0.9997. Finally, the proposed method was applied for the analysis of wastewater samples. Relative recovery values ranged between 71 and 116% showing that the matrix had a negligible effect upon extraction. To our knowledge, this is the first time that combines LLME and GC-MS for the analysis of methylsiloxanes in wastewater samples.

  2. A dispersive liquid-liquid micellar microextraction for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in wastewaters using ultra-high-performace liquid chromatography with DAD detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Mahugo-Santana, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2015-03-01

    A dispersive liquid-liquid micellar microextraction (DLLMME) method coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using Diode Array Detector (DAD) detector was developed for the analysis of five pharmaceutical compounds of different nature in wastewaters. A micellar solution of a surfactant, polidocanol, as extraction solvent (100 μL) and chloroform as dispersive solvent (200 μL) were used to extract and preconcentrate the target analytes. Samples were heated above critical temperature and the cloudy solution was centrifuged. After removing the chloroform, the reduced volume of surfactant was then injected in the UHPLC system. In order to obtain high extraction efficiency, the parameters affecting the liquid-phase microextraction, such as time and temperature extraction, ionic strength and surfactant and organic solvent volume, were optimized using an experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, this procedure allows enrichment factors of up to 47-fold. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 µg/L for the different pharmaceuticals. Relative standard deviations were <26% for all compounds. The procedure was applied to samples from final effluent collected from wastewater treatment plants in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain), and two compounds were measured at 67 and 113 µg/L in one of them.

  3. Polypyrrole-magnetite dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction combined with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry for the determination of rhodamine 6G and crystal violet in textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Md Shukri, Dyia S; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2017-08-29

    Polypyrrole-magnetite dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction method combined with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was developed for the determination of selected cationic dyes in textile wastewater. Polypyrrole-magnetite was used as adsorbent due to its thermal stability, magnetic properties, and ability to adsorb Rhodamine 6G and crystal violet. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction parameters were optimized, including sample pH, adsorbent amount, extraction time, and desorption solvent. The optimum polypyrrole-magnetite dispersive micro-solid phase-extraction conditions were sample pH 8, 60 mg polypyrrole-magnetite adsorbent, 5 min of extraction time, and acetonitrile as the desorption solvent. Under the optimized conditions, the polypyrrole-magnetite dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction with ultraviolet-visible method showed good linearity in the range of 0.05-7 mg/L (R(2)  > 0.9980). The method also showed a good limit of detection for the dyes (0.05 mg/L) and good analyte recoveries (97.4-111.3%) with relative standard deviations extraction and determination of dyes at trace concentration levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Combined mesophilic anaerobic and thermophilic aerobic digestion process for high-strength food wastewater to increase removal efficiency and reduce sludge discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, H M; Park, S K; Ha, J H; Park, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a process that combines the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) process with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) for high-strength food wastewater (FWW) treatment was developed to examine the removal of organic matter and methane production. All effluent discharged from the MAD process was separated into solid and liquid portions. The liquid part was discarded and the sludge part was passed to the TAD process for further degradation. Then, the digested sludge from the TAD process was recycled back to the MAD unit to achieve low sludge discharge from the combined process. The reactor combination was operated in two phases: during Phase I, 40 d of total hydraulic retention time (HRT) was applied; during Phase II, 20 d was applied. HRT of the TAD process was fixed at 5 d. For a comparison, a control process (single-stage MAD) was operated with the same HRTs of the combined process. Our results indicated that the combined process showed over 90% total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies. In addition, the combined process showed a significantly higher methane production rate than that of the control process. Consequently, the experimental data demonstrated that the combined MAD-TAD process was successfully employed for high-strength FWW treatment with highly efficient organic matter reduction and methane production.

  5. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  6. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tayeb, A., E-mail: ahmed.khalil@ejust.edu.eg; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F. [Egypt−Japan University of Science and Technology, Chemicals and Petrochemicals Engineering Department (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, A. B. [Egypt−Japan University of Science and Technology, Electronics and Communications Engineering Department (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O{sub 3} in air discharge, O{sub 3} in water, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  7. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tayeb, A.; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F.; Abdel-Rahman, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O3 in air discharge, O3 in water, and H2O2) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  8. Estradiol and Testosterone (11-KT) Concentrations in Catfish Associated with Wastewater Discharges into Hollis Creek and the Noxubee River Noxubee NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) began to investigate concerns over thedischarge of wastewater from the Starkville Wastewater Treatment Plant...

  9. Validation of an analytical method for simultaneous high-precision measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment plants using a gas chromatography-barrier discharge detector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Raffaella; Caivano, Marianna; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Mancini, Ignazio M; Bianco, Giuliana; Caniani, Donatella

    2017-01-13

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) emit CO2 and N2O, which may lead to climate change and global warming. Over the last few years, awareness of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from WWTPs has increased. Moreover, the development of valid, reliable, and high-throughput analytical methods for simultaneous gas analysis is an essential requirement for environmental applications. In the present study, an analytical method based on a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a barrier ionization discharge (BID) detector was developed for the first time. This new method simultaneously analyses CO2 and N2O and has a precision, measured in terms of relative standard of variation RSD%, equal to or less than 6.6% and 5.1%, respectively. The method's detection limits are 5.3ppmv for CO2 and 62.0ppbv for N2O. The method's selectivity, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification were good at trace concentration levels. After validation, the method was applied to a real case of N2O and CO2 emissions from a WWTP, confirming its suitability as a standard procedure for simultaneous GHG analysis in environmental samples containing CO2 levels less than 12,000mg/L.

  10. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 μg L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 μg L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater.

  11. Abundance and species composition of planktonic Ciliophora from the wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sonia Barría de Cao

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific composition and abundance variation of the ciliate community from a wastewater discharge zone in the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina, were studied all throughout a year, from June 1995 to May 1996. The polluted area exhibited high values of particulate organic matter and nutrients, particularly phosphates. Aloricate ciliates were represented by 15 species belonging to the genera Strombidium Claparède & Lachmann, 1859; Strombidinopsis Kent, 1881; Cyrtostrombidium Lynn & Gilron, 1993; Strobilidium Schewiakoff, 1983; Lohmmanniella Leegaard, 1915 and Tontonia Fauré-Fremiet, 1914. Tintinnids were represented by nine species belonging to the genera Tintinnidium Kent, 1881, Tintinnopsis Stein, 1867 and Codonellopsis Jörgensen, 1924. The total abundance of aloricate ciliates reached a peak of 1,800 ind. 1-1 and the total abundance of tintinnids reached a peak of 9,400 ind. 1-1. Tintinnidium balechi Barría de Cao, 1981 was the most abundant ciliate in the community. Considerations on the presence and abundance of ciliates are made in relation to physicochemical and biochemical parameters.

  12. The GREAT-ER model in China: Evaluating the risk of both treated and untreated wastewater discharges and a consideration to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benjamin; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    agreement between modelled and observed concentrations. Unlike many other water quality models, GREAT-ER is relatively simple to setup and use. This provides value for catchment managers, and for chemical end-users and manufacturers alike. As of yet, GREAT-ER has not been used in Chinese catchments, but there is much potential. Our study involves the creation and validation of a model for the Dongjiang catchment, South China. The Dongjiang catchment is a highly populated area, draining into Guangzhou and the Pearl River delta. The catchment area is 25,325 km2 (above Boluo gauging station), of which approximately 90% resides in Guangdong Province. The downstream section of the catchment is densely populated, whilst upstream there is a more significant rural population. This study focuses upon chemical ingredients found in personal care products and pharmaceuticals and the potential risk they may impose upon the catchment. The relative impact of rural discharges has also been examined along with the potential effect of a range of future wastewater upgrade scenarios. The model has been validated with measurement data collected over a number of sampling campaigns. We believe that this study provides insights into the challenges faced by China as it drives to improve water quality.

  13. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  14. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  15. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  16. Iron and manganese emission standard for industrial wastewater discharge in Hunan province%湖南省工业废水中铁锰排放标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青梅; 马超; 向仁军; 刘湛; 陈灿

    2014-01-01

    The production process, waste water treatment technology, current situation of pollutant discharge of enterprises involving iron or manganese are investigated. The water of current polluted rivers in typical iron or manganese contaminated area of Hunan province is sampled and analysized. With reference to the international iron and manganese limits in the discharged waste water, this standard prescribes the limit of iron in wastewater discharged from existing enterprises is 10 mg/L; the limit of iron in wastewater discharged from new enterprises is 5 mg/L; the limit of manganese in wastewater discharged from enterprises is 1 mg/L.%通过对湖南省典型铁锰污染区域的钢铁、有色金属、电解锰及化工企业生产工艺、废水处理技术与污染物排放现状及受污染河流环境质量现状进行调查的基础上,参照国外废水中铁锰污染物排放限值,规定湖南省工业废水中现有企业总铁的排放标准限值为10 mg/L,新建企业废水中总铁排放标准限值为5 mg/L;湖南省工业废水中总锰的排放标准限值为1 mg/L.

  17. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by arc-discharge and chemical vapor deposition method with analysis of its morphology, dispersion and functionalization characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multi-walled carbon nanotubes are synthesized by arc-discharge and chemical vapor decomposition methods. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes are synthesized on thin film of nickel sputtered on silicon substrate by thermal chemical vapor deposition of acetylene at a temperature of 750°C. The flow of current in arc-discharge method varies in the range 50–200 A. Further arc-synthesized carbon nanotubes are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and the results are compared with nanotubes grown by chemical vapor deposition method. XRD result shows a characteristic peak (0 0 2 at 26.54° corresponding to the presence of carbon nanotubes. SEM and TEM results give morphology of as-synthesized multi-walled nanotubes. TEM results indicate synthesis of well-graphitized carbon nanotubes by arc-discharge method. Dispersion of arc-synthesized nanotubes in SDS solution under the effect of different sonication times is studied. Dispersion of nanotubes in SDS solution is analyzed using UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy and it shows an absorption peak at 260 nm. It was found that with the increase in sonication time, the absorption peak in UV–vis–NIR spectra will increase and optimum sonication time was 2 hours. Functionalization of synthesized carbon nanotubes by H2SO4 and HNO3 acids has been studied and analysis of functionalized groups has been done using FT-IR spectroscopy and compared and the results are reported in this paper. FT-IR spectroscopy verifies the presence of carboxylic groups attached to carbon nanotubes. These functional groups may change properties of carbon nanotubes and may be used in vast applications of carbon nanotubes.

  18. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Mercer Lake is a relatively shallow drainage lake in north-central Wisconsin. The area near the lake has gone through many changes over the past century, including urbanization and industrial development. To try to improve the water quality of the lake, actions have been taken, such as removal of the lumber mill and diversion of all effluent from the sewage treatment plant away from the lake; however, it is uncertain how these actions have affected water quality. Mercer Lake area residents and authorities would like to continue to try to improve the water quality of the lake; however, they would like to place their efforts in the actions that will have the most beneficial effects. To provide a better understanding of the factors affecting the water quality of Mercer Lake, a detailed study of the lake and its watershed was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the Mercer Lake Association. The purposes of the study were to describe the water quality of the lake and the composition of its sediments; quantify the sources of water and phosphorus loading to the lake, including sources associated with wastewater discharges; and evaluate the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake using eutrophication models (models that simulate changes in phosphorus and algae concentrations and water clarity in the lake). Based on analyses of sediment cores and monitoring data collected from the lake, the water quality of Mercer Lake appears to have degraded as a result of the activities in its watershed over the past 100 years. The water quality appears to have improved, however, since a sewage treatment plant was constructed in 1965 and its effluent was routed away from the lake in 1995. Since 2000, when a more consistent monitoring program began, the water quality of the lake appears to have changed very little. During the two monitoring years (MY) 2008-09, the average summer near-surface concentration of total

  19. Microwave discharge electrodeless lamps (MDEL). III. A novel tungsten-triggered MDEL device emitting VUV and UVC radiation for use in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Miura, Takashi; Kajitani, Masatsugu; Serpone, Nick

    2008-03-01

    Exposure to low doses of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) and to the hormonal 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide, an environmental endocrine disruptor, can have serious health consequences such as the induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma (LaChapelle et al., Reprod. Toxicol., 2007, 23, 20; Murray et al., Reprod. Toxicol., 2007, 23, 383). To the extent that these toxins are present in wastewaters (Donald et al., Sci. Total Environ. 1999, 231, 173; Brotons et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 1994, 103, 608; Olea et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 1996, 104, 298; Biles et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. 1997, 45, 3541; Markey et al., J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2003, 83, 235), we examined their oxidative destruction in aqueous media by a novel light source. A tungsten-triggered microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (W-MDEL) was fabricated for possible use in wastewater treatment using vacuum UV-transparent quartz in which a tungsten trigger, also embedded in quartz, was attached to the MDEL to aid in the self-ignition of the lamp on irradiation at low microwave power levels. The quantity of mercury gas in the W-MDEL was optimized by monitoring the continuous radiation and peak intensities of the emitted light in the vacuum UV (VUV) and UVC regions. The usefulness of the W-MDEL device was assessed through the degradation of 2,4-D and BPA in air-equilibrated aqueous media and in oxygen-saturated aqueous media. Enhanced degradation of these two xenoestrogenic toxins was achieved by increasing the number of W-MDEL devices while keeping constant the microwave radiation feeding each W-MDEL lamp. This novel lamp provides an additional light source in the photooxidation of environmental contaminants without the need for a metal-oxide photocatalyst. Under our conditions, process dynamics using the W-MDEL light source are greater than with the more conventional photochemical methods that employ low-pressure Hg arc electrode lamps in synthetic

  20. LAW CAPACITY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of small water users having no centralized wastewater collecting, cleaning and discharging system is of maximal actuality in Romania. Therefor economically efficient solutions are looked for. For disperse mountain villages, farms, or detached households traditional systems, with high maintenance expences because of long networks for small flows, can be economicaly not advantageos. Very small capacity treatement plants are a solution for such cases. The aim of the experimental part of the present work is to simulate situations, damages which can occur during running of a low capacity wastewater treatement plant. Low capacity hosehold wastewater treatement plants are economic alternatives which remove the disadvantages of emptyable basins namely the high costs, the frequvent empying operations, with unpleasant smelling, continous danger of groundwater infection, need for massive and expensive concrete buildings. The proposed plants are based on a classical treatement technology and need emptying of the exess mud only once or twice a year. In opposition with the case of classical plants, the mixture extracted from the proposed low cost systems does not smell and has a relatively low content of solid matter.

  1. [Determination of trichlorobenzenes in water-based cutting fluids and wastewater of machining using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haoyu; Zhao, Yonggang; Huai, Mingmin; Jiang, Hailiang

    2009-01-01

    The determination of trichlorobenzenes (TCBs) in water-based cutting fluids and wastewater of machining has been carried out. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS) method with selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was employed. The target analyte was extracted from the matrix using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Comparing with gas chromatography/electronic capture detection (GC/ECD) coupled with traditional sample preparation procedures, e.g. head-space extraction, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, the present method was accurate with broader linear range, better enrichment property, better replicability, easier to be operated and less interference. Overall recoveries were 94.7% - 104.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of at 2.3% - 7.8%. The detective limits for 1,3,5-, 1,2,4- and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene were 2.0, 6.0 and 3.0 microg/L, respectively. The parameters, such as the nature and volume of extraction solvent, dispersive solvent, extraction time and salt effect, were studied and optimized. Some important factors, e.g., the concentration of common used additives in water-based cutting fluids, which may affect the recoveries and replicabilities for the determination of trichlorobenzenes, have been investigated. The result showed that no significant effects have been observed when the concentrations of NaNO2 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were up to 1.0%. The present method has been applied for the determination of the trichlorobenzenes in 4 real samples. The result showed that two of them were found to contain these trichlorobenzenes. The TCBs in the samples were 0.15 - 1.67 mg/L.

  2. Comparison of two ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approaches for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in wastewater using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry: evaluation of green parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M M Parrilla; Vázquez, P Parrilla; Galera, M Martínez; Moreno, A Uclés

    2014-08-22

    Two dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) approaches including temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TCIL-DLLME) and ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-IL-DLLME) were compared for the extraction of six benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron) from wastewater samples prior to their determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT-MS/MS). Influential parameters affecting extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized and the most significant green parameters were quantified and compared. The best results were obtained using the US-IL-DLLME procedure, which employed the IL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM][PF6]) and methanol (MeOH) as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. US-IL-DLLME procedure was fast, easy, low environmental toxicity and, it was also able to successfully extract all selected benzoylureas. This method was extensively validated with satisfactory results: limits of detection and quantification were in the range 0.5-1.0 ng L(-1) and 1.5-3.5 ng L(-1), respectively, whereas recovery rates ranged from 89 to 103% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 13.4%. The applicability of the method was assessed with the analysis of effluent wastewater samples from a wastewater treatment plant located in an agricultural zone of Almería (Spain) and the results indicated the presence of teflubenzuron at mean concentration levels of 11.3 ng L(-1). US-IL-DLLME sample treatment in combination with LC-QqLIT-MS/MS has demonstrated to be a sensitive, selective and efficient method to determine benzoylurea insecticides in wastewaters at ultra-trace levels.

  3. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Gregory K; Siegrist, Robert L

    2006-12-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments.

  4. Bioaerosol Dispersion in Relation with Wastewater Reuse for Crop Irrigation. (Experiments to understand emission processes with enteric virus and risks modeling).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courault, D.; Girardin, G.; Capowiez, L.; Albert, I.; Krawczyk, C.; Ball, C.; Salemkour, A.; Bon, F.; Perelle, S.; Fraisse, A.; Renault, P.; Amato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Bio-aerosols consist of microorganisms or biological particles that become airborne depending on various environmental factors. Recycling of wastewater (WW) for irrigation can cope with the issues of water availability, and it can also threaten Human health if the pathogens present in WW are aerosolized during sprinkling irrigation or wind events. Among the variety of micro-organisms found in WW, enteric viruses can reach significant amounts, because most of the WW treatments are not completely efficient. These viruses are particularly resistant in the environment and responsibles of numerous digestive diseases (gastroenteritis, hepatitis…). Few quantities are enough to make people sick (102 pfu). Several knowledge gaps exist to better estimate the risks for Human exposure, and on the virus transfer from irrigation up to the respiratory track. A research program funded by the French government (INSU), gathering multi disciplinary teams aims at better understanding virus fate in air and health risks from WW reuse. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in order to prioritize the main factors impacting virus aerosolization. Irrigation with water loaded with safe surrogates of Hepatitis A virus (Murine Mengo Virus) was applied on small plots covered by channels in which the wind speed varied. Various situations have been investigated (wet/dry surfaces, strong/mild winds, clean/waste water). Air samples were collected above plots using impingers and filters after irrigation for several days. Viruses were quantified by RT-qPCR. The results showed that impingers were more efficient in airborne virus recovering than filters. Among environmental factors, Wind speed was the main factor explaining virus concentration in the air after irrigation. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment approach has been chosen to assess the health effects on the population. The main modeling steps will be presented, including a simplified dispersion model coupled with a

  5. Research on TNT wastewater treatment by electro-hydraulic pulse discharge/iron-inner-electrolysis%电液压脉冲放电与铁屑内电解法联用处理TNT废水试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖漉; 鲁建举; 周从直; 冯孝杰; 陈维

    2009-01-01

    TNT结构稳定,废水又具有生物毒性,难以生物降解,采用电液压脉冲放电与铁屑内电解法联用能有效处理TNT废水.研究了铁屑投加量、pH值和铁屑重复使用对TNT降解的影响.试验条件为:放电电压36 kV,废水体积7 L,TNT初始浓度90 mg/L,电极间距8 mm.结果表明,在投加铁屑700 g和pH值为6.5时,TNT降解率分别达到97.7%,铁屑重复使用6次不影响TNT降解效果;放电后静置一段时间,TNT仍然继续降解;在125 L的反应器中处理115 L废水,TNT初始浓度50 mg/L,TNT最大降解率达94.2%,TNT浓度降至2.9 mg/L.%TNT which structure is stable and wastewater is poisonous to the biology, is difficult to be bio-degraded. The electro-hydraulic pulse discharge/iron inner-electroanalysis was used to treat TNT wastewater. In the experiment, the mass of iron adding to reactor, pH and iron reuse times were investigated, which discharge voltage was 36 kV, TNT wastewater concentration was 90 mg/L and volume was 7 L. The experiment results are as follows; when the mass of iron was 700 g and pH = 6. 5, the TNT degradation was 97. 7%. The degradation remained when iron was reused 6 times. TNT was degraded all the same after discharges. TNT wastewater which volume was 115 L and concentration was 50 mg/L, were treated in the reactor of 125 L, the maximum of TNT degradation was 94. 2% , which concentration reduced to 2. 9 mg/L.

  6. Heavy Metals in Brown Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Soil After Long-Term Irrigation of Wastewater Discharged from Domestic Sewage Treatment Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Y. CHUNG; C. H. SONG; B. J. PARK; J. Y. CHO

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a plastic film house to evaluate the translocation and uptake of heavy metals (Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn) into brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the heavy metals residues in soils which had previously been irrigated with domestic wastewater for a long time (3 years).The range of Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn was 5.10 ± 0.01,0.105 ± 0.017,5.76 ± 0.42,and 23.56 ± 1.40 mg kg-1,respectively in the domestic wastewater-irrigated soil,and 0.370 ± 0.006,0.011 ±0.001,0.340 ± 0.04,and 2.05 ± 0.18 mg kg-1,respectively,in the domestic wastewater-irrigated brown rice.The results indicated that application of domestic wastewater to arable land slightly increased the levels of Pb,Cd,Cu,and Zn in soil and brown rice (P < 0.01).The concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were lower than the recommended tolerable levels proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.However,the continuous monitoring and pollution control of hazardous materials from domestic wastewater are needed in order to prevent excessive build-up of heavy metals in the food chain.

  7. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  8. Non-dispersive solvent extraction of p-toluic acid from purified terephthalic acid plant wastewater with p-xylene as extractant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ran KONG; You-wei CHENG; Li-jun WANG; Xi LI‡

    2016-01-01

    题目:对二甲苯非分散相溶剂萃取精对苯二甲酸工业废水中的对甲基苯甲酸  目的:采用对二甲苯为萃取剂,通过非分散相溶剂萃取(膜基萃取)同时回收利用精对苯二甲酸(PTA)工业废水中的对甲基苯甲酸和水。  创新点:1.采用非分散相溶剂萃取有效地实现了工业条件下 PTA 废水的净化和资源的回收利用;2.采用数学模拟优化工业萃取的操作参数。  方法:1.进行对二甲苯萃取实验,考察操作条件对萃取效率和萃余水杂质浓度的影响;2.通过数学模拟,建立膜萃取过程的数学模型,对操作参数与膜结构参数进行敏感性分析。  结论:1.非分散相溶剂萃取可以有效解决 PTA 工业废水的回收利用问题;2.质量传递的速率控制步骤是管程中的水相扩散;3.优化的工业操作条件为:中空纤维膜内径为200~250μm,萃取时间为50~60 s,水油两相体积比为9.0,萃取温度为318 K。%Non-dispersive solvent extraction (NDSE) with p-xylene as extractant was employed as a novel separation method to recover both p-toluic (PT) acid and water from purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. The mass transport behavior of PT acid from aqueous solution to p-xylene was investigated by experiments and numerical simulation. Experiments showed that NDSE is feasible and effective. Residual PT acid in the raffinate can be reduced to lower than the permitted limit of wastewater re-use (100 g/m3) with extraction time longer than 60 s in industrial conditions. A mathematical model of PT acid mass transport was developed to optimize the membrane module performance. The model was validated with the experimental results with relative errors of less than 6%. Numerical analysis for mass transfer through the lumen side, the porous membrane layer, and the shell side showed that PT acid transport in the aqueous solution is the rate determining step. The effects

  9. Environmental Assessment for Extension of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Force Main and Discharge to Wateree River for Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    water storage, flood flow attenuation, nutrient and pollutant removal /transformation, recreation (e.g., birding, hunting), and wildlife habitat...compound WMA Wildlife Management Area WWTP Wastewater Treatment Plan FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT/ FINDING OF NO PRACTICABLE ALTERNATIVE...alternative. Biological Resources: It is not expected that the proposed action or the Gum Swamp alternative would have an effect on species listed or

  10. Multi-Perspectives’ Comparisons and Mitigating Implications for the COD and NH3-N Discharges into the Wastewater from the Industrial Sector of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsong Jia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking China as a case study, we analyzed the underlying driving forces of two discharges—chemical oxygen demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N—from both periodic and structural perspectives by the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI method. Changes in the two discharges were decomposed into three effects: the economic output effect, the industrial structure effect and the discharge intensity effect. The discharge intensity effect could be further decomposed into the cleaner production (technologies’ effect and the pollution abatement (technologies’ effect. Results showed that the economic output effect was mainly responsible for the growth of the two discharges; the average annual contribution rates were 10.77% and 10.39%, respectively. Inversely, the pollution abatement (technologies’ effect presented the most obvious mitigating effects (−9.71% and −9.52%, respectively. Furthermore, the clean production (technologies’ effect followed it (−4.36% and −5.22%. So, we found that the discharge intensity effect played a crucial role in the reduction of the two discharges. Then, the mitigation effect of industrial structure adjustment was the weakest (−0.19% and 0.47%. However, we could still not ignore the potential impact of industrial structure optimization for reducing the absolute amount of discharges in the long run. In addition, to simultaneously reduce the COD and NH3-N discharges, the sub-sectors of “Processing of Food from Agricultural Products (I7”, “Manufacture of Foods (I8”, “Manufacture of Raw Chemical Materials and Chemical Products (I20”, “Manufacture of Non-metallic Mineral Products (I24” and “Smelting and Pressing of Non-ferrous Metals (I26” were suggested to be given prior consideration for the design of related mitigation policies. Finally, some particular policy implications were also recommended for reducing the two discharges.

  11. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Buleté, A; Vulliet, E; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Mirande-Bret, C; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m(3)/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2(-). For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (>60%) or very high (>80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n=22/32), i.e. atenolol (92

  12. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailler, R., E-mail: romain.mailler@siaap.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Gasperi, J., E-mail: gasperi@u-pec.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Coquet, Y. [SAUR, Direction de la Recherche et du Développement, 1 rue Antoine Lavoisier, 78064 Guyancourt (France); Buleté, A.; Vulliet, E. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR5280 CNRS, Université Lyon 1, ENS-Lyon, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Deshayes, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); LCPP (Laboratoire Central de la Préfecture de Police), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Zedek, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); and others

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m{sup 3}/d — Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n = 11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n = 62) and other emerging pollutants (n = 57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90–100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38–45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21–48%), DOC (13–44%) and UV-254 (22–48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO{sub 2}{sup −}. For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (> 60%) or very high (> 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22

  13. Dispersal phenology of hydrochorous plants in relation to discharge, seed release time and buoyancy of seeds: the flood pulse concept supported

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedeltje, G.; Bakker, J.P.; Brinke, A. Ten; Groenendael, J.M. van; Soesbergen, M.

    2004-01-01

    1 Restored floodplains and backwaters lacking a viable propagule bank, may need flood pulses to facilitate inward dispersal of diaspores. Temporal patterns of hydrochorous plant dispersal are, however, not well known. 2 Diversity and abundance of diaspores dispersed in a water body over 12 months

  14. Dispersal phenology of hydrochorous plants in relation to discharge, seed release time and buoyancy of seeds : the flood pulse concept supported

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedeltje, G; Bakker, JP; Ten Brinke, A; Van Groenendael, JM; Soesbergen, M

    2004-01-01

    1 Restored floodplains and backwaters lacking a viable propagule bank, may need flood pulses to facilitate inward dispersal of diaspores. Temporal patterns of hydrochorous plant dispersal are, however, not well known. 2 Diversity and abundance of diaspores dispersed in a water body over 12 months

  15. Models tasks of the municipality on the basis of laws: the collective water supply and discharge of wastewater, the public transport and on maintaining cleanliness and order in municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cilak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The municipalities carry out numerous tasks of their own. For this purpose, they can create their own organizational units, as well as enter into contracts with private entrepreneurs. The rules of the various tasks are defined by the specific laws, which shows how the municipality can carry out these tasks. On the basis of special laws there are some models of conduct, eg. an obligation to conclude a civil law contract, to create their own entities or mixed solutions. The article attempts to analyze the models of carry out the municipalities own tasks on the basis of laws: the collective water supply and discharge of wastewater, the public transport and on maintaining cleanliness and order in municipalities.

  16. 污水排海工程的扩散器水力设计 与模型试验研究%Hydraulic design and model test of a diffuser for wastewater discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春节; 王可钦

    2001-01-01

    通过SZ36-1油田二期终端污水排海工程扩散器的水力设计,比较了扩散器的水力设计的两种计算方法,对水力计算中有关参数及局部阻力系数进行了选用,并通过模型试验进行了验证。表明所用计算方法及其结果是可信的,阻力系数的选取是合适的。%A diffuser of Wastewater discharge des igned for the SZ36-1 oifield, is presented in this paper. The hydraulic design o f the difuser was carried out by two methods. Detail of the design are discussed and a model test is introduced to verify the design.

  17. 电厂脱硫废水正渗透膜浓缩零排放技术的应用%Application of MBC zero liquid discharge technology to desulfurization wastewater treatment in a power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国华; 方棣

    2016-01-01

    介绍了膜浓缩(MBC)零排放技术在长兴电厂脱硫废水深度处理项目中的应用情况。系统可将22 m3/h含盐水浓缩至1.5~2 m3/h,盐分浓缩至200 g/L左右后进入蒸发结晶系统,最终生成结晶盐,经过浓缩处理后的清洁产水作为电厂锅炉补给水回用。运行结果表明,MBC零排放系统运行良好,有效地保证了电厂的稳定运行,带来良好的社会和经济效益。%The application of membrane brine concentrator(MBC) zero liquid discharge technology to the advanced treatment project for desulfurization wastewater in Changxing Power Plant is introduced. 22 m3/h of wastewater containing salt is concentrated to 1.5-2 m3/h. After the salinity is concentrated to about 200 g/L ,it goes to evaporative crystal system,and finally forms crystal salt. After the concentration treatment,the produced clean water can be reused as boiler make-up water for the power plant. The results show that the MBC zero discharge system runs well,and guarentees stable running of Changxing Power Plant,bringing good social and economic benefits.

  18. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    The Arctic nature is vulnerable to environmental contaminants because of low biological diversity, lack of nutrients and extreme seasonal variations in light. In Greenland neither industrial nor domestic wastewater is treated before it is discharged to the recipients, which in most cases is the sea...... treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... collection systems, and be more economically and environmentally sustainable than traditional wastewater collection and treatment systems. Possible alternative wastewater treatment methods for Greenlandic communities are dry composting or anaerobic digestion of excreta, collected at household level using dry...

  19. Wastewater services for small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent.

  20. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  1. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    -arsenate precipitates. This work evaluates the feasibility of EC as a treatment process at various stages during conventional copper smelter wastewater treatment - with a focus on arsenic. The reactor used is a batch airlift electrocoagulator. The results showed that raw copper smelter wastewater was difficult to treat......The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  2. Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: Part 1. exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Guy, C.P.; Pinkney, A.E.; Mullcan, J.E.; Alvarezw, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smalimouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, USA, and forks of the Shenandoah River, USA. during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, USA. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-l00%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  3. 高浓度分散染料废水电渗析脱盐可行性试验%THE FEASIBILITY EXPERIMENT OF HIGH CONCENTRATION DISPERSAL DYEING WASTEWATER WITH ELECTRODIALYSIS DESALINATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宏瑞; 蔡铭杰; 王保和

    2012-01-01

    采用“MgO中和、Fe/C微电解、混凝沉淀”组合工艺对高盐度分散染料废水进行生化前预处理工艺研究,小试和中试试验结果表明,对COD为8000~12000 mg/L、色度为2000倍、含盐量由17.75%、酸度为5.2%当量硫酸的废水,经组合工艺前处理及ED膜脱盐后,COD去除率为78%;色度小于150倍,去除率为92.5%;含盐量小于1%,脱盐率高达94.8%; BOD5/COD从0.02~0.05上升至0.42.结果表明,应用该组合工艺对分散染料废水进行预处理和ED膜脱盐具有技术可行性.%Adopting the method of "MgO to preneutralizate.Fe/C micro-electrolysis.Coagulating Sedimentation"combined biochemical pretreatment process to pretreat the high salinity disperse dye wastewater . The small and pilot experiments results showed that when the sulfuric acid wastewater whose COD was 8 000~12 000 mg/L, the chroma was 2 000 times ,the salt content was 17.75%, the acidity was 5.2% was pre-treatment by combined process and the ED membrane desalination,the COD, colority and salinity removal rates were 78%, 92.5% and 94.8% respectively, the chroma was less than 150 times and salt content was less than 1% ,the value of BOD5/COD rose up to 0.42 from 0.02~0.05.The results showed that pretreatment and ED membrane desalination of disperse dye wastewater by combined process had the technical feasibility.

  4. 臭氧气泡大小对分散染料废水氧化处理效果的影响%Influences of ozone bubble size on the treatment of disperse dyestuff wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 冯玥; 韦彦斐; 谭德俊; 陈泉源

    2013-01-01

    采用臭氧氧化法处理实际分散染料废水,研究了初始pH、臭氧投加量、反应时间、臭氧气泡大小(气体洗瓶和自制的砂芯鼓泡反应柱分别作反应器)对处理效果的影响,采用动态显微高速摄影仪对反应器内的臭氧气泡进行了表征.结果表明,反应体系的初始pH、臭氧投加量越高,反应速率越快,染料废水的脱色及矿化效果越好;染料废水的臭氧氧化处理过程符合拟二级动力学方程;自制的砂芯鼓泡反应柱改善了臭氧分散效果,缩小了气泡直径,提高了臭氧传质速率和效率,强化了臭氧氧化能力.%The degradation of industrial disperse dyestuff wastewater was investigated using ozonation. The effect of initial solution pH, ozone dose, reaction time and size of ozone bubbles (a gas washing bottle and a self-made porous sintered glass sparger column were respectively served as ozonation reactor) on the degradation was studied. The high-speed microscopic camera was applied to characterize ozone bubbles in two reactors. It was found that the decolorization and mineralization of wastewater and the reaction rate increased as the initial pH value and ozone dose increased. The ozonation of wastewater was correctly modelled by a pseudo second-order kinetic model. Compared with the gas washing bottle, the self-made porous sintered glass sparger column significantly reduced bubble size, increased the mass transfer rate of ozone and enhanced the ozone oxidation of wastewater.

  5. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  6. Design of modified xanthan mini-matrices for monitoring oral discharge of highly soluble Soluplus{sup ®}–glibenclamide dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakshi, Paromita; Sadhukhan, Sayantan; Maiti, Sabyasachi, E-mail: sabya245@rediffmail.com

    2015-09-01

    In this work, Soluplus{sup ®} was used as a hydrophilic carrier for the preparation of solid dispersion (SD) of a model BCS class II drug, glibenclamide by applying hot melting process and microwave irradiation in combination. Increasing the concentration of carrier relative to drug significantly increased the drug solubility, which corresponded to a maximum 75 fold increase at a drug:carrier ratio of 1:7. Scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and x-ray diffraction analyses confirmed complete amorphization of the drug in SD. In animal study, about two fold reductions in hyperglycemic level were achieved by SD compared to pure drug. SD-loaded O-carboxymethyl xanthan mini-matrices controlled the release of drug into gastro-luminal fluid over longer duration. The drug release corroborated with pH-dependent swelling behavior of the matrices and approximated anomalous diffusion mechanism. This study proved the potential of Soluplus{sup ®}-based dispersion in improving the clinical performance of the drug, especially when embedded in modified xanthan mini-matrices. - Highlights: • Microwave-induced solid dispersion of glibenclamide was prepared using Soluplus®. • Solubility of drug corresponded to 75 fold increase at a drug:Soluplus® ratio of 1:7. • Thermal and x-ray analyses suggested amorphization of drug in solid dispersion. • About two fold reductions in hyperglycemic level were achieved by solid dispersion. • Modified xanthan gum showed potential in controlling anomalous transport of drug.

  7. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make water safe. Effects of wastewater pollutants If wastewater is not properly treated, then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. These impacts can include harm to fish and wildlife ... in wastewater and the potentially harmful effects these substances can ...

  8. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma knife - discharge; Cyberknife - discharge; Stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Cyclotrons - discharge; Linear accelerator - discharge; Lineacs - ...

  9. Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast and the influence of land use, storm water discharge, and treated wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodder, Nathan G; Maruya, Keith A; Lee Ferguson, P; Grace, Richard; Klosterhaus, Susan; La Guardia, Mark J; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Ramirez, Juan

    2014-04-30

    Contaminants of emerging concern were measured in mussels collected along the California coast in 2009-2010. The seven classes were alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), other flame retardants, current use pesticides, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), and single walled carbon nanotubes. At least one contaminant was detected at 67 of the 68 stations (98%), and 67 of the 167 analytes had at least one detect (40%). Alkylphenol, PBDE, and PFC concentrations increased with urbanization and proximity to storm water discharge; pesticides had higher concentrations at agricultural stations. These results suggest that certain compounds; for example, alkylphenols, lomefloxacin and PBDE, are appropriate for inclusion in future coastal bivalve monitoring efforts based on maximum concentrations >50 ng/g dry weight and detection frequencies >50%. Other compounds, for example PFC and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may also be suggested for inclusion due to their >25% detection frequency and potential for biomagnification.

  10. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  11. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

    2012-07-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater.

  12. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  13. 接触辉光放电等离子体处理有机砷废水%Treatment of organoarsenic wastewater using contact glow discharge plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡平; 郑星; 刘玉坤; 郭建波; 李素娟; 郑经堂

    2016-01-01

    Organoarsenic compounds,such as roxarsone (ROX),are extensively used as feed additives in the agricultural industry,and have become a serious environmental concern.This study investigated unprecedentedly the applicability of the contact glow discharge process (CGDP) for ROX oxidation and degradation in aqueous solution,and evaluated the effects of various reaction conditions on ROX conversion.The results indicated that ROX could be completely degraded,with As(Ⅴ) as the final product.The higher energy input was beneficial for a higher As(Ⅴ) production efficiency,whereas the solution pH did not seem to influence the ROX oxidation efficiency.Consequently,approximately 97% of ROX degraded,and more than 95 μmol · L-1 As(Ⅴ) were generated within 42 min under the optimum glow discharge condition (58 W of input energy,pH 4.0).Furthermore,addition of Fe(Ⅱ) into the CGDP system significantly enhanced the ROX oxidation,due to the consumption of in-situ electrogenerated H2O2 in CGDP and the generation of additional-OH.Furthermore,the experiments of quenching active radicals indicated that · OH plays an important role in the mineralization of ROX to arsenate,and also confirmed the ROX degradation mechanism in the CGDP system.%洛克沙砷(ROX)饲料添加剂在农业的普遍使用,导致大量的ROX进入自然水体,引起环境污染.为了修复含ROX废水,首次提出采用接触辉光放电等离子体(CGDP)氧化ROX,并考察了多种因素对ROX降解效果的影响.结果表明,ROX能被CGDP完全氧化降解,且As(Ⅴ)是其最终降解产物;输入能量的增加利于ROX的氧化,而pH值对ROX的降解影响较小;在辉光放电最佳条件(输入能量58 W,pH 4.O)下,加入100 μmol·L-1ROX,42 min内降解率为97%,As(Ⅴ)的生成量可达95 μmol·L-1.此外,加入一定量的Fe(Ⅱ),因其可以通过利用CGDP原位产生的H2O2通过芬顿反应产生大量额外的·OH,而能显著地催化ROX转化为无机砷.通过自由基捕获实验,

  14. Atmospheric discharge and dispersion of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Part II: verification of the source term and analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Hiroaki; Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-10-01

    Regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations were carried out to verify the source term of (131)I and (137)Cs estimated in our previous studies, and to analyze the atmospheric dispersion and surface deposition during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The accuracy of the source term was evaluated by comparing the simulation results with measurements of daily and monthly surface depositions (fallout) over land in eastern Japan from March 12 to April 30, 2011. The source term was refined using observed air concentrations of radionuclides for periods when there were significant discrepancies between the calculated and measured daily surface deposition, and when environmental monitoring data, which had not been used in our previous studies, were now available. The daily surface deposition using the refined source term was predicted mostly to within a factor of 10, and without any apparent bias. Considering the errors in the model prediction, the estimated source term is reasonably accurate during the period when the plume flowed over land in Japan. The analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition suggests that the present distribution of a large amount of (137)Cs deposition in eastern Japan was produced primarily by four events that occurred on March 12, 15-16, 20, and 21-23. The ratio of wet deposition to the total varied widely depending on the influence by the particular event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wastewater treatment alternatives for a vegetable and seafood cannery

    OpenAIRE

    Grassiano, James W.

    1990-01-01

    Peeled or whole-pack tomatoes, herring roe and oysters are processed at a Virginia Cannery. Wastewater from each food processing effluent was characterized. Treatment alternatives were investigated for tomato and herring roe wastewaters. For herring roe processing wastewater, the discharge requirement for BOD was nearly met through plain settling, while the TSS limitation was easily achieved by settling out the roe particles" Oyster processing wastewater was found to meet effluent guidelines ...

  16. Anaerobic Conversion of Glycol Rich Industrial Wastewater to BiogasAnaerobic Conversion of Glycol Rich Industrial Wastewater to Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas industries generate large volumes of wastewater during exploitation and processing of oil and gas. Industrial wastewater contains glycols along with other organic and inorganic compounds. It is essential to treat such wastewaters before discharge to the environment as these can have significant impacts on the environment. This research work has attempted to evaluate the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of glycol rich industrial wastewater for biogas production. In the present...

  17. Phenol wastewater treatment by needle-plate pulsed high voltage discharge in gas-liquid two phase%针-板式高压脉冲气液两相放电降解废水中的苯酚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董冰岩; 张鹏; 聂亚林; 谢寅寅; 何俊文; 王晖

    2016-01-01

    phenol increased,but,would decrease while each factor was greater than a specific value. Under the best condition of 10mm electrode spacing,7.5mm needle-liquid spacing,26kV pulse voltage,70Hz pulse frequency and 1.5L/min aeration,phenol degradation rate was 64.63% when 100mL concentration of 100mg/L of phenol wastewater was discharged for 60min. In addition,phenol degradation rate reached 85.02% when wastewater was discharged for 140min. The concentration of byproducts such as resorcinol,hydroquinone,benzoquinone and catechol increased firstly,then decreased gradually and eventually disappeared with the increase of discharge time. Besides,concentration of resorcinol was the lowest and appeared in two stages,that of benzoquinone was the largest,and catechol disappeared first. The completeness of phenol degradation could be improved by studying the change of byproducts.

  18. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  19. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  20. Photocatalytic Degradation of Oil using Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Titanium Dioxide Composite Membrane for Oily Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Ummi Nadiah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of industrial wastewater is increasing as the oil and gas industry grows rapidly over the years. The constituents in the industrial wastewater such as organic and inorganic matters, dispersed and lubricant oil and metals which have high toxicity become the major concern to the environment and ecosystem. There are many technologies are being used for oil removal from industrial wastewater. However, there are still needs to find an effective technology to treat oily wastewater before in can be discharge safely to the environment. Membrane technology is an attractive separation technology to treat oily wastewater. The aim of this study is to fabricate polyvinylidene/titanium dioxide (PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane with further treatment using hot pressed method to enhance the adhesion between TiO2 with the membrane surfaces. In this study the structural and physical properties of fabricated membrane were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR respectively. The photocatalytic degradation of oil was measured using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The FTIR results confirmed that, hot pressed PVDF/TiO2 membrane TiO2 was successfully deposited onto PVDF membranes surface and XRD results shows that the XRD pattern of PVDF//TiO2 found that the crystalline structure was remained unchanged after hot pressed. Clear water was obtained after synthetic oily wastewater was exposed to visible light for at least 6 hours. In conclusion, PVDF/TiO2 composite membrane can be a potential candidate to degrade oil in oily wastewater and suggested to possess an excellent performance if perform simultaneously with membrane separation process.

  1. Rapid analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and pulse glow discharge ion source ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Nan; Gu, Kejia; Liu, Shaowen; Hou, Yanbing; Zhang, Jialei; Xu, Xiang; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2016-03-01

    An analytical method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction with a multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent coupled with positive pulse glow discharge ion mobility spectrometry was developed for analysis of 30 pesticide residues in drinking water samples. Reduced ion mobilities and the mass-mobility correlation of 30 pesticides were measured. The pesticides were divided into five groups to verify the separation capability of pulse glow discharge in mobility spectrometry. The extraction conditions such as desorption solvent, ionic strength, conditions of adsorption and desorption, the amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and solution pH were optimized. The enrichment factors of pesticides were 5.4- to 48.7-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 50-fold). The detection limits of pesticides were 0.01∼0.77 μg/kg. The linear range was 0.005-0.2 mg/L for pesticide standard solutions, with determination coefficients from 0.9616 to 0.9999. The method was applied for the analysis of practical and spiked drinking water samples. All results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed method was proven to be a commendably rapid screening qualitative and semiquantitative technique for the analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples on site.

  2. Wastewater Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  4. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  5. Environmental Monitoring, Other - MO 2012 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Outfalls (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a point data set depicting outfall locations of wastewater facilities in Missouri with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) operating...

  6. Environmental Monitoring, Other - MO 2015 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Outfalls (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a point data set depicting outfall locations of wastewater facilities in Missouri with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) operating...

  7. Bronchiolitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV bronchiolitis - discharge; Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - discharge ... Your child has bronchiolitis , which causes swelling and mucus to build up in the smallest air passages of the lungs. In the hospital, ...

  8. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  9. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  10. Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Formaldehyde removal from wastewater applying natural zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is one of the most chemically active compounds which is discharged with untreated or just partially treated industrial wastewater. It is hazardous for environment and humans. Formaldehyde vapors can strongly irritate skin, can cause damage to eyes and harm respiratory tract. As long as formaldehyde causes a toxic effect on environment and living organisms, it is necessary to remove it from wastewater which is directed to natural water. There are many methods used for formaldehyde...

  12. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Revelo; Diego Proaño; Carlos Banchón

    2015-01-01

    (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24)The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador) where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extr...

  13. Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

    2012-09-01

    The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission.

  14. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders.

  15. Multi-media regulatory requirements for an organic solvent wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintenich, J.L.; Bazydola, M.T. [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The increasingly complex sets of environmental statutes and regulations in the United States have and will continue to present the designers and operators of aqueous waste treatment systems with significant challenges to meet regulatory performance standards for all media receiving an emission or discharge of some type. This paper summarizes the rigorous evaluations of multi-media environmental regulatory requirements for air emissions, water discharges, and treatment sludge which established that a groundwater treatment system at a National Priorities List (NPL) Superfund site could be designed and operated in a cost-effective manner. Pilot-scale treatability studies were used to develop the process design and demonstrate the attainment of extremely stringent water-quality based effluent limitations for this organic solvent wastewater. Dispersion modeling using Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISCLT) demonstrated that predicted ground level concentrations of vinyl chloride and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) would be below state air toxics values. Emission rates were demonstrated to be below the relevant National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) as well as state emissions rate guidelines. Candidate emission control technologies were identified and evaluated on a life-cycle cost basis in accordance with the QAQPS Control Cost Manual published by USEPA to assess the feasibility of control. Adsorption with granular activated carbon, adsorption with a proprietary adsorbent, and catalytic oxidation were conceptualized for possible use at the site. The project received a discharge permit approval for the treated wastewater as well as a permit exemption for the air emission. During the first six months after startup, the treatment system was demonstrated to achieve the regulatory performance requirements.

  16. An approach of zero discharge treatment of membrane concentrates for coking wastewater%焦化废水膜滤浓缩液零排放解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桐泽; 尹君贤; 孙崎胜; 许为

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a combination process of “special Reserve Osmosis membrane +Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) +Thermal Vapor Recompression (TVR)” to treat mem-brane concentrate for coking wastewater .This application can produce zero wastewater with lower capitalized cost and running cost .%介绍了“特种RO(反渗透)膜+MVR蒸发+TVR结晶”组合工艺处理焦化废水膜滤浓缩液的流程,应用后可降低工程的投资和运行成本,实现焦化废水零排放。

  17. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  18. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  19. Single-Drop Solution Electrode Discharge-Induced Cold Vapor Generation Coupling to Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion: A Robust Approach for Sensitive Quantification of Total Mercury Distribution in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Lin, Yao; Tian, Yunfei; Wu, Li; Yang, Lu; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

    2017-02-07

    Sensitive quantification of mercury distribution in fish is challenging because of insufficient sensitivities of conventional analytical methods, the limited mass of organs (tens of micrograms to several milligrams), and dilution of analyte concentration from sample digestion. In this work, a simple and robust approach coupling multiwall carbon nanotubes assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MWCNTs-MSPD) to single-drop solution electrode glow discharge-induced cold vapor generation (SD-SEGD-CVG) was developed for the sensitive determination of mercury in limited amount of sample. Mercury species contained in a limited amount of sample can be efficiently extracted into a 100 μL of eluent by MWCNTs-MSPD, which are conveniently converted to Hg(0) by SD-SEGD-CVG and further transported to atomic fluorescence spectrometry for their determination. Therefore, analyte dilution resulted from sample preparation is avoided and sensitivity is significantly improved. On the basis of consumption of 1 mg of sample, a limit of detection of 0.01 μg L(-1) (0.2 pg) was obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5.2% and 4.6% for 2 and 20 μg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by analysis of three Certified Reference Materials with satisfying results. To confirm that SD-SEGD-CVG-AFS coupling to MWCNTs-MSPD is a promising method to quantify mercury distribution in fish, this method was successfully applied for the sensitive determination of mercury in seven organs of common carps (muscle, gill, intestine, liver, gallbladder, brain, and eye) after dietary of mercury species. The proposed method provides advantages of minimum sample dilution, low blank, high sample introduction efficiency, high sensitivity, and minimum toxic chemicals and sample consumption.

  20. Modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Treatment of Some Organic Dyes in Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, M. I.; Adnan A. Abdul Razak; Hussein Al-Timimi, Dhiyaa A.

    2014-01-01

    In Iraq, a large quantity of basic orange and methyl violet dyes contaminated wastewater from textile industries is discharged into Tigris River. So the aim of this work is to found an efficient and fast technique that can be applied directly for removal of such dyes from the wastewater before discharging into river. Accordingly, CNTs as a new approach prepared by CCVD technique were purified, functionalized, and used as adsorption material to remove dyes from wastewater. The effect of pH, co...

  1. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    less attention has been given to medical patients, who are often elderly and suffer from multiple diseases. This paper addresses the latter issue with a case study of a local initiative to improve transition from hospital to home (care) for medical patients at a Danish hospital, in which a discharge...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...

  2. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods that may block your stoma are raw pineapple, nuts and seeds, celery, popcorn, corn, dried fruits ( ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  3. Gallstones - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000196.htm Gallstones - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have gallstones. These are hard, pebble-like deposits that formed ...

  4. The environmental impact of sewage and wastewater outfalls in Antarctica: An example from Davis station, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jonathan S; Corbett, Patricia A; Dunshea, Glenn; Johnstone, Glenn; King, Catherine; Mondon, Julie A; Power, Michelle L; Samuel, Angelingifta; Snape, Ian; Riddle, Martin

    2016-11-15

    We present a comprehensive scientific assessment of the environmental impacts of an Antarctic wastewater ocean outfall, at Davis station in East Antarctica. We assessed the effectiveness of current wastewater treatment and disposal requirements under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Macerated wastewater has been discharged from an outfall at Davis since the failure of the secondary treatment plant in 2005. Water, sediment and wildlife were tested for presence of human enteric bacteria and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Epibiotic and sediment macrofaunal communities were tested for differences between sites near the outfall and controls. Local fish were examined for evidence of histopathological abnormalities. Sediments, fish and gastropods were tested for uptake of sewage as measured by stable isotopes of N and C. Escherichia coli carrying antibiotic resistance determinants were found in water, sediments and wildlife (the filter feeding bivalve Laternula eliptica). Fish (Trematomus bernacchii) within close proximity to the outfall had significantly more severe and greater occurrences of histopathological abnormalities than at controls, consistent with exposure to sewage. There was significant enrichment of (15)N in T. bernacchii and the predatory gastropod Neobuccinum eatoni around the outfall, providing evidence of uptake of sewage. There were significant differences between epibiotic and sediment macrofaunal communities at control and outfall sites (environmental drivers such as sea ice. The combined evidence indicated that the discharge of wastewater from the Davis outfall is causing environmental impacts. These findings suggest that conditions in Antarctic coastal locations, such as Davis, are unlikely to be conducive to initial dilution and rapid dispersal of wastewater as required under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Current minimum requirements for wastewater treatment and disposal in

  5. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - discharge; Hypoxia - interstitial lung - discharge

  6. Wastewater treatment in relation to marine disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    receiving the discharge. The EU has decided on regulation of wastewater treament by enforcing effluent standards. This is interpreted in relation to basic EU-principles and discussed with regard to an ethical framework of thinking. The conclusion is that basically different concepts are difficult...

  7. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  8. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  9. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

  10. Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wastewater treatment plants receiving industrial effluent. FT Mhlanga* and ... The modelling of biological wastewater treatment systems has developed ..... of KwaZulu-Natal. ORHON D and CORGNOR EU (1996) COD fractionation in waste-.

  11. The relationship between BOD:N ratio and wastewater treatability in a nitrogen-fixing wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, A H; Thorn, G J S; Dennis, M A

    2011-01-01

    A BOD:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 is often used as a benchmark for nutrient addition in nutrient limited wastewaters. The impact of varying nitrogen levels, whilst maintaining phosphorus constant, was studied in a simulated aerated lagoon (BOD:N of 100:0; 100:1.3; 100:1.8; 100:2.7 and 100:4.9). A synthetic wastewater was prepared using methanol, glucose and acetate as the combined carbon source, ammonium chloride as the nitrogen source and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus source. Nitrogen levels did not impact organic carbon removal, but did strongly influence floc structure. With no supplemental nitrogen, growth was dispersed. Increasing the nitrogen level increased filamentous growth, with a marked change in filamentous species occurring between a BOD:N ratio of 100:1.8 and 100:2.7. Nitrogen fixation occurred at a BOD:N ratio of 100:0; 100:1.3 and 100:1.8, with nitrogen loss at BOD:N ratios of 100:2.7 and 100:4.9. At a BOD:N ratio of 100:4.9, ammonium discharge was significantly greater (1.8 mg/L) than at the lower nitrogen levels (0.04 - 0.18 mg/L). Phosphorus behaviour was more variable, however significantly more phosphorus was discharged at the lowest nitrogen level than at the highest (pBOD:N ratio at which nitrogen fixation no longer occurred was around 100:1.9.

  12. A review on wastewater disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

  13. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... less attention has been given to medical patients, who are often elderly and suffer from multiple diseases. This paper addresses the latter issue with a case study of a local initiative to improve transition from hospital to home (care) for medical patients at a Danish hospital, in which a discharge...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...

  14. Underwater plasma discharge and its water treatment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sukhwal; Huh, Jin Young; Kim, Kangil; Hong, Yong Cheol; National Fusion Research Institute Team; Chonbuk National University Team; Kwangwoon University Team; NPAC Team

    2016-09-01

    In recent, the quality of water has been exacerbated by the influx of wastewater and water pollutants. There have been frequent occurrences of water blooms due to the eutrophication of river. Therefore, the needs for water treatment are increased through effective and environment-friendly method. In this work, we propose the plasma system to overcome the problems mentioned above using underwater discharge plasma. The underwater discharges are generated by capillary electrode, and have the advantages of low cost, high efficiency and eco-friendly processing. The proposed technologies can be suitable for eliminating cyanobacteria, decreasing the concentration of oil dissolved in water, and purifying wastewater. Cyanobacteria is killed directly by the underwater discharge and water-dissolved oil and heavy-metal wastewater are purified by coagulation effect, which may result from the chemical reactions of underwater plasma. Consequently, these technologies using underwater discharge can be alternative methods to replace the existing technologies.

  15. Discharge of treated wastewater from drilling exploratory wells by infiltration of hydrocarbons in the ground; Vertido de aguas residuales tratadas provenientes de pozos de perforacion exploratoria de hidrocarburos mediante la infiltracion en el terreno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    The discharge of treated waste water from a well drilling exploratory oil, such as the consideration ser out to determine the minimum area needed to saturate the ground is not where he planned the infiltration of the dumping in special conditions of soil type and permeability, limited space, water quality and influence of underground aquifers in the study area. (Author) 16 refs.

  16. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  17. Wastewater treatment pilot

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the functionality of the wastewater treatment pilot and produce a learning manual-handout, as well as to define the parameters of wastewater clarification by studying the nutrient removal and the effluent clarification level of the processed wastewater. As part of the Environmental Engineering studies, Tampere University of Applied Sciences has invested on a Wastewater Treatment Pilot. The pilot simulates the basic wastewater treatment practices u...

  18. The status of wastewater management in Shokuhieh industrial park (A case study of Qom province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water resource management is a strategic issue in Qom city. Water scarcity is one of the most critical concerns of industrial estates. This study aimed to evaluate wastewater management in the Shokuhieh industrial park of Qom province in 2013. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study done by visiting the industrial units in person, completing questionnaires and analyzing the results. The questionnaire had 25 questions, including general information, the status of water supply, treatment and consumption, wastewater production, reuse or discharge of produced wastewater and the status of wastewater treatment and discharge of effluent. The industrial units evaluated were active with over 50 personnel and numbered 44 in total. Results: The water suppliers in the industries included network (70.5%, network and reverse osmosis (RO (22.5%, network and tanker (2.4% and tanker (4.6%. 63.63% of the industries had water treatment systems. 19.5% reused wastewater and 31.8% performed pretreatment before discharge of wastewater. The discharge sites of water treatment units’ effluent included the absorption well (17%, greenbelt (18% and sewer (65%. Discharge sites of sanitary wastewater in 50% of the industries was sewer and in 50%, it was absorption well. The discharge sites of processed wastewater was reuse (2%, sewer (52% and absorption well (46%. Discharge sites of exiting effluent from pretreatment units in the industrial park, included sewer (85.5%, transport by tanker (7.1% and absorption well (7.1%. The type of pretreatment process in 35.7% of the industries was chemical and in 64.3%, it was septic tank. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that pre-treatment is not done in most industries and wastewater reuse is performed in few industries. The main method of wastewater disposal in industries was by discharge into the sewer and absorbent well.

  19. Biological wastewater treatment in brewhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the working principles of wastewater biological treatment for food companies is reviewed, including dairies and breweries, the waters of which are highly concentrated with dissolved organic contaminants and suspended solids. An example of successful implementation is anaerobic-aerobic treatment plants. Implementation of these treatment plants can achieve the required wastewater treatment at the lowest operational expenses and low volumes of secondary waste generated. Waste water from the food companies have high concentration of various organic contaminants (fats, proteins, starch, sugar, etc.. For such wastewater, high rates of suspended solids, grease and other contaminants are characteristic. Wastewater food industry requires effective purification flowsheets using biological treatment facilities. At the moment methods for the anaerobic-aerobic purification are applied. One of such methods is the treatment of wastewater at ASB-reactor (methane reactor and the further tertiary treatment on the OSB-reactor (aeration. Anaerobic process means water treatment processes in anoxic conditions. The anaerobic treatment of organic contamination is based on the process of methane fermentation - the process of converting substances to biogas. The role of biological effluent treatment is discussed with special attention given to combined anaerobic/aerobic treatment. Combining anaerobic pre-treatment with aerobic post-treatment integrates the advantages of both processes, amongst which there are reduced energy consumption (net energy production, reduced biological sludge production and limited space requirements. This combination allows for significant savings for operational costs as compared to complete aerobic treatment without compromising the required discharge standards. Anaerobic treatment is a proven and energy efficient method to treat industrial wastewater effluents. These days, more and more emphasis is laid on low energy use, a

  20. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  1. Wastewater treatment by adsorption onto micro-particles of dried Withania frutescens Plant as new adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiban, M.; Soudani, A.; Sinan, F.; Persin, M.

    2009-07-01

    Several industrial wastewater streams may contain heavy metals such as Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), etc. including the waste liquids generated by metal finishing or the mineral processing industries. The toxic metals must be effectively treated/removed from the wastewaters. If the wastewaters were discharged directly into natural waters, it will constitute a great risk for the aquatic ecosystem, whilst the direct discharge into the sewerage system may affect negatively the subsequent biological wastewater treatment. (Author)

  2. Tritium ((3)H) as a tracer for monitoring the dispersion of conservative radionuclides discharged by the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants in the Piraquara de Fora Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; de Souza, Elder Magalhães; Rodrigues Silva, José Ivan; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Presently, two nuclear power plants operate in Brazil. Both are located at Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, approximately 133 km from Rio de Janeiro city. The reactor cooling circuits require the input of seawater, which is later discharged through a pipeline into the adjacent Piraquara de Fora Cove. The radioactive effluents undergo ion-exchange treatment prior to their release in batches, causing the enrichment of (3)H relative to other radionuclides in the discharged waters. Under steady state conditions, the (3)H gradient in the Piraquara de Fora waters can be used to determine the dependence of the dilution factor on the distance from the discharge point. The present work describes experiments carried out at the reactor site during batch release episodes, including time series sampling at the discharge point and surface seawater sampling every 250 m to a distance of 1250 m, after a double distillation, the (3)H concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting applying a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The obtained results showed a linear relationship between the (3)H concentration and distance from the discharge point. At 1250 m from the discharge point a dilution index of 1:15 was measured which fits the expected value based on modeling.

  3. Genotoxicity of vegetables irrigated by industrial wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nupur Mathur; Pradeep Bhatnagar; Hemraj Verma

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater effluents from textile dyeing and printing industries of Sanganer are discharged directly, without any treatment,into Amani Shah Nallah drainage. The drainage water takes the dissolved toxicants to flora and fauna, including crops and seasonal vegetables, being grown in the land adjoining the Nallah drainage. Thus mutagenic potential of vegetables irrigated by the water of Amani Shah Nallah drainage was investigated in the present study. The vegetables irrigated by ground water from Sanganer have also been analyzed to determine possible adverse effects of these wastewater effluents on aqua duct.

  4. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  5. Ulcerative colitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis - discharge; Ulcerative proctitis - discharge; Colitis - discharge ... were in the hospital because you have ulcerative colitis. This is a swelling of the inner lining ...

  6. A framework for the decentralised management of wastewater in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhapi, Innocent

    The traditional wastewater management style is now presenting some problems, having evolved from a situation of small communities, little industrial activities, and abundance of freshwater. The style is characterized by high water consumption and large treatment plants that employ sophisticated treatment systems with final effluent discharged to rivers. This paper focuses on analysis and development of an alternative strategy of decentralised wastewater management in Zimbabwe. Serious pollution problems related to inappropriate effluent discharges are prevalent necessitating an efficient and reliable strategy of controlling environmental pollution whilst obtaining optimal benefits from wastewater reuse. A conceptual plan for the decentralised strategy was developed taking into account capital and operational costs, wastewater generation patterns and quality, and urban agriculture. Maize cultivation was used to illustrate the implications of water and nutrient utilisation potential of the strategy. It was concluded that the strategy would suit high and medium density dwellings in Zimbabwe and that greywater separation can be used as part of the strategy.

  7. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Weiland, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University, S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Luo, L. [IBM Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80308 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  8. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, T.; Weiland, J.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  9. High levels of endocrine pollutants in US streams during low flow due to insufficient wastewater dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jacelyn; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Wastewater discharges from publicly owned treatment works are a significant source of endocrine disruptors and other contaminants to the aquatic environment in the US. Although remaining pollutants in wastewater pose environmental risks, treated wastewater is also a primary source of stream flow, which in turn is critical in maintaining many aquatic and riparian wildlife habitats. Here we calculate the dilution factor--the ratio of flow in the stream receiving discharge to the flow of wastewater discharge--for over 14,000 receiving streams in the continental US using streamflow observations and a spatially explicit watershed-scale hydraulic model. We found that wastewater discharges make up more than 50% of in-stream flow for over 900 streams. However, in 1,049 streams that experienced exceptional low-flow conditions, the dilution factors in 635 of those streams fell so low during those conditions that the safety threshold for concentrations of one endocrine disrupting compound was exceeded, and in roughly a third of those streams, the threshold was exceeded for two compounds. We suggest that streams are vulnerable to public wastewater discharge of contaminants under low-flow conditions, at a time when wastewater discharges are likely to be most important for maintaining stream flow for smaller sized river systems.

  10. Paper 1: Wastewater characterisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    the suitability of the prefermented wastewater for downstream biological nutrient removal processes. The raw ... in the secondary treatment processes (BNRAS reactor), without ..... Wastewater and Activated Sludge from European Municipal.

  11. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  12. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  13. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  14. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  15. Effects of spray-irrigated municipal wastewater on a small watershed in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    Spray irrigation is a method for disposing of secondary treated municipal wastewater by spraying it on the land surface (fig. 1). The sprayed wastewater either evaporates into the air, soaks into the soil, or percolates through the soil and recharges the ground water. Land application of wastewater has advantages over conventional means of disposal by direct discharge to streams because the wastewater recharges the ground-water system and increases base flow in streams. Additional benefits are derived from the "natural" treatment of the wastewater that takes place in the soil when plants and other biota remove some nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from the wastewater (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 2003). The removal of nutrients is one advantage spray irrigation has to conventional disposal methods like instream discharge.

  16. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  17. Degradation of Inorganic Dyes Direct Black EX in Wastewater Using Glow Discharge Plasma%辉光放电等离子体处理有机染料直接黑EX废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      辉光放电电解是一种新型的产生等离子体的电化学方法。在惰性电解质水溶液中进行辉光放电电解,可以产生大量的·OH、·H、e-aq、HO2·等活性粒子,且产物的总生成量超过了根据法拉第定律计算的产量,每通过1 mol电子可生成12 mol·OH。·OH氧化能力非常强,可以无选择地降解各种有机物。文章探讨了电压、初始浓度、pH、催化剂Fe2+等因素对辉光放电降解直接黑EX效果的影响。用紫外可见吸收光谱检测了染料的降解过程。实验表明:利用该方法可以使水中染料大部分降解。直接黑EX优化降解条件为:工作电压610 V,pH 3.12,Fe2+催化作用下降解效率明显提高。%Glow discharge electrolysis (GDE) is a new kind of electrochemical technique for producing plasma. In the glow discharge electrolysis, inert electrolyte solution can produce a lot of active species, such as ·OH, ·H, e-aq, HO2·, and the total yield of product is more than the calculated yield according to Faraday law, for example, each 1 mol electrons can generate 12 mol ·OH. The oxidation ability of ·OH is very strong and it can degrade various organic matter without selection. This work discussed the effect of the voltage, initial concentration, pH and catalyst Fe2+on the degradation of Direct Black EX using glow discharge plasma. The degradation of Direct Black EX was monitored by UV-visible absorption spectra. Experiments showed that this method can degrade most dye in the water. The optimal degradation conditions were as follows:working voltage 610 V;pH 3.12;The catalyst Fe2+can promote the degradation of Direct Black EX.

  18. Transport of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems to Shallow Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge about the nutrients transport from the vadose zone of onsite wastewater treatment systems (commonly called septic systems) is crucial to protect groundwater quality as 25% of US population uses septic systems to discharge household wastewater. For example, our preliminary data showed that about 47% of applied water was recovered at 60-cm below drainfield of septic systems. This implies that contaminants present in wastewater, if not attenuated in the vadose zone, can be transported to shallow groundwater. This presentation will focus on the biophysical and hydrologic controls on the transport of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the vadose of two conventional (drip dispersal, gravel trench) and an advanced (with aerobic and anaerobic medias) system. These systems were constructed using two rows of drip pipe (37 emitters/mound) placed 0.3 m apart in the center of 6 m x 0.6 m drainfield. Each system received 120 L of wastewater per day. During 20-month period (May 2012 to December 2013), soil-water samples were collected from the vadose zone using suction cup lysimeters installed at 0.30, 0.60, and 1.05 m depth and groundwater samples were collected from piezometers installed at 3-3.30 m depth below the drainfield. A complimentary 1-year study using smaller drainfields (0.5 m long, 0.9 m wide, 0.9 m high) was conducted to obtain better insights in the vadose zone. A variety of instruments (multi-probe sensors, suction cup lysimeters, piezometers, tensiometers) were installed in the vadose zones. Results showed that nitrification controlled N evolution in drainfield and subsequent transport of N plumes (>10 mg/L) into groundwater. Most of the wastewater applied soluble inorganic P (>10 mg/L) was quickly attenuated in the drainfield due to fixation (sorption, precipitation) in the vadose zone (advanced system was extremely effective as it removed >95% N from wastewater, but was less effective at removing P. This presentation will conclude with

  19. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  20. Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončarić Božić, A.; Koprivanac, N.; Šunka, P.; Člupek, M.; Babický, V.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying a high voltage pulsed electrical discharges for dye wastewater treatment. Commercial organic monochlorotriazine reactive dye of the anthraquinone type C.I. Reactive Blue 49 (RB49) was chosen as a representative of persistent and recalcitrant wastewater pollutant. The modified pinhole discharge flow-through reactor was used to treat such type of contaminant. Applying HV pulses 30 kV, 3.15 J/pulse, 50 Hz repetition rate, complete decolorisation and partial mineralization of RB49 has been reached and demonstrated by means of UV/VIS absorption, TOC and AOX measurements.

  1. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  2. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  3. Evaluation of flat sheet membrane bioreactor efficiency for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Fazeli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that FS-MBR can be used in the large scale municipal wastewater treatment plants to improve effluent quality due to high removal of COD, BOD 5 , TSS and VSS to meet effluent discharge standards.

  4. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regard to the removal of heavy metals....

  5. Bioaugmentative Approaches for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Schneider; Yana Topalova

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The achievement of a good ecological status of water receivers after discharge of waste or partially treated water from dairy industry requires harmonic interaction between water treatment technology and self-purification processes. Approach: The present research included two modules. First: an anaerobic treatment process for dairy wastewater in broadly spread sequencing batch bioreactor with fixed biomass was studied. As a source of active biological sy...

  6. Membranes as separators of dispersed emulsion phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefferts, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The reuse or discharge of industrial waste waters, containing small fractions of dispersed oil, requires a purification treatment for which membranes can be used. If only little oil is present, removal of the dispersed phase might be preferable to the more commonly applied removal of the

  7. Design and operation of UASB—A/O process for treatment starch and VB12 wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan CHEN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch and VB12 wastewater with higher COD and ammonia nitrogen concentration, contains a large number of difficult biodegradable material, complex composition, is difficult to deal with. In recent years, with the increasingly stringent wastewater discharge standards, require the use of a stable and efficient wastewater treatment process for purification treatment of high concentration of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater and the refractory organic pollutants, to achieve discharge standards. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB—Anoxic/Oxic(A/O process was employed in a wastewater treatment of starch and Vitamin B12 wastewater, which was 5 000 m3/d with highly concentrated organic pollutants and ammonia. The efficiency and reliability of the process has been proven. The results of the system operation show that the concentration of the effluent COD, ammonia and total nitrogen (TN were at 78.4 mg/L, 18.7 mg/L and 41.1 mg/L, and the treatment efficiencies of COD, ammonia and TN reached over 99%, 92.1%, 82.7%, respectively, when the influent COD and TN concentration were in the ranges of 8 544~9 720 mg/L and 240~250 mg/L. The quality of the treated wastewater met the first-class discharge standards in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8978—1996.

  8. Using a life cycle assessment methodology for the analysis of two treatment systems of food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Baun, Anders

    2007-01-01

    sludge (Scenario 1), and anaerobic removal of organic matter by a continuous stirred tank reactor (Scenario 2). Both technologies were applied to wastewater coming from a fish meals industry and a pet food industry discharging about 250 to 260 thousand cubic meters of wastewater per year. The methodology...... comprises three major steps: (i) Data gathering regarding wastewater characteristics and discharge, (ii) Simulation of the wastewater treatment plant’s operation by dedicated process engineering models in Matlab/Simulink, (iii) Classification and calculation of life cycle inventory data: removal...... boundaries were limited from the influent entering the wastewater treatment plant until the disposal of the effluents generated, i.e. wastewater, sludge, and biogas (for Scenario 2). Main differences between Scenario 1 & Scenario 2 were: (i) Effluent quality was 65% better when pet food wastewater was fed...

  9. Photocatalytic Membrane Reactor for the Removal of C.I. Disperse Red 73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buscio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After the dyeing process, part of the dyes used to color textile materials are not fixed into the substrate and are discharged into wastewater as residual dyes. In this study, a heterogeneous photocatalytic process combined with microfiltration has been investigated for the removal of C.I. Disperse Red 73 from synthetic textile effluents. The titanium dioxide (TiO2 Aeroxide P25 was selected as photocatalyst. The photocatalytic treatment achieved between 60% and 90% of dye degradation and up to 98% chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The influence of different parameters on photocatalytic degradation was studied: pH, initial photocatalyst loading, and dye concentration. The best conditions for dye degradation were pH 4, an initial dye concentration of 50 mg·L−1, and a TiO2 loading of 2 g·L−1. The photocatalytic membrane treatment provided a high quality permeate, which can be reused.

  10. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  11. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  12. Treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiuyi; Zhou, Jinghui; Ma, Jiuli

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production is characterized by high salinity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). We applied a combination of flocculation and wet air oxidation technology to optimize the reduction of COD in the treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The experiments used different values of flocculant, coagulant, and oxidizing agent added to the wastewater, as well as different reaction times and treatment temperatures. The use of flocculants for the pretreatment of fracturing wastewater was shown to improve treatment efficiency. The addition of 500 mg/L of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and 20 mg/L of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) during pretreatment resulted in a COD removal ratio of 8.2% and reduced the suspended solid concentration of fracturing wastewater to 150 mg/L. For a solution of pretreated fracturing wastewater with 12 mL of added H2O2, the COD was reduced to 104 mg/L when reacted at 300 °C for 75 min, and reduced to 127 mg/L when reacted at the same temperature for 45 min while using a 1 L autoclave. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB 8978-1996 'Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level I emission standard.

  13. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  14. Increasing the electrical discharge endurance of acid anhydride cured DGEBA epoxy resin by dispersion of nanoparticle silica. High Perform. Polym. 11 (1999) pp 281-296 by IOP Publishing Ltd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henk, Peter O; Kortsen, T.W.; Kvarts, T.

    1999-01-01

    A fluid DGEBA/methyl nadicanhydride epoxy system has been filled with inorganic particles, cast as bubble-free plates and cured. The ability of both the pure network polymer and the polymer/particle composites to withstand partial electrical discharges has been investigated. Three types of particle...... the endurance by a factor of up to 20 as the Aerosil content goes from zero to 5.4 vol%. Aerosil mixed with anatase has a similar effect. The high level of endurance is maintained with an additional high-volume (35 vol.%) filling of coarse-particle dolomite to an epoxy system already containing Aerosil...

  15. Water purification by electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Ghaffar, Abdul; Akbar Malik, Salman

    2001-02-01

    There is a continuing need for the development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for the disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. Ozonation processes are now replacing conventional chlorination processes because ozone is a stronger oxidizing agent and a more effective disinfectant without any side effects. However, the fact that the cost of ozonation processes is higher than chlorination processes is their main disadvantage. In this paper recent developments targeted to make ozonation processes cheaper by improving the efficiency of ozone generation, for example, by incorporation of catalytic packing in the ozone generator, better dispersion of ozone in water and faster conversion of dissolved ozone to free radicals are described. The synthesis of ozone in electrical discharges is discussed. Furthermore, the generation and plasma chemical reactions of several chemically active species, such as H2O2, Obullet, OHbullet, HO2bullet, O3*, N2*, e-, O2-, O-, O2+, etc, which are produced in the electrical discharges are described. Most of these species are stronger oxidizers than ozone. Therefore, water treatment by direct electrical discharges may provide a means to utilize these species in addition to ozone. Much research and development activity has been devoted to achieve these targets in the recent past. An overview of these techniques and important developments that have taken place in this area are discussed. In particular, pulsed corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge and contact glow discharge electrolysis techniques are being studied for the purpose of cleaning water. The units based on electrical discharges in water or close to the water level are being tested at industrial-scale water treatment plants.}

  16. Performance of Conventional Activated Sludge to Remove Nitrogen Compounds from Tomato Factory Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad Pirsaheb

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Today discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the surface water causing an Utrification phenomenon, will be due to excessive growth of algae in the receptive water source. Each of the of wastewater treatment system, providing principled design and operation can be reduced nutrients to standard level [1]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional activated sludge systems to remove nitrogen compounds from wastewater of Kermanshah Rojintak tomato factory and comparison of the final effluent quality with discharge standards to water resource and reuse it in agricultural irrigation in term of nitrogen compounds are considered.

  17. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved unde

  18. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved

  19. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    atmosphere, and (4) use of barriers to minimize the transport of tritium in groundwater. Continuing development efforts for tritium separations processes are primarily to support the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, the nuclear power industry, and the production of radiochemicals. While these applications are significantly different than the Hanford application, the technology could potentially be adapted for Hanford wastewater treatment. Separations based processes to reduce tritium levels below the drinking water MCL have not been demonstrated for the scale and conditions required for treating Hanford wastewater. In addition, available cost information indicates treatment costs for such processes will be substantially higher than for discharge to SALDS or other typical pump and treat projects at Hanford. Actual mitigation projects for groundwater with very low tritium contamination similar to that found at Hanford have focused mainly on controlling migration and on evaporation for dispersion in the atmosphere.

  20. Concussion - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... Getting better from a concussion takes days to weeks or even months. ... have trouble concentrating, or be unable to remember things. ...

  1. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  2. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  3. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  4. Neck dissection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radical neck dissection - discharge; Modified radical neck dissection - discharge; Selective neck dissection - discharge ... 659-665. Robbins KT, Samant S, Ronen O. Neck dissection. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et ...

  5. The Coliform Bacteria in the Wastewater Ponds of Doha City, Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    al Thani, Roda F. [روضة فهد آل ثاني

    2003-01-01

    The microbiological study of the wastewater and its sediment around Abu-Hamour pond (untreated wastewater pond) and Abu-NakhIa pond (treated wastewater pond), located on the outskirts of Doha City, revealed that coliform bacteria were prominently present in the former than in the latter one. E.coli. Was present in the coastal wastewater in all sites around both ponds. Yet, E. coli. was present in wet soils around theses ponds primarily near the discharge sites where new water is constantly po...

  6. Environmental Pollution, Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches for Tannery Wastewater and Its Chemical Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Gaurav; Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    Leather industries are key contributors in the economy of many developing countries, but unfortunately they are facing serious challenges from the public and governments due to the associated environmental pollution. There is a public outcry against the industry due to the discharge of potentially toxic wastewater having alkaline pH, dark brown colour, unpleasant odour, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. Various environment protection agencies have prioritized several chemicals as hazardous and restricted their use in leather processing however; many of these chemicals are used and discharged in wastewater. Therefore, it is imperative to adequately treat/detoxify the tannery wastewater for environmental safety. This paper provides a detail review on the environmental pollution and toxicity profile of tannery wastewater and chemicals. Furthermore, the status and advances in the existing treatment approaches used for the treatment and/or detoxification of tannery wastewater at both laboratory and pilot/industrial scale have been reviewed. In addition, the emerging treatment approaches alone or in combination with biological treatment approaches have also been considered. Moreover, the limitations of existing and emerging treatment approaches have been summarized and potential areas for further investigations have been discussed. In addition, the clean technologies for waste minimization, control and management are also discussed. Finally, the international legislation scenario on discharge limits for tannery wastewater and chemicals has also been discussed country wise with discharge standards for pollution prevention due to tannery wastewater.

  7. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  8. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  9. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  10. evaluation of the performance of the domestic wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    activated sludge system. Wastewater from the hotel's septic tank and treated water from the discharge from the ... efficient removal of by-products and pollutants that allow for effluent ... water supply and cause health problems include human and .... Grey water is used in urban agriculture, therefore they are a priced resource.

  11. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... waste minimization, utilization of waste, resource recovery and recycling of ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  12. New wastewater treatment concepts towards energy saving and resource recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.

    2016-01-01

    At present, conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems are widely applied to treat municipal wastewater. The main advantages of CAS systems are that they are robust and generally produce an effluent quality that meets the discharge guidelines. However, CAS systems cannot be considered sustainable b

  13. Dispersion Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)

  14. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  15. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  16. Occurrence, fate and antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolone antibacterials in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hong Anh; Pham, Ngoc Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Tung; Hoang, Thi Thuong; Pham, Hung Viet; Pham, Van Ca; Berg, Michael; Giger, Walter; Alder, Alfredo C

    2008-06-01

    Occurrence and behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) were investigated in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Hospital wastewater in Hanoi is usually not treated and this untreated wastewater is directly discharged into one of the wastewater channels of the city and eventually reaches the ambient aquatic environment. The concentrations of the FQs, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) in six hospital wastewaters ranged from 1.1 to 44 and from 0.9 to 17 micrgl(-1), respectively. Total FQ loads to the city sewage system varied from 0.3 to 14 g d(-1). Additionally, the mass flows of CIP and NOR were investigated in the aqueous compartment in a small wastewater treatment facility of one hospital. The results showed that the FQ removal from the wastewater stream was between 80 and 85%, probably due to sorption on sewage sludge. Simultaneously, the numbers of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were measured and their resistance against CIP and NOR was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration. Biological treatment lead to a 100-fold reduction in the number of E. coli but still more than a thousand E. coli colonies per 100ml of wastewater effluent reached the receiving water. The highest resistance was found in E. coli strains of raw wastewater and the lowest in isolates of treated wastewater effluent. Thus, wastewater treatment is an efficient barrier to decrease the residual FQ levels and the number of resistant bacteria entering ambient waters. Due to the lack of municipal wastewater treatment plants, the onsite treatment of hospital wastewater before discharging into municipal sewers should be considered as a viable option and consequently implemented.

  17. Treatment of Arctic wastewater by chemical coagulation, UV and peracetic acid disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-02-16

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m(3) was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m(3) for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.

  18. Satellite detection of wastewater diversion plumes in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, Michelle M.; Holt, Benjamin; Trinh, Rebecca; Jack Pan, B.; Rains, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Multi-sensor satellite observations proved useful in detecting surfacing wastewater plumes during the 2006 Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) and 2012 Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) wastewater diversion events in Southern California. Satellite sensors were capable of detecting biophysical signatures associated with the wastewater, compared to ambient ocean waters, enabling monitoring of environmental impacts over a greater spatial extent than in situ sampling alone. Thermal satellite sensors measured decreased sea surface temperatures (SSTs) associated with the surfacing plumes. Ocean color satellite sensors did not measure a distinguishable biological response in terms of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations during the short lived, three-day long, 2006 HTP diversion. A period of decreased chl-a concentration was observed during the three-week long 2012 OCSD diversion, likely in association with enhanced chlorination of the discharged wastewater that suppressed the phytoplankton response and/or significant uptake by heterotrophic bacteria. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data were able to identify and track the 2006 HTP wastewater plume through changes in surface roughness related to the oily components of the treated surfacing wastewater. Overall, it was found that chl-a and SST values must have differences of at least 1 mg m-3 and 0.5 °C, respectively, in comparison with adjacent waters for wastewater plumes and their biophysical impact to be detectable from satellite. For a wastewater plume to be identifiable in SAR imagery, wind speeds must range between ∼3 and 8 m s-1. The findings of this study illustrate the benefit of utilizing multiple satellite sensors to monitor the rapidly changing environmental response to surfacing wastewater plumes, and can help inform future wastewater diversions in coastal areas.

  19. Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärrman, E; Jönsson, H

    2001-01-01

    In an environmental systems analysis of four wasterwater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to arable land. A conventional wastewater system (A) was compared to irrigation of energy forest with biologically treated wastewater (B), liquid composting of toilet wastewater (C) and a conventional system supplemented with urine separation (D). Analysing the aspects in priority group one, systems B-D improved the management of plant nutrients and decreased the flow of heavy metals to water, while the flow to arable land increased, especially for system B. The suggested method is useful in municipal environmental planning and when choosing a wastewater system.

  20. Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jeongyun; Chung, Jinwook

    2012-11-15

    The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater.

  1. The Effective Electrolytic Recovery of Dilute Copper from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Chien Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroplating copper industry was discharged huge amount wastewater and cause serious environmental and health damage in Taiwan. This research applied electrical copper recovery system to recover copper metal. In this work, electrotreatment of a industrial copper wastewater ([Cu] = 30000 mg L−1 was studied with titanium net coated with a thin layer of RuO2/IrO2 (DSA reactor. The optimal result for simulated copper solution was 99.9% copper recovery efficiency in current density 0.585 A/dm2 and no iron ion. Due to high concentration of iron and chloride ions in real industrial wastewater, the copper recovery efficiency was down to 60%. Although, the copper recovery efficiency was not high as simulated copper solution, high environmental economic value was included in the technology. The possibility of pretreating the wastewater with iron is the necessary step, before the electrical recovery copper system.

  2. Does zinc in livestock wastewater reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from mangrove soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang C; Tam, Nora F Y; Ye, Yong

    2014-11-15

    Zinc (Zn) affects nitrogen cycling but the effect of Zn in wastewater on the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil has not been reported. This study compared N2O emissions from mangrove soil receiving livestock wastewater containing various Zn(2+) concentrations and evaluated how long the effects of Zn would last in these soil-wastewater microcosms. Significant increases in N2O flux were observed soon after the discharge of wastewater with a low Zn content. On the other hand, the flux was reduced significantly in the wastewater with high Zn levels but such inhibitory effect was not observed after tidal flushing. Continuous monitoring of the N2O fluxes also confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Zn was confined within a few hours and the fluxes recovered in 6-9 h after the wastewater was completely drained away. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of Zn on N2O fluxes occurred immediately after wastewater discharge and disappeared gradually. In the surface soil, nitrate levels increased with the addition of wastewater but there was no significant accumulation of NH4(+)-N, irrespective of the Zn content in the wastewater. The study also showed that nitrification potential and immediate N2O emissions were inhibited by high Zn levels in the soil, but the total oxidation of ammonium to nitrate was not affected.

  3. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  4. Quantification of diarrhea risk related to wastewater contact in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Aleix; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2012-03-01

    Wastewater reuse contributes to closing the nutrient recycling loop as a sustainable way of managing water resources. Bangkok has over a thousand man-made drainage and irrigation canals for such purposes. Its use for agricultural and recreational purposes has a long tradition in rural and peri-urban areas. However, the continuation of these practices is increasingly questioned since potential health risks are an issue if such practices are not appropriately managed. The microbial and chemical quality of canal water has considerably deteriorated over the last decade, mainly because of discharged, untreated domestic and industrial wastewater. It is important to understand the health risks of wastewater reuse and identify risky behaviors from the most highly exposed actors promote the safe use of wastewater. This study assessed diarrhea infection risks caused by the use of and contact with wastewater in Klong Luang municipality, a peri-urban setting in Northern Bangkok, using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Wastewater samples were collected from canals, sewers at household level, and vegetables grown in the canals for consumption. Samples were also collected from irrigation water from the agricultural fields. Two protozoa, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, were quantified and analyzed by real-time PCR, exposure assessment was conducted, and finally, the risk of infection due to contact with wastewater in different scenarios was calculated. The results showed that canal water and vegetables were heavily contaminated with G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Infection risk was high in tested scenarios and largely exceeded the acceptable risk given by WHO guidelines.

  5. Bioaugmentative Approaches for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The achievement of a good ecological status of water receivers after discharge of waste or partially treated water from dairy industry requires harmonic interaction between water treatment technology and self-purification processes. Approach: The present research included two modules. First: an anaerobic treatment process for dairy wastewater in broadly spread sequencing batch bioreactor with fixed biomass was studied. As a source of active biological system specially treated and acclimated activated sludge from Sofia Wastewater Treatment Plant was used. The acclimation and immobilization of initially inoculated biomass, the addition of microbiological preparations and its modification for increase of the biodegradation activity to target pollutants were studied as opportunities for the stimulation of water treatment process in bioreactors and water receiver. Second: self-purification processes in а water receiver for partially treated dairy wastewater were investigated. The functional role and restructuring of the microbial communities in the water, sediment water and sediments were studied. Results: The results showed that the most important approaches for achieving high effectiveness of wastewater treatment process were both the acclimation and immobilization of biomass. In that aspect the data for the water receiver confirmed this conclusion. These two processes increased biodegradation effectiveness of the target pollutant (protein with 67%. Conclusion: The effect of the added preparations was smaller (protein biodegradation was increased to 9% for the different biological systems. It was thoroughly related to low improvement of the rate of metabolism and functioning of the biological system mainly on an enzyme level.

  6. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  7. The impact of commercially treated oil and gas produced water discharges on bromide concentrations and modeled brominated trihalomethane disinfection byproducts at two downstream municipal drinking water plants in the upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Matthew S; Kamal, Ali S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; Croghan, Carry; Norris, Gary A; Bergdale, Amy

    2016-01-15

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species was observed in finished water at several Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in bromide (Br(-)) concentrations in the Allegheny River was implicated to be the cause of the elevated water disinfection byproducts. This study focused on quantifying the contribution of Br(-) from a commercial wastewater treatment facility (CWTF) that solely treats wastes from oil and gas producers and discharges into the upper reaches of the Allegheny River, and impacts on two downstream PDWs. In 2012, automated daily integrated samples were collected on the Allegheny River at six sites during three seasonal two-week sampling campaigns to characterize Br(-) concentrations and river dispersion characteristics during periods of high and low river discharges. The CWTF discharges resulted in significant increases in Br(-) compared to upstream baseline values in PDW raw drinking water intakes during periods of low river discharge. During high river discharge, the assimilative dilution capacity of the river resulted in lower absolute halide concentrations, but significant elevations Br(-) concentrations were still observed at the nearest downstream PDW intake over baseline river levels. On days with active CWTF effluent discharge the magnitude of bromide impact increased by 39 ppb (53%) and 7 ppb (22%) for low and high river discharge campaigns, respectively. Despite a declining trend in Allegheny River Br(-) (2009-2014), significant impacts from CWTF and coal-fired power plant discharges to Br(-) concentrations during the low river discharge regime at downstream PDW intakes was observed, resulting in small modeled increases in total THM (3%), and estimated positive shifts (41-47%) to more toxic brominated THM analogs. The lack of available coincident measurements of THM, precursors, and physical parameters

  8. THE EFFECT OF WASTEWATER OF DOMESTIC AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANT ON THE RIVER OF KARASU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan DANIŞ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewaters of the slaughterhouse and meat processing plant in Erzurum city, which don't have any wastewater treatment plant is discharged to the Karasu river. The wastewater, especially occured during slaughtering and processing of meat, contained high level of COD, BOD5, total suspended solid, fat and grease and total solid. Therefore these wastewaters cause some environmental problems in the city. This paper presents the effect of wastewaters from resident area slaughterhouse, and meat processing plants on the river of Karasu. For this purpose some samples taken from eight different points around the river were analysed in order to obtain values of dissolved oxygen, BOD5, COD, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrojen, total suspended solid, total solid, total volatile suspended solid, fat and grease, chlorides and coliform. From the results obtained, it is found out that the wastewaters from the slaughterhouse has the biggest pollutant effect in the river.

  9. Implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive in Norway - An Evaluation of the Norwegian Approach regarding Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Källqvist, T.; Molvær, J.; Oug, E.; Berge, D.; Tjomsland, T; Stene-Johansen, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses the effects and benefits of full implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive in Norway. The Norwegian policy for wastewater treatment has targeted phosphorus removal as the primary measure to reduce adverse effects of discharge of wastewater to freshwater and marine recipients. Chemical precipitation is therefore used at more than 70% of the wastewater treatment plants. This technique is very efficient in reducing the phosphorus concentration and in addit...

  10. Changes in the planktonic microbial community during residence in a surface flow constructed wetland used for tertiary wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; Soeter, A.M.; van der Geest, H.G.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    Suspended particles are a major constituent of municipal wastewater and generally contain high levels of bacteria, including human pathogens. Discharge of these particles of anthropogenic nature can have profound effects on receiving aquatic ecosystems and mitigation of these effects requires

  11. Put the breaks on wastewater emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alther, G. [Biomin, Inc., Ferndale, MI (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Emulsions in wastewater pose a vexing problem for facilities attempting to recycle water and stay in compliance with permissible discharge limits. But the challenges are no less formidable for routine maintenance. The removal of emulsions, a major constituent of which are fats, oils and greases (FOGs), is necessary to prevent them from depositing on pipes and fouling filtration media. Some of the havoc caused by emulsions can be avoided if emulsions are broken and removed from wastewater streams. Successful emulsion breaking requires a basic understanding of emulsions, their chemical composition, and the technologies required to remove them from water. The paper discusses emulsion basics and emulsion breaking, including counteracting emulsions, testing procedures, physical separation methods, removal strategies, bentonite-based powders, and post-polishing.

  12. Evaluation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Activated Sludge for Biodegradation of Propylene Glycol as an Aircraft Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Fermilab. (2006). Wastewater Discharge to Sanitary Sewers. Batavia: Fermilab ES&H. Ginestet, P., Audic, J.-M., Urbain , V., & Block, J.-C. (1998...221-230. Mancl, Karen. (2012) Wastewater Treatment Principles and Regulations. Food, Agricultural and BIological Engineering Department. The Ohio

  13. Incentive systems for wastewater treatment and reuse in irrigated agriculture in the MENA region: evidence from Jordan and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Madi, M.O.R.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of chronic water scarcity, the countries of the MENA region (Middle East and Northern Africa) recognize reclaimed wastewater as a non-conventional water resource. Nonetheless, in this region, substantial amounts of the wastewater that are collected are still discharged into the sea or wa

  14. Viability of increasing the tariff of freshwater for irrigation as a tool to stimulate wastewater reuse in the MENA region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Madi, M.; Al-Sa'ed, R.; Braadbaart, O.D.; Alaerts, G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite water scarcity and high agricultural water demand in the Middle East and North Africa region, substantial proportions of treated wastewater are discharged into the environment and seas without proper utilization. All countries of the region, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is a common to

  15. Incentive systems for wastewater treatment and reuse in irrigated agriculture in the MENA Region: evidence from Jordan and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Madi, M.O.R.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of chronic water scarcity, the countries of the MENA region ( Middle East and Northern Africa) recognize reclaimed wastewater as a non-conventional water resource. Nonetheless, in this region, substantial amounts of the wastewater that are collected are still discharged into the sea or w

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of urban wastewater reuse with ozonation as tertiary treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, ctra. de Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.es; Rodriguez, Antonio; Rosal, Roberto [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R. [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, ctra. de Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2009-02-01

    Life Cycle Assessment has been used to compare different scenarios involving wastewater reuse, with special focus on toxicity-related impact categories. The study is based on bench-scale experiments applying ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide to a wastewater effluent from a Spanish sewage treatment plant. Two alternative characterisation models have been used to account for toxicity of chemical substances, namely USES-LCA and EDIP97. Four alternative scenarios have been assessed: wastewater discharge plus desalination supply, wastewater reuse without tertiary treatment, wastewater reuse after applying a tertiary treatment consisting on ozonation, and wastewater reuse after applying ozonation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The results highlight the importance of including wastewater pollutants in LCA of wastewater systems assessing toxicity, since the contribution of wastewater pollutants to the overall toxicity scores in this case study can be above 90%. Key pollutants here are not only heavy metals and other priority pollutants, but also non-regulated pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Wastewater reuse after applying any of the tertiary treatments considered appears as the best choice from an ecotoxicity perspective. As for human toxicity, differences between scenarios are smaller, and taking into account the experimental and modelling uncertainty, the benefits of tertiary treatment are not so clear. From a global warming potential perspective, tertiary treatments involve a potential 85% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared with desalination.

  17. Development of Blumlein Line Generator and Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Nawawi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the harm effects of wastewater from industrial sectors toward the environment become one of public major concern. There are several wastewater treatment methods and techniques which have been introduced such as by using biological, chemical, and physical process. However, it is found that there are some shortcomings in the current available methods and techniques. For instance, the application of chlorine can cause bacterial disinfection but produce secondary harmful carcinogenic disinfection.  And the application of ozone treatment –  which is one of the most reliable technique – requires improvement in term of ozone production and treatment system. In order to acquire a better understanding in wastewater treatment process, a study of wastewater treatment system and Hybrid Discharge reactor – to acquire gas-liquid phase corona like discharge – is carried out. In addition to the laboratory experiment, designing and development of the Blumlein pulse power circuit, and modification of reactor for wastewater treatment are accomplished as well.

  18. Purification and utilization of garlic processing wastewater in lotus pond wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun PANG; Xue-ling FENG; Xiu-feng WANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experiments of utilization of garlic processing wastewater in a lotus pond, this study demonstrates that lotus pond wetlands have a remarkable ability to remove organic pollutants and decrease chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and suspended substances (SS) in garlic processing wastewater. Results also show evident effects of lotus roots on absorption of NH3-N. The pH value in a lotus pond with wastewater discharged was relatively stable. The water quality in the lotus pond reached the classⅡ emission standard, according to the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996), seven days after pretreated garlic processing wastewater had been discharged into the lotus pond. Garlic processing wastewater irrigation does not produce pollution in the pond sediment and has no negative effect on the growth of lotus roots. Due to utilization of garlic processing wastewater, the output of lotus roots increased by 3.0% to 8.3%, and the quality of lotus roots was improved. Therefore, better purification and utilization results can be achieved.

  19. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  20. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Rintoul, Llew; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater effluent is expected to be a pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment, with microbeads from cosmetic products and polymer fibres from clothes likely to enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). To date, few studies have quantified microplastics in wastewater. Moreover, the lack of a standardized and applicable method to identify microplastics in complex samples, such as wastewater, has limited the accurate assessment of microplastics and may lead to an incorrect estimation. This study aimed to develop a validated method to sample and process microplastics from wastewater effluent and to apply the developed method to quantify and characterise wastewater-based microplastics in effluent from three WWTPs that use primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes. We applied a high-volume sampling device that fractionated microplastics in situ and an efficient sample processing procedure to improve the sampling of microplastics in wastewater and to minimize the false detection of non-plastic particles. The sampling device captured between 92% and 99% of polystyrene microplastics using 25 μm-500 μm mesh screens in laboratory tests. Microplastic type, size and suspected origin in all studied WWTPs, along with the removal efficiency during the secondary and tertiary treatment stages, was investigated. Suspected microplastics were characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, with between 22 and 90% of the suspected microplastics found to be non-plastic particles. An average of 0.28, 0.48 and 1.54 microplastics per litre of final effluent was found in tertiary, secondary and primary treated effluent, respectively. This study suggests that although low concentrations of microplastics are detected in wastewater effluent, WWTPs still have the potential to act as a pathway to release microplastics given the large volumes of effluent discharged to the aquatic environment. This study focused on a single sampling campaign, with

  1. Characterization of Wastewaters obtained from Hatay Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şana Sungur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather tanning industry is one of the most significant pollutants in terms of both conventional and toxic parameters. On the other hand, leather industry has an important economic role both in Turkey and in the World. In this study, wastewater samples were taken from 15 different tanneries in the Hatay Region. Wastewaters obtained from liming process and chromium tanning process was analyzed. Sulfide, chromium (III, chromium (VI, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS, organic matters, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH and alkalinity were determined according to Turkish Standard Methods. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from liming process were as following: pH 11.71; COD 16821 mg L-1; BOD 4357 mg L-1; TSS 39023 mg L-1; oil and grease 364 mg L-1; S-2 concentration 802 mg L-1; alkalinity 2115 mg L-1. The determined averages values belong to wastewaters obtained from chromium tanning process were also as following: pH 4.23; COD 6740 mg L-1; BOD 377 mg L-1; Cr+3 concentrations 372 mg L-1; Cr+6 concentrations 127 mg L-1; TSS 14553 mg L-1; oil and grease 343 mg L-1. The results of all analyzes were higher than wastewater discharge standards. As a result, it’s necessary to use more effective treatments in order to reduce the negative impacts of leather tanning industry that affect environment, natural water resources and at last human health and welfare.

  2. Fish Hold Effluent and Fish Hold Cleaning Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    summarized in Table 1). EPA estimated that mid-size fishing vessels, such as gill netters , and purse seiners found in Alaska, and shrimp boats in the Gulf...size fishing boats such as gill netters , fish holds are typically cleaned using a garden hose at a flow rate of approximately 10 to 12 gpm (USEPA...Small: salmon trollers and longliners 1,500 Daily when fishing 500 - 600 150 - 200 Mid-size: gill netters , purse seiners and shrimp boats

  3. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment of colored wastewaters: case study of a textile dyeing factory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Fardin; Fallah, Narges; Bonakdarpour, Babak

    2017-03-01

    In the present study the feasibility of the use of a bacterial batch sequential anaerobic-aerobic process, in which activated sludge was used in both parts of the process, for pretreatment of wastewater generated by a textile dyeing factory has been considered. Activated sludge used in the process was obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and adapted to real dyeing wastewater using either an anaerobic-only or an anaerobic-aerobic process over a period of 90 days. The use of activated sludge adapted using the anaerobic-aerobic process resulted in a higher overall decolorization efficiency compared to that achieved with activated sludge adapted using the anaerobic-only cycles. Anaerobic and aerobic periods of around 34 and 22 hours respectively resulted in an effluent with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color content which met the standards for discharge into the centralized wastewater treatment plant of the industrial estate in which the dyeing factory was situated. Neutralization of the real dyeing wastewater and addition of carbon source to it, both of which results in significant increase in the cost of the bacterial treatment process, was not found to be necessary to achieve the required discharge standards.

  4. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  5. Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information; Fideicomiso para la ampliacion de infraestructura y eficientizacion del agua potable, drenaje sanitario y saneamiento de aguas residuales para la ciudad de saltillo, coahuila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the second of two volumes. It contains the appendices and is divided into the following sections: (1) Appendix A - Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Regulations; (2) Appendix B - Flow Monitoring Program Results; (3) Appendix C - Partial Results for the First Monitoring Period; (4) Appendix D - Characterization Program; (5) Appendix E - Characterization Program Results; (6) Appendix F - Preliminary Treatment Unit Design and Cost Estimation; (7) Appendix G - List of Threatened and Endangered Species; (8) Appendix H - Cost Estimation for the Wastewater Treatment Plant; (9) Appendix I - Hydraulic and Cost Calculations for Interceptors; (10) Appendix J - Financial Feasibility Worksheets.

  6. Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, B

    2001-01-01

    The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs.

  7. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could not save ...

  8. Physiochemicals and Heavy Metal Removal from Domestic Wastewater via Phycoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Razak Abdul Rafiq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The common sources of water pollution in Malaysia are domestic sewage and industrial waste. Therefore, domestic wastewater quality effluent should be improved before discharged through the outlets. The alternative method of treatment uses microalgae for water remediation which is known as phycoremediation was applied. This technique is to remove or reduce nutrients and harmful pollutants in domestic wastewater. Thus, objective of the present study is to bioremediate the physiochemical and heavy metal from domestic wastewater using freshwater green microalgae Botryococcus sp. A photobioreactor is used to treat the wastewater by employing the microalgae Botryococcus sp. as a vital part of the treatment system. The results show that several nutrients have been reduced successfully such as phosphate and total phosphorus of 100% removal, inorganic carbon of 99% removal, total carbon of 42% removal, and nitrate of 10%. The most prominent heavy metal content that has been removed is Aluminium of 41%. At the same time, the growth of microalgae Botryococcus sp. in this wastewater has achieved the maximum value at Day 4 with 2.58 × 105 cell/ml only. These results show the potential of Botryococcus sp. cultivation as an alternative method to treat domestic wastewater and any other biotechnology works in the future.

  9. A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of saline (> 2% w/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost-effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes. The recent applications of salt-tolerant cultures for the treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing and ion-exchange processes suggest that biological systems can be used to treat salty wastewaters. Additionally, organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of contaminants in saline solutions have been observed in marine sediments and have been characterized during the last two decades. This manuscript provides a review of the recent research on anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater and bacterial consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of pollutants in saline solutions, documenting that the biological treatment of saline wastewaters is promising.

  10. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL(-1), respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal Efficiency of Microbial Contaminants from Hospital Wastewaters

    KAUST Repository

    Timraz, Kenda

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants from two hospitals on-site Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Saudi Arabia. Hospital wastewaters often go untreated in Saudi Arabia as in many devolving countries, where no specific regulations are imposed regarding hospital wastewater treatment. The current guidelines are placed to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however, they do not regulate for pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Results from this study have detected pathogenic bacterial genera and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the sampled hospitals wastewater. And although the treatment process of one of the hospitals was able to meet current quality guidelines, the other hospital treatment process failed to meet these guidelines and disgorge of its wastewater might be cause for concern. In order to estimate the risk to the public health and the impact of discharging the treated effluent to the public sewage, a comprehensive investigation is needed that will facilitate and guide suggestions for more detailed guidelines and monitoring.

  12. Biosorption of copper (II) from chemical mechanical planarization wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leah C; Ogden, Kimberly L

    2003-11-01

    Copper Chemical Mechanical Planarization (Cu-CMP) is a critical step in integrated circuit (IC) device manufacturing. CMP and post-CMP cleaning processes are projected to account for 30-40% of the water consumed by IC manufacturers in 2003. CMP wastewater is expected to contain increasing amounts of copper as the industry switches from Al-CMP to Cu-CMP causing some IC manufacturers to run the risk of violating discharge regulations. There are a variety of treatment schemes currently available for the removal of heavy metals from CMP wastewater, however, many introduce additional chemicals to the wastewater, have large space requirements, or are expensive. This work explores the use of microorganisms for waste treatment. A Staphylococcus sp. of bacteria was isolated and studied to determine the feasibility for use in removing copper from Cu-CMP wastewater. A model Cu-CMP wastewater was developed and tested, as well as actual Cu-CMP wastes. Continuous-flow packed column experiments were performed to obtain adsorption data and show copper recovery from the waste. A predictive, empirical model was used to accurately describe Cu removal. Additionally, the immobilized cells were regenerated, allowing for the concentration and potential recovery of copper from the wastewater.

  13. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand using a coupled coagulation-electrocoagulation-ozone treatment of industrial wastewater that contains offset printing dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa M, G.; Barrera D, C.; Balderas H, P.; Zaldumbide O, F. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, 50200 San Cayetano-Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Reyes P, H. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon y Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Bilyeu, B., E-mail: groam@uaemex.mx [Xavier University of Louisiana, Department of Chemistry, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Industrial offset printing processes generate wastewater with highly colored obtaining values of 5 x 10{sup 6}Pt-Co units and great values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 5.3 x 10{sup -5} mg L{sup -1}. Thus, conventional technologies such as biologicals treatment fail in reaching the discharge limits. In this research, a sequential treatment was applied: coagulation with aluminum hydroxychloride (AHC), electrocoagulation with Al anodes and finally ozonation. Optimal conditions are found when adding 20 mg L{sup -1} AHC, followed by electrocoagulation at 4 A for 50 min, and finally alkaline ozonation for 15 min, resulting in an overall color removal of 99.99% color and 99.35 COD. The sludge generated by the coagulation process was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. (Author)

  14. Chemical, isotopic, and microbiological evidence for denitrification during transport of domestic wastewater through a thick unsaturated zone in the Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R.A.; Martin, P.M.; Böhlke, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen in downward-infiltrating wastewater discharged from seepage pits (dry wells) at residences in the upper Mojave River Basin, California represents a significant potential source of nitrate contamination to the underlying ground water. However, increases in nitrate concentration in the ground water have not yet been observed. The low nitrate concentration in the ground water may be the result of lateral dispersion in the unsaturated zone, dilution below the water table, or denitrification of wastewater nitrate in the unsaturated zone. Measured vertical rates indicate that some wastewater has reached the water table beneath communities that are older than 5 to 10 years. As wastewater percolates from seepage pits into the unsaturated zone, reduced nitrogen is converted rapidly to nitrate at shallow depths and the nitrate concentrations commonly decrease with depth. The largest nitrate decreases seem to coincide with increased content of fine-grained sediments or with proximity to the water table. Between lysimeters at 160 and 199 feet at one residence, the decrease in nitrate concentration coincided with a large increase in sulfate, decrease in alkalinity, and increase in 815N in nitrate. Those data are consistent with denitrification by oxidation of iron sulfide to produce ferric oxides; but if such a reaction occurs, it must be in domains that are small in comparison with the sampled volumes because the waters also contain substantial quantities of dissolved oxygen. The predominantly low nitrate concentrations in the area's ground water are consistent with the operation of a nitrogen-removal mechanism, possibly denitrification; however, the reducing capacity of the sediments to maintain denitrification is not known.

  15. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  16. Environmental and social benefits of improved handling and disposal of black wastewater in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jenssen, Petter Deinboll; Nyborg, Ingrid L.P.

    2010-01-01

    and is discharged above ground, next to the dwelling, even in the cities. Due to the lack of piping systems bucket toilets for collection of excreta are common. The bucket toilets and the greywater handling can pose health threats to the people and improved systems are needed. The current wastewater handling...... in Greenland causes visual contamination of the coast near many towns and settlements. Furthermore the nutrients in the wastewater may cause local eutrophication where the water exchange is poor. Another and maybe more serious consequence of discharging untreated wastewater into the arctic waters are organic...... wastewater handling in Greenland and the challenges, being of social, technical or economical character, connected to implementation of new solutions that can improve public health and living standard as well as protect the environment....

  17. Development and application of some renovated technologies for municipal wastewater treatment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi; WEN Xianghua; HUANG Xia

    2007-01-01

    China has been experiencing fast economic development in recent decades at the cost of serious environmental deterioration.Wastewater discharge,especially municipal wastewater discharge,and non-point pollution sources are becoming the major water pollution source and research focus.Great efforts have been made on water pollution control and a number of renovated technologies and processes for municipal wastewater treatment and reclamation as well as non-point pollution control have been developed and applied in China.This paper discusses the development and application of the appropriate technologies,including natural treatment systems,anaerobic biological treatment,biofilm reactors and wastewater reclamation technologies,for water pollution control in the country.

  18. Green microalga Scenedesmus acutus grown on municipal wastewater to couple nutrient removal with lipid accumulation for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán de Alva, Manuel; Luna-Pabello, Víctor M; Cadena, Erasmo; Ortíz, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    The green microalga Scenedesmus acutus was cultivated in two different municipal wastewater discharges (pre- and post-treated), and was compared to a culture medium with basic nutrients (20% of N, P, K), in order to study the simultaneous potential of nutrient removal and lipid accumulation ability. The highest level of nutrient removal was found in the pretreated wastewater discharge (achieving a high removal of phosphorus [66%] and organic nitrogen [94%]). Likewise, better results on biomass productivity and lipid accumulation were found in cultures using pretreated wastewater compared to enriched medium, obtaining 79.9 mg/L, and 280 mg/L, respectively. Since the best results were found in pretreated wastewater, the biodiesel preparation was performed using said medium at small-scale. After cultivation, 249.4 mg/L of biodiesel were obtained. According to this analysis, S. acutus could be used for wastewater treatment producing biomass with a suitable content of lipids, convenient for biodiesel production.

  19. Formaldehyde removal from wastewater applying natural zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovilė Kulikauskaitė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is one of the most chemically active compounds which is discharged with untreated or just partially treated industrial wastewater. It is hazardous for environment and humans. Formaldehyde vapors can strongly irritate skin, can cause damage to eyes and harm respiratory tract. As long as formaldehyde causes a toxic effect on environment and living organisms, it is necessary to remove it from wastewater which is directed to natural water. There are many methods used for formaldehyde removal from wastewater: biological method, evaporation, membrane separation method. Most of them have disadvantages. Adsorption method has many advantages: it is fast, cheap, and universal, and can be widely used, therefore it was chosen for this research. Experiment was carried out with natural zeolite in different contact time with different concentration formaldehyde solutions. Concentration of formaldehyde was determined applying the Photocolorimetric Method. Method is based on reaction of formaldehyde with chromotropic acid and determination of formaldehyde concentration. Determined average sorption efficiency was highest when formaldehyde concentration was lowest, e. g. 2 mg/l (45.94% after eight hours of contact time with adsorbent. Sorption efficiency was increasing when the contact time increased, but when the contact time increased to 12 hours, sorption efficiency stayed the same because of the saturation of zeolite.

  20. Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

    2013-02-15

    Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems.

  1. Dispersed Indeterminacy

    CERN Document Server

    Fayngold, Moses

    2013-01-01

    A state of a single particle can be represented by a quantum blob in the corresponding phase space, or a patch (granule) in its 2-D subspace. Its area is frequently stated to be no less than, implying that such a granule is an indivisible quantum of the 2-D phase space. But this is generally not true, as is evident, for instance, from representation of some states in the basis of innately discrete observables like angular momentum. Here we consider some dispersed states involving the evanescent waves different from that in the total internal reflection. Such states are represented by a set of separated granules with individual areas, but with the total indeterminacy . An idealized model has a discrete Wigner function and is described by a superposition of eigenstates with eigenvalues and forming an infinite periodic array of dots on the phase plane. The question about the total indeterminacy in such state is discussed. We argue that the eigenstates corresponding to the considered EW cannot be singled out by a...

  2. Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment of Detergent Industry Using Coagulation Procession Pilot Scale

    OpenAIRE

    MR Shahmansouri; B Roshani

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Surfactant or surface active agents are slightly soluble in water and cause foaming in waste treatment plants and also in the surface waters into which the waste effluent is discharged. During aeration of wastewater, these compounds collect on the surface of the water bubbles and create some problems in waste treatment. Methods: In this study, surfactant, turbidity and COD in the industrial wastewater of the company, Paksan was studied. Study was done at pH ranging between 2 and...

  3. Desorption of organo phosphorous pesticides from soil with wastewater and surfactant solution

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria del Carmen; Mingorance, Maria Dolores; Peña, Aranzazu

    2008-01-01

    Surfactants can be introduced in the environment by wastewater discharge, point-charge pollution or deliberate action, e.g. to remediate contaminated soil or groundwater. The irrigation of soil with wastewater containing surfactants may modify pesticide desorption from soil, thus affecting their environmental fate. Desorption from soil of the plain of Granada (South-eastern Spain) of two organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon and dimethoate, differing in solubility and hydrophobicity...

  4. Performance of Aerobic Sequencing Batch reactor (SBR) for Formaldehyde Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Formaldehyde is one of the compounds widely used in various industries; hence, its discharge into the effluent is unavoidable. Exposure to formaldehyde has a significant health effects. To prevent these issues, treatment of wastewater containing formaldehyde is necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in removing formaldehyde from wastewater. Methods: We used a SBR having a total volume of 6.1...

  5. Membrane and Adsorption Processes for Removing of Organics and Inorganics from Urban Wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Majlinda Daci-Ajvazi; Bashkim Thaçi; Nexhat Daci; Salih Gash

    2016-01-01

    Since in Kosovo there are still no water purification plants and untreated wastewaters are discharged in environment, in this paper we’ve studied methods for removing of different organic and inorganic pollutants from Kosovo urban wastewaters. For best results we’ve used two methods, reverse osmosis and adsorption. For reverse osmosis, all samples were pretreated with coagulant (FeSO4) and flocculant (CaO) and then treated with reverse osmosis membranes. For adsorption, we used Kosovo coal as...

  6. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  7. Supply-chain environmental effects of wastewater utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-01-01

    This letter describes a comprehensive modeling framework and the Wastewater-Energy Sustainability Tool (WWEST) designed for conducting hybrid life-cycle assessments of the wastewater collection, treatment, and discharge infrastructure in the United States. Results from a case study treatment plant which produces electricity using methane offgas are discussed. The case study system supplements influent with 'high-strength organic waste' to augment electricity production. The system balance is 55 kg of greenhouse gases per million liters of wastewater. Sensitivity analysis confirms that reusing biogas from anaerobic digestion for electricity reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by nine times. When biogas is captured and reused for electricity, material production (e.g., chemicals and pipes) and the corresponding supply chains, rather than energy production, are responsible for most of the environmental effects. When biogas is flared, the material and energy production contributions are similar.

  8. Radiological Instrumentation Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.; McConn, Ronald J.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-05-19

    The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides 1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; 2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including 2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; 2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; 2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and 2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios, capable

  9. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overcash, Michael; Russell, Dunn; Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    ” or “warehouses”) to process water users (referred to as “sinks”, “demands” or “customers”). A detailed case study of industrial significance, highlighting land treatment technology, is included to illustrate the proposed methodology and various process scenarios are evaluated within this case study......This paper addresses operational techniques for applying mass integration design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. This paper presents a design technique for any number of wastewater streams containing multiple contaminants. The technique comprises...... a single non-linear optimization program to minimize the wastewater discharged (or maximize the amount of recycled wastewater). This program is developed based on general water allocation principles and uses the transshipment model theory to allow the “shipment” of wastewater (referred to as “sources...

  10. Anaerobic microbial fuel cell treating combined industrial wastewater: Correlation of electricity generation with pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Umara; Jin, Wang; Pervez, Arshid; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Tariq, Madiha; Shaheen, Shahida; Iqbal, Akhtar; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new technology that not only generates energy but treats wastewater as well. A dual chamber MFC was operated under laboratory conditions. Wastewater samples from vegetable oil industries, metal works, glass and marble industries, chemical industries and combined industrial effluents were collected and each was treated for 98h in MFC. The treatment efficiency for COD in MFC was in range of 85-90% at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 96h and had significant impact on wastewater treatment as well. The maximum voltage of 890mV was generated when vegetable oil industries discharge was treated with columbic efficiency of 5184.7C. The minimum voltage was produced by Glass House wastewater which was 520mV. There was positive significant co-relation between COD concentration and generated voltage. Further research should be focused on the organic contents of wastewater and various ionic species affecting voltage generation in MFC.

  11. Frequency analysis of river water quality using integrated urban wastewater models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years integrated models have been developed to simulate the entire urban wastewater system, including urban drainage systems, wastewater treatment plants, and receiving waterbodies. This paper uses such an integrated urban wastewater model to analyze the frequency of receiving water quality in an urban wastewater system with the aim of assessing the overall system performance during rainfall events. The receiving water quality is represented by two indicators: event mean dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and event mean ammonium concentration. The compliance probability of the water quality indicators satisfying a specific threshold is used to represent the system performance, and is derived using the rainfall events from a series of 10 years' rainfall data. A strong correlation between the depth of each rainfall event and the associated volume of combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges is revealed for the case study catchment, while there is a low correlation between the intensity/duration of the rainfall event and the volume of the CSO discharges. The frequency analysis results obtained suggest that the event mean DO and ammonium concentrations have very different characteristics in terms of compliance probabilities at two discharging points for CSO and wastewater treatment plant effluent, respectively. In general, the simulation results provide an understanding of the performance of the integrated urban wastewater system and can provide useful information to support water quality management.

  12. The effect of ozone on tannery wastewater biological treatment at demonstrative scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iaconi, Claudio; Ramadori, Roberto; Lopez, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the results obtained during an investigation aimed at transferring to the demonstrative scale an aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR--Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor) integrated with ozonation for the efficient treatment of tannery wastewater. The results show that the integrated process was able to achieve high removal efficiencies for COD, TSS, TKN, surfactants and colour with residual concentrations much lower than the current discharge limits. Furthermore, the process was characterised by a very low sludge production (i.e., 0.1 kg dry sludge/m(3) of treated wastewater) with interesting repercussions on treatment costs (about 1 euro per m(3) of wastewater).

  13. Desorption of organophosphorous pesticides from soil with wastewater and surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Soriano, M. C.; Mingorance, M. D.; Pena, A.

    2009-07-01

    Surfactants can be introduced in the environment by wastewater discharge, point-charge pollution or deliberate action, e. g. to remediate contaminated soil or groundwater. The irrigation of soil with wastewater containing surfactants may modify pesticide desorption from soil, thus affecting their affecting their environmental fate. Desorption from soil of the plain of Granada (South-eastern Spain) of two organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon and dimethoate, differing in solubility and hydrophobicity, has been evaluated in the presence of different surfactant aqueous solutions and municipal wastewater. (Author)

  14. Using treated municipal wastewater in a linerboard mill -- legal, political, and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, W. (Montville Water Pollution Control Authority, Montville, CT (United States)); Scogin, R. (Rand-Whitney Containerboard, L.P., Montville, CT (United States)); Cobery, J.E. (Bingham, Dana and Gould, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    When plans to expand production at an antiquated mill were jeopardized by an inadequate source of process water, the mill explored the possibility of producing first-quality linerboard using treated municipal wastewater. This paper outlines the legal, technical, and political issues encountered in developing a plan that would allow the mill to use effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment system. The technology is available to make reuse of municipal wastewater feasible, as evidence by the closed-loop delivery and discharge system describe in this report. Nevertheless, legal and political concerns make the implementation process arduous and time consuming.

  15. The mechanism for explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta (Brassicceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many highly successful weed species have the ability to disperse their propagules through the ballistic discharge of their seeds either at ripening or when disturbed by an herbivore. However, very little is known of how ballistic seed dispersal is achieved. Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta L.) is a we...

  16. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a scen

  17. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a scen

  18. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  19. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    -known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...... function. The grey box models are estimated on data sets from the Lundtofte pilot scale plant and the Aalborg West wastewater treatment plant. Estimation of Monod- kinetic expressions is made possible through the application of large data sets. Parameter extimates from the two plants show a reasonable......The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...

  20. Treatment of electroplating wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To study the feasibility of treated water being used as rinsing water with CP/ED (chemical precipitation/electrodialysis) system, the relation between concentration of Cr (VI) and conductivity of water is investigated, the effect of electrodialysis (ED) for different wastewater is also studied. And several parameters of importance that are relevant to the process are identified. Analysis of ICP (Inductively coupled plasma) and IC (Ion chromatography) shows that the main reason of conductivity increase in CP treated water is the increase of Na+ and Cl- ions. The 93.8%-100% of ions from wastewater both in ED and CP/ED systems was removed successfully. The results of experiments indicate that the CP/ED system is a feasible method for electroplating wastewater treatment, the CP/ED system used as a way of wastwater is not only in favour of environment, but also economic beneficial to achieve.

  1. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation.

  2. Mathematical modeling of wastewater-derived biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater-derived dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) typically constitutes the majority of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) discharged to surface waters from advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). When considering the stringent regulations on nitrogen discharge limits in sensitive receiving waters, DON becomes problematic and needs to be reduced. Biodegradable DON (BDON) is a portion of DON that is biologically degradable by bacteria when the optimum environmental conditions are met. BDON in a two-stage trickling filter WWTP was estimated using artificial intelligence techniques, such as adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, multilayer perceptron, radial basis neural networks (RBNN), and generalized regression neural networks. Nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, TDN, and DON data were used as input neurons. Wastewater samples were collected from four different locations in the plant. Model performances were evaluated using root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean bias error, and coefficient of determination statistics. Modeling results showed that the R(2) values were higher than 0.85 in all four models for all wastewater samples, except only R(2) in the final effluent sample for RBNN modeling was low (0.52). Overall, it was found that all four computing techniques could be employed successfully to predict BDON.

  3. Removal of Alkylphenols from Industrial and Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of removal of nonylphenol, octylphenol and their ethoxylates from real industrial and municipal wastewater are presented. Industrial wastewater was pre-treated by coagulation with FeCl3 and adsorption on zeolite, before discharging into municipal sewer system. Their removal efficiencies in primary sedimentation tank of municipal WWTP were very low. From the practical point of view, the highest and the most significant removal efficiencies within the whole WWTP were observed for nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates. Dominancy of abiotic mechanisms of alkylphenols removal follows from adsorption measurements. Activated sludge cultivated in lab-scale extended aeration tank accounted for relatively high adsorption affinity to these substances. Activated sludge sampled from municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP receiving industrial wastewater containing alkylphenols accounted for very low adsorption affinity to these pollutants. Significantly higher removal efficiency of octylphenol ethoxylates was observed with the O3/granular active carbon (GAC process compared to the ozonation process alone. Lower toxicity impact of intermediates and products of ozonation treatment on Vibrio fischeri was measured in comparison to the O3/GAC process. Actually, the municipal WWTP effluent discharge concentration values complies with EQS values, including nonylphenols.

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - discharge; Bronchitis - ...

  5. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.;

    1994-01-01

    degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...

  6. Dispersion properties of ducted whistlers, generated by lightning discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Whistler-mode wave propagation in magnetospheric ducts of enhanced cold plasma density is studied. The case of the arbitrary ratio of the duct radius to the whistler wavelength is considered, where the ray-tracing method is not applicable. The set of duct eigenmodes and their spatial structure are analysed and dependencies of eigenmode propagation properties on the duct characteristics are studied. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the group delay time of one-hop propagation of the whistler wave packet along the duct. We found that, in contrast to the case of a wide duct, the group delay time in a rather narrow duct decreases as the eigenmode number increases. The results obtained are suggested for an explanation of some types of multi-component whistler signals.

  7. Wastewater Minimization in Indirect Electrochemical Synthesis of Phenylacetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhirong Sun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimization in phenylacetaldehyde production by using indirect electrochemical oxidation of phenylethane instead of the seriously polluting traditional chemical process is described in this paper. Results show that high current efficiency of Mn(III and high yield of phenylacetaldehyde can be obtained at the same sulfuric acid concentration (60%. The electrolytic mediator can be recycled and there will be no waste discharged.

  8. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  9. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  10. 光催化/内电解协同处理分散蓝E-4R的研究%Removal of Disperse Blue E-4R Dye from Wastewater by Synergetic MW-UV Photo-catalysis and Internal Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胜红; 夏东升; 曾庆福

    2012-01-01

    建立了微波无极紫外光催化氧化/内电解协同处理印染废水的新工艺.采用微波无极紫外光,以活性炭为光催化剂TiO2的载体,与外加铁屑构成内电解反应,处理分散蓝E-4R模拟废水.研究结果表明:协同工艺中主要是通过内电解过程产生的Fe3+捕获光电子来提高光催化作用的效率,而通过Fe2+催化H2O2形成光Fenton反应生成·OH的效应则较小.在曝气量为0.5 L/min、pH为5、铁屑投加量为40 g、染料初始浓度为50 mg/L时,分散蓝E-4R的脱色率和COD去除率分别达到99.56%、68.45%.%A bench-scale experiment was conducted to investigate dyestuff degradation under the synergetic action of microwave-ultraviolet photo-catalysis and internal electrolysis, in which simulated wastewater containing Disperse Blue E-4R was treated using an experimental apparatus with microwave electrode-less UV as a light source, activated carbon as a photo-catalyst (TiOJ carrier and activated carbon/ iron chips as the micro-electrodes. Results showed the increased efficiency of photo-catalysis mainly attributed to the synergetic processes in which Fe3+ produced could capture electrons rather than the contribution of photo-Fenton reaction, and in conclusion, the optimum condition for the synergetic action that resulted in removals of 99.56% and 68.45% for colority and COD respectively.

  11. Enzymatic biodegradation of pharmaceutical wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwadiae, S.E.; Yerima, Y.; Azik, R.U. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Igbinedion University, Okada, P.M.B. 0006, Benin City, Edo State (Nigeria)

    2011-07-01

    The present effort is an attempt to reduce pollution caused by the discharge of untreated wastewater (effluents) to the environment by using a low cost method. The effluent was bio-remediated using yeast and amylase as the active agents. The greater the decomposable matters present in an effluent, the greater the oxygen demand; the greater the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) values, the less Dissolved Oxygen(DO) values. 10g of yeast and amylase were added to 1000ml each of pharmaceutical effluent. 150 ml of the effluent (from the yeast and amylase) dosed was withdrawn weekly for analysis alongside with the effluent without enzymes for turbidity, DO, BOD and COD. After a period of six weeks the effluent dosed with yeast gave the highest performance followed by that dosed with amylase. The result shows that as time increases, the amount of oxygen demand reduces while the dissolved oxygen content of the effluent increases. This indicates that the yeast enzyme was able to aid remediation of the pharmaceutical effluent.

  12. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  13. Occurrence of surfactants in wastewater: hourly and seasonal variations in urban and industrial wastewaters from Seville (Southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luís; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2014-01-15

    Surfactants are daily discharged to the environment from urban and industrial activities. The assessment of the risk derived from the presence of these compounds in the environment requires a deep knowledge about their sources and their distribution in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, in spite of several studies reporting their presence in WWTPs, only a small number is focused on their different sources. In this work, the distribution of anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates) and non-ionic (nonylphenol ethoxylates) surfactants in WWTPs and in urban and industrial wastewater collection systems has been investigated. Seasonal and daily variability was also assessed. Concentrations of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in influent and effluent wastewaters ranged from 1155 to 9200 μg L(-1), and from below limit of detection to 770 μg L(-1), respectively, whereas the concentrations of nonylphenol ethoxylates were significantly lower. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates were efficiently removed (>96%), while mean removal rates of nonylphenol ethoxylates were significantly lower (wastewater collection systems showed a major contribution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates from urban areas while, in the case of nonylphenol ethoxylates, their major contribution came from industrial activities. In all cases the discharge patterns of surfactants were related with the water consumption.

  14. Modelling radioactivity in the Irish Sea: From discharge to dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleizon, P., E-mail: philippe.gleizon@westlakes.ac.u [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); McDonald, P. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    In order to support authorised discharges of low level radioactive liquid effluent into coastal regions, mathematical models are required to robustly predict radiological impacts on critical groups of current and proposed changes to liquid discharges. The grid model presented here simulates the long term dispersion and transport of radioactivity discharged from the Sellafield site in Cumbria, UK, and the subsequent exposure of critical groups in Cumbria and across the Irish Sea in Northern Ireland. The fine grid of the model allows a good resolution of the seabed sediment distribution. This benefits the predictions for the last decades of low discharge level, when bed sediment can become a source of contamination by bringing back the legacy of past high discharges. This is highlighted by the dose comparison, where the predicted dose to Cumbria critical group follows well the dose estimated from environmental data during the low discharge level period.

  15. Coastal pollution limits pelagic larval dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The ecological impact of large coastal human populations on marine ecosystems remains relatively unknown. Here, we examine the population structure of Patiria miniata, the bat star, and correlate genetic distances with a model based on flow rates and proximity to P. miniata populations for the four major stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent sources of the Southern California Bight. We show that overall genetic connectivity is high (F(ST)~0.005); however, multivariate analyses show that genetic structure is highly correlated with anthropogenic inputs. The best models included both stormwater and wastewater variables and explained between 26.55 and 93.69% of the observed structure. Additionally, regressions between allelic richness and distance to sources show that populations near anthropogenic pollution have reduced genetic diversity. Our results indicate that anthropogenic runoff and effluent are acting as barriers to larval dispersal, effectively isolating a high gene flow species that is virtually free of direct human impact.

  16. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams and fish in the Great Lakes Region and Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal wastewater treatment process by providing a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes. The receiving surface waters also are a conduit for contaminan...

  17. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment.

  18. Environmental assessment of urban wastewater reuse: treatment alternatives and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Montse; Pasqualino, Jorgelina C; Castells, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    The main function of a Wastewater Treatment Plant is to minimize the environmental impact of discharging untreated water into natural water systems. Also a Wastewater Treatment Plant may get a resource from wastewater carrying out a tertiary treatment on the treated wastewater which can be reused in non-potable applications. Water reuse strategies are intended to address the problem of water scarcity without aggravating other environmental problems, thus reflecting the need of their environmental assessment. In this paper we used Life Cycle Assessment to evaluate different disinfection treatments (chlorination plus ultraviolet treatment, ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide) and to assess the environmental advantages and drawbacks of urban wastewater reuse in non-potable applications. To do so, we compared the environmental impacts of producing 1m(3) of water for non-potable uses from reclaimed water, potable water and desalinated water sources. The calculation has used current operating data from a Wastewater Treatment Plant located in the Mediterranean area, although the results can be applied to any other plant with similar technology. The ozonation and ozonation plus hydrogen peroxide disinfection treatment technologies have similar environmental profiles. However most of the indicators are about 50% higher than the ultraviolet disinfection except for the acidification (100% higher) and photochemical oxidation (less than 5%). Non-potable uses (both agricultural and urban uses) of reclaimed water have environmental and economical advantages. Reuse of treated wastewater is particularly beneficial when it can replace desalinated water. Consequently, reclaimed water should be promoted for non-potable uses, when there is scarcity of freshwater.

  19. Modelling of wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik

    In this thesis, models of pollution fluxes in the inlet to 2 Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as of suspended solids (SS) concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP and in the effluent from the aeration tanks are developed. The latter model is furthermore used...

  20. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Linjun, Yang; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-09-15

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. It had been studied that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature, and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg(0) oxidation efficiency improved significantly over SCR after improving the flue gas temperature and concentration of chlorine ion in the wastewater. The Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve Hg oxidized and removed efficiency in APCDs. The function of WFGD wastewater evaporation on Hg oxidation is due to reasons: active chlorine species generated through the evaporation process and promoted the Hg oxidation. Because Hg(2+) can be easily removed in ACPDs and chlorine ion is enriched in WFGD wastewater in power plants, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  1. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China.

  2. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes;

    of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were......More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  3. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  4. EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE CALCULATION GUIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.S.BIEDENHARN; C.R.THORNE; P.J.SOAR; R.D.HEY; C.C.WATSON

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for calculating the effective discharge for rivers with alluvial channels.An alluvial river adjusts the bankfull shape and dimensions of its channel to the wide range of flows that mobilize the boundary sediments. It has been shown that time-averaged river morphology is adjusted to the flow that, over a prolonged period, transports most sediment. This is termed the effective discharge.The effective discharge may be calculated provided that the necessary data are available or can be synthesized. The procedure for effective discharge calculation presented here is designed to have general applicability, have the capability to be applied consistently, and represent the effects of physical processes responsible for determining the channel, dimensions. An example of the calculations necessary and applications of the effective discharge concept are presented.

  5. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  6. Caffeine as an indicator for the quantification of untreated wastewater in karst systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin; Geyer, Tobias

    2012-02-01

    Contamination from untreated wastewater leakage and related bacterial contamination poses a threat to drinking water quality. However, a quantification of the magnitude of leakage is difficult. The objective of this work is to provide a highly sensitive methodology for the estimation of the mass of untreated wastewater entering karst aquifers with rapid recharge. For this purpose a balance approach is adapted. It is based on the mass flow of caffeine in spring water, the load of caffeine in untreated wastewater and the daily water consumption per person in a spring catchment area. Caffeine is a source-specific indicator for wastewater, consumed and discharged in quantities allowing detection in a karst spring. The methodology was applied to estimate the amount of leaking and infiltrating wastewater to a well investigated karst aquifer on a daily basis. The calculated mean volume of untreated wastewater entering the aquifer was found to be 2.2 ± 0.5 m(3) d(-1) (undiluted wastewater). It corresponds to approximately 0.4% of the total amount of wastewater within the spring catchment.

  7. Environmental Quality Standards Research on Wastewaters of Army Ammunition Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    standard materials, 1-MNG, 2-MNG, and 1,3-DNG (supplied by Naval Ordnance Laboratory), and TNC diluted with 13- lactose (DuPont), each showed single major...TNG much as 13- lactose does in the pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminary GC investigations were made on liquid/liquid extracts of the wastewaters...evaporated, agglomerations of water-soluble needlelike (acicular) crystals could be observed in the LG samples; these were identified through energy dispersion

  8. Microplastic pollution is widely detected in US municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sherri A; Garneau, Danielle; Sutton, Rebecca; Chu, Yvonne; Ehmann, Karyn; Barnes, Jason; Fink, Parker; Papazissimos, Daniel; Rogers, Darrin L

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater effluent has been proposed as one pathway for microplastics to enter the aquatic environment. Here we present a broad study of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent as a pathway for microplastic pollution to enter receiving waters. A total of 90 samples were analyzed from 17 different facilities across the United States. Averaging all facilities and sampling dates, 0.05 ± 0.024 microparticles were found per liter of effluent. Though a small value on a per liter basis, even minor municipal wastewater treatment facilities process millions of liters of wastewater each day, yielding daily discharges that ranged from ∼50,000 up to nearly 15 million particles. Averaging across the 17 facilities tested, our results indicate that wastewater treatment facilities are releasing over 4 million microparticles per facility per day. Fibers and fragments were found to be the most common type of particle within the effluent; however, some fibers may be derived from non-plastic sources. Considerable inter- and intra-facility variation in discharge concentrations, as well as the relative proportions of particle types, was observed. Statistical analysis suggested facilities serving larger populations discharged more particles. Results did not suggest tertiary filtration treatments were an effective means of reducing discharge. Assuming that fragments and pellets found in the effluent arise from the 'microbeads' found in many cosmetics and personal care products, it is estimated that between 3 and 23 billion (with an average of 13 billion) of these microplastic particles are being released into US waterways every day via municipal wastewater. This estimate can be used to evaluate the contribution of microbeads to microplastic pollution relative to other sources (e.g., plastic litter and debris) and pathways (e.g., stormwater) of discharge.

  9. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  10. Comparison of Fenton's reagent and adsorption for treatment of industrial container and drum cleaning industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Elçin; Çifçi, Deniz İzlen; Çelik, Suna Özden

    2017-03-27

    The present study is aimed to explore the characterization of Industrial Container and Drum Cleaning (ICDC) industry wastewater and treatment alternatives of this wastewater using Fenton and adsorption processes. Wastewater derived from ICDC industry is usually treated by chemical coagulation and biological treatment in Turkey and then discharged in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. It is required that the wastewater COD is below 1500 mg/L to treat in a centralized wastewater treatment facility The wastewater samples characterized for parameters of pH, conductivity, COD, BOD5, TSS, NH3-N, TN, TOC, TP, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg. Optimum conditions of adsorption and Fenton processes have been assessed in terms of COD removal. Initial COD values were quite high in the three of samples and were in the range of 11300-14200 mg/L. The optimum conditions were as follows for Fenton treatment; 35-40 g/L for H2O2, 2-5 g/L for Fe(2+) and 13-36 for H2O2/Fe(2+) molar ratio. The optimum conditions of PAC doses and contact times in adsorption studies were 20-30 g/L and 5-12 hours respectively. In terms of COD removal, the efficiency of the Fenton process was found to be about 91-97%, and the efficiency of the adsorption process was found to be 88-98%. COD, BOD5, TOC, TP, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg removal efficiencies were compared for both Fenton and adsorption processes under optimum conditions for the three samples. The results suggest that these wastewaters are suitable for discharge to a centralized wastewater treatment plant.

  11. Pulsed electrical discharges in water for removal of organic pollutants: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, T.H.; Denat, A.; Lesaint, O.; Teissedre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the efficiency of different types of pulsed electrical discharges for the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater has been determined. Three discharge types, either in the water volume or in close proximity to the water surface are studied. The production of hydrogen peroxide in pure water, and the degradation of two typical pollutants (4-chlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol) is measured together with the amount of electrical energy d...

  12. Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation.

  13. Filament Discharge Phenomena in Fingerprint Acquisition by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Ming; XU Weijun; LIU Qiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the dielectric barrier discharge fingerprint acquisition technique is introduced. The filament discharge phenomena were observed in the process of fingerprint acquisition. The filament discharge reduced the quality of fingerprint images. Obviously, it was necessary to eliminate streamer discharges in order to get good fingerprint images. The streamer discharge was considered to be the cause of the filament discharge in the experiment. The relationship between the critical electric field and the discharge gap was calculated with the Raether's model of streamer discharge. The calculated results and our experiment proved that it would be difficult for the streamer discharge to occur when the discharge gap was narrow. With a narrow discharge gap, the discharge was homogeneous, and the fingerprint images were clear and large in area. The images obtained in the experiment are very suitable for fingerprint identification as they contain more information.

  14. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  15. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or

  16. Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Tiecheng; Lu, Na; Zhang, Dandan; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianwei; Sato, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

  17. Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jie; Wang Tiecheng; Lu Na; Zhang Dandan; Wu Yan; Wang Tianwei [Institute of Electrostatic and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Sato, Masayuki, E-mail: lijie@dlut.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Tenjin-cho 1-5-1, 376-8515 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

  18. Fenton-biological treatment processes for the removal of some pharmaceuticals from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed I; Wahaab, Rifaat A; El-Kalliny, A S

    2009-08-15

    A treatability study of pharmaceutical wastewater from El-Nasr Pharmaceutical and Chemical Company, South-East of Cairo, was carried out. The company discharges both industrial (6000 m(3)/d) and municipal wastewater (128 m(3)/d) into a nearby evaporation pond without any treatment. The generated raw wastewater is characterized by high values of COD (4100-13,023), TSS (20-330 mg/L), and oil grease (17.4-600 mg/L). In addition, the presence of refractory compounds decreases BOD/COD ratio (0.25-0.30). Analysis of raw wastewater confirmed that pre-treatment is required prior to discharge into public sewers to comply with the Egyptian Environmental laws and regulations. The obtained results indicated that the refractory compounds and their by-products cannot be readily removed by biological treatment and always remain in the treated effluent or adsorbed on the sludge flocs. The application of Fenton oxidation process as a pre-treatment improved the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater and appears to be an affective solution to achieve compliance with the law legislation with respect to discharge in a determined receptor medium.

  19. Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

  20. Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year.

  1. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  2. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  3. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  4. Corneal transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000243.htm Corneal transplant - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a corneal transplant. Most of the tissue of your cornea (the ...

  5. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  6. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  7. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  8. Inguinal hernia - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000274.htm Inguinal hernia repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... your child had surgery to repair an inguinal hernia caused by a weakness in the abdominal wall ...

  9. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  10. Pectus excavatum - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000298.htm Pectus excavatum - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... You or your child had surgery to correct pectus excavatum. This is a deformity of the front of ...

  11. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000168.htm Hip fracture - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip fracture surgery is done to repair a break in ...

  12. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  13. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - pelvic radiation

  14. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  15. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically, activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  16. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  17. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  18. Identifying discharge practice training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, L; Emmerson, K

    A training needs analysis tool was developed to identify nurses' discharge training needs and to improve discharge practice. The tool includes 49 elements of discharge practice subdivided into four areas: corporate, operational, clinical and nurse-led discharge. The tool was disseminated to 15 wards on two hospital sites with assistance from the practice development team. Analysis of discharge training is important to assess discharge training needs and to identify staff who may assist with training.

  19. Bioindicators of wastewater ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirova, Gabriela; Wittlingerova, Zdenka; Zimova, Magdalena; Vlkova, Alena; Wittlerova, Martina; Dvorakova, Marketa; Jirova, Dagmar

    2016-12-18

    Wastewater, especially containing hospital effluents, exhibits high chemical complexity and specificity since it includes various chemicals, biocides, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, radionuclides, disinfectants and pathogens. Biological tests provide true evidence of the wastewater quality and unlike chemical analytical tests show comprehensive pollution effects on the environment and human health. Normalized conventional bioassays are not sensitive enough for ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater and there is a great need for the development of suitable sensitive bioassays in order to characterize properly the residual toxicity of treated effluents. Provisions of binding EU legislation regarding protection of animals used for scientific purposes and legislation dealing with test methods for identification and classification of health hazard of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, medical devices and consumer products such as cosmetics for environmental ecosystems and for man require to employ alternative toxicological methods respecting the 3Rs concept with priority given to methods in vitro. The Fish Embryo Test (FET) is identified as a relevant, reliable and efficient alternative test method in vitro for determination of acute toxicity for fish. Using the FET, additional toxicological endpoints may be investigated to assess organ specific bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, teratogenicity, various forms of neurotoxicity or endocrine disruptivity. The addition of multiparametric sensitive endpoints makes the FET a true alternative in vitro assay and a powerful tool in toxicology.

  20. Mercury Bioaccumulation Potential from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Receiving Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

    2008-12-01

    In early 2007, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) mercury bioavailability project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) criteria around the country. While many TMDLs recognize that point sources typically constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, the question was raised concerning the relative bioavailablity of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury contributed from other sources? This talk will focus on the results of a study investigating approaches to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. From the outset, a working definition of bioavailability was developed which included not only methylmercury, the form that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable inorganic mercury species that could be converted to methylmercury within a scientifically reasonable time frame. Factors that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation were identified. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to methylmercury and inorganic bioavailable mercury, and the key factors that enhance or mitigate mercury bioavailability. Technologies that remove mercury from wastewater were reviewed and evaluated for their effect on bioavailability. A screening procedure was developed for making preliminary estimates of bioavailable mercury concentrations and fluxes in wastewater effluents and in fresh, estuarine and marine receiving waters. The procedure was validated using several diverse river and reservoir data sets. A "Bioavailability Tool" was developed which allows a user to estimate the bioavailability of an effluent and

  1. Suspended particle and pathogen peak discharge buffering by a surface-flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been shown to improve the water quality of treated wastewater. The capacity of CWs to reduce nutrients, pathogens and organic matter and restore oxygen regime under normal operating conditions cannot be extrapolated to periods of incidental peak discharges. The

  2. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  3. Photochemical Wastewater Treatment for Potential Agricultural Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban wastewaters after advanced primary treatment (APT are again discharged into the river without any use. In the present research in a soilless culture system where maize seedlings were tested three different treatments were planted: 1. Obtained from the effluent water of an APT, 2. Photochemically treated wastewater (PCT and 3. Urban water network (UW. A block randomly distributed design was tested, with five repetitions where the experimental unit was formed by a 36 cavities filled with Peat Moss and the useful plot was considered by 16 central plants for each experimental unit. Irrigations were scheduled since the first time of the planting, employed 27 mL/cavity. The removal of the organic contaminants present into the water was conducted by the employment of a Batch photoreactor, adapted with a recirculation system (UV/H2O2/O3, evaluated to determine UV-Vis spectra, pH, color and turbidity parameters initial and final samples. Measurements of height and percentage of germination in plants, where is determined that the seedlings irrigated with water PCT were reached the highest average compared to APT and UW irrigated; After the 50 cm growing plant, a determination of the presence of heavy metal, via atomic absorption method, were carried on analyzing the leaves, roots and stalks of the samples. Concluding that the presences of heavy metals into the APT were higher than PCT treatments, it can be an impediment for the normal growing of the plants. Therefore, the application of the photochemical treatment using (UV/H2O2/O3 system, represent a viable alternative for the wastewater treatment after the APT process to possible use of irrigation.

  4. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  5. Substituted plan analysis in the environmental impact assessment of Yongchuan wastewater treatment project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun-hua

    2006-01-01

    Substituted plan in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) mainly means the treatment technology and the substituted site of plant, and it also includes the many kinds of environment protection measures. This paper will make detailed analysis on the treatment technology, the substituted site of plant, the purpose of discharged water and the dispose of sludge in the Yongchuan wastewater treatment project.

  6. Operational policy for disposal of land-derived wastewater to the marine environment of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available , amongst others. To fulfil its legal obligation in terms of the management and control of land-derived wastewater discharges (classified as a water use under the National Water Act), DWAF adopted the operational policy for disposal of land-derived water...

  7. Microalgae: cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

    2015-01-01

    Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater.

  8. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination...... and three advanced treatment methods: sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment are the most advantageous advanved treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms......As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...

  9. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  10. Occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in effluent-dominated streams in Northeastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.J.; Rasmussen, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-nine stream-water samples and 14 municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) discharge samples in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, were analyzed for 55 compounds collectively described as organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). Stream-water samples were collected upstream, in, and downstream from WWTF discharges in urban and rural areas during base-flow conditions. The effect of secondary treatment processes on OWC occurrence was evaluated by collecting eight samples from WWTF discharges using activated sludge and six from WWTFs samples using trickling filter treatment processes. Samples collected directly from WWTF discharges contained the largest concentrations of most OWCs in this study. Samples from trickling filter discharges had significantly larger concentrations of many OWCs (p-value < 0.05) compared to samples collected from activated sludge discharges. OWC concentrations decreased significantly in samples from WWTF discharges compared to stream-water samples collected from sites greater than 2000??m downstream. Upstream from WWTF discharges, base-flow samples collected in streams draining predominantly urban watersheds had significantly larger concentrations of cumulative OWCs (p-value = 0.03), caffeine (p-value = 0.01), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p-value < 0.01) than those collected downstream from more rural watersheds.

  11. POTENTIAL FOR WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT USING ENERGY CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair R. McCRACKEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In most countries within Europe there are numerous small rural Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTWs often serving a small number of people equivalents (PEs. It is usually impractical and expensive to upgrade such WWTWs and yet they are often delivering potentially highly polluting effluent into streams and rivers. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC willow, grown as an energy source, may be an ideal crop for the bioremediation of a variety of effluents and wastewater streams. As part of an EU funded (INTERREG IVA project called ANSWER (Agricultural Need for Sustainable Willow Effluent Recycling four Proof of Concept irrigation schemes were established ranging in size from 5 to 15 ha. One of the larger of these at Bridgend, Co. Donegal, Republic of Ireland was planted in spring 2013 and has been irrigated with municipal effluent since June 2014. Over 19,000 m3 of effluent has been applied to the willow thus preventing 617 kg N and 28.5 kg P from being discharged to a neighbouring stream. Using SRC willow for the bioremediation of effluent from small rural WWWTs offers a sustainable, cost-effective and practical solution to wastewater management in many countries. There may be also potential to use willow for the bioremediation of landfill leachates, within the footprint of the landfill site.

  12. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  13. Retention in treated wastewater affects survival and deposition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in sand columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuyi; Zhao, Xiaokang; Tian, Xiujun; Li, Jin; Sjollema, Jelmer; Wang, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    The fate and transport of pathogenic bacteria from wastewater treatment facilities in the Earth's subsurface have attracted extensive concern over recent decades, while the impact of treated-wastewater chemistry on bacterial viability and transport behavior remains unclear. The influence of retention time in effluent from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant on the survival and deposition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains in sand columns was investigated in this paper. In comparison to the bacteria cultivated in nutrient-rich growth media, retention in treated wastewater significantly reduced the viability of all strains. Bacterial surface properties, e.g., zeta potential, hydrophobicity, and surface charges, varied dramatically in treated wastewater, though no universal trend was found for different strains. Retention in treated wastewater effluent resulted in changes in bacterial deposition in sand columns. Longer retention periods in treated wastewater decreased bacterial deposition rates for the strains evaluated and elevated the transport potential in sand columns. We suggest that the wastewater quality should be taken into account in estimating the fate of pathogenic bacteria discharged from wastewater treatment facilities and the risks they pose in the aquatic environment.

  14. Response of foraminifera to a reverse osmosis briny discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Richard Eustace Aiken

    Reverse osmosis water treatment plants are becoming the preferred means of generating potable water for many eastern North Carolina communities. At these facilities, reject brine solutions---sometimes containing up to 10 times the initial concentration of dissolved solids---are created and often discharged into estuarine waters. Several state and federal agencies have expressed concern over the potential ecological impacts this wastewater could have on these sensitive environments. Monitoring of a brine discharge site in Currituck County, North Carolina revealed significantly higher conductivity values within ~50 m of the point source. One group of organisms that have proven useful in other studies for monitoring impact of anthropogenic pollution in estuaries is Foraminifera. Foraminifera are abundant microorganisms that are widespread in most marginal-marine and marine environments; nevertheless, individual taxa are highly selective of their habitat. Nearly all species build shells (tests) that are preserved in coastal sediments, allowing for reconstruction of previous marine conditions. Species abundance data was collected from surface and sub-surface samples taken in the area surrounding the brine point source. Two taxa (Ammobaculites spp. and Ammotium sp.) accounted for 98.5% of all normalized specimens. Abundance is significantly less in the sub-surface samples (Student's t-test, p<0.0001), likely due to taphonomic effects. Abundance does not appear correlated with discharge of the wastewater; instead, natural parameters appear to affect abundance in an assemblage to a greater degree. Species distribution is similar in surface and sub-surface samples. Foraminiferal diversity is significantly less near the discharge based on one sample collected within 5 m of the discharge site; samples at greater distances do not appear affected. Loss of diversity within a few meters of the discharge site is consistent with previous studies, but more data would be needed to

  15. Experimental investigation of intensification of the process of dissolved-air flotation in wastewater treatment of milk processing enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Шевченко, Тамара Александровна; Шевченко, Андрей Александрович

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of operation of the flotation plant for wastewater treatment of dairy enterprises by applying a specially designed mixing insert (diaphragm) in the reactant treatment system is investigated. The optimum parameters of the flotation plant to achieve the required quality of wastewater treatment of dairy enterprises for discharge into the city sewer system are determined. It is found that when applying the aluminum sulfate Al2(SO4)3 coagulant, its dose is lower than that of the fe...

  16. Surfactant scouring wastewater modified bentonites-promising material for unmanageable wastewater treatment%洗刷废水改性膨润土--一种有效的废水处理剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱光人; 余丽佳; 夏方远; 刘强; 裘祖楠

    2006-01-01

    Trimeric quaternary ammonium surfactants are newly developed surfactants, their widespread synthesis and utilization results in a great amount of scouring wasterwater of high COD, which is unmanageable. The present investigation aims to find a new type of organo-bentonites modified by the scouring wastewater and to treat the scouring wastewater at the same time. Results of adsorption experiments of phenol and formaldehyde by the modified bentonite show that, at the optimal ratio 24 % (W/V) of modified bentonite to scouring wastewater, the removal rate of phenol and formaldehyde by FTAT scouring wastewater modified bentonite is 3.53 times and 2.48 times higher than that of Na-bentonite, and the COD of treated scouring wastewater reduces to below 200 mg/L, meeting the second level of Standards for Discharge of Water Pollutants from the Ammonia Industry of China.

  17. A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

    2012-01-01

    Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design.

  18. Treatment of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) wastewater by internal electrolysis--biological contact oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X Z; Li, Y M

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant wastewater is usually difficult to treat due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. A separate physico-chemical or biochemical treatment method achieves a satisfactory effect with difficulty. In this study, treatment of the wastewater collected from a daily chemical plant by the combination processes of Fe/C internal electrolysis and biological contact oxidation was investigated. For the internal electrolysis process, the optimal conditions were: pH = 4-5, Fe/C = (10-15):1, air-water ratio = (10-20):1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT)= 2 h. For the biological contact oxidation process, the optimal conditions were: HRT = 12 h, DO = 4.0-5.0 mg/L. Treated by the above combined processes, the effluent could meet the I-grade criteria specified in Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China (GB 8978-1996). The results provide valuable information for full-scale linear alkylbenzene sulfonate wastewater treatment.

  19. Assessment of the Water Quality from the Sitnica River as a Result of Urban Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBONA SHALA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Kosovo is facing problems related not only to the limited amount of water, but also when it comes to its quality, as a result of discharge of contaminated wastewater into the surface and groundwater, without any prior treatment. The longest river (90km and at the same time the most polluted river in Kosovo is the Sitnica River. All the wastewater from the towns and villages washed by this river during its entire watercourse from its source until its mouth into the Ibar River is discharged into this river. In order to have a more accurate overview of the impact of urban discharge into the quality of the Sitnica River water and to assess the impact of the pollutants discharged into this river, we conducted a research at five monitoring stations: the first station representing a reference station not being subjected (untouched to anthropogenic pollution pressure while the other four represent monitoring stations situated at water area affected by this discharge of urban wastewater. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of the Sitnica River water and to analyze the pollution scale level throughout its course caused by urban discharge. Some of the parameters of the water qualityanalyzed are: temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, DO, COD, BOD, P total, nitrates, detergents and ammonium ions.Analysis of the physical – chemical parameters of the water quality was conducted at the laboratory of the Hydro-meteorological Institute of Kosovo. Based on experimental results, various readings of the majority of the studied parameters were obtained at different stations with a tendency of deteriorated quality of water with the growing distance from the source of the Sitnica River, as a result of continuous impact of pollution. From our findings we can conclude that continuous discharge of urban wastewater has a considerable impact on the quality of the Sitnica River

  20. Photocatalysis as a tertiary treatment for petroleum refinery wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis has been used as tertiary treatment for petroleum refinery wastewaters to comply with the regulatory discharge limits and to oxidize persistent compounds that had not been oxidized in the biological treatment. The wastewater is generated by the refinery and directly discharged into the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro. Although BOD removal is high, a residual and persistent COD, besides a somewhat high phenol content remains. Three photocatalysts were tested - TiO2 (Aldrich, ZnO (Aldrich, and TiO2 (P25, Degussa - the third being the most active. The optimized conditions obtained with an experimental design were 3.0 g L-1 TiO2 and pH 6.3. The use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 showed no beneficial effect. Removal of 93% of phenols, 63% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and more than 50% of oil and grease (OG were achieved in the photocatalytic process, improving the quality of the treated wastewater.

  1. SEM analysis of particle size during conventional treatment of CMP process wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Gary A.; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Brenner, Sara A., E-mail: sbrenner@sunycnse.com

    2015-03-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently employed by many industries and have different physical and chemical properties from their bulk counterparts that may confer different toxicity. Nanoparticles used or generated in semiconductor manufacturing have the potential to enter the municipal waste stream via wastewater and their ultimate fate in the ecosystem is currently unknown. This study investigates the fate of ENMs used in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a polishing process repeatedly utilized in semiconductor manufacturing. Wastewater sampling was conducted throughout the wastewater treatment (WWT) process at the fabrication plant's on-site wastewater treatment facility. The goal of this study was to assess whether the WWT processes resulted in size-dependent filtration of particles in the nanoscale regime by analyzing samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences in particle size between sampling points, indicating low or no selectivity of WWT methods for nanoparticles based on size. All nanoparticles appeared to be of similar morphology (near-spherical), with a high variability in particle size. EDX verified nanoparticles composition of silicon- and/or aluminum-oxide. Nanoparticle sizing data compared between sampling points, including the final sampling point before discharge from the facility, suggested that nanoparticles could be released to the municipal waste stream from industrial sources. - Highlights: • The discrete treatments of a semiconductor wastewater treatment system were examined. • A sampling scheme and method for analyzing nanoparticles in wastewater was devised. • The wastewater treatment process studied is not size-selective for nanoparticles.

  2. Printing ink and paper recycling sources of TMDD in wastewater and rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedez, Arlen A; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-15

    2,4,7,9-Tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) is a non-ionic surfactant which is preferentially used as defoamer in paints and printing ink and for the treatment of surfaces. Effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been identified as the domination point sources for TMDD in rivers since the removal rate of the compound in the WWTPs is in general less than 70%. However, the dominating entry pathways of TMDD into the sewage were unknown so far. In this study effluents from both, municipal WWTPs with and without treatment of indirect industrial dischargers and from industrial WWTPs with direct discharge of wastewater into receiving rivers were analyzed for the first time to identify the proportions of TMDD coming from domestic wastewater and from various industrial sources. Moreover, rivers were samples before and after the influent of sewage water from WWTPs. The TMDD concentrations in the water samples were measured using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). High TMDD concentrations were found in rivers (up to 63.5 μg/L), and in effluents of WWTPs (up to 310 μg/L) affected by wastewater from paper recycling industry and factories producing paint and printing ink. Concentrations of TMDD revealed to be far higher in wastewater from factories processing recycled paper (up to 113 μg/L) compared to wastewater from factories not processing recycled paper (0.066 μg/L). The results indicate that the use of recycling paper in the paper production process is the dominating reason for increased TMDD concentrations in wastewaters and receiving rivers due to the wash out of TMDD from the paper impregnated with printing ink. Very high TMDD concentrations (up to 3300 μg/L) were also detected in wastewater from a printing ink factory and a paint factory.

  3. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

    2008-03-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day).

  4. Fecal contamination of wastewater treatment plants in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Serrano, Isa; Van Harten, Sofia; Bessa, Lucinda J; Bernardo, Fernando; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2016-07-01

    Reutilization of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for non-potable applications is increasing due to the reduction of sustainable water resources. These products mostly come from municipal WWTP and also from slaughterhouses effluents. The microbiological certification of these products is mandatory before their discharge into the environment. This study evaluates if the treatment applied in WWTP to municipal waters or to poultry slaughterhouse effluents distributed over the Portuguese continental territory is efficient in reducing the microbiological risk associated with the reutilization of those wastewaters and sludges. Fecal indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were evaluated in 42 and 24 wastewater samples from 14 municipal WWTP and 8 poultry slaughterhouse treatment plants, respectively, by the conventional culture method and a rapid Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Bacterial enumeration in inflow water from most WWTP was rather high (generally >10(5) cells/ml), for both E. coli and Enterococcus spp., and the bacterial quantification by FISH was generally higher than enumeration by the conventional culture method. In both types of treatment plants studied, bacterial load from effluents and sludges was not statistically different from the inflows, indicating that the treatment applied seems to be equally unable to reduce the microbiological load of the effluents. These findings may jeopardize the safe reuse of treated wastewaters in agriculture and the quality of the water environment. Therefore, products like water, sewage sludge, and biosolids originated from the municipal and slaughterhouse WWTP studied should not be reutilized, and effluents treatment should be urgently reviewed.

  5. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-10-24

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO performance was evaluated in terms of the water flux, water flux decline and solute rejections of biochemical oxygen demand, and total and soluble phosphorus. The obtained results were compared with the results of FO after only mechanical pretreatment. The FO permeates satisfied the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment.

  7. Domestic Wastewater Quality and Pollutant Loadings from Urban Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are important spawning and nursery ground for fish and prawns. However, wetlands have been reported to be polluted in different parts of the world. One of the pollution sources is domestic wastewater. Therefore, in this study, domestic wastewater quality was studied at three major housing areas. Samplings were conducted in three trips. Results showed that pH ranged from 6.64 to 7.31 and temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.7 oC. DO values were low, that is, below 3.5 mg/L for all trips at all areas studied indicating that it was not suitable for aquatic life. Nutrients such as ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of the housing areas ranged from 11.1 to 17.2 mg/L and 1.05 to 2.43 mg/L respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids concentrations at all the housing areas exceeded the Standard B maximum permitted values of Effluent Discharge Standard of Environmental Quality Act 1974. Loadings of pollutants from housing areas in Kuching were computed. This study shows that domestic wastewater was low in DO, high in oxygen demand, high in solids and nutrients thus loading the rivers with pollutants. Therefore, domestic wastewater must be treated before being channeled to the adjacent water bodies to avoid eutrophication in the receiving water and to recover nutrients.

  8. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  9. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard. In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  10. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  11. Trends in advanced wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the present trends within wastewater handling and treatment. The trend is towards the extremes, either local low-tech treatment or centralized advanced treatment plants. The composition of the wastewater will change and it will be regarded as a resource. There will be more...

  12. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  13. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit o

  14. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit o

  15. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit

  16. Dispersion y dinamica poblacional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispersal behavior of fruit flies is appetitive. Measures of dispersion involve two different parameter: the maximum distance and the standard distance. Standard distance is a parameter that describes the probalility of dispersion and is mathematically equivalent to the standard deviation around ...

  17. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and redu

  18. Wastewater generated during cleaning/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohaprapanon, S; Kaczala, F; Salomon, P S; Marques, M; Hogland, W

    2012-01-01

    In industries based on dry processes, such as wood floor and wood furniture manufacture, wastewater is mainly generated after cleaning of surfaces, storage tanks and machinery. Owing to the small volumes, onsite treatment options and potential environmental risks posed to aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of these wastewaters are seldom investigated. In the present study, the effects of cleaning wastewater streams generated at two wood floor production lines on Desmodesmus subspicatus were investigated. The microalgae was exposed to different wastewater concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25% v:v) and the algae growth evaluation was based on in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, cell density, cell size (number of cells/colony) and cell ratio (length/width). Inhibitory effects of the tested wastewaters on the microalgae were positively related to concentration and negatively related to exposure time. The EC50,24 h of blade cleaning wastewater (BCW) and floor cleaning wastewater (FCW) were 3.36 and 5.87% (v:v), respectively. No negative effect on cell colony formation was caused by BCW, whereas an increase of 90% unicellular cells was observed in FCW concentrations below 50% (v:v). At the lowest concentration (3.13% v:v) where no growth inhibition was observed, both wastewater streams caused changes in cell dimensions by increasing cell length and width. To conclude, wastewaters generated during cleaning procedures in the wood floor industries can have severe environmental impacts on aquatic organisms, even after high dilution. Therefore, these wastewaters must be treated before being discharged into water bodies.

  19. Resourceful Utilization of Tannery Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Wang Xikui; Ding Maochen; Zhang Chaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Leather industry is an important light industry in China. Leather making requires a series of chemical treatment. Degreasing, unhairing and chrome tanning wastewaters are the main portions of tannery wastewater. Reclaiming and reusing these wastewaters can eliminate 80% of COD, 75% of BOD, 95% of chromium and 93% of sulfuret, furthermore reduce environment impact, decrease treatment costs, save chemicals and water. Some application methods of wastewater reclamation and reuse for dif- ferent operations were reported. The suitable reclamation and reuse technologies can enable leather making processes more ra- tional, and realize the recovery and recycle of several chemicals in the tannery. Resourceful utilization of tannery wastewater should mate with renovating production technology, updating equipment, and must be guaranteed sufficiently by environmental protection measures.

  20. Microwave Discharge Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Celona, L

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the basic principles, design features and characteristics of microwave discharge ion sources. A suitable source for the production of intense beams for high-power accelerators must satisfy the requirements of high brightness, stability and reliability. The 2.45 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge sources are ideal devices to generate the required beams, as they produce multimilliampere beams of protons, deuterons and singly charged ions. A description of different technical designs will be given, analysing their performance, with particular attention being paid to the quality of the beam, especially in terms of its emittance.

  1. Effects of surfactant on bubble hydrodynamic behavior under flotation-related conditions in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Zhu, Tingting; Liu, Yanyan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Huanran

    2012-01-01

    Bubble behavior is fundamental to the performance of froth flotation operations used in wastewater treatment processes. To fully understand and characterize bubble behavior under flotation-related conditions in wastewater, the high-speed photographic method has been employed to examine the motion of single bubbles and size distribution of bubble swarms with intermediate sizes ranging from 1 to 4 mm in the presence of surfactants in a laboratory scale flotation column. Both distilled water and synthetic municipal wastewater have been used to make solutions as well as two types of common surfactants. The instantaneous bubble motion has been recorded by a high speed camera. Subsequently, bubble trajectory, dimensions, velocity and distribution have been determined from the recorded frames using the image analysis software. The experimental results show that the addition of surfactant into wastewater has similar effects on bubble hydrodynamic behavior as in pure water (e.g., improving trajectory stabilization, dampening bubble deformation, slowing down terminal velocity, reducing bubble size and increasing the specific surface area of bubble swarm) due to the Marangoni effect. However, it is interesting to note that surfactant effects on single bubble hydrodynamics in wastewater are slightly stronger than those in pure water while surfactant effects on size parameters of bubble swarms in wastewater are significantly stronger than those in pure water. This finding suggests that besides surfactant, inorganic salts present in synthetic wastewater have an important influence on bubble dispersion.

  2. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., manages, or treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the... fixed roof except that if the wastewater tank is used for heating wastewater, or treating by means of an... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  3. Removal of fluoride from semiconductor wastewater by electrocoagulation-flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C Y; Lo, S L; Kuan, W H; Lee, Y D

    2005-03-01

    This work employs an anodic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), to improve the flotation performance of the electrocoagulation-flotation (ECF) process to treated fluoride containing semiconductor wastewater following calcium precipitation. The dissolved fluoride ions and CaF(2) particles in the wastewater after calcium precipitation were effectively removed in the ECF process simultaneously. The dosage of SDS required for ECF was much less than those for dispersed air flotation (DiAF) or dissolved air flotation (DAF) processes because the CaF(2) particles can be collected by hydro-fluoro-aluminum flocs in ECF. Thus, SDS only served as a frother to make the bubbles tiny and stable in the ECF defluoridation process. The interference of co-existing anions can be overcome by increasing the dosage of calcium ions and SDS. The optimum initial acidity for ECF is close to the initial fluoride concentration after calcium precipitation; the amount of SS removed dropped rapidly if the initial acidity exceeded the optimal value because the surface charge of the hydro-fluoro-aluminum particles increased. The initial acidity of the wastewater after calcium precipitation can be modified by changing the [Ca(OH)(2)]/[Ca(2+)](T) ratio and the appropriate ratio is approximately given by the acid dissociation constant of hydrofluoric acid and the initial pH of the wastewater before calcium precipitation.

  4. Design of Water Network with Multiple Contaminants and Zero Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英; 都健; 姚平经

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a procedure to design water network. First of all, water reuse system, water regeneration reuse system (including regeneration recycle) and wastewater treatment system are designed separately.But the interaction between different parts demands that each part is designed iteratively to optimize the whole water network. Therefore, on the basis of the separated design a water network superstructure including reuse,regeneration and wastewater treatment is established from the system engineering point of view. And a multiobjective adaptive simulated annealing genetic algorithm is adopted to simultaneously integrate the overall water network to balance the economic and environmental effects. The algorithm overcomes the defect of local optimum of simulated annealing (SA), avoids the pre-maturation of genetic algorithm (GA) and finds a set of solutions (pareto front) in acceptable computer time. From the pareto front, a point with minimum fresh water consumption will be extended to zero discharge as our ultimate goal.

  5. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  6. Is nitrogen loading in wastewater more important than phosphorus? A historic review of the relationship between algae and macrophyte biomass and wastewater nutrient loading in the Bow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Nadine; He, Jianxun; Ryan, Cathy; Valeo, Caterina

    2014-05-01

    The role of nutrient loading on biomass growth in wastewater-impacted rivers is important in understanding how to most effectively optimize wastewater treatment to avoid excessive biomass growth in the receiving water body. Nutrient loading is also affected by the nature of the effluent mixing in the river. This paper relates ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3) and total phosphorus (TP) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to epilithic algae and macrophyte biomass for determination of impacts of the WWTP on the Bow River ecosystem in Calgary, Alberta. Annual macrophyte biomass data and WWTP effluent nutrient data was analyzed for the years from 1981 - 2011. Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS) was used to remove the influence of the river discharge from the biomass. The LOWESS method indicates that macrophytes do not grow beyond a maximum annual discharge of 300m3s-1. Algae biomass was most significantly correlated to daily mean discharge on sampling date and the LOWESS method indicates that they do not grow well beyond a daily mean discharge of 100m3s-1. Correlation analysis suggests that biomass in the Bow River is nitrogen limited. Epilithic algae are significantly correlated (p

  7. Decolourisation of textile wastewater in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Casu, Stefania; Grilli, Selene

    2012-08-01

    Azo dye decolourisation can be easily achieved by biological reduction under anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRs) for the decolourisation of dyeing wastewater containing azo dyes. The reactive orange 16 was used as model of an azo dye. The results demonstrated that very high decolourisation (higher than 99%) can be achieved by SAMBRs. Although decolourisation was not significantly influenced by the azo dye concentrations up to 3.2 g L(-1), methane production was greatly inhibited (up to 80-85%). Since volatile fatty acids accumulated in the treatment system with the azo dye concentration increase, methanogenes seem to be the most sensitive microbial populations of the anaerobic ecological community. The results demonstrated that anaerobic process combined with membrane filtration can deal with highly concentrated wastewaters that result from stream separation of industrial discharges.

  8. Long-term phosphorus fertility in wastewater-irrigated cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, D; Elliott, H A

    2011-01-01

    Land treatment of municipal wastewater effluent is a proven method for augmenting freshwater resources and avoiding direct nutrient discharges to surface waters. We assessed changes in soil test phosphorus (P) of the Ap horizon of cropped fields continuously irrigated for 26 yr with secondary effluent from the Penn State University wastewater treatment plant. For annual P additions averaging 97 kg P ha(-1), Mehlich-3 P (M3P) response in the 0- to 20-cm surface soil (initially MINTEQ suggests complexation of Al by dissolved organic carbon at site pH conditions. Loss of Al from the surface layer lowered its P-sorbing capacity, causing added effluent-P to move into the subsoil. Results suggest that current management practices can continue for many years without exceeding the surface soil M3P environmental threshold (200 mg kg(-1)) used in state P-based nutrient policies.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  10. An investigation of an underwater steam plasma discharge as alternative to air plasmas for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucker, Sarah N.; Foster, John E.; Garcia, Maria C.

    2015-10-01

    An underwater steam plasma discharge, in which water itself is the ionizing media, is investigated as a means to introduce advanced oxidation species into contaminated water for the purpose of water purification. The steam discharge avoids the acidification observed with air discharges and also avoids the need for a feed gas, simplifying the system. Steam discharge operation did not result in a pH changes in the processing of water or simulated wastewater, with the actual pH remaining roughly constant during processing. Simulated wastewater has been shown to continue to decompose significantly after steam treatment, suggesting the presence of long-lived plasma produced radicals. During steam discharge operation, nitrate production is limited, and nitrite production was found to be below the detection threshold of (roughly 0.2 mg L-1). The discharge was operated over a broad range of deposited power levels, ranging from approximately 30 W to 300 W. Hydrogen peroxide production was found to scale with increasing power. Additionally, the hydrogen peroxide production efficiency of the discharge was found to be higher than many of the rates reported in the literature to date.

  11. Considering the summation of the effect of harmful substances during the calculation of the environmentally safe waste water discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This article presents the technique of assessing the maximum allowable (standard) discharge of waste waters with several harmful substances into a water reservoir. The technique makes it possible to take into account the summation of their effect provided that the limiting harmful indices are the same. The expressions for the determination of the discharge limit of waste waters have been derived from the conditions of admissibility of the effect of several harmful substances on the waters of a reservoir. Mathematical conditions of admissibility of the effect of wastewaters on a reservoir are given for the characteristic combinations of limiting harmful indices and hazard classes of several substances. The conditions of admissibility of effects are presented in the form of logical products of the sums of relative concentrations that should not exceed the value of 1. It is shown that the calculation of the process of wastewater dilution in a flowing water reservoir is possible only on the basis of a numerical method to assess the wastewater discharge limit. An example of the numerical calculation of the standard limit of industrial enterprise wastewater discharges that contain polysulfide oil, flocculant VPK-101, and fungicide captan is given to test this method. In addition to these three harmful substances, the water reservoir also contained a fourth substance, namely, Zellek-Super herbicide, above the waste discharge point. The summation of the harmful effect was taken into account for VPK-101, captan, and Zellek-Super. The reliability of the technique was tested by the calculation of concentrations of the four substances in the control point of the flowing reservoir during the estimated maximum allowable wastewater discharge. It is shown that the value of the maximum allowable discharge limit was almost two times higher for the example under consideration, taking into account that the effect of harmful substances was unidirectional, which provides a higher level

  12. MANAGEMENT OF VAGINAL DISCHARGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Vaginal infection is one of the top 25 reasons for women to consult doctors in the. USA. The 3 most common ... VAGINAL DISCHARGE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN. In this age group, the .... More than one host fac- tor may be involved and ...

  13. Novel Molecular Discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerber, A.; Schwan, S.; Hayashi, D.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation into halides and ~oxides showed the high potential of transition metal oxides as visible radiators for highly efficient gas discharge light sources. Zirconium monoxide (ZrO) has been identified as most promising candidate combining highly attractive green and red emission

  14. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  15. Flight Model Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Dielectric Sensor ................................... 12 5 ESA S/N 001 ......................................... 24 6 Preliminary Test Sequence...71 28 Optical Transmission Loss of Contamination "Witness" Slide 3 .................................. 72 29 Apparatus used in FMDS Spectroscopic...Monitor ( TPU ). This sensor detects the electromagnetic pulses generated by the onset of arcing. (2) An active discharge device (plasma source). (3) A

  16. Genotoxicity Evaluation of Irrigative Wastewater from Shijiazhuang City in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Liu

    Full Text Available In the present study, the wastewater sample collected from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city was analysed using both chemical analysis and biological assays including the Salmonella mutagenicity test, micronucleus test and single-cell gel electrophoresis. Chemical analysis of the sample was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Salmonella mutagenicity test was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with and without S9 mixture. The mice received the wastewater in natura through drinking water at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. One group of mice was exposed for 2 consecutive days, and the other group of mice was exposed for 15 consecutive days. To establish the levels of primary DNA damage, single-cell gel electrophoresis was performed on treated mouse liver cell. The concentrations of chromium and lead in the sample exceeded the national standard (GB20922-2007 by 0.78 and 0.43-fold, respectively. More than 30 organic compounds were detected, and some of the detected compounds were mutagens, carcinogens and environmental endocrine disrupters. A positive response for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain was observed. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a dose-response manner. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of the Olive tail moments in a dose-response manner. All the results indicated that the sample from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city exhibited genotoxicity and might pose harmful effects on the local residents.

  17. Marine dispersion of caesium 137 released from Sellafield and Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandle, D.; Beechey, J.

    1991-09-01

    This modelling study examines the dispersion within the shelf seas surrounding the UK, of 137Cs discharged from Sellafield between 1969 and 1988 together with the atmospheric deposition following Chernobyl (April 1986). The close agreement obtained between computed and observed distributions lends confidence to estimates of flushing times-fundamental parameters in determining pollutant concentrations. Moreover, this study confirms, to first-order, the estimates of Chernobyl fall-out provided by atmospheric dispersion models.

  18. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  19. Municipal wastewater effluent licensing: A global perspective and recommendations for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Liz; Colombo, Valentina; Hassell, Kathryn; Kellar, Claudette; Leahy, Paul; Long, Sara M; Myers, Jackie H; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2017-02-15

    Advances in wastewater treatment have greatly improved the quality of municipal wastewater effluents in many parts of the world, but despite this, treated wastewaters can still pose a risk to the environment. Licensing plays a crucial role in the regulation of municipal wastewater effluents by setting standards or limits designed to protect the economic, environmental and societal values of waterbodies. Traditionally these standards have focused on physical and chemical water quality parameters within the discharge itself, however these approaches do not adequately account for emerging contaminants, potential effects of chemical mixtures, or variations in the sensitivity and resilience of receiving environments. In this review we focus on a number of industrialised countries and their approach to licensing. We consider how we can ensure licensing is effective, particularly when considering the rapid changes in our understanding of the impacts of discharges, the technical advances in our ability to detect chemicals at low concentrations and the progress in wastewater treatment technology. In order to meet the challenges required to protect the values of our waterways, licensing of effluents will need to ensure that there is no disconnect between the core values to be protected and the monitoring system designed to scrutinise performance of the WWTP. In many cases this may mean an expansion in the monitoring approaches used for both the effluent itself and the receiving waterbody. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Selection of Suitable Microalgal Species for Sorption of Uranium in Radioactive Wastewater Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hu, Hong-ying; Yu, Jun-yi; Zhao, Wen-yu

    2016-05-15

    The amount of radioactive wastewater discharge was increasing year by year, with the quick development of nuclear industry. Therefore, the proper treatment and disposal of radioactive wastewater are essentially important for environmental safety and human health. Microalgal biosorption of nuclide has drawn much attention in the area of radioactive wastewater treatment recently, and the selection of a proper microalgal species for uranium biosorption is the basis for the research and application of this technology. The selection principle was set up from the view of practical application, and 11 species of microalgae were prepared for the selection work. Scenedesmus sp. LX1 has the highest biosorption capacity of 40.7 mg · g⁻¹ for uranium; and its biomass production in mBG11 medium (simulating the nitrogen and phosphorus limits in the first-class A discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant) was 0.32 g · L⁻¹, which was relatively high among the 11 microalgal species; when grown into stable phase it also showed a good precipitation capability with the precipitation ratio of 45.3%. Above all, in our selection range of the 11 microalgal species, Scenedesmus sp. LX1 could be considered as the suitable species for uranium biosorption in radioactive wastewater treatment.

  1. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L{sup -1}). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  2. A novel process of dye wastewater treatment by linking advanced chemical oxidation with biological oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Haiming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dye wastewater is one of typically non-biodegradable industrial effluents. A new process linking Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation proposed in this study was investigated to degrade the organic substances from real dye wastewater. During the combination process, the Fenton’s oxidation process can reduce the organic load and enhance biodegradability of dye wastewater, which is followed by biological aerated filter (BAF system to further remove organic substances in terms of discharge requirement. The results showed that 97.6% of chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by the combination process was achieved at the optimum process parameters: pH of 3.5, H2O2 of 2.0 mL/L, Fe(II of 500 mg/L, 2.0 h treatment time in the Fenton’s oxidation process and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 5 h in the BAF system. Under these conditions, COD concentration of effluent was 72.6 mg/L whereas 3020 mg/L in the influent, thus meeting the requirement of treated dye wastewater discharge performed by Chinese government (less than 100 mg/L. These results obtained here suggest that the new process combining Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation may provide an economical and effective alternative for treatment of non-biodegradable industrial wastewater.

  3. Application of real-time quantitative PCR for the detection of selected bacterial pathogens during municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, K E; Lee, D-Y; Trevors, J T; Beaudette, L A

    2007-08-15

    Bacteria were detected at five stages of municipal wastewater treatment using TaqMan(R) real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Thirteen probe and primer sets were tested for diverse pathogens that may be present in wastewater, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus. The sensitivity of the assay was 100 fg of genomic DNA (=22 gene copies), based on a standard curve generated using A. hydrophila purified DNA. Samples from five stages of wastewater treatment were collected, including raw wastewater, primary effluents, mixed liquor, waste activated sludge and final effluents. In duplicate samples, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, C. perfringens and E. faecalis were detected throughout the wastewater process, and their numbers decreased by 3.52-3.98, 4.23-4.33, 3.15-3.39, and 3.24 orders of magnitude respectively, between the raw wastewater and final effluent stage. This qPCR method was effective for the detection of pathogens in wastewater and confirmed that the risk of exposure to pathogens in the wastewater discharge was well within the Environment Canada guidelines.

  4. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Information regarding the contents of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in wastewater is limited, but it has been shown that at least 900 different compounds / compound groups could potentially be present in grey wastewater. Analyses of Danish grey wastewater revealed the presence of several...... hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...... aquatic toxicity were present and that data for environmental fate could only be retrieved for about half of the compounds....

  5. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  6. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awni Khatib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: A research was needed to monitor the environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW: production and relative production of olive mill waste. This was achieved by collecting data from 92 local olive mills in order to study the olive production yield, water consumption in olive washing and in oil recovery, wastewater generation relative to olive processed and oil generated, and solid waste generation. The OMW is usually discharged in the open environment, thus producing pollution to the soil surface and underground water. Approach: The progress on this problem is made by reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD as a major OMW pollutant. An upper flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB facility was constructed and operated for eight months in a progressive program operation for standardization and optimization purpose, and so to treat the waste by COD reduction. Results: The results reveal local variation in most of the investigated parameters. The olives in some area are found to contain large solid waste than other areas, resulting in lower oil yield and higher solid generation per ton of olive produced. The COD concentration was increased gradually from 5,000-30,000 mg/L and the efficiency improved significantly during the operation from 46%-84% COD removal. The organic load of OMW 27,000mg/L was reduce below 5,000 mg/L, that permits its direct discharge into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Conclusion: The implications and relevance of the results imply that OMW must be treated before discharge to the sewer system. On the other hand, the nonconformity between areas must be taken into consideration for future work.

  7. Characterization of Hemodialysis Reverse Osmosis Wastewater From Yazd Educational Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh Ali-Taleshi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the technical feasibility of reusing hemodialysis reverse osmosis wastewater from educational hospitals in Yazd, Iran, as an alternative water source. For this study, from October to December 2013, hemodialysis reverse osmosis wastewater samples were obtained from two dialysis facilities and analyzed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC using standard methods. Furthermore, concentrations of heavy metals such as Ag, Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn were calculated. Results were analyzed using the one sample t-test and independent t-test in SPSS 16 software. Mean concentrations of Ag, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn in the hemodialysis reverse osmosis wastewater were 0.0960, 0.0611, 0.0186, 0.3381, 0.2153, 0.2212, 0.4196, and 0.0667 mg/L at S. Dr. Rahnamoon hospital, and 0.0963, 0.0849, 0.0177, 0.2942, 0.2160, 0.1827, 0.3420, and 0.0867 mg/L at S. Sadoughi hospital, respectively. The results also showed that the important challenges for reusing hemodialysis wastewater were its high EC and the presence of some elements, such as Se and Pb. Unlike Se and Pb, the concentrations of the other parameters were below discharge emission standards. Because of the large volumes of water used in hemodialysis, it is important to study the potential for reusing or recycling it. Through evaluation of the technical feasibility of hemodialysis wastewater reuse, this study draws attention to this neglected issue, especially in hemodialysis therapy.

  8. Impact of toxic chemicals on local wastewater treatment plant and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary F.

    1989-05-01

    Because toxic chemicals being discharged to sewers were simultaneously interfering with wastewater treatment processes of municipal, biological treatment plants and were passing through these plants to negatively impact the bodies of water to which these plants were discharging, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations governing industrial discharges to municipal sewers. These “Pretreatment Regulations” limit industrial discharges to municipal sewers of heavy metals, oil and grease, acids and bases, and toxic organic chemicals. This paper discusses the evolution of these regulations, the basis for them, the types of regulations (categorical and local), and the rationale for their promulgation based on the impacts of toxics chemicals on the treatment plant and receiving system. Finally, the expected results of these regulations in reducing industrial discharges of toxic chemicals is discussed.

  9. Removal of micropollutants during physicochemical pretreatment of Hospital Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.; Omil, F.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The fate and occurrence of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, hormones or cosmetic ingredients, has attracted an increasing attention in environmental research. The main sources for such compounds in the environment include domestic sewage. hospital effluents and discharges from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The aim of the presented work was to analyse the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation and flotation processes for the pre-treatment of hospital wastewaters, focusing on the removal of 12 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), including musk fragrances, anti-epileptics, tranquillisers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and one iodinated contras media. (Author)

  10. Fate of fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles during simulated secondary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-González, Lila; Field, Jim A; Calderon, Isen A C; Aspinwall, Craig A; Shadman, Farhang; Zeng, Chao; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2015-06-15

    Increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) in consumer products and industrial processes leads to SiO2 NP discharge into wastewater. Thus, there is a need to understand the fate of SiO2 NPs during wastewater treatment. However, the detection of SiO2 NPs in environmental systems is hindered by the elevated background levels of natural silicon. In this work, laboratory-synthesized fluorescent core-shell SiO2 NPs were used to study the fate of these NPs during secondary wastewater treatment. Fluorescent measurements provided an easy and fast method for SiO2 NP tracking. A laboratory-scale activated sludge system consisting of an aeration tank and a settler was fed with synthetic wastewater containing ca. 7.5 mg L(-1) of fluorescent SiO2 NPs for 30 days. SiO2 NPs were effectively removed from the wastewater (>96%) during the first 6 days, however the concentration of SiO2 NPs in the effluent gradually increased afterwards and the NP discharge was as high as 65% of the input after 30 days of NP dosing. The poor removal of the SiO2 NPs was related to the high colloidal stability of the NPs in the wastewater and their limited propensity to biosorption. Although some degree of NP adsorption on the biomass was observed using fluorescence microscopy, the affinity of SiO2 NPs for the activated sludge was not enough for a sustained and effective removal of the SiO2 NPs from the wastewater.

  11. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  12. Dispersion management with metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2017-03-07

    An apparatus, system, and method to counteract group velocity dispersion in fibers, or any other propagation of electromagnetic signals at any wavelength (microwave, terahertz, optical, etc.) in any other medium. A dispersion compensation step or device based on dispersion-engineered metamaterials is included and avoids the need of a long section of specialty fiber or the need for Bragg gratings (which have insertion loss).

  13. Vowel dispersion in Truku

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Wen-yu; Chiang, Fang-mei

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dispersion of vowel space in Truku, an endangered Austronesian language in Taiwan. Adaptive Dispersion (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972; Lindblom, 1986, 1990) proposes that the distinctive sounds of a language tend to be positioned in phonetic space in a way that maximizes perceptual contrast. For example, languages with large vowel inventories tend to expand the overall acoustic vowel space. Adaptive Dispersion predicts that the distance between the point vowels w...

  14. Electrostatic Discharge Training Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    NAVSEA SE 003-AA-TRN-OO LEYE V ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE TRAINING MANUAL s DTIC ,T OF I!ELECTE, ,4MA 0W\\R 9 981 E PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF COMMANDER...AS: F (QIQ2 . . . ................................................. (1) WHERE: F = FORCE ( NEWTONS ) Q, AND Q2 = MAGNITUDES OF THE CHARGES (COULOMB) R...RATIONALIZED MKS UNITS IN EQUATION (1), WE HAVE: & I 9(5 X 1 - )(lO ř I ’ 32 I I I I. & I = .5 NEWTON

  15. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  16. Immobilized reactor for rapid destruction of recalcitrant organics and inorganics in tannery wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Ganesh Kumar; G. Sekaran; S. Swarnalatha; B. Prasad Rao

    2005-01-01

    The wastewater discharged from tanneries lack biodegradability due to the presence of recalcitrant compounds at significant concentration. The focal theme of the present investigation was to use chemo-autotrophic activated carbon oxidation(CAACO) reactor, an immobilized cell reactor using chemoautotrophs for the treatment of tannery wastewater. The treatment scheme comprised of anaerobic treatment, sand filtration, and CAACO reactor, which remove COD, BOD, TOC, VFA and sulphides respectively by 86%, 95%, 81%,71% and 100%. Rice bran mesoporous activated carbon prepared indigenously and was used for immobilization of chemoautotrophs. The degradation of xenobiotic compounds by CAACO was confirmed through HPLC and FT-IR techniques.

  17. Adsorption Characteristics of Macroporous Resin for Oil Removal from Desulphurization Wastewater on Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie; Chen, Chen; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Jiao; Tang, Xiaojia; Zhu, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    According to our previous results on the magnesium-based exhaust gas cleaning system (Mg-EGCS), PAHs and total oil content were the main factors affecting the COD in the wastewater. In this work, three kinds of adsorption materials were investigated and macroporous resin was selected for oil removal. The effects of the dosage of macroporous resin, adsorption time and the flow rate were studied, and thermodynamics equation was used to characterize the adsorption process. The results showed that macroporous resin is a good candidate for oil removal from desulphurization wastewater on board, and the COD after treatment can meet the discharge criteria set by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

  18. Treatment of chitin-producing wastewater by micro-electrolysis-contact oxidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨岳平; 徐新华; 陈海峰

    2004-01-01

    The technique of micro-electrolysis-contact oxidization was exploited to treat chitin-producing wastewater.Results showed that Fe-C micro-electrolysis can remove about 30% CODcr, raise pH from 0.7 to 5.5.The CODcr removal efficiency by biochemical process can be more than 80%. During a half year's operation,the whole system worked very stably and had good results, as proved by the fact that every quality indicator of effluent met the expected discharge standards; which means that chitin wastewater can be treated by the technique of micro-electrolysis, contact oxidization.

  19. Treatment of chitin-producing wastewater by micro-electrolysis-contact oxidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨岳平; 徐新华; 陈海峰

    2004-01-01

    The technique of micro-electrolysis-contact oxidization was exploited to treat chitin-producing wastewater. Results showed that Fe-C micro-electrolysis can remove about 30% CODcr, raise pH from 0.7 to 5.5. The CODcr removal efficiency by biochemical process can be more than 80%. During a half year's operation, the whole system worked very stably and had good results, as proved by the fact that every quality indicator of effluent met the expected discharge standards; which means that chitin wastewater can be treated by the technique of micro-electrolysis, contact oxidization.

  20. Re-thinking wastewater landscapes: combining innovative strategies to address tomorrow's urban wastewater treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B R

    2009-01-01

    Most major cities worldwide face urban water management challenges relating to drinking supply, stormwater and wastewater treatment, and ecological preservation. In light of climate change and finite natural resources, addressing these challenges in sustainable ways will require innovative solutions arising from interdisciplinary collaboration. This article summarizes five major urban water management strategies that bridge the fields of engineering, ecology, landscape architecture, and urban planning. A conceptual implementation of these strategies is demonstrated through a design for a small constructed wetland treatment system in San Francisco, California. The proposed decentralized system described in this article consists of a detention basin, vegetated and open free water surface wetlands, and ultraviolet disinfection. In wet weather, the system would detain and treat combined sewer discharges (CSD), and in dry weather it would treat residential greywater for toilet flushing and irrigation in a nearby neighborhood. It is designed to adapt over time to changing climatic conditions and treatment demands. Importantly, this proposal demonstrates how constructed wetland engineers can incorporate multiple benefits into their systems, offering a vision of how wastewater infrastructure can be an attractive community, educational, recreational, and habitat amenity through the integration of engineering, ecology, and landscape design.

  1. Nitrous Oxide Production in a Sequence Batch Reactor Wastewater Treatment System Using Synthetic Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian; JIANG Xiao-Qin; YANG Lin-Zhang; ZHANG Jian; QIAO Qing-Yun; HE Chen-Da; YIN Shi-Xue

    2006-01-01

    The rate of nitrous oxide emission from a laboratory sequence batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment system using synthetic wastewater was measured under controlled conditions. The SBR was operated in the mode of 4 h for aeration, 3.5 h for stirring without aeration, 0.5 h for settling and drainage, and 4 h of idle. The sludge was acclimated by running the system to achieve a stable running state as indicated by rhythmic changes of total N, dissolved oxygen,chemical oxygen demand, NO2-, NO3-, NH4+, pH, and N2O. Under the present experimental conditions measured nitrous oxide emitted from the off-gas in the aerobic and anaerobic phases, respectively, accounted for 8.6%-16.1% and 0-0.05%of N removed, indicating that the aerobic phase was the main source of N2O emission from the system. N2O dissolved in discharged water was considerable in term of concentration. Thus, measures to be developed for the purpose of reducing N2O emission from the system should be effective in the aeration phase.

  2. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  3. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the process. It also helped in formulating the basic mechanism for thedischarge formation and the material removal in the process. Temperature profile on workpieceand in electrochemical discharge machining cell is experimentally measured using pyrometer,and two varieties of K-type thermocouples. Surface topography of the discharge-affected zoneson the workpiece has been carried out using scanning electron microscope. Measurements andsurface topographical studies reveal the potential use of this process for machining in micronregime. With careful experimental set-up design, suitable supply voltage and its polarity, theprocess can be applied for both micromachining and micro-deposition. It can be extended formachining and or deposition of wide range of materials.

  4. Microhollow cathode discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, K. H.; Moselhy, M.; Shi, W.; Bentley, R.

    2003-07-01

    By reducing the dimensions of hollow cathodes into the hundred micrometer range, stable, direct current, high (atmospheric) pressure glow discharges in rare gases, rare gas-halide mixtures and in air could be generated. The electron energy distribution in these microdischarges is non-Maxwellian, with a pronounced high-energy tail. The high electron energy together with the high gas density, which favors three-body collisions, is the reason for an efficient excimer generation in these microplasmas. Excimer efficiencies from 1% to 9% have been measured for argon, xenon, argon fluoride, and xenon chloride direct current excimer emitters, with a radiant excimer emittance of up to 2 W/cm2 for xenon. Adding small amounts of oxygen to argon has allowed us to generate vacuum ultraviolet line radiation at 130.5 nm with an efficiency approaching 1%. Pulsing xenon discharges with nanosecond electrical pulses has led to an increase in intensity to 15 W/cm2 and to a simultaneous increase in efficiency to more than 20%. Operating the discharges in an abnormal glow mode has allowed us to generate microdischarge arrays without individual ballast. Applications of these plasma arrays are excimer lamps and plasma reactors.

  5. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.

  6. Sterilization of Fungus in Water by Pulsed Power Gas Discharge Reactor Spraying Water Droplets for Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsukasa; Handa, Taiki; Minamitani, Yasushi

    We study sterilization of bacteria in water using pulsed streamer discharge of gas phase. This method enhances efficiency of water treatment by spraying pretreatment water in a streamer discharge area. In this paper, yeast was sterilized because we assumed a case that fungus like mold existed in wastewater. As a result, colony forming units decreased rapidly for 2 minutes of the processing time, and all yeast sterilized by 45 minutes of the processing time.

  7. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  8. Electrical discharges of plasma ozonizer and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirawanichakul, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ozone synthesis is one of the applications of near atmospheric plasma processing. An ozone generator in this research comprised two annular cylindrical-shaped electrodes. The inner electrode was made ofstainless steel covered with the dielectric glass and the outer electrode was also made of stainless steel. The electric spacing gap was 0.0075 m and length of ozonizer was 0.21 m. Oxygen gas passing through thedischarge gap between two electrodes supplied by an alternating current (AC high voltage power supply, frequency 50 Hz, ranging of 6-10 kVAC was used for producing ozone. The amount of ozone was determinedby the KI standard method. The result showed that the concentration of ozone is proportional to the AC applied voltage. For determining effect of purified oxygen feed rate of 6-10 L/min on quantity of ozone, theresults indicated that at the volumetric flow rate of 8 L/min produced the largest amount of ozone. In addition, ozone concentration at a flow rate of 8 L/min and an electrical discharge time of 3 minutes wasapproximately determined as 41, 60, 80 and 135 mg/L at 8, 9, 10 and 11 kVAC, respectively. Moreover, study of dye wastewater of Krajud mat was proposed and treated by three different methods. Firstly, dye wastewater was solely treated by a plasma ozonation. Secondly, a combination ofozonation and alum coagulation was used for dye wastewater treatment. Finally, the combined ozonation and activated carbon adsorption were used for dye wastewater treatment. The experimental results showedthat the percentage of light absorbance reduction of pink dyed wastewater for these three different methods was about 56%, 35% and 10%, respectively compared to the reference sample. In addition, For thesemethods, the percentage of BOD of treated dye wastewater could be reduced to 64%, 54% and 46% respectively, the percentage of COD could be reduced to approximately 78%, 62% and 27%, respectively, comparedto the reference sample. In conclusion, the

  9. NEXT Ion Thruster Performance Dispersion Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT ion thruster is a low specific mass, high performance thruster with a nominal throttling range of 0.5 to 7 kW. Numerous engineering model and one prototype model thrusters have been manufactured and tested. Of significant importance to propulsion system performance is thruster-to-thruster performance dispersions. This type of information can provide a bandwidth of expected performance variations both on a thruster and a component level. Knowledge of these dispersions can be used to more conservatively predict thruster service life capability and thruster performance for mission planning, facilitate future thruster performance comparisons, and verify power processor capabilities are compatible with the thruster design. This study compiles the test results of five engineering model thrusters and one flight-like thruster to determine unit-to-unit dispersions in thruster performance. Component level performance dispersion analyses will include discharge chamber voltages, currents, and losses; accelerator currents, electron backstreaming limits, and perveance limits; and neutralizer keeper and coupling voltages and the spot-to-plume mode transition flow rates. Thruster level performance dispersion analyses will include thrust efficiency.

  10. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splenectomy - adult - discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge ... You had surgery to remove your spleen. This operation is called splenectomy . The surgeon made a cut (incision) in the middle of your belly or on the left side ...

  11. Theory of gas discharge plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the theory of gas discharge plasmas in a didactical way. It explains the processes in gas discharge plasmas. A gas discharge plasma is an ionized gas which is supported by an external electric field. Therefore its parameters are determined by processes in it. The properties of a gas discharge plasma depend on its gas component, types of external fields, their geometry and regimes of gas discharge. Fundamentals of a gas discharge plasma include elementary, radiative and transport processes which are included in its kinetics influence. They are represented in this book together with the analysis of simple gas discharges. These general principles are applied to stationary gas discharge plasmas of helium and argon. The analysis of such plasmas under certain conditions is theoretically determined by numerical plasma parameters for given regimes and conditions.

  12. Performance of Multilevel Contact Oxidation in the Treatment of Wastewater from Automobile Painting Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Yufang; Fienko, Udo; Yuanhua, Xie; Kuo, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    A multilevel contact oxidation system was applied in a pilot-scale experiment to treat the automobile painting wastewater, which had poor biodegradability and contained high concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The wastewater used for this experiment study was the actual painting wastewater which had been pre-treated by the physic-chemical process, and its Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5)/COD was less than 0.1,COD concentration was 800∼1500mg/L. The results showed that the multilevel contact oxidation system could efficiently degrade the COD of the painting wastewater. When the experimental system kept stable operation, the total removal rate of COD and suspended solid (SS) were 84% and 82.5% respectively with the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 8 hours. Meanwhile, this system had a strong ability to resist the impact of COD concentration change. The COD concentration of final treated wastewater was less than 500 mg/L, which could reach the factory discharge requirement for the paint shop. Besides, this system with simple structure was able to reduce the excess sludge production greatly, which would reduce much cost for the treatment of painting wastewater.

  13. Process evaluation and treatability study of wastewater in a textile dyeing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Mazumder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The process was investigated in a textile dying unit and subsequently wastewater generation profile was studied for the development of a viable treatment. The dyeing unit under the study generated a considerable volume of wastewater containing inorganic chemicals and organic reactive green dye. Chemical oxygen demand (COD resulting from all the chemically oxidizible substances and the residual color of the dye were targeted for removal. The wastewater samples were collected from different sub-processes and then characterized for the parameters viz. pH, Total solid, Suspended solid, Dissolved solid, COD and Alkalinity. A composite wastewater sample was prepared according to the measured wastewater discharge from various unit operations and used for treatability study. In the first stage, coagulation-flocculation with alum and chemical oxidation with bleaching powder were performed separately. Subsequently, adsorption study was conducted with crushed burnt coal (C.B.C. on the composite wastewater, initially treated with 10% bleaching powder solution. After several trials, this combination was found to be effective for a C.B.C. content of 10% under a contact period of 90 minutes, which showed 100% colour and about 95% COD removal.

  14. SEASONAL CHANGES IN THE REDUCTION OF BIOGENIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS BASED ON HYDROPONIC TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bawiec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater with respect to the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. The analysis encompasses the results of physical and chemical tests of effluents from two facilities based on hydroponic technology: wastewater treatment plants with hydroponic lagoons using the BIOPAX technology – Paczków, Poland and the Organica technology – Szarvas, Hungary. Monthly treatment effectiveness was determined basing on these analyses. The composition of wastewater flowing into the lagoon (after mechanical treatment and wastewater discharged to the collector in 2009–2011 was subject to physical and chemical analysis in both facilities. The effluent quality was determined basing on the concentration of total phosphorus, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. Mean annual results of the operation of both objects were high. For the wastewater treatment plant in Paczkow, operating in the BIOPAX technology, the effectiveness of treatment with respect to total nitrogen throughout the analysed period ranged from 76.9–84.4%. Total phosphorus was eliminated from wastewater with an effectiveness of 96.4–98.0%. Such high reduction level was caused by the application of additional precipitation process in the chambers of activated sludge reactor. The hydroponic plant in Szarvas (Organica technology was characterised by a high effectiveness of reduction with respect to ammonium nitrogen: 92.0–93.0%, while the reduction of total phosphorus fell into the range 49.3–55.3%.

  15. Immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) for treatment of combined domestic and dairy wastewater in an isolated farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, A; Tuttle, J G P; Shandalov, S; Oron, G

    2005-01-01

    In many regions dairy farms and milk processing industries discharge large quantities of their wastes to the surroundings posing serious environmental risks. This problem is mostly faced in small dairy farms and isolated communities lacking both central collection and conventional wastewater treatment systems. Dairy wastewater is characterized by high concentrations of organic matter, solids, nutrients, as well as fractions of dissolved inorganic pollutants, exceeding those levels considered typical for high strength domestic wastewaters. With the purpose of treating the combined dairy and domestic wastewater from a small dairy farm in the Negev Desert of Israel, the use of a recent emerging technology of Immersed Membrane BioReactor (IMBR) was evaluated over the course of 500 test hours, under a variety of wastewater feed quality conditions (during the test periods, the feed BOD5 ranged from 315 ppm up to 4,170 ppm). The overall performance of a pilot-scale Ultrafiltration (UF) IMBR process for a combined domestic and dairy wastewater was analyzed based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. The IMBR performance in terms of membrane performance (permeate flux, transmembrane pressure, and organic removal) and DEA model (Technical Efficiency) was acceptable. DEA is an empirically based methodology and the research approach has been found to be effective in the depiction and analysis for complex systems, where a large number of mutual interacting variables are involved.

  16. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-11-24

    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  17. Acute toxicity and chemical evaluation of coking wastewater under biological and advanced physicochemical treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehua, Ma; Cong, Liu; Xiaobiao, Zhu; Rui, Liu; Lujun, Chen

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the changes of toxic compounds in coking wastewater with biological treatment (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic-membrane bioreactor, A1/A2/O-MBR) and advanced physicochemical treatment (Fenton oxidation and activated carbon adsorption) stages. As the biological treatment stages preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the luminescence of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. Q67 decreased. Toxic units (TU) of coking wastewater were removed by A1/A2/O-MBR treatment process, however approximately 30 % TU remained in the biologically treated effluent. There is a tendency that fewer and fewer residual organic compounds could exert equal acute toxicity during the biological treatment stages. Activated carbon adsorption further removed toxic pollutants of biologically treated effluent but the Fenton effluent increased acute toxicity. The composition of coking wastewater during the treatment was evaluated using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic compounds with high polarity were the main cause of acute toxicity in the coking wastewater. Aromatic protein-like matters in the coking wastewater with low biodegradability and high toxicity contributed mostly to the remaining acute toxicity of the biologically treated effluents. Chlorine generated from the oxidation process was responsible for the acute toxicity increase after Fenton oxidation. Therefore, the incorporation of appropriate advanced physicochemical treatment process, e.g., activated carbon adsorption, should be implemented following biological treatment processes to meet the stricter discharge standards and be safer to the environment.

  18. Pharmaceutical occurrence in groundwater and surface waters in forests land-applied with municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachran, Andrew D; Shea, Damian; Bodnar, Wanda; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment are of increasing public importance because of their ubiquitous nature and documented effects on wildlife, ecosystems, and potentially humans. One potential, yet undefined, source of entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment is via the land application of municipal wastewater onto permitted lands. The objective of the present study is to determine the extent to which pharmaceuticals are mitigated by or exported from managed tree plantations irrigated with municipal wastewater. A specific focus of the present study is the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater and surface water discharge. The study site is a municipality that land-applies secondary treated wastewater onto 930 hectares of a 2000-hectare managed hardwood and pine plantation. A suite of 33 pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones was targeted in the analysis, which consisted of monthly grab sampling of groundwater, surface water, and wastewater, followed by concentration and cleanup via solid phase extraction and separation, detection, and quantification via liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. More than one-half of all compounds detected in irrigated wastewater were not present in groundwater and subsequent surface water. However, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, caffeine, and other prescription and over-the-counter drugs remained in groundwater and were transported into surface water at concentrations up to 10 ng/L. These results provide important documentation for pharmaceutical fate and transport in forest systems irrigated with municipal wastewater, a previously undocumented source of environmental entry.

  19. [Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed.

  20. Class 1 integrase, sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in wastewater treatment plant and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Nicoletta; Koczura, Ryszard; Mokracka, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are considered hot spots for multiplication and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. In this study, we determined the presence of class 1 integron integrase and genes conferring resistance to tetracyclines and sulfonamides in the genomes of culturable bacteria isolated from a wastewater treatment plant and the river that receives the treated wastewater. Moreover, using PCR-based metagenomic approach, we quantified intI1, tet and sul genes. Wastewater treatment caused the decrease in the total number of culturable heterotrophs and bacteria resistant to tetracycline and sulfonamides, along with the decrease in the number of intI1, sul and tet gene copies per ml, with significant reduction of tet(B). On the other hand, the treatment process increased both the frequency of tetracycline- and sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and intI1-positive strains, and the relative abundance of all quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and intI1 gene; in the case of tet(A) and sul2 significantly. The discharge of treated wastewater increased the number of intI1, tet and sul genes in the receiving river water both in terms of copy number per ml and relative abundance. Hence, despite the reduction of the number of ARGs and ARBs, wastewater treatment selects for bacteria with ARGs in effluent.