Sample records for waste-water treatment plants


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU


    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  2. Modelling of a Small Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SSWWTP)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2014 ... source of energy. Future effort will be focus on improving the efficiency of energy used in the waste water [3]. Aim. The aim of this project is to bring into existence a Small Scale Waste Water. Treatment Plant that can convert a waste water with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and high Biological ...

  3. Waste Water Treatment Plants and the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Tychsen, Peter; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas


    power production. The energy-heavy processes for waste water transport and treatment could potentially provide a flexible operation with storage capabilities and be a valuable asset to a Smart Grid. In order to enable Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) as flexible prosumers in the future Smart Grid......, we must update their process control system to model based predictive control that monitors the changed flexible operation and plans ahead. The primary aim of a WWTP is to treat the incoming waste water as much as possible to ensure a sufficient effluent water quality and protect the environment...... of the recipient. The secondary aim is to treat the waste water using as little energy as possible. In the future waste water will be considered an energy resource, that contains valuable nutrients convertible to green biogas and in turn electricity and heat. In a Smart Grid consuming or producing energy...

  4. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  5. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  6. Modelling of a Small Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SSWWTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most important environmental problems faced by the world today is waste handling and due to variation in waste water with respect to homes. The two main treatment used here are the aerobic and the anaerobic treatment process. The processes are brought to increase the efficiency of the plant. The plant has ...

  7. Balancing Waste Water Treatment Plant Load Using Branch and Bound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nooijen, R.R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.


    The problem of smoothing dry weather inflow variations for
    a Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) that receives sewage from
    multiple mixed sewer systems is presented, together with a first rough
    solution algorithm. A simplification followed by a naive translation into
    a zero-one linear

  8. Physical properties of sand from the waste water treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz


    Full Text Available The work is focused on characterization of selected physical properties of sewage sand from the waste water treatment plants. Sand is transported into wastewater mainly in areas with a combined se­we­ra­ge system – principally in connection with rainfalls, in case of which it is transported through the sewerage system together with rainwater, but also (within smaller extents due to leakages of sewerage systems or bad conduct of natural persons and legal entities. The main attention was focused on basic physical parameters such as content of total solid, ash free dry mass, density and granulometry. These material parameters are very often underestimated so the set of quality data is completly missing, as well as a background for designers of wastewater treatment plants. This paper should be quite useful e.g. for the purpose of technological equipment design in the region of South Moravia.

  9. Modelling of a Small Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SSWWTP)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2014 ... Abstract. One of the most important environmental problems faced by the world today is waste handling and management, due to variation in waste water with respect to homes. The two main treatment methods used here are the aerobic and the anaerobic treatment process. The processes are brought.

  10. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region. (United States)

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo


    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  11. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  12. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants. (United States)

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M


    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii prevailed in raw surface water, Aeromonas hydrophyla in ozonated water, and Aeromonas media and Aeromonas puntacta in waste water. No aeromonads were detected in ground water, after the chlorination tank or in tap water. Resistance to ceftazidime or meropenem was detected in isolates from the drinking water treatment plant and waste water isolates were intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid. Most of the times, quinolone resistance was associated with the gyrA mutation in serine 83. The gene qnrS, but not the genes qnrA, B, C, D or qepA, was detected in both surface and waste water isolates. The gene aac(6')-ib-cr was detected in different waste water strains isolated in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Both quinolone resistance genes were detected only in the species A. media. This is the first study tracking antimicrobial resistance in aeromonads in drinking, tap and waste water and the importance of these bacteria as vectors of resistance in aquatic environments is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption (United States)

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

  14. Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putus Tuula


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems.

  15. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants. (United States)

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H


    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Waste water treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Badulescu


    Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Water Treatment Plants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Mcnamara


      The Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC introduced a series of measures for the purpose of protecting the environment from the adverse effects of effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants.  There are environmental costs associated with attaining the required level of water quality set out in the directive such as greenhouse gas emissions due to energy production, and ecotoxicity from sludge application to land.  The goal of this study is to assess the environmental costs in an Irish context, focusing specifically on the effects of variation in scale and discharge limitation. Life cycle assessment is the analytical tool used to evaluate the environmental impact.  The life cycle impact assessment methodology developed by the Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University (2010 has been adopted and implemented using GaBi 6.0 life cycle assessment software.  Two plants of varying size and location were chosen for the study. The study found that energy consumption and sludge application to land are the largest contributors to the overall environmental impact associated with the treatment process at both plants.  Economies of scale were observed in energy usage during secondary aeration.   

  18. Removal of two antibacterial compounds triclocarban and triclosan in a waste water treatment plant (United States)

    This study investigates the fate of Triclocarban (TCC) and Triclosan (TCS) in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Our goal was to identify the most effective removal step and to determine the amount on the solid phase versus degraded. Our influent contained higher TCS than TCC concentrations (8....

  19. Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production on Waste Water Treatment Plants: Process Scheme, Operating Conditions and Potential Analysis for German and European Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants. (United States)

    Pittmann, Timo; Steinmetz, Heidrun


    This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) and a subsequent analysis of the production potential in Germany and the European Union (EU). Therefore, tests with different types of sludge from a WWTP were investigated regarding their volatile fatty acids (VFA) production-potential. Afterwards, primary sludge was used as substrate to test a series of operating conditions (temperature, pH, retention time (RT) and withdrawal (WD)) in order to find suitable settings for a high and stable VFA production. In a second step, various tests regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition to determine the influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were conducted. Experiments with a semi-continuous reactor operation showed that a short RT of 4 days and a small WD of 25% at pH = 6 and around 30 °C is preferable for a high VFA production rate (PR) of 1913 mgVFA/(L×d) and a stable VFA composition. A high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW) was reached at lower substrate concentration, 20 °C, neutral pH-value and a 24 h cycle time. A final step a potential analysis, based on the results and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 19% of the 2016 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition, a profound estimation regarding the EU showed that in theory about 120% of the worldwide biopolymer production (in 2016) could be produced on European waste water treatment plants.

  20. Assessment of chars from black coal carbonization for adsorption treatment of waste water from coking plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolany, B.; Szkuta-Pochopien, T.; Malczyk, R.; Sekula, M.


    The Institute for Chemical Coal Processing investigated efficiency of carbon adsorption in treatment of waste water from a coking plant in Poland. Four types of adsorption media were used: a coarse-grained non-activated char, a fine-grained non-activated char, a coarse-grained activated char and Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon produced on a commercial scale. The chars were produced by carbonization of black coal from Poland in a rotary chamber using semicoke as heat carrier. Sorptive properties of 4 types of chars were compared. All the tested chars were characterized by sorptive properties in relation to chemical compounds from waste water. The coarse-grained activated char was superior to other chars. The working sorptive capacity of the coarse-grained activated char amounted to 86% of the capacity of Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon (when 2 chars were used for reducing chemical oxygen demand of waste water to about 35% of the initial level, treatment efficiency amounted to 65%). Use of the coarse-grained activated char for waste water treatment in coking plants on a commercial scale is recommended. 13 references.

  1. Construction of a new waste-water treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department


    A new waste-water treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue until February 2009.

  2. Operation and management of Liaoning waste water treatment plants by STOAT Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yu Nan


    Full Text Available Due to the irregular management, the effluent water of some waste water treatment plants (WWPT of Liaoning province didn’t meet the demand of the National Discharge Standard. Meanwhile, excessive of dosage and discharge of sludge made the results of operation costs increasing and environmental pollution during the processes. The use of mathematical models for the simulationof wastewater treatment processes has gained widespread acceptance as a tool to aid the design of newworks and the optimization of existing facilities. STOAT developed by the Water Research Center is the most widely used model for simulating the WWST processes. This paper invited the STOAT as simulation model for the design and optimization of Liaoning waste water treatment plant.

  3. Enhanced energy efficiency in waste water treatment plants; Steigerung der Energieeffizienz auf kommunalen Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkern, Bernd; Maier, Werner; Schneider, Ursula [iat - Ingenieurberatung fuer Abwassertechnik, Darmstadt und Stuttgart, Darmstadt (Germany)


    In order to implement the requests of EU-IPCC-directive in a new decree for waste water treatment in Germany, best available techniques have to be defined to optimize energy efficiency in waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Therefore energy efficiency was investigated for common treatment processes and new technologies like membrane filtration, co-digestion or phosphorus recycling. In addition, the occurrence of different technologies for waste water and sludge treatment was evaluated for different size ranges of treatment plants (in population equivalents, PE) nationwide in Germany. The definition of actual and aimed values for specific energy consumption (in kWh/(PE.a)) allowed to calculate the potential energy savings in WWTP and the additional consumption due to new processes on a national level. Under consideration of the reciprocations between optimized energy consumption in WWTP and operation practice, toe-holds to increase energy efficiency according to their relevancy for the national balance could be listed. Case studies prove the feasibility of the investigated techniques and allow proposals for minimum requirements in legal regulation concerning energy efficiency in WWTP. (orig.)

  4. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay


    Full Text Available Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  5. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia (United States)

    Makisha, Nikolay; Gogina, Elena


    Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  6. [Survival of Salmonella typhimurium in the solid fraction from a farm waste water treatment plant]. (United States)

    Plachá, I; Venglovský, J; Lasanda, V; Plachý, P


    Survival of Salmonella typhimurium pathogens was followed in the slurry solid fraction from a pig farm waste water treatment plant. The tested S. typhimurium pathogens have survived for 117 days. The solid fraction was kept in the laboratory at 20-23 degrees C. Indicatory microorganisms at the beginning of the experiment numbered 10(8)-10(9) CFU in 1 ml sample. This number decreased by 4-5 series throughout the experiment, except for faecal coliform bacteria, which were not detected after 43 days of cultivation. Enterobacteria showed a decreasing tendency until day 83, however, on the final sampling (day 117) their count was almost double. Of physico-chemical parameters, pH showed the most striking variations. Its initial value of 6.9 increased to 8.1 at day 30, then decreased to 7.2 at day 43, and increased to 7.7 at the end of the experiment. Ammoniacal nitrogen in solid fraction was almost twice as high as the initial level. Other physico-chemical parameters were not changed significantly throughout the experiment. On the results of this experiment, decimal reduction times T90 were determined for indicatory microorganisms during the storage of solid fraction under constant conditions: psychrophilic bacteria 31.25; mesophilic bacteria 38.12; coliform bacteria 27.49; faecal streptococci 24.57 and enterobacteria 30.46 days. These data suggest a relatively long time of survival for indicatory microorganisms in the solid fraction from agricultural waste water treatment plants.

  7. Complexing agents in waste waters of Finnish electrolytic and chemical surface treatment plants. (United States)

    Pirkanniemi, Kari; Vuorio, Anna-Maria; Vilhunen, Sari; Metsärinne, Sirpa; Sillanpää, Mika


    Complexing agents are one of the major environmental concerns in electrolytic and chemical surface treatment (ECST) industry; e.g. the EU reference document on the best available technology (BREF) pays special attention to the usage of EDTA. However, no comprehensive studies are available on usage of EDTA or other complexing agents or their load to the receiving waters from ECST industry. In this study, the concentrations of complexing agents were analyzed to get an overview of their usage and load and also to recognize their relevance in the environmental permitting and compliance monitoring of such facilities. Complexing agent concentrations of treated waste water samples of 23 ECST plants with vat volume exceeding 30 m3 was studied. HPLC and GC-MS were used to analyze and identify complexing agent concentrations, ICP-AES to analyze metals, and TOC to analyse the organic load. The number of the plants in this study equals around 50% of such installations in Finland subject to environmental permit as the IPPC directive provides. EDTA, DTPA, and NTA were found in 11 samples out of 23 mainly in rather small concentrations. Their annual load to the receiving waters may be estimated to be 0.3 tons and the total load from Finnish ECST industry can be extrapolated to be up to 1 ton. Compared to the estimated use of 5-10 tons in the industry this finding is rather low, even though in Finland cast-off treatment baths are typically delivered to the hazardous waste treatment plants. Since the load of complexing agents is rather low, the chemical waste water treatment seems to be either capable of reducing complexing agent concentrations to some extent or their usage is lower than expected. On the other hand, it is possible that not all complexing agents were identified from the samples. The metal concentrations and TOC were well hand in hand with concentrations found in the Finnish environmental database, which proves that the samples were of average quality of the waste

  8. Polyfluorinated compounds in waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters along the River Elbe, Germany. (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Felizeter, Sebastian; Sturm, Renate; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf


    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of the River Elbe from samples collected in 2007. Concentrations of various PFCs, including C(4)-C(8) perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), C(6) and C(8) perfluorinated sulfinates, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, C(5)-C(13) perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C(4) and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides and 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomercarboxylic acids were quantified. Sum PFC concentrations of the river water ranged from 7.6 to 26.4ngL(-1), whereas sum PFC concentrations of WWTP effluents were approximately 5-10 times higher (30.5-266.3ngL(-1)), indicating that WWTPs are potential sources of PFCs in the marine environment. PFC patterns of different WWTP effluents varied depending on the origin of the waste water, whereas the profile of PFC composition in the river water was relatively constant. In both kinds of water samples, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC, whereas perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant PFSA.

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant. (United States)

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H


    This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) at different operation conditions. Therefore various tests were conducted regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition. Influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were investigated. The results demonstrated a strong influence of the operating conditions on the PHA production. Lower substrate concentration, 20°C, neutral pH-value and a 24h cycle time are preferable for high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW). PHA composition was influenced by cycle time only and a stable PHA composition was reached. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fuzzy logic based risk assessment of effluents from waste-water treatment plants. (United States)

    Cabanillas, Julián; Ginebreda, Antoni; Guillén, Daniel; Martínez, Elena; Barceló, Damià; Moragas, Lucas; Robusté, Jordi; Darbra, Rosa Ma


    This paper presents a new methodology to assess the risk of water effluents from waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs) based on fuzzy logic, a well-known theory to deal with uncertainty, especially in the environmental field where data are often lacking. The method has been tested using the effluent's pollution data coming from 22 waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Catalonia (NE Spain). Thirty-eight pollutants were analyzed along three campaigns performed yearly from 2008 to 2010. Whereas 9 compounds have been detected in more than 70% of the samples analyzed, 7 compounds have been found at levels equal or higher than the river Environmental Quality Standards set by the Water Framework Directive. Upon combination of both criteria (presence and concentration), compounds of greatest environmental concern in the WWTP studied are nickel, the herbicide diuron, and the endocrine disruptors nonyl and octylphenol. It is remarkable the low variability of the pollutant concentration just differing for the case of nickel and zinc. These low values of exposure together with other pollutants' characteristics provide a medium or low risk assessment for all the WWTPs. The results of this new method have been compared with COMMPS procedure, a solid method developed in the context of the Water Framework Directive, and they show that the fuzzy model is more conservative than COMMPS. This is due to different reasons: the fuzzy model takes into account the persistence of chemical compounds whereas COMMPS does not; the fuzzy model includes the weights provided by an expert group inquired in previous works and also considers the uncertainty of the environmental data, avoiding the crisp values and offering a range of overlapping between the different fuzzy sets. However, the results even if being more conservative with fuzzy logic, are in good agreement with a solid methodology such as the COMMPS procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  12. for the Waste Water Cleaning Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Grigorieva


    Full Text Available A model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water on the given time interval is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle and Green's Theorem. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  13. Waste water treatment in Bukkerup (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    In connection to the new waste water plan of Tølløse municipal the technical and environmental board has suggested that Bukkerup get a sewer system which brings the waste water to the treatment plant for Tysinge. All though the residents would like to list alternative suggestions which improve...... the local water environment but is still competitive.In this report the alternatives are listed, e.i. root system plants, sand filters and mini treatment plants.The conclusion is that root system plants and a combination of root system plants and sand filters are better that the sewer system....

  14. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment. (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  15. Identification of filamentous bacteria in industrial waste water treatment plants; Identificacion de bacterias filamentosas en EDAR industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, E.; Isac, L.; Fernandez, N.; Zornosa, A.; Mas, M.


    The operation of waste water treatment plants serving towns may be adversely affected by industrial effluents. To overcome this problem, industrial treatment plants should be put in place to purify such waste before it is poured into the sewer system. Twenty-seven such plants, located across Spain, mainly in the food industry, were studied and bulking found in 17 of them. Seventeen dominant morpho types were determined, of which the most important, in order of appearance, were TO21N, Thiotrix and Haliscomenobacter hydrossis. Of the other plants examined, 18% had de flocculation problems and 4% had viscosity problems. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Water Footprint Assessment in Waste Water Treatment Plant: Indicator of the sustainability of urban water cycle. (United States)

    Gómez Llanos, Eva; Durán Barroso, Pablo; Matías Sánchez, Agustín; Fernández Rodríguez, Santiago; Guzmán Caballero, Raúl


    The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) represent a challenge for citizens and countries around the world by working together to reduce social inequality, to fight poverty and climate change. The Goal six water and sanitation aims for ensuring, among others, the protection and restoration of water-related ecosystem (target 6.6) and encouraging the water use efficiency (target 6.3). The commitment to this goal is not only the development of sanitation infrastructure, but also incorporates the necessity of a sustainable and efficient management from ecological and economic perspectives. Following this approach, we propose a framework for assessing the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) management based on the Water Footprint (WF) principles. The WF as indicator is able to highlight the beneficial role of WWTPs within the environment and provide a complementary information to evaluate the impact of a WWTP regarding to the use of freshwater and energy. Therefore, the footprint family provides an opportunity to relate the reduction of pollutant load in a WWTP and the associated consumptions in terms of electricity and chemical products. As a consequence, the new methodology allows a better understanding of the interactions among water and energy resources, economic requirements and environmental risks. Because of this, the current technologies can be improved and innovative solutions for monitoring and management of urban water use can be integrated. The WF was calculated in four different WWTP located in the North East of Extremadura (SW Spain) which have activated sludge process as secondary treatment. This zone is characterized by low population density but an incipient tourism development. The WF estimation and its relationship with the electricity consumption examines the efficiency of each WWTP and identifies the weak points in the management in terms of the sustainability. Consequently, the WF establishes a benchmark for multidisciplinary decision


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna


    WWTPs fail to perform proper treatment due to their being worn-out and obsolete. However a tougher legislation accelerates their reconstruction. Approaches to the WWTP reconstruction should demonstrate a strong economic and technological base. The author proposes a new algorithm for their reconstruction. A sensible combination of the principles of WWTP restructuring, development of new fine wastewater cleaning methods, and assimilation of new materials and chemical agents will help resolve the vital problem of waste water discharge into Russia's water bodies. This is the first methodology of reconstruction of WWTPs developed on the basis of the above concept and supported by practical implementation.

  18. Monitoring for a specific management objective: protection of shorebird foraging habitat adjacent to a waste water treatment plant. (United States)

    Morris, Liz; Petch, David; May, David; Steele, William K


    Intertidal invertebrates are often used in environmental monitoring programs as they are good indicators of water quality and an important food source for many species of fish and birds. We present data from a monitoring program where the primary aim is to report on the condition of the potential invertebrate prey abundance, biomass and diversity for migrating shorebirds on mudflats adjacent to a waste water treatment plant in a Ramsar listed wetland in Victoria, Australia. A key threat to the foraging habitat at this site has been assessed as a reduction in potential prey items as a result of the changes to the waste water treatment processes. We use control charts, which summarise data from intertidal mudflats across the whole shoreline of the adjacent waste water treatment plant, to elicit a management response when trigger levels are reached. We then examine data from replicate discharge and control sites to determine the most appropriate management response. The monitoring program sits within an adaptive management framework where management decisions are reviewed and the data is examined at different scales to evaluate and modify our models of the likely outcomes of management actions. This study provides a demonstration of the process undertaken in a year when trigger levels were reached and a management decision was required. This highlights the importance of monitoring data from a range of scales in reducing uncertainty and improving decision making in complex systems.

  19. Tule River Waste Water Treatment Plant; Proposed Permit and Request for Public Comment on Proposed Minor NSR Permit in Indian Country (United States)

    EPA Region 9 provides notice of and requests public comment on the EPA’s proposed action relating to the proposed minor New Source Review (NSR) permit for the Tule River Tribe’s Waste Water Treatment Plant.

  20. Anomalies in Trace Metal and Rare-Earth Loads below a Waste-Water Treatment Plant (United States)

    Antweiler, R.; Writer, J. H.; Murphy, S.


    The changes in chemical loads were examined for 54 inorganic elements and compounds in a 5.4-km reach of Boulder Creek, Colorado downstream of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) outfall. Elements were partitioned into three categories: those showing a decrease in loading downstream, those showing an increase, and those which were conservative, at least over the length of the study reach. Dissolved loads which declined - generally indicative of in-stream loss via precipitation or sorption - were typically rapid (occurring largely before the first sampling site, 2.3 km downstream); elements showing this behavior were Bi, Cr, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hg, Se and Sn. These results were as expected before the experiment was performed. However, a large group (28 elements, including all the rare-earth elements, REE, except Gd) exhibited dissolved load increases indicating in-stream gains. These gains may be due to particulate matter dissolving or disaggregating, or that desorption is occurring below the WWTP. As with the in-stream loss group, the processes tended to be rapid, typically occurring before the first sampling site. Whole-water samples collected concurrently also had a large group of elements which showed an increase in load downstream of the WWTP. Among these were most of the group which had increases in the dissolved load, including all the REE (except Gd). Because whole-water samples include both dissolved and suspended particulates within them, increases in loads cannot be accounted for by invoking desorption or disaggregation mechanisms; thus, the only source for these increases is from the bed load of the stream. Further, the difference between the whole-water and dissolved loads is a measure of the particulate load, and calculations show that not only did the dissolved and whole-water loads increase, but so did the particulate loads. This implies that at the time of sampling the bed sediment was supplying a significant contribution to the suspended load. In general

  1. Development of an improved compact package plant for small community waste-water treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hulsman, A


    Full Text Available The challenges facing the design and operation of small community wastewater treatment plants are discussed. The package plant concept is considered and the consequent development of a compact intermittently aerated activated sludge package plant...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zdebik


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for calibration of activated sludge model with the use of computer program BioWin. Computer scheme has been developed on the basis of waste water treatment plant operating in the sequential – flow technology. For calibration of the activated sludge model data of influent and treated effluent from the existing object were used. As a result of conducted analysis was a change in biokinetic model and kinetic parameters parameters of wastewater treatment facilities. The presented method of study of the selected parameters impact on the activated sludge biokinetic model (including autotrophs maximum growth rate, the share of organic slurry in suspension general operational, efficiency secondary settling tanks can be used for conducting simulation studies of other treatment plants.

  3. Waste water treatment plants with removal of nitrogens and phosphorous; Planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales con eliminacion de fosforo y nitrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroiss, H.


    Wherever waste water is discharged into a receiving water of a sensitive area the treatment efficiency has to be increased beyond the removal of easily biodegradable carbonaceous compounds (BOD{sub 5}). The main requirements are then the removal of nitrogens and phosphorous compounds in order to prevent eutrophication in the receiving water. With these requirements a much better removal of carbonaceous matter is achieved too. One of this prerequisites for nitrogen removal is the nitrification process wich removes ammonia toxicity from the waste water. The removal of ammonia from the waste water can easily be monitored by the treatment plant operators and can be classified as the best indicator for a stable high treatment efficiency for every waste water.

  4. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies....

  5. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluents For Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Activity (United States)

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two ass...

  6. Air capture and deodorisation installations in waste water treatment plants; Instalaciones captacion y desodorizacion de aire en depuradoras de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro Alonso, J. E.


    The corrective environmental measures in waste water treatment plants are becoming more and more demanding in regard to odour levels. The best way to prevent smells is to ensure appropriate management of the different processes, including sludge. It is also necessary to design a system for capturing and treating odours based on olfatometric studies rather than outdated systems and parameters such as ventilation rates. It is recommended that the average concentrations of odour (UO/m{sup 3}) from various olfatometric studies carried out in different waste water treatment plants in Spain be adopted as targets and recommendations are made as to the design of the installations to achieve this. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. Viral indicators for fecal contamination - a one-year viral metagenomic study of treatment efficiency in danish waste water treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmér, Maria; Stranddorf, Kasper; Seidel, Michael


    from two urban waste water treatment plants in Copenhagen. All samples are investigated for their viral content and the presence of pathogens by metagenomic sequencing and analyzed specifically for HAdV, JCPyV, norovirus GI and GII (NoV GI and GII) using quantitative (q)PCR. Preliminary qPCR results......, the number of identified pathogenic viral species decreases with treatment of the waste water. Further bioinformatic analyses will investigate the seasonal variations of viral composition within a sample as well as the effect of the treatment system. Updated qPCR and metagenomics data will be presented.......Viral pathogens in irrigation water are a major threat to public health due to their possibility to cause disease in humans. When using reclaimed water for irrigation it is therefore important to make sure that the water is free from pathogens which can contaminate the crops. In this study we...

  8. Identification of microplastic in effluents of waste water treatment plants using focal plane array-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mintenig, S.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413292568; Int-Veen, I.; Löder, M.G.J.; Primpke, S.; Gerdts, G.


    Abstract The global presence of microplastic (MP) in aquatic ecosystems has been shown by various studies. However, neither MP concentrations nor their sources or sinks are completely known. Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered as significant point sources discharging MP to the

  9. Implementation of an integrated real-time control system of sewer system and waste water treatment plant in the city of Wilhelmshaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seggelke, Katja; Löwe, Roland; Beeneken, Thomas


    A case study for integrated real-time control (RTC) of an urban drainage system in the city of Wilhelmshaven (Germany) is explained. The fuzzy based RTC strategy combines control of the sewer system and inflow to the waste water treatment plant. The main objective in controlling the sewer system...

  10. Comparing removal efficiency and reaction rates of organic micro-pollutants during ozonation from different municipal waste water treatment plants effluents in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-taliawy, Haitham; Ekblad, Maja; Nilsson, Filip


    The Removal of about 50 micro-pollutants from 7 waste water treatment plant effluents –in Sweden- was tested on pilot scale. Different ozone doses and two different pilots with different reactor sizes and retention times were tested. Ozone reaction rates depended on DOC concentration in the water...

  11. Evaluation of the functional activity of activated sludge from local waste water treatment plant in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.


    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of the activated sludge in the local wastewater treatment plant (LWTP and its ability to purify fully domestic sewage water in the Far North. Biochemical process of destruction of organic pollutants is influenced by a microbial complex functioning in aeration tanks. Taking into account climatic conditions of the region where the organic matter degradation processes are slowed, and lack of control over the operation, efficiency and occupational safety of LWTPs, it seems to be important to study the physiological characteristics of the bacteria used in bioremediation, and their ability to maximize the purifying domestic sewage in the Arctic region. Undue intervention in the biosphere systems leads to disruption of the balance of internal and external ecosystems communications. The goal of research is studying structural determination and functioning of activated sludge bacteriocenosis of LWTP TOPAS-5 (GK "Topol-ECO" in certain physical and chemical conditions of the habitat, and establishing completeness of cleaning process in this treatment plant. The paper considers the structure (quantitative and qualitative composition and function of LWTP activated sludge bacteriocenosis functioning in the Arctic region. The estimation of the activated sludge of full waste water treatment process of the LWTP has been given. The research's results have allowed to identify and determine the bacterial count of physiological groups of microorganisms purified domestic sewage; to isolate from activated sludge the bioflocculant-producing microorganisms' on the experimental medium; to evaluate efficiency of LWTP work in the Arctic region

  12. Optimal control of a waste water cleaning plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellina V. Grigorieva


    Full Text Available In this work, a model of a waste water treatment plant is investigated. The model is described by a nonlinear system of two differential equations with one bounded control. An optimal control problem of minimizing concentration of the polluted water at the terminal time T is stated and solved analytically with the use of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Dependence of the optimal solution on the initial conditions is established. Computer simulations of a model of an industrial waste water treatment plant show the advantage of using our optimal strategy. Possible applications are discussed.

  13. Integration of Power to Methane in a waste water treatment plant - A feasibility study. (United States)

    Patterson, Tim; Savvas, Savvas; Chong, Alex; Law, Ian; Dinsdale, Richard; Esteves, Sandra


    The integration of a biomethanation system within a wastewater treatment plant for conversion of CO 2 and H 2 to CH 4 has been studied. Results indicate that the CO 2 could be utilised to produce an additional 13,420m 3 /day of CH 4 , equivalent to approximately 133,826kWh of energy. The whole conversion process including electrolysis was found to have an energetic efficiency of 66.2%. The currently un-optimised biomethanation element of the process had a parasitic load of 19.9% of produced energy and strategies to reduce this to benefits such as integrated management of electricity and gas networks, energy storage and maximising the deployment and efficiency of renewable energy assets. However, no policy or financial frameworks exist to attribute value to these increasingly important functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of waste water treatment plants to pesticide toxicity in agriculture catchments. (United States)

    Le, Trong Dieu Hien; Scharmüller, Andreas; Kattwinkel, Mira; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Schäfer, Ralf B


    Pesticide residues are frequently found in water bodies and may threaten freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity. In addition to runoff or leaching from treated agricultural fields, pesticides may enter streams via effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We compared the pesticide toxicity in terms of log maximum Toxic Unit (log mTU) of sampling sites in small agricultural streams of Germany with and without WWTPs in the upstream catchments. We found an approximately half log unit higher pesticide toxicity for sampling sites with WWTPs (p pesticide toxicity in streams with WWTPs. A few compounds (diuron, terbuthylazin, isoproturon, terbutryn and Metazachlor) dominated the herbicide toxicity. Pesticide toxicity was not correlated with upstream distance to WWTP (Spearman's rank correlation, rho = - 0.11, p > 0.05) suggesting that other context variables are more important to explain WWTP-driven pesticide toxicity. Our results suggest that WWTPs contribute to pesticide toxicity in German streams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spread of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli harboring integron via swine farm waste water treatment plant. (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ji; Binn-Kim; Seo, Kun-Ho


    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release treated wastewater into the environment have emerged as a major threat to public health. In this study, we investigated Escherichia coli load and antibiotic-resistance profiles across different treatment processes at a swine farm WWTP. The frequency of the detection of class 1 and 2 integrons, and their association with antibiotic resistance, were also analyzed. Samples were obtained at each of five sampling sites that represented each processing step within the WWTP. The largest decrease in E. coli load was observed during the anaerobic digestion step (from 4.86 to 2.89log CFU/mL). Isolates resistant to β-lactam antibiotics were efficiently removed after a series of treatment steps, whereas the proportions of isolates resistant to non-β-lactam antibiotics and multidrug-resistant strains were maintained across treatments. The occurrence of integron-positive strains was not significantly different at the various sampling sites (43.4-70%; p>0.05). Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 17.9% harbored the integron-associated gene cassettes aadA2, aadA12, aadA22, and dfrA15. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a class 1 integron containing the aadA12 gene cassette from a swine farm and the presence of a class 1 integron containing dfrA15 in E. coli. This suggests that novel antibiotic-resistance gene cassette arrays could be generated in swine farm WWTPs. Moreover, 75% of integron-positive strains were categorized as multidrug resistant, whereas only 15.4% of integron-negative strains were multidrug resistant (pcoli recovered from the final effluent, our results highlighted the potential risks associated with wastewater discharge from swine farm WWTPs in terms of the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A proposed method of objectively evaluating the management of waste water treatment plants (EDAR); Propuesta para la evaluacion objetiva de la gestion de una EDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro Alonso, J. E.


    A formula has been developed for assessing the management of waste water treatment plants on the basis of five factors: the production of electric energy, the cost of maintenance and conservation, the cost of deodorising reagents and the number of days off work due to sickness or ill health. It is not all easy to assess the management of a treatment plant objectively on the basis of a limited number of data. However, it was considered preferable to opt for a simple formula, even if it meant reducing the number of factors in the analysis. The aim is to have a working document allowing all the parties involved in managing waste water treatment plants to improve their performance by means of the periodic evaluation of the five aspects listed above. (Author)

  17. A wide host-range metagenomic library from a waste water treatment plant yields a novel alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Wexler, Margaret; Bond, Philip L; Richardson, David J; Johnston, Andrew W B


    Using DNA obtained from the metagenome of an anaerobic digestor in a waste water treatment plant, we constructed a gene library cloned in the wide host-range cosmid pLAFR3. One cosmid enabled Rhizobium leguminosarum to grow on ethanol as sole carbon and energy source, this being due to the presence of a gene, termed adhEMeta. The AdhEMeta protein most closely resembles the AdhE alcohol dehydrogenase of Clostridium acetobutylicum, where it catalyses the formation of ethanol and butanol in a two-step reductive process. However, cloned adhEMeta did not confer ethanol utilization ability to Escherichia coli or to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, even though it was transcribed in both these hosts. Further, cell-free extracts of E. coli and R. leguminosarum containing cloned adhEMeta had butanol and ethanol dehydrogenase activities when assayed in vitro. In contrast to the well-studied AdhE proteins of C. acetobutylicum and E. coli, the enzyme specified by adhEMeta is not inactivated by oxygen and it enables alcohol to be catabolized. Cloned adhEMeta did, however, confer one phenotype to E. coli. AdhE- mutants of E. coli fail to ferment glucose and introduction of adhEMeta restored the growth of such mutants when grown under fermentative conditions. These observations show that the use of wide host-range vectors enhances the efficacy with which metagenomic libraries can be screened for genes that confer novel functions.

  18. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagüe, A.


    Full Text Available Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of sludge was determined over time. Leaching of the bricks was determined according to the NEN 7345 standard. In most cases the addition of sludge produces a decrease in porosity and absorption coefficients and an increase in compressive strength, so one could expect these bricks to have greater durability. As regards leaching pollutants in the bricks, they are below the limit of the Dutch NEN standard for construction materials and thus can be classified as inert material.

    El estudio ha consistido en la utilización de lodo seco de origen biológico de la depuradora de aguas residuales de Sabadell (Riu Sec, como adición en la preparación de adoquines de hormigón prefabricado. Después de caracterizar los lodos y el proceso de fabricación de los adoquines que utilizaremos, definimos las condiciones de adición de los lodos en esta fabricación. Se prepararon muestras de referencia, sin adición, y muestras con el 2 % de lodo seco sobrepeso de cemento. Se determinaron cómo variaban en el tiempo, con la presencia de lodos: la densidad, la porosidad y el coeficiente de absorción, y la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los adoquines. También se determinó la lixiviación que estas piezas presentaban de acuerdo a la norma NEN 7345. La adición de lodos produce, en la mayoría de los casos, una disminución de las porosidades y de los coeficientes de absorción y un aumento en las resistencias mecánicas, por lo que cabe esperar una mayor

  19. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben


    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has...... a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From 1992, the maximum average concentrations allowed for municipal waste water discharges to receiving...... waters will be; 15 mg/1 for BOD5, 8 mg/1 for total nitrogen, and 1.5 mg/1 for total phosphorus. These general requirements cover all types of receiving waters, but regional authorities have, in a number of cases, fixed lower values for sensitive areas....

  20. The final treatment of FGD-waste water sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugghen, F.W. van der (N.V. KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands))


    FGD installations based on lime/limestone gypsum processes produce waste water. This waste water has to be treated prior to discharge. The sludge formed during this waste water treatment contains gypsum, CaF[sub 2], Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], SiO[sub 2], Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and MgO as well as minor amounts of heavy metals like As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg. There are three methods for the final treatment of the sludges: disposal; mixing with gypsum; coffering in the boiler. An inventory has been made of the amounts and composition of the sludge produced by FGD plants in The Netherlands. The consequences of the three treatment methods for emissions, by-product quality and costs are described and compared. 1 ref., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Waste water treatment through public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby


    This paper analyses the experience of the regional government of Aragon (Spain) that has extensively used public-private partnerships for the construction and operation of waste water treatment plants. The paper argues that although overall the implementation of this PPP program might be considered...

  2. Sequential biological waste water treatment - new approaches to decentralized waste water treatment. [Sequential biological cleaning]. SBR-Technik: Neue Moeglichkeiten in der dezentralen Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupold, C. (DYWIDAG Beton- und Umweltprodukte GmbH, Zeithain (Germany)); Raupp, M. (DYWIDAG Beton- und Umweltprodukte GmbH, Zeithain (Germany))


    Optimum new waste water treatment solutions are urgently required to improve pollution abatement in the new Lands of unified Germany. Sequential biological waste water treatment opens up completely new prospects of decentralized waste water treatment on account of short construction periods, minimum space requirements and an excellent purification. This state-of-the-art method is a time-oriented sludge activation method which was developed by TU Muenchen and the DYWIDAG group. Different chemical conditions can be adjusted for carbon degradation, nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphate elimination in one reactor without secondary settler and return-sludge treatment. Space requirements and investment costs are minimized in that way. A PC-controlled waste water treatment plant which can be monitored through long-distance data transmission from a supervisory control center together with other waste water treatment plants is introduced. (orig.)

  3. ABILITY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER IN CISIRUNG WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu SAFITRI


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the ability of bacterial consortium: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida in bioremediation of wastewater origin Cisirung WWTP. This study uses an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of two treatment factors (8x8 factorial design. The first factor is a consortium of bacteria (K, consisting of 8 level factors (k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, and k8. The second factor is the time (T, consisting of a 7 level factors (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t7. Test parameters consist of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid, Ammonia and Population of Microbes during bioremediation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consortium of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida with inoculum concentration of 5% (k6 is a consortium of the most effective in reducing BOD 71.93%, 64.30% COD, TSS 94.85%, and 88.58% of ammonia.

  4. Detection of Legionella by cultivation and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in biological waste water treatment plants in Norway. (United States)

    Lund, Vidar; Fonahn, Wenche; Pettersen, Jens Erik; Caugant, Dominique A; Ask, Eirik; Nysaeter, Ase


    Cases of Legionnaires' disease associated with biological treatment plants (BTPs) have been reported in six countries between 1997 and 2010. However, knowledge about the occurrence of Legionella in BTPs is scarce. Hence, we undertook a qualitative and quantitative screening for Legionella in BTPs treating waste water from municipalities and industries in Norway, to assess the transmission potential of Legionella from these installations. Thirty-three plants from different industries were sampled four times within 1 year. By cultivation, 21 (16%) of 130 analyses were positive for Legionella species and 12 (9%) of 130 analyses were positive for Legionella pneumophila. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 433 (99%) of 437 analyses were positive for Legionella species and 218 (46%) of 470 analyses were positive for L. pneumophila. This survey indicates that PCR could be the preferable method for detection of Legionella in samples from BTPs. Sequence types of L. pneumophila associated with outbreaks in Norway were not identified from the BTPs. We showed that a waste water treatment plant with an aeration basin can produce high concentrations of Legionella. Therefore, these plants should be considered as a possible source of community-acquired Legionella infections.

  5. Ornithological Fauna of the Waste Water Treatment Plants in the Northern Left Bank Ukraine (Chernihiv and Kyiv Regions: Winter Populations and Ecological Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedun О. М.


    Full Text Available The article discusses winter bird populations of the waste water treatment plants (WWTP located in the North of Left -bank Ukraine. The said population comprises 12 orders and 29 families. The most numerous are Passeriformes (37 species, Аnsеriformes (16 species and Falconiformes (6 species. Parus major was registered at all types of facilities while most of the others house Passer montanus, Carduelis carduelis, Turdus pilaris, and Parus caeruleus. The largest number of wintering birds was registered at Bortnychi aeration station, Chernihiv municipal WWTP and Chernihiv wool processing factory - 79. 51 and 15 species respectively. The nuclear part of the bird numbers are the species residing at the facilities all year around (65.8 %; species occurring there in winter only account for 34.2 %. Dendrophilous (38 species and hydrophilous (35 species dominate among them. The primary role in forming the winter fauna of the waste water treatment plants belongs to the zones of water bodies and dams.

  6. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark:a case study about Esbjerg


    Larsen, Torben


    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From ...

  7. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N. (Eurotec West A/S (DK)); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H. (Risoe National Laboratory, DTU (DK)); Rasmussen, Soeren (SamRas (DK))


    The project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  8. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants. Biologische Phosphatelimination - Betriebserfahrungen an drei Grossanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, P. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)); Telgmann, U. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)); Memmen, K. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany))


    Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

  9. Gamma radiation treatment of waste waters from textile industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of gamma irradiation alone, and in combination with chemical treatment on color, odor, chemical oxyg-en demand (COD) and suspended solids in waste waters from textile industries in Ghana were studied to explore the potential of alternative and innovative processes for treatment of industrial waste waters. Waste ...

  10. Sequencing Batch Reactor pilot plant in waste water treatment plants; Impiego di un impianto pilota del tipo Seguencing Batch Reactor (SBR) come strumento di gestione di impianti di depurazione in aree sensibili : Indagine preliminare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musacco, Alessandro; Beccari, Mario [Rome, Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Chimica; Cecchi, Franco [Aquila, Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali]|[ASPIV, Venice (Italy)


    The flexibility of Sequencing Batch Reactors is ideally suited to provide useful guidelines for reliable operation of large waste water treatment plants such as the plant at Fusina (Venice). This paper shows the preliminary results of experimental investigations carried out in a pilot scale Sequencing Batch Reactor plant. The main purpose has been to verify the effect of the addition of readily biodegradable COD from the acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. This has to be considered an external carbon source for denitrification. The results underline the advantages of an integration between solid waste management and wastewater treatment.

  11. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum. (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I


    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  12. Plants for waste water treatment--effects of heavy metals on the detoxification system of Typha latifolia. (United States)

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Schröder, Peter


    Upon treatment with Cd and As cattail (Typha latifolia) showed induced catalase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in leaves but strong inhibition in rhizomes. Peroxidase activity in leaves of the same plants was inhibited whereas linear increase was detected after Cd treatment in rhizomes. Glutathione S-transferase measurements resulted in identical effects of the trace elements on the substrates CDNB, DCNB, NBC, NBoC, fluorodifen. When GST was assayed with the model substrate DCNB, a different pattern of activity was observed, with strongly increasing activities at increasing HM concentrations. Consequently, to improve the success rates, future phytoremediation plans need to preselect plant species with high antioxidative enzyme activities and an alert GST pattern capable of detoxifying an array of organic xenobiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.


    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  14. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.


    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  15. How the right chemistry in the FGD unit helps to improve the performance in the waste water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vredenbregt, Leo [DNV KEMA Energy Sustainability, Arnhem (Netherlands)


    The chemistry in the wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) unit is complex and far from constant, depending on fuel composition and flue gas conditions. Trace elements that exist in several oxidation states and which are of environmental importance are As, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, Sb and Tl. From results with 'jar tests', in which the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is simulated, it becomes clear that the removal in the WWTP cannot be optimal for all elements at the same time at certain ORP conditions in the FGD. (orig.)

  16. Zinc Regime in the Sewage Sludge-Soil-Plant System of a City Waste Water Treatment Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatusu Radu


    Full Text Available The sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of Iasi, a city with 300,000 inhabitants, for domestic and industrial origin, was stored in a mud pond arranged on an area of 18,920 m2. Chemical analyzes of the sludge showed that, of all the chemical elements determined, only Zn is found at pollutant level (5739 mg∙kg-1, i.e. almost 30 times more than the maximum allowable limit for Zn in soil and 45 times more than the Zn content of the soil on which the mud pond has been set. Over time, the content of Zn in the mud pond, but also from soil to which it has been placed, has become upper the normal content of the surrounding soil up to a depth of 260 cm. On the other hand, the vegetation installed on sewage sludge in the process of mineralization, composed predominantly of Phragmites, Rumex, Chenopodium, and Aster species had accumulated in roots, stems and leaves Zn quantities equivalent to 1463 mg Kg-1, 3988 mg Kg-1, 1463 mg Kg-1, respectively, 1120 mg∙Kg-1. The plants in question represents the natural means of phytoremediation, and sewage sludge as such may constitute a fertilizer material for soils in the area, on which Zn deficiency in maize has been recorded. In addition, the ash resulted from the incineration of plants loaded with zinc may constitute, in its turn, a good material for fertilizing of the soils that are deficient in zinc.

  17. The influence of amendment material on biosolid composting of sludge from a waste-water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada


    Full Text Available Aerobic composting employing manual turning was evaluated by using the sludge produced by EMCALI EICE ESP's Cañaverlejo wastewater treatment plant (PTAR-C. Compost (in 1,0 ton piles consisted of sludge, a fixed proportion of bulking agent (10% and amendment material. Sugarcane waste and solid organic (marketplace waste were evaluated as amendment material using 20/80 and 40/60 weight/weight (amendment/sludge ratios. Incorporating the amendment material improved the compost, being reflected in a faster start for the thermophilic phase, higher temperatures beign maintained (>55°C and better C/N ratio obtained in the compost in all treatments compared to the pile which had no amendment added to it. Incorporating the bulking agent improved sludge manageability during composting; the best combination was 54% sludge + 10% sugacane bagasse + 36% liquid sugarcane waste.

  18. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the advanced treatment technologies, i...

  19. Physic-Chemical treatment and demineralization by EDR to reutilize the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant; Tratamiento fisico-quimico y desmineralizacion por electrodialisis reversible para reutilizar el efluente de una EDAR urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Corral, M.; Pino, M.P. del; Gil Lodos, M.; Rodriguez Garcia, M.


    Etudes held at the research and development center DEREA placed at Gran Canaria, Canary islands, have proved the viability of regenerating urban waste waters treating the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant (WWTP del surest) with a physic-chemical treatment followed by a demineralization by electrodialysis reversal. The physic-chemical system was composed of the following units: 1 coagulation tank, 3 floculators, 1 lamellar decanter, 1 pH neutralization system, 1 chlorination system, 1 multi bed filter with chemicals reservoir, dosifiers for lime, FeCl{sub 3} polielectrolytes, sulfuric acid, and NaOCl. The physic-chemical system treated daily about 250-300 cubic meters of the effluents of the EDAR del surest, without chlorination effluent, and worked with a 90% recovery (got 90 m``3 for each 100 feeded). (Author)


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  1. Analysis of the time series of waste water quality at the inflow of the wastewater treatment plant and transfer functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesmerak Ivan


    Full Text Available Time series of the daily total precipitation, daily wastewater discharges and daily concentrations and pollution loads of BOD5, COD, SS, N-NH4, Ntot and Ptot were analyzed at the inflow to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP for a larger city in 2004-2009 (WWTP is loaded by pollution from 435,000 equivalent inhabitants. The time series of the outflow from a WWTP was also available for 2007. The time series of daily total precipitation, daily wastewater discharges, concentrations and pollution loads at the inflow and outflow from the WWTP were standardized year by year to exclude a long-term trend, and periodic components with a period of 7 days and 365 days (and potentially also 186.5 days were excluded from the standardized series. However, these two operations eliminated only a small part of the variance; there was a substantial reduction in the variance only for ammonium nitrogen and total nitrogen at the inflow and outflow from a WWTP. The relationship between the inflow into a WWTP and the outflow from a WWTP for the concentrations and pollution loads was described by simple transfer functions (SISO models and more complicated transfer functions (MISO models. A simple transfer function (SISO model was employed to describe the relationship between the daily total precipitation and the wastewater discharge.

  2. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/6603148005; Maurer, Max


    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied

  3. Rapid Recovery of Chironomidae (Diptera) in Little Mill Creek (Kansas, U.S.A.) After the Decommissioning of a Waste Water Treatment Plant (United States)

    Bouchard, R. W.; Ferrington, L. C.


    In June 1995 the Lenexa Waste Water Treatment Plant was decommissioned, providing an opportunity to study recovery of Chironomidae community structure in Little Mill Creek. Using pupal exuviae, weekly changes in the species richness and composition of Chironomidae emerging upstream and downstream of the effluent outfall was evaluated from two weeks before decommissioning to eight weeks post-decommissioning. Chironomidae emergence was clearly different between upstream and downstream sites both before and shortly after effluent input ceased. Before decommissioning, sites immediately downstream of the effluent had low species richness and were dominated by Chironomus riparius (Meigen) and other tolerant taxa, with some recovery at sites farther downstream. Two weeks after decommissioning, only sites immediately downstream of the former effluent were clearly impacted, but effects were reduced compared to pre-recovery collections. At five weeks post-decommissioning, species richness was only slightly lower at the sites immediately downstream of the former effluent and the composition of common species (i.e., >5% of relative abundance) was similar between upstream and downstream sites. Rapid recovery of chironomid emergence below the sewage effluent likely resulted from both colonization of drifting larvae from upstream sources and adult dispersal and oviposition, indicating rapid responses in emergence as water quality conditions improved.

  4. Concentration of medically used radionuclides in activated sludge at the megalopolis waste water treatment plants and estimation for the effective dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Okano, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Shiroharu; Inokoshi, Yukio [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Inst. (Japan)


    The concentrations of medically used radionuclides in activated sludge samples were measured for 10 waste water treatment plants (WWTP) in Tokyo from October 1983 to March 1994. The nuclides {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl, among others, could be detected, but these concentration levels were lower than the legal concentration limits in Japan. The excess activated sludge is usually incinerated at WWTP; then the resulting ash is transported for reclamation in Tokyo Bay. Internal and/or external exposure doses were evaluated for the following cases: The dose of the public attributed to radioactive iodine and {sup 201}Tl, which were released from the incinerator by burning sludge; The dose of the workers during the process of transport and reclamation of the ash. As a result, the effective doses were sufficiently lower than the dose limit 1 mSv/y. The decay of the radionuclides were calculated over a period of curing of the landfill. It was found that the radionuclides had decayed out to approximately one nuclide. The effective dose of the public can therefore be ignored. Moreover, it was clarified that the effective dose of the public resulting from {sup 99m}Tc is negligibly low in value at the present time. (author)

  5. A Prototype of Industrial Waste Water Treatment Using Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriboonsuksri Phonnipha


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a construct of electrocoagulation waste water treatment system. The system consists of reactor tank, skimmer, cyclone tank and sediment tank. Waste water is feed into reactor tank. The electrochemical reaction is made emulsification to waste water. The contaminants are removed from waste water and can be divided to two kinds: light weight suspensions be floating up and another be sediment. The flocculants are skim out and the sediments are pumped out to sludge container. An electrical power which feed to electro-coagulation procedure is controlled by microcontroller. The user can be adjusted for suitable with waste water loaded. The input of waste water and output of sediments are controlled by PLC. The results, when operate with industrial waste water, can be treat by 30 m3/day rates and the controlled parameter value: pH, BOD, Oil & Grease, COD, SS, TDS, and Ni are not exceed than the standard limit. The advantages of this system are consume small area and low power consumption.

  6. Quantifying the net benefit impacts of the Troy Waste Water Treatment Plant on Steelhead Habitat in the West Fork Little Bear Creek drainage (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.


    Discharge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) typically is viewed to result in water quality impairment. However, WWTPs can also be a source of nutrients to enhance the salmonid food web as well as an efficient way to maintain acceptable water temperature regimes and flow conditions during summer. We observed this paradox in West Fork Little Bear Creek (WFLB) in the City of Troy, Idaho. Despite the nutrient load, the WFLB had the highest Steelhead trout density in the watershed, with a mean density of 13.2 fish/100 m2. The objective of this project was to utilize a water quality model, QUAL2kw, and an ecology assessment to examine how the nutrient load from the WWTP affects: a) habitat conditions for steelhead juveniles, and b) physic-chemical parameters. Four monitoring stations were installed from May through November in 2009 and 2010. An undisturbed creek was used as a control site in 2010. Dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity, temperature, and discharge were measured continuously at each monitoring station. Weekly samples were collected at each monitoring station and analyzed for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorous, and orthophosphates. In 2010, Chlorophyll a was analyzed weekly, while bottom algae biomass was determined monthly. Results show that during summer months, the WWTP provides the majority of the flow (0.1 cfs) in the creek. Water samples and DO measurements taken 200 m downstream of the plant during late summer months indicate that nitrification process leads to low DO level well below the state standard of 6 mg/L for cold water biota. However dissolved oxygen levels recover within 1 km downstream. Discharge data suggest that without the flow from the treatment most of the creek would dry during late summer months. Abundance of macroinverbrates, high primary productivity, and sustained flow during summer suggests that the effluent from the WWTP is a net benefit to the Steelhead habitat in the basin

  7. Specifications for coke fines as potential adsorbents for coking plant waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcz, A.; Czepirska-Komorowska, E.; Burmistrz, P. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Wydzial Energochemii Wegla i Fizykochemii Sorbentow)


    Proposes utilization of coke dust from coke dry quenching and from dedusting facilities for the purification of coking plant waste water. A process flowsheet is presented for waste water treatment at the Przyjazn coking plant, the only Polish coking plant employing coke dry quenching. The proposal for coke dust use is explained; properties of 4 types of coke dust available at the plant are compared to those of Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon. Adsorption isotherms were determined for the coke dust, as well as pore structures and pore size distribution. A high share of micropores was found in Carbopol Z-4, while coke dust had a higher amount of mesopores. Substantial differences were expected in adsorption performance of dusts compared to activated carbon, but this was not confirmed in laboratory purification of waste water. 19 refs.

  8. Methods for waste waters treatment in textile industry


    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Zezova, Silvana; Spasova, Sanja; Golomeova, Saska


    The processes of production of textiles or wet treatments and finishing processes of textile materials are huge consumers of water with high quality. As a result of these various processes, considerable amounts of polluted water are released. This paper puts emphasis on the problem of environmental protection against waste waters generated by textile industry. The methods of pretreatment or purification of waste waters in the textile industry can be: Primary (screening, sedimentation, homo...

  9. Treatment with bio discs in the waste water treatment plants of Camarma de Esteruelas. I. Biological characterization Saprobic gradient. Tratamiento por biodiscos en la EDAR de Camarma de Esteruelas. I. Caracterizacion biologica: Gradiente Saprobico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorente Martinez, V.; Cozar Carvajal, C.; Moro Puebla, P.


    The waste water treatment plant at Camarma de Esteruelas, a small village of 1700 inhabitants near Alcala de Henares, Madrid, employs a decantation process followed by biological treatment with four bio disc. Several analyses were carried out, including a count of the organisms in the biological film. The BOD i reduced by 87,5% and as the water passes the polysaprobic area the Saprobic gradient on each disc diminishes. The biocentesis samples are mainly made up of bacteria which form large zoogleas and mobile filamentous bacteria. (Author)

  10. Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters


    Stefanović Dragoslav; Vojnović-Miloradov Mirjana; Lemić Jovan; Kurajica Milorad; Kovačević Dragana


    Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 200...

  11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment-Introduction to Effluent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  12. Identification of microplastic in effluents of waste water treatment plants using focal plane array-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging. (United States)

    Mintenig, S M; Int-Veen, I; Löder, M G J; Primpke, S; Gerdts, G


    The global presence of microplastic (MP) in aquatic ecosystems has been shown by various studies. However, neither MP concentrations nor their sources or sinks are completely known. Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered as significant point sources discharging MP to the environment. This study investigated MP in the effluents of 12 WWTPs in Lower Saxony, Germany. Samples were purified by a plastic-preserving enzymatic-oxidative procedure and subsequent density separation using a zinc chloride solution. For analysis, attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) and focal plane array (FPA)-based transmission micro-FT-IR imaging were applied. This allowed the identification of polymers of all MP down to a size of 20 μm. In all effluents MP was found with quantities ranging from 0 to 5 × 10(1) m(-3) MP > 500 μm and 1 × 10(1) to 9 × 10(3) m(-3) MP < 500 μm. By far, polyethylene was the most frequent polymer type in both size classes. Quantities of synthetic fibres ranged from 9 × 10(1) to 1 × 10(3) m(-3) and were predominantly made of polyester. Considering the annual effluxes of tested WWTPs, total discharges of 9 × 10(7) to 4 × 10(9) MP particles and fibres per WWTP could be expected. Interestingly, one tertiary WWTP had an additionally installed post-filtration that reduced the total MP discharge by 97%. Furthermore, the sewage sludge of six WWTPs was examined and the existence of MP, predominantly polyethylene, revealed. Our findings suggest that WWTPs could be a sink but also a source of MP and thus can be considered to play an important role for environmental MP pollution. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of Cleaner Production and Waste Water Treatment on Tofu Small Industry for Biogas Production using AnSBR Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyowati Rahayu Suparni


    Full Text Available A research on developing a system that integrates clean production and waste water treatment for biogas production in tofu small industry has been conducted. In this research, tofu waste water was turned into biogas using an AnSBR reactor. Mud from the sewage system serves as the inoculums. This research involved: (1 workshop; (2 supervising; (3 technical meeting; (4 network meeting, and (5 technical application. Implementation of clean production integrated with waste water treatment reduced the amount of waste water to be treated in a treatment plant. This means less cost for construction and operation of waste water treatment plants, as inherent limitations associated with such plants like lack of fund, limited area, and technological issues are inevitable. Implementation of clean production prior to waste water treatment reduces pollution figures down to certain levels that limitations in waste water treatment plants can be covered. Results show that biogas in 16 days HRT in an AnSBR reactor contains CH4(78.26 % and CO2 (20.16 %. Meanwhile, treatments using a conventional bio-digester result in biogas with 72.16 % CH4 and 18.12 % CO2. Hence, biogas efficiency for the AnSBR system is 2.14 times greater than that of a conventional bio-digester.

  14. Benchmarking in the Dutch waste-water treatment sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, R.J.; van Helden, G.J.

    The Dutch water boards have recently completed a performance measurement and evaluation project for waste-water treatment. This Project was intended to strengthen the boards' accountability to their stakeholders and to identify starting Points for Performance improvement. The Balanced Scorecard was

  15. tannery wastes water treatment using moringa stenopetala seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    processes are available for the adsorption of heavy metals ... temperatures are limiting factor for the cultivation of the species (Orwa et al., 2009).The water soluble Moringa seed proteins possess coagulating properties. .... TANNERY WASTES WATER TREATMENT USING MORINGA STENOPETALA SEED EXTRACT 31 ...

  16. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation. (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  17. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation. (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

  18. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution (United States)

    Yade, N.


    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  19. Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)


    The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

  20. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Boonyaprapa


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment systems. Eighty-five percent of tie-dye entrepreneurs agreed that there must be wastewater treatment before release into the environment. From group discussions, it was found that the entrepreneurs realized the wastewater problem and wanted to carry out environment friendly tie-dyeing. Our study demonstrated that the average value of the colour density, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solids (TDS and pH of the wastewater characteristics were 170 SU (space units, 1584 mg/l, 2487 mg/l and 8, respectively. For the upflow anaerobic filter, 5 sets of experiments, with 24 hours retention time, were designed, with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % of cow’s feces ferment, respectively (sets 1st-5th. The result showed decreasing colour densities from 170 SU to 160 SU (dark colour, 60 SU (very light colour, 12 SU (no colour, 10 SU (no colour and 10 SU (no colour, respectively. We conclude that the upflow anaerobic filter, containing 2% cow’s feces ferment is an efficient way to reduce colour density of the wastewater. Mixing cow’s feces ferment with tie-dye wastewater increased COD and TDS in wastewater. Mean COD was increased by residual organic matter from 1584 mg/l (before treatment to (after-treatment, sets 2nd- 5th 1600 mg/l, 1680 mg/l, 1710 mg/l and 1750 mg/l, respectively. COD aftertreatment was higher than the industrial effluence standard (400 mg/l. Further treatment COD might include wetland procedures. TDS was increased by some residual organic matter

  1. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination


    Pattana Boonyaprapa


    The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment s...

  2. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment. (United States)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max


    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied extensively, the economics of decentralised WMS are less understood. A key motivation for studying the costs of decentralised WMS is to compare the cost of centralised and decentralised WMS in order to decide on cost-efficient sanitation solutions. This paper outlines a model designed to assess those costs which depend on the spatial density of decentralised wastewater treatment plants in a region. Density-related costs are mostly linked to operation and maintenance activities which depend on transportation, like sludge removal or the visits of professionals to the plants for control, servicing or repairs. We first specify a modelled cost-density relationship for a region in a geometric two-dimensional space by means of heuristic routing algorithms that consider time and load-capacity restrictions. The generic model is then applied to a Swiss case study for which we specify a broad range of modelling parameters. As a result, we identify a 'hockey-stick'-shaped cost curve that is characterised by strong cost reductions at high density values which level out at around 1 to 1.5 plants per km(2). Variations in the cost curves are mostly due to differences in management approaches (scheduled or unscheduled emptying). In addition to the well-known diseconomies of scale in the case of centralised sanitation, we find a similar generic cost behaviour for decentralised sanitation due to economies of density. Low densities in sparsely populated regions thus result in higher costs for both centralised and decentralised system. Policy implications are that efforts to introduce decentralised options in a region should consider the low-density/high-cost problem when comparing centralised

  3. Monitoring of organic loads at waste water treatment plant with due consideration of factual necessity, technical feasibility and statutory requirements; Erfassung der organischen Belastung bei Abwasserreinigungsanlagen unter Beachtung der fachlichen Notwendigkeit, der technischen Moeglichkeiten und der gesetzlichen Auflagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft


    Between the statutory requirement and factual necessity for monitoring organic loads in waste water discharged to municipal and industrial waste water treatment plant and effluents from these there are substantial discrepancies. The paper points out the different approaches and gives recommendations on how to proceed in the future. At plant with stable nitrification, self and external monitoring for BOD{sub 5} can be distinctly reduced without fear of impaired process transparency or water quality. Monitoring organic loads online is little expedient technically, especially where effluent from municipal sewage treatment plants is concerned. But in the industrial sector there exist the most diverse applications with a view to carbon elimination. (orig.) [German] Zwischen den gesetzlichen Anforderungen und der fachlichen Notwendigkeit bei der Erfassung der organischen Belastung im Zu- und Ablauf von kommunalen und industriellen Klaeranlagen bestehen erhebliche Diskrepanzen. In diesem Beitrag werden die unterschiedlichen Ansaetze aufgezeigt und Empfehlungen fuer die zukuenftige Vorgehensweise gegeben. Bei Anlagen mit stabiler Nitrifikation ist die Selbst- wie Fremdueberwachung bezueglich BSB{sub 5} deutlich zu reduzieren, ohne dass Einbussen fuer Prozesstransparenz und Gewaesserqualitaet zu erwarten sind. Die online-Ueberwachung der organischen Belastung ist insbesondere bei Ablaeufen in kommunalen Klaeranlagen fachlich wenig sinnvoll, im Bereich der industriellen Abwasserreinigung ergeben sich dafuer bei dem Reinigungsziel der Kohlenstoffelimination dagegen verschiedenste Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  4. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)


    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  5. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (United States)


    ... the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section 403.19 Protection of Environment... Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term “Participating... Industrial User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in Owatonna, Minnesota, when a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna


    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.

  7. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)


    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Investigation on Industrial Waste Waters Reuse of Industrial Towns for Agricultural and Irrigation Uses (Case Study: Treatment Plant of Jahan Abad MeybodIndustrial Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Dehghani firoozabady


    Conclusion: The results showed that the mean values ​​of the quality parameters of the studied output waste water except BOD5  and COD are in the standard range for the uses of agriculture and irrigation which it may has the negative & inappropriate environmental operation of these two parameters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Dubey


    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, the most common method of disposal of waste water is by land spreading. This treatment method has numerous problems, namely high labor requirements and the potential for eutrophication of surface an d ground waters. Constructed wetlands are commonl y used for treatment of seconda ry municipal wastewaters and they have been gaining popularity for treatment of agricultural wastewaters in Ethiopia. Intermittent sand filtration may offer an alternative to traditional treatment methods. As well as providing comparable treatment performance, they also have a smaller footprint, due to the substantially higher organic loading rates that may be applied to their surfaces. Th is paper discusses the performance and design criteria of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic and agricultural wastewater, and sand filters for the treatment of domestic wastewater. It also proposes sand filtration as an alt ernative treatment mechanism for agricultural wa stewater and suggests design guide lines.

  10. Prestudy: Anaerobic digestion with primary hydrolysis from increased methane production in waste water treatment plants band biogas plants; Foerstudie: Roetning med inledande hydrolyssteg foer utoekad metanutvinning paa avloppsreningsverk och biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Emelie; Ossiansson, Elin (BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden)); Carlsson, My; Uldal, Martina; Olsson, Lars-Erik (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden))


    Anaerobic degradation of organic matter is a multi-step process through the action of various groups of microorganisms whose optimum conditions can differ considerably regarding e.g. nutrient and pH demand, sensitivity for changes and patterns for growth and nutrient uptake. One way of optimizing the anaerobic digestion process, and thereby increase the biogas production and the reduction of organic matter, can be to physically divide the anaerobic digestion process in two steps consisting of an initial hydrolysis and acid production step followed by a methane production step in an anaerobic digester. One problem with the biogas processes of today is that not all organic matter that is added to the process becomes available for conversion into biogas. This is particularly evident in digestion of waste water treatment sludge where almost half of the organic matter added remains after anaerobic digestion. More efficient utilization of substrate in biogas plants is an important element to increase the profitability of biogas production. The possibility to use different pre-treatment methods is being discussed to increase the degree of conversion of organic matter into biogas in the digester. Pre-treatment methods are often energy as well as cost demanding and can require the addition of chemicals. To use the microbiological steps in the biogas process more efficiently by adding an initial hydrolysis step is a method that does not require the usage of chemicals or increased energy consumption. This pre-study is based on literature studies related to anaerobic digestion with initial biological hydrolysis and collected knowledge from full-scale plants, universities and suppliers of equipment. Nearly 70 published scientific articles relevant to the subject have been found in the performed literature searches. The articles have been subdivided according to the purpose of each article. A large part of the articles have concerned modelling of anaerobic digestion why a

  11. Evaluation of a membrane bioreactor system as post-treatment waste water treatment for better removal of micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arriaga, Sonia; de Jonge, Nadieh; Lund Nielsen, Marc


    Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals are persistent pollutants that are only partially degraded in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was used as a polishing step on a full-scale WWTP, and its ability to remove micropollutants...

  12. Treatment of waste water by coagulation and flocculation using biomaterials (United States)

    Muruganandam, L.; Saravana Kumar, M. P.; Jena, Amarjit; Gulla, Sudiv; Godhwani, Bhagesh


    The present study deals with the determination of physical and chemical parameters in the treatment process of waste water by flocculation and coagulation processes using natural coagulants and assessing their feasibility for water treatment by comparing the performance with each other and with a synthetic coagulant. Initial studies were done on the synthetic waste water to determine the optimal pH and dosage, the activity of natural coagulant, followed by the real effluent from tannery waste. The raw tannery effluent was bluish-black in colour, mildly basic in nature, with high COD 4000mg/l and turbidity in the range 700NTU, was diluted and dosed with organic coagulants, AloeVera, MoringaOleifera and Cactus (O.ficus-indica). The study observed that coagulant Moringa Oleifera of 15 mg/L dose at 6 pH gave the best reduction efficiencies for major physicochemical parameters followed by Aloe Vera and Cactus under identical conditions. The study reveals that the untreated tannery effluents can be treated with environmental confirmative naturally occurring coagulants.

  13. Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Dragoslav


    Full Text Available Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 2001 and 2007. The obtained concentrations were compared with the maximum permitted concentrations listed under the Regulations on technical and sanitary conditions for releasing waste waters into the City Sewers of the City of Belgrade.

  14. Waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry and energy management (United States)

    Stepanov, Sergey; Solkina, Olga; Stepanov, Alexander; Zhukova, Maria


    The paper presents results of engineering and economical comparison of waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry. Three methods of purification are compared: traditional biological purification with the use of secondary clarifiers and afterpurification through granular-bed filters, biomembrane technology and physical-and-chemical treatment together with biomembrane technology for new construction conditions. The improvement of the biological purification technology using nitro-denitrification and membrane un-mixing of sludge mixture is a promising trend in this area. In these calculations, an energy management which is widely applied abroad was used. The descriptions of the three methods are illustrated with structural schemes. Costs of equipment and production areas are taken from manufacturers’ data. The research is aimed at an engineering and economical comparison of new constructions of waste water purification of dairy products industry. The experiment demonstrates advantages of biomembrane technology in waste water purification. This technology offers prospects of 122 million rubles cost saving during 25 years of operation when compared with of the technology of preparatory reagent flotation and of 13.7 million rubles cost saving compared to the option of traditional biological purification.

  15. Inhibition of the heavy metal nitrification process at the Granollers waste water treatment plant; Inhibicion del proceso de nitrificacion por metales pesados en le EDAR de Granollers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano Jimenez, M.; Jorda LLona, J.; Rovira Gallejones, S.; Freixo Rey, A.; Polo Canas, P.


    Nowadays is habitual to find wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal in which industrial wastes in collectors are capable of inhibiting the nitrification process. This article is about a procedure to follow when determining the origin of this inhibition in a WWTP and finding the best solution to the problem. Through discontinuous rests of AUR we find a strong intoxication of the WWTP activated sludge. A pilot plant is started with this sludge at laboratory level to be able to activate the process at a real plant level. A bio sorption process is started up by using activated sludge. The results of metal decrease in water and mixed liquor because of sludge washing are presented, as well as the increase in nitrification speed and other authors experience in metal adsorption by secondary sludge. (Author)

  16. Treatment of dairy waste water by coagulation and filtration. (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Choudhari, P K


    The dairy waste: effluent contains high COD, which indicates the presence of organic matter. Therefore, the studies were carried out to reduce this COD in the dairy waste water through a proper treatment. The COD reduction with alum coagulant dose 3.2 g/ dm3 within pH03 to 11 was obtained to be 438 mg/dmi at pH03, 348 mg/dm3 at pH05, 404 mg/dm3 at pH07, 295 mg/dm3 at pH08, 407 mg/dm3 at pH011 and 422 mg/dm3 at pH09 from the initial COD (COD0)1070 mg/dm3. Maximum COD reduction was 72.4% at pH08 and minimum COD reduction was 55.10 % at pH05.

  17. The management of waste water treatment plant sludge in Vic (Catalonia, Spain); Tratamiento de fangos de etap: La gestion en Vic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletas Anglada, R.


    The aim of this paper is to set out the steps taken by Aguas de Vic, to solve the problems deriving from the production of sludge as a result of the decanting and filtering of treated water at the Miralter Drinking Water Treatment Plant. This plant treats water from the rivers Ges and Ter to make it potable, after which it is fed into the water supply of the town of Vic and the surrounding district. First the treatment process is briefly described, the production analysed and the sludge generated by the plant characterised. This is followed by a summary of the currently applicable statutory regulations and a detailed description of the solution adopted on the basis of the statistical data obtained from an analysis of the plant's performance. Finally, a breakdown is provided of the investments made in setting up the installations described. The increased cost per cubic metre of treated water is explained as a consequence of this investment and the running costs of operating these installations. (Author)

  18. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovendeur, J.


    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.


  19. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involving ultrasound for waste water treatment: a review with emphasis on cost estimation. (United States)

    Mahamuni, Naresh N; Adewuyi, Yusuf G


    Two things are needed for any technology to be suitable for use in the industry, viz. 1. Technical feasibility and 2. Economical feasibility. The use of ultrasound for waste water treatment has been shown to be technically feasible by numerous reports in the literature over the years. But there are hardly any exhaustive reports which address the issue of economical feasibility of the use of ultrasound for waste water treatment on industrial scale. Hence an attempt was made to estimate the cost for the waste water treatment using ultrasound. The costs have been calculated for 1000 L/min capacity treatment plant. The costs were calculated based upon the rate constants for pollutant degradation. The pollutants considered were phenol, trichloroethylene (TCE) and reactive azo dyes. Time required for ninety percent degradation of pollutant was taken as the residence time. The amount of energy required to achieve the target degradation was calculated from the energy density (watt/ml) used in the treatability study. The cost of treatment was calculated by considering capital cost and operating cost involved for the waste water treatment. Quotations were invited from vendors to ascertain the capital cost of equipments involved and operating costs were calculated based on annual energy usage. The cost was expressed in dollars per 1000 gallons of waste water treated. These treatment costs were compared with other established Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) technologies. The cost of waste water treatment for phenol was in the range of $89 per 1000 gallons for UV/US/O(3) to $15,536 per 1000 gallons for US alone. These costs for TCE were in the range of $25 per 1000 gallons to $91 for US+UV treatment and US alone, respectively. The cost of waste water treatment for reactive azo dyes was in the range of $65 per 1000 gallon for US+UV+H(2)O(2) to $14,203 per 1000 gallon for US alone. This study should help in quantifying the economics of waste water treatment using ultrasound on

  20. Air flotation treatment of salmon processing waste water (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses methods for the reduction of the pollution strength of salmon processing waste water. Past research has indicated the success of air pressure...

  1. Elimination of filamentous foaming by means of an aerobic selector in a waste water treatment plant; Eliminaciond el foaming filamentoso en una EDAR mediante un selector aerobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Carrasco, M. D.; Jorda Llanos, J.; Canas, P. P.


    Description of the experience realized in an activated sludge WWTP for the elimination of foaming produced in two different seasons and caused mainly by Nocardia sp. an Microthrix parvicela. Previously to the biological reactor, a selector is installed by means of converting the WWTP grit chamber into an oxic selector and analytical control in the selector is done observing the percentage of COD reduction which occurs in it. Respirometries are realized which provide more data to the experience and it is observed how radically DSVI decreases in activated sludge and the total disappearance of foaming in reactors and settling tanks after 35-40 days of selectors operation. This experience has been realized by Infilco, in a wastewater treatment plant which is being operated ant present. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. The use of the aerobic digestor in the waste water treatment plant in Aranjuez with pure oxygen; Potenciacion del digestor aerobio de la EDAR de Aranjuez con oxigeno puro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcells Cabre [Carburos Metalicos, Barcelona (Spain)


    The use of pure oxygen instead of air in the aerobic digestor in the waste water treatment plant in Aranjuez (Spain) proved to be efficient in achieving the following targets which had been set. 1. Reducing energy consumption: 65% in the digestor, 20% overall in the plant. 2. Increasing the efficiency of the process: 62% SV/ST with air, 53% SV/ST with oxygen. 3. Increasing sludge stabilization: 0,075 mg O/gr biomass per minute with air, 0,025 mg O{sub 2}/gr biomass per minute with oxygen. 4. Increasing the degree of dryness: 16% with air, 24% with oxygen. 5. Reducing reactor volumes: 3,500 m``3 with air, 1,750 m``3 with oxygen 6. Keeping the process stable independent of variations in external temperature: Average August temperature: 22 degree centigree with air, 40 degree centigree oxygen. Average January temperature: 12 degree centigree with air 26 degree centigree with oxygen 7. Reducing VOC`s emissions. (Author)

  3. Ceiba Pentradenta wood waste activated carbon for waste water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geetha


    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for waste water treatment over the last decades. The low materials originated from various sources such as agricultural sources and byproducts, agricultural residues and wastes, low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced .The farming waste material has to be disposed either safely or must be reused for some valuable purpose. In this consent Ceiba Pentradenta Wood waste, an agricultural waste material which is being converted as Activated carbon in presence of Nitrogen atmosphere at 7000 C is used as an adsorbent for dye removal. The portrayal studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, soluble matter (water, acid, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, ion exchange capacity, percentage content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in treatment of the water and wastewater. The present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

  4. Determination of a broad spectrum of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in biofilm from a waste water treatment plant-impacted river. (United States)

    Huerta, B; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Nannou, C; Nakis, L; Ruhí, A; Acuña, V; Sabater, S; Barcelo, D


    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the main sources of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in freshwater ecosystems, and several studies have reported bioaccumulation of these compounds in different organisms in those ecosystems. River biofilms are exceptional indicators of pollution, but very few studies have focused on the accumulation of these emerging contaminants. The objectives of this study were first to develop an efficient analytical methodology for the simultaneous analysis of 44 pharmaceuticals and 13 endocrine disrupting compounds in biofilm, and second, to assess persistence, distribution, and bioaccumulation of these contaminants in natural biofilms inhabiting a WWTP-impacted river. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction, purification by solid-phase extraction, and analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) in tandem. Recoveries for pharmaceuticals were 31-137%, and for endocrine disruptors 32-93%. Method detection limits for endocrine disruptors were in the range of 0.2-2.4 ng g(-1), and for pharmaceuticals, 0.07-6.7 ng g(-1). A total of five endocrine disruptors and seven pharmaceuticals were detected in field samples at concentrations up to 100 ng g(-1). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation? (United States)

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs


    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimised thallium precipitation in a waste water treatment system of the flue gas desulphurisation; Optimierte Thalliumabscheidung einer RAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzerfeld, Guenter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany); Birngruber, Ingolf [RWE Power AG, Hamm (Germany); Muelder, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Ibbenbueren (Germany)


    When co-combusting substitute fuels in power plants, the element Thallium should be checked in the drain of the waste water treatment system of flue gas desulphurisation. In 2005 Thallium-concentrations exceeding the limit value were determined for the first time as a consequence of the modified analysis of the supervisory authority. The previous lower Thallium concentrations with graphite tube-atomic absorption spectrometry were caused by the high chloride concentration in RAA waste water. The RAA operating mode was checked and changed. Equipment-related weak spots were detected and corrected. (orig.)

  7. Occurrence and profiles of halogenated phenols, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the effluents of waste water treatment plants around Huang-Bo Sea, North China. (United States)

    Jiang, Jingqiu; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Shibin; Wang, Yuntao; Liu, Sisi; Xie, Qing; Li, Xiangkun


    Halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs), as ubiquitous environment contaminants, have attracted increasing concerns due to the potential adverse health impacts on organisms and even humans. Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are one source of HOPs to the environment through their discharge of treated effluent. In this study, the presence and profiles of 6 halogenated phenols (HP), 17 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and 11 hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDE) were investigated in 12 WWTP effluent samples collected near Huang-Bo Sea in Dalian, China. These targeted organohalogen pollutants were found in all the effluent samples with the total concentrations of ΣHPs, ΣPBDEs and ΣOH-PBDEs ranging from 77.2 to 168.5ng/L, from not-detected to 5.3ng/L and from 0.08 to 0.88ng/L, respectively. The most abundant congeners of HPs and PBDEs in the effluents were pentachlorophenol (PCP), BDE-47 and BDE-99, while for OH-PBDEs, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 5-OH-BDE-47 were the most abundant. In addition, the statistical analysis showed that a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation was observed between BDE-47 and its metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47, indicating that PBDEs may be a source of OH-PBDEs detected in the effluents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems (United States)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.


    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  9. Occurence of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two waste water treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008 (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert


    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and

  10. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  11. Treatment of waste water from flue gas cleaning; Behandlung von Abwasser der Rauchgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiermann, Klaus; Meyerhoff, Thomas [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Celle (Germany); Hagen, Klaus [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany); Basabe, Juan Luis [HPD Process Engineering S.A., Bilbao (Spain); Vendrup, Michael [Krueger A/S, Soeborg (Denmark)


    Strict limits must be adhered to for treating waste water incurred during flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). One and two-stage precipitation processes have proven themselves in FGD waste water treatment. Metals can be removed with the MetClean {sup registered} process. Another option is evaporation. Waste water ZLD systems (Zero Liquid Discharge) recover, via a falling film evaporator with subsequent crystallisation, more than 98 % of the water and produce, aside from the condensate, only solid material that can be disposed of in landfill. A further development, named ZLD CoLD trademark, significantly reduces the investment and operating costs of this solution. (orig.)

  12. Occurrence and removal of butyltin compounds in a waste stabilisation pond of a domestic waste water treatment plant of a rural French town. (United States)

    Sabah, A; Bancon-Montigny, C; Rodier, C; Marchand, P; Delpoux, S; Ijjaali, M; Tournoud, M-G


    The aim of this study was to investigate the fate and behaviour of butyltin pollutants, including monobutyltin (MBT), dibutylin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT), in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The study was conducted as part of a baseline survey and included five sampling campaigns comprising bottom sludge and the water column from each pond from a typical WSP in France. Butyltins were detected in all raw wastewater and effluents, reflecting their widespread use. Our results revealed high affinity between butyltins and particulate matter and high accumulation of butyltins in the sludge taken from anaerobic ponds. The dissolved butyltins in the influent ranged from 21.5 to 28.1 ng(Sn).L(-1) and in the effluent, from 8.8 to 29.3 ng(Sn).L(-1). The butyltin concentrations in the sludge ranged from 45.1 to 164 and 3.6-8.1 ng(Sn).g(-1) respectively in the first and last ponds. Our results showed an average treatment efficiency of 71% for MBT, 47% for DBT, 55% for TBT. Laboratory sorption experiments enabled the calculation of a distribution coefficient (Kd = 75,000 between TBT and particulate matter from the WSPs. The Kd explained the accumulation and persistence of the TBT in the sludge after settling of particulate matter. The continuous supply of contaminated raw wastewater and the sorption-desorption processes in the ponds led to incomplete bio- and photolytic degradation and to the persistence of butyltins in dissolved and particulate matrices throughout the survey period. It is thus recommended to use shallow ponds and to pay particular attention when sludge is used for soil amendment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. FLASH Technology: Full-Scale Hospital Waste Water Treatments Adopted in Aceh (United States)

    Rame; Tridecima, Adeodata; Pranoto, Hadi; Moesliem; Miftahuddin


    A Hospital waste water contains a complex mixture of hazardous chemicals and harmful microbes, which can pose a threat to the environment and public health. Some efforts have been carried out in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (Aceh), Indonesia with the objective of treating hospital waste water effluents on-site before its discharge. Flash technology uses physical and biological pre-treatment, followed by advanced oxidation process based on catalytic ozonation and followed by GAC and PAC filtration. Flash Full-Scale Hospital waste water Treatments in Aceh from different district have been adopted and investigated. Referring to the removal efficiency of macro-pollutants, the collected data demonstrate good removal efficiency of macro-pollutants using Flash technologies. In general, Flash technologies could be considered a solution to the problem of managing hospital waste water.

  14. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment (United States)

    Husted, R. R.


    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  15. Symbiotic treatment. A new biological technology for treating waste waters from the canning industry; Depuracion simbiotica. Una nueva tecnologia biologica para la depuracion de aguas residuales del sector de conservas vegetales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayuso Garcia, L. M.; Canova Perez, J. L.; Llorens Pascual del Riquelme, M.; Saez Mercader, J.


    Many studies show that biological processes are the most suitable for the canned food industry waste water treatment. A new biological technology that minimizes the management, operation and maintenance problems associated to the waste water treatment is proposed. The results obtained in pilot plant of a new natural technology for treating waste water are presented in this paper. This technology was applied to the treatment of canned food industry waste water and received the effluent coming from peach and pear processing. A pilot plant composed of five treatment stages with vertical distribution has been constructed. This plant treats 80 l/h and have a surface of 1 m{sup 2}. The effluent of this plant complies the requirements established in Decreto 16/1999 (BORM no.97, 29 april 1999), about discharge of industrial waste water to sewers. (Author) 10 refs.

  16. Treatment of Refinery Waste Water Using Environmental Friendly Adsorbent (United States)

    Devi, M. Geetha; Al-Moshrafi, Samira Mohammed Khamis; Al Hudaifi, Alaa; Al Aisari, Buthaina Hamood


    This research evaluates the effectiveness of activated carbon prepared from walnut shell in the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water by adsorption technique. A series of batch experiments were carried out by varying the effluent solution pH, stirring time, stirring speed and adsorbent dosage in the reduction of pollutants from refinery effluent. Characterization of the adsorbent was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer Emmett and Teller (BET) isotherm and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The best quality activated carbon was obtained with a particle size of 0.75 µm, activation temperature of 800 °C and activation time 24 h. The maximum BET surface area obtained was 165.2653 m2/g. The experimental results demonstrates that the highest percentage reduction in COD was 79%, using 0.6 g walnut shell powder at an optimum stirring speed of 100 rpm, at pH 6 and 120 min of contact time. The outcome of the result shows that walnut shell carbon is a potentially useful adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water.

  17. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček


    Full Text Available Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest flux was achieved with the thinnest membranes and the best energy efficiency was achieved with the thickest membranes. All membranes had salt retention above 99%. Nanotechnology offers the potential to find modern solutions for desalination of waste waters, by introducing new materials with revolutionary properties, but new membranes must be developed according to the target application.

  18. Detection of toxic metals in waste water from dairy products plant using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. (United States)

    Hussain, T; Gondal, M A


    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) System was developed locally for determination of toxic metals in liquid samples and the system was tested for analysis of waste water collected from dairy products processing plant. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser at 1064 nm on waste water samples. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated for improving the sensitivity of our LIBS system through parametric dependence investigations. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) results were then compared with the results obtained using standard analytical technique such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP). The evaluation of the potential and capabilities of LIBS as a rapid tool for liquid sample analysis are discussed in brief.

  19. New Methodology in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael

    chose among different waste water treatments? Which ones are most beneficial in a holistic perspective? Here, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach as a decision supporting tool may help because its goal is to allow quantification and direct comparison of characteristics as diverse as energy...

  20. Sludge composting of waste water treatment plant. Compost plant of Vila-Seca (Tarragona); Compostaje de lodos procedentes de la depuracion de aguas residuales. Planta de compostaje de Vila- Seca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marza Brillas, J.


    Composting is a very effective process in waste treatment. Very good results are obtained in mass and volume loss, moisture reduction, organic matter establization as well as making possible agricultural uses for the final product. Some parameters as nutrients (C/N ratio), pH, temperature and oxygen content are pointed as the most important for the process. Some composting systems are mentioned but finally tunnel system is shown as the best. Its great advantage is that measurements from main parameters are given continuously to the control computer, so process optimization is done at the moment. The Vila-Seca sludge composting plant is described. This plant can treat 30.000 tones/year from three water treatment plants. The expected 50% on organic matter reduction and 70% on dry matter content has been achieved after only 3 months since its starting up. Finally, in september 1995 will start the construction of another sludge composting plant were the same technology, belonging to GICOM and represented by G.T.R. in Spain, will be installed.

  1. Study on Influence to Waste Water Treatment Plant’s Sludge by Low-carbon Catalytic Combustion Furnace of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren TianQi


    Full Text Available There are two parts in this experiment. One of is about the concentration of Variation of exhaust gas while heating sludge of waste water treatment plant. The other one is about introduce the problems of the traditional incineration processes of sludge of waste water treatment as compared between the sludge heated by natural gas catalytic combustion furnace and the tradition’s. We can see that natural gas low-carbon catalytic combustion furnace realize the near-zero emission of contaminates.

  2. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.


    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khromysheva О.О.


    Full Text Available Physical and chemical regularities of coagulant treatment of sewage of Open Joint-Stock Company «GidrosylaMZTG» from heavy metals, chlorides and sulfates by with aluminum sulphate are studied.

  4. Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water * OPSAHU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Industrialization played an important role for scio-economy of the country. Generally, a lot of water is used and lot of wastewater generated from industries due their processes and washing purpose. A large number of chemicals are used for the production of potable water and in the treatment of wastewater ...

  5. Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water | Sahu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In potable water treatment chemicals such as inorganic salts and polymeric organic coagulants are used for primary coagulation, as coagulant aids and for sludge dewatering; lime and soda ash allowed for pH correction and water stabilization; caustic soda is used for pH adjustment, powdered activated carbon (PAC) can ...

  6. Tannery wastes water treatment using Moringa Stenopetala seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High amount of heavy metal ions like Cr in the environment has been harmful for animal and human health. Bioadsorption of Cr from tannery wastes would be an alternative method to the chemical treatment in tannery industries. Hence, in this study the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract to adsorption Cr from ...

  7. Assessment of the efficacy of Aspergillus sp. EL-2 in textile waste water treatment. (United States)

    Gomaa, Ola M; Kareem, Hussein Abd El; Fatahy, Reham


    Fungal biomass has the ability to decolorize a wide variety of dyes successfully through a number of mechanisms. A brown rot isolate, previously identified as Aspergillus sp. EL-2, was used in the aerobic treatment of textile waste water efficiently. In the current work, the treated waste water was tested chemically using more than one combined treatment. Microbial toxicity, phytotoxicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were also studied to assess the toxicity level for each treatment. The obtained data suggest that the contribution of more than one mode of treatment is essential to ensure complete destruction of the by-products. The use of gamma irradiation (25 kGy) after the bioremediation step led to the decrease of the by-products of biodegradation as observed by visible spectrum and Fourier transfer infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The toxicity assessment presented variable results indicating the need for more than one toxicity test to confirm the presence or absence of hazardous compounds. Brown rot fungus could be used efficiently in the treatment of textile waste water without the risk of obtaining high carcinogenic or genotoxic compounds, especially if combined treatment is employed.

  8. Expense reduction in waste water treatment facility. Haisui shori setsubi no keihi setsugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, S. (Kyushu Electronic Metal Co. Ltd., Saga (Japan))


    An attempt was made on reducing the treatment expense through improving the methods of waste water treatment and dehydration in silicon wafer manufacturing processes in a semiconductor factory. Chemicals used for treating miscellaneous-use waste waters were changed to cation organic coagulants to reduce the use amount of aluminum sulfate and neutralizers. The Ca (OH) {sub 2} injection interlocked with a pH meter in HF system treatment, and the use amount of neutralizer were reduced. The high molecular coagulant used for waste water treatment was changed from paste to powder to improve its solubility during the winter season. The pumps were reviewed, the air lift blowers were discontinued, and the integration of pump types, the size reduction and inverter association of pumps motors were proceeded. For the sludge dehydrating machine, tests were carried out on an adequate injection amount of coagulants, and the injection points were changed. The flow rate control was changed from diaphragm system to ball system to stabilize the raw sludge flow. Among the high molecular coagulants used in the dehydrating machine, the cation coagulant was discontinued of its use. These improvement efforts resulted in an annual power saving of 2.59 million yen, and a resource saving equivalent to 66.144 million yen.

  9. Use of hydrodynamic cavitation in (waste)water treatment. (United States)

    Dular, Matevž; Griessler-Bulc, Tjaša; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Ion; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Oder, Martina; Petkovšek, Martin; Rački, Nejc; Ravnikar, Maja; Šarc, Andrej; Širok, Brane; Zupanc, Mojca; Žitnik, Miha; Kompare, Boris


    The use of acoustic cavitation for water and wastewater treatment (cleaning) is a well known procedure. Yet, the use of hydrodynamic cavitation as a sole technique or in combination with other techniques such as ultrasound has only recently been suggested and employed. In the first part of this paper a general overview of techniques that employ hydrodynamic cavitation for cleaning of water and wastewater is presented. In the second part of the paper the focus is on our own most recent work using hydrodynamic cavitation for removal of pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, carbamazepine), toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), bacteria (Legionella pneumophila) and viruses (Rotavirus) from water and wastewater. As will be shown, hydrodynamic cavitation, like acoustic, can manifest itself in many different forms each having its own distinctive properties and mechanisms. This was until now neglected, which eventually led to poor performance of the technique. We will show that a different type of hydrodynamic cavitation (different removal mechanism) is required for successful removal of different pollutants. The path to use hydrodynamic cavitation as a routine water cleaning method is still long, but recent results have already shown great potential for optimisation, which could lead to a low energy tool for water and wastewater cleaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrid membranes of polyamide applied in treatment of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Keila Machado de; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Lira, Helio de Lucena, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, Diego de Farias; Lima, Carlos Antonio Pereira de [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba (UEPB), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental


    In this work, it was prepared hybrid membranes of polyamide6 (PA6) with montmorillonite (MMT) and porogenic agent (CaCl{sub 2} ). The hybrid membranes with CaCl{sub 2} were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosimetry by mercury intrusion (PMI), flux measurements and rejection. By means of X-ray diffraction, it was revealed that the hybrid membranes with CaCl{sub 2} have an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure. For FTIR and DSC of hybrid membranes with CaCl{sub 2} , it was found that the spectra and the crystalline melting temperature remained virtually unchanged compared to PA6 membrane. From the SEM images, it was observed that the addition of the MMT and the CaCl{sub 2} in the membrane of PA6 caused an increase in the amount of pores the surface and cross section of these membranes. By PMI, it was observed that the presence of MMT and CaCl{sub 2} in the membrane caused an increase in the average diameters of pores. The water-oil separation tests, indicated a significant reduction of oil in the permeate, allowing treatment of wastewater contaminated with oil. (author)

  11. Sustainable treatment potential of mixed algal consortia for domestic waste water: Growth and mixotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Murthy


    Full Text Available The increasing levels of generation of nutrient-rich waste water pose serious challenge. Conventional biological and chemical methods of waste water treatment have failed in meeting sustainability challenges. Naturally occurring mixed algal species reared in mixotrophic growth modes have been deployed to recover nutrients (N and P from domestic wastewater after anaerobic digestion. In this paper, we present the results pertaining to growth and mixotrophy. Pilot-scale operation shows that the cultivation methods adopted and the use of naturally selected species lead to a tendency among these species to clump at certain stages of growth that in turn float or settle rapidly making algal harvest and thereby the nutrient recovery processes energy efficient. The highest settling rate was found to be 6.37 ± 1.6 g/m2/d. Mixotrophy was seen to contribute 15 – 24 % across the various algal consortia in wastewater (polyculture.

  12. Antibiotic-Resistance Genes in Waste Water. (United States)

    Karkman, Antti; Do, Thi Thuy; Walsh, Fiona; Virta, Marko P J


    Waste water and waste water treatment plants can act as reservoirs and environmental suppliers of antibiotic resistance. They have also been proposed to be hotspots for horizontal gene transfer, enabling the spread of antibiotic resistance genes between different bacterial species. Waste water contains antibiotics, disinfectants, and metals which can form a selection pressure for antibiotic resistance, even in low concentrations. Our knowledge of antibiotic resistance in waste water has increased tremendously in the past few years with advances in the molecular methods available. However, there are still some gaps in our knowledge on the subject, such as how active is horizontal gene transfer in waste water and what is the role of the waste water treatment plant in the environmental resistome? The purpose of this review is to briefly describe some of the main methods for studying antibiotic resistance in waste waters and the latest research and main knowledge gaps on the issue. In addition, some future research directions are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)


    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  14. Prizes awarded in fiscal 1999 by the Minister for International Trade and Industry on factories having applied excellent energy management. Energy conservation by installing fuel cell power generation facilities utilizing methane gas generated from waste water treatment plants / Improvements toward a clean room and energy saving air conditioning system; 1999 nendo energy kanri yuryo kojo tsusho sangyo daijin hyosho jusho. 1999 nendo shigen energy sho chokan hyosho jusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to achieve energy conservation in a waste water treatment plant in a brewery factories, an anaerobic treatment facility was introduced, and a fuel cell power generation facility effectively utilizing methane gas generated from the anaerobic waste water treatment plant was installed. This has resulted in large reduction in the operating number of blowers in the waste water treatment facility of activated sludge system. In addition, electric power, steam, and hot water generated from the fuel cells are effectively utilized as the factory utility. In energy conservation in an optical communication device manufacturing factory, the fan filter unit system was adopted, having been changed from the circulation air conditioner, a conventional type air conditioning system. The present system is a circulation system integrating the fan with the filter, making it possible to circulate air in the room to perform control of temperature, humidity, and dust in a clean room. Thus, the system has eliminated the circulating air conditioner, and reduced the air conditioner capacity by 42% and power consumption by 58.6% compared with those in the conventional circulation system. (NEDO)

  15. Utilisation of chlorine-dioxide and peracetic acid as disinfectants of effluents from Bologna waste water treatment plant; Sperimentazione di tecniche di disinfezione mediante biossido di cloro e acido peracetico applicate alle acque reflue dell'impianto di trattamento della citta' di Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, M.L. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria delle Strutture, dei Trasporti, delle Acque, del Rilevamento e del Territorio; Sorrentino, M.


    The necessity to optimize the disinfection phase in the treatment plant of waste water of Bologna made possible an experimental survey about the efficacy of two disinfectant agents utilized: chlorine-dioxide and peracetic acid. Object of the survey is to verify the possibility of utilize, full scale, also peracetic acid as disinfection agent. The experimentation regarded the reals flows adduced and discharged from the plant and it may be an useful reference to verify performance of post-treatment constructed wetlands. Particularly it has been possible to assay the efficacy of the different treatment in waste water with residual concentrations of suspended solids. [Italian] La necessita' di ottimizzare la fase di disinfezione nell'impianto di trattamento acque reflue della citta' di Bologna, sia per il miglioramento delle rese di inattivazione, sia per la riduzione dei costi di esercizio, ha reso necessaria un'indagine sperimentale sull'efficacia di due agenti disinfettanti utilizzati: il biossido di cloro e l'acido peracetico. Scopo dell'indagine e' quello di verificare la possibilita' di impiegare, a scala reale, per il refluo tipico dell'impianto di Bologna, anche l'acido peracetico quale agente di disinfezione. La sperimentazione, condotta ha interessato le portate reali addotte e scaricate dall'impianto e puo' costituire un riferimento utile verificare la fattibilita' igienico-sanitaria di post-trattamenti di lagunaggio o fertirrigazione. In particolare si e' potuta saggiare l'efficacia dei diversi sistemi di trattamento sui reflui aventi concentrazioni residue non trascurabili di solidi sospesi.

  16. Bio-Refineries Bioprocess Technologies for Waste-Water Treatment, Energy and Product Valorization (United States)

    Keith Cowan, A.


    Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also, potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world, and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food, fiber, and other biology-based products, including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific-attribute raw materials for differentiated markets, we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio-refineries be seen as part of a `new' agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste-water treatment, water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal, sustainable energy production, and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings, and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio-oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar-driven microalgae bio-refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy, fuels, and other useful materials (valorisation), with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

  17. Natural radionuclides in waste water discharged from coal-fired power plants in Serbia. (United States)

    Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Sarap, Nataša B; Krneta Nikolić, Jelena D; Rajačić, Milica M; Pantelić, Gordana K


    Investigation of the natural radioactivity levels in water around power plants, as well as in plants, coal, ash, slag and soil, and to assess the associated radiation hazard is becoming an emerging and interesting topic. This paper is focused on the results of the radioactivity analysis in waste water samples from five coal-fired power plants in Serbia (Nikola Tesla A, Nikola Tesla B, Kolubara, Morava and Kostolac), which were analyzed in the period 2003-2015. River water samples taken upstream and downstream from the power plants, drain water and overflow water were analyzed. In the water samples gamma spectrometry analysis was performed as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activity. Natural radionuclide 40 K was detected by gamma spectrometry, while the concentrations of other radionuclides, 226 Ra, 235 U and 238 U, usually were below the minimum detection activity (MDA). 232 Th and artificial radionuclide 137 Cs were not detected in these samples. Gross alpha and beta activities were determined by the α/β low level proportional counter Thermo Eberline FHT 770 T. In the analyzed samples, gross alpha activity ranged from MDA to 0.47 Bq L - 1 , while the gross beta activity ranged from MDA to 1.55 Bq L - 1 .

  18. Advanced biological treatment of refinery waste water; Development and construction of a new treatment step. Biologische Reinigung von Raffinerieabwaessern; Entwicklung und Bau einer neuartigen biologischen Reinigungsstufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, H.A. (Deutsche Shell AG, Raffineriezentrum Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)); Jenke, T. (Deutsche Shell AG, Raffineriezentrum Hamburg-Harburg (Germany))


    Refinery waste water streams are mainly contaminated with hydrocarbons, ammonia and sulfides. Legislation has imposed new limits for the operation of Shell Harburg refinery's waster water treating plant. Improvements in the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as total nitrification and nitrate removal are required. Further planning targets are the incorporation of a denitrification step and the substitution of the present sulfide elemination with iron sulfate by a biological sulfide oxidation mechanism. For the development of an optimal process and for establishing the required design parameters, pilot plant tests on a semi-technical scale were carried out in 1988 on the premesis of Shell Harburg refinery. These tests supervised by the Department of Waste Water Treatment Research of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg formed the basis of the new biotreating concept. Various treating steps as COD elimination, nitrification, and denitrification are combined in the newly developed process. Especially a sulfide oxidation step will be incorporated using NO[sub 3-] as oxygen source (or sulfide as electron donor). To comply with the latest legal requirements a very effective separation of biomass from the effluent water is inevitable. The technology of the thus developed concept reflects a further improvement of the ''State of the Art'' for cleaning refinery waste water streams. (orig.)

  19. Silage supports sulfate reduction in the treatment of metals- and sulfate-containing waste waters. (United States)

    Wakeman, Kathryn D; Erving, Leena; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja L; Puhakka, Jaakko A


    Silage was used as source of carbon and electrons for enrichment of silage-degrading and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) from boreal, acidic, metals-containing peat-bog samples and to support their use in batch and semi-batch systems in treatment of synthetic waste water. Sulfidogenic silage utilization resulted in a rapid decrease in lactate concentrations; concentrations of acetate, butyrate and propionate increased concomitantly. Synthetic waste water consisting of Mn, Mg and Fe (II) ions inhibited sulfate reduction at concentrations of 6 g/l, 8 g/l and 1 g/l respectively. During treatment, Mn and Mg ions remained in solution while Fe ions partially precipitated. Up to 87 mg sulfate was reduced per gram of silage. Sulfate reduction rates of 34, 22 and 6 mg/l/day were obtained at temperatures of 30, 20 and 9 °C respectively. In semi-batch reactors operated at low pH, the iron precipitation capacity was controlled by sulfate reduction rates and by partial loss of hydrogen sulfide to the gas phase. Passive reactor systems should, therefore, be operated at neutral pH. Metals tolerant, silage-fermenting (predominantly species belonging to genus Clostridium) and sulfate reducing bacteria (including a species similar to the psychrotolerant Desulfovibrio arcticus) were obtained from the peat bog samples. This work demonstrates that silage supports sulfate reduction and can be used as a low cost carbon and electron source for SRB in treatment of metals-containing waste water. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flocculating performance of a bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in sewage waste water treatment. (United States)

    Agunbiade, Mayowa Oladele; Van Heerden, Esta; Pohl, Carolina H; Ashafa, Anofi Tom


    The discharge of poorly treated effluents into the environment has far reaching, consequential impacts on human and aquatic life forms. Thus, we evaluated the flocculating efficiency of our test bioflocculant and we report for the first time the ability of the biopolymeric flocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in the treatment of sewage wastewater. This strain was isolated from sediment soil sample at Sterkfontein dam in the Eastern Free State province of South Africa. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA revealed the bacteria to have 99% similarity to Arthrobacter humicola strain R1 and the sequence was deposited in the Gene bank as Arthrobacter humicola with accession number KC816574.1. Flocculating activity was enhanced with the aid of divalent cations, pH 12, at a dosage concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. The purified bioflocculant was heat stable and could retain more than 78% of its flocculating activity after heating at 100 °C for 25 min. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl moieties as the functional groups. The thermogravimetric analysis was used to monitor the pyrolysis profile of the purified bioflocculant and elemental composition revealed C: O: Na: P: K with 13.90: 41.96: 26.79: 16.61: 0.74 weight percentage respectively. The purified bioflocculant was able to remove chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrate and turbidity from sewage waste water at efficiencies of 65.7%, 63.5%, 55.7%, 71.4% and 81.3% respectively. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using the bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola as a potential alternative to synthesized chemical flocculants in sewage waste water treatment and other industrial waste water.

  1. Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (Inventor)


    A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

  2. Nutrient removal at the waste water treatment plant at Wathlingen. Special aspects of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal; Naehrstoffelemination auf der Klaeranlage Wathlingen. Besonderheiten bei der erhoehten biologischen Phosphatelimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, D. [Fachhochschule Suderburg (Germany); Fladerer, F. [Fachhochschule Suderburg (Germany)


    The article describes the problem of the nutrient removal in communal wastewater treatment plants. As an example the investigations about the optimisation of the denitrification and the enhanced biological phosphorus removal on the Wathlingen Wastewater Treatment Plant are explained. In this case the most important subjects are the anaerobic P-release despite a high amount of nitrate in the return sludge entering the anerobic tank, followed by an anoxic P-uptake in the denitrification zone before entering the aerobic tank for nitrification. Furthermore there is a short description of improvement measures carried out. The obtained effluent values show the success of these improvements. The specific P-dynamic in the treatment system requires conclusions supporting the optimisation of the nutrient removal in treatment plants using enhanced biological P-elimination and denitrification before nitrification. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Artikel befasst sich mit der Problematik der Naehrstoffelimination auf kommunalen Klaeranlagen. Am Beispiel der Untersuchungen zur Optimierung der Dentrifikation und erhoehten biologischen Phosphorelimination auf der Klaeranlage Wathlingen werden Besonderheiten der biologischen P-Elimination dargestellt. Dabei geht es vor allem um eine anaerobe P-Freisetzung bei intermittierender Schlammumwaelzung im anaeroben Becken und gleichzeitigen hohen Nitrateintraegen ueber den Ruecklaufschlamm. Ebenso erfolgt die Darstellung der sich anschliessenden anoxischen P-Aufnahme im vorgeschalteten Denitrifikationsbecken. Des weiteren werden die druchgefuehrten Optimierungen kurz beschrieben und die damit erzielten Ablaufwerte aufgefuehrt. Schlussfolgerungen fuer die Prozessfuehrung bei Anlagenkonfigurationen mit biologischer P-Elimination und vorgeschalteter Denitrifikation ergeben sich aus dem Phaenomen der anoxischen Phosphataufnahme. (orig.)

  3. Effect of distillation waste water and plant hormones on spearmint growth and composition. (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess


    Distillation waste water (DWW) is a by-product from steam distillation of essential-oil crops; and currently, it is discharged into streams and rivers. The effects of DWW from 13 essential-oil crops, extracts from two alkaloid-containing species, and three plant hormones (methyl jasmonate, MJ; gibberellic acid, GA3; and salicylic acid, SA) were evaluated on productivity, essential-oil content and composition of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) cv. 'Native'. Spearmint plant height was increased by the application of GA3 and Melissa officinalis DWW but suppressed by the application of Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida DWW. Generally, MJ, GA3 and M. officinalis and Mentha arvensis DWW increased dry yields. The concentration of L-carvone in the oil ranged from 550 g kg(-1) (with Monarda citriodora DWW) to 670 g kg(-1) (with T. lucida DWW). M. citriodora DWW reduced the concentration of L-carvone in the oil by 23% relative to the control. Results suggest that DWW from essential-oil crops may affect monoterpene synthesis in M. spicata and, hence, may have a direct effect on the essential oil composition. DWW from essential-oil crops may be used as a growth promoter and modifier of the essential oil composition of spearmint. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Indigenous Halomonas spp., the Potential Nitrifying Bacteria for Saline Ammonium Waste Water Treatment. (United States)

    Sangnoi, Yutthapong; Chankaew, Sunipa; O-Thong, Sompong


    Toxic nitrogen compounds are one cause decreasing of shrimp production and water pollution. Indigenous Halomonas spp., isolated from Pacific white shrimp farm are benefitted for saline ammonium waste water treatment. This study aimed to isolate the heterotrophic-halophilic Halomonas spp. and investigate their ammonium removal efficiency. Halomonas spp., were isolated by culturing of samples collected from shrimp farm into modified Pep-Beef-AOM medium. Ammonium converting ability was tested and monitored by nitrite reagent. Ammonium removal efficiency was measured by the standard colorimetric method. Identification and classification of Halomonas spp., were studied by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular information. There were 5 strains of heterotrophic-halophilic nitrifying bacteria including SKNB2, SKNB4, SKNB17, SKNB20 and SKNB22 were isolated. The identification result based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that all 5 strains were Halomonas spp., with sequence similarity values of 91-99 %. Ammonium removal efficiency of all strains showed a range of 23-71%. The production of nitrite was low detected of 0.01-0.15 mg-N L-1, while the amount of nitrate was almost undetectable. This might suggest that the indigenous Halomonas spp., as nitrifying bacteria involved biological nitrification process for decreasing and transforming of ammonia. Due to being heterotrophic, halophilic and ammonium removing bacteria, these Halomonas spp., could be developed for use in treatment of saline ammonium waste water.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González Manosalva


    Full Text Available Se presenta el diseño conceptual de una planta experimental de tratamiento de aguas residuales para poblaciones menores de 30.000 habitantes. El diseño integra seis esquemas de tratamiento interconectados, incluyendo sistemas convencionales y no convencionales, con disposición final del efluente a un cuerpo de agua o infiltración lenta en el terreno, cumpliendo con la norma vigente en Colombia. El proceso incluyó una revisión del estado del arte, el diseño de plantas de este tipo como la planta de Carrión de los Céspedes (Andalucía-España, la planta UFMG/COPASA (Minas Gerais-Brasil, los trabajos realizados en Colombia del IDEAM-CINARA-UTP y los ensayos realizados por Madera, Silva y Peña del CINARA en planta piloto. El área estimada para la construcción de los esquemas propuestos es de 18.000 m² y los costos fijos de construcción de la planta se estiman en 850 millones de pesos para tratar un caudal de 1,5 l/s de agua residual doméstica.Conceptual design of an experimental waste water treatment plant for populations lower than 30,000 inhabitants is presented. The design integrates six interconnected treatment systems, including conventional and non-conventional systems with final disposal of the effluent to a water body or slow infiltration in the soil, complying with Colombian norms in force. The process included a state-of-the-art revision, design of this kind of plants (such as Carrión de los Céspedes in Andalucía, Spain; UFMG/COPASA plant in Minas Gerais-Brazil, works conducted in Colombia (IDEAM-CINARA-UTP, and tests performed by Madera, Silva, and Peña from CINARA in a pilot plant. Area estimated for construction of systems proposed reaches 18,000 m² and fixed costs for construction of the plant is estimated in 850 million Colombian pesos for treating a 1.5 l/s flow of household waste water.

  6. Evaluation of a membrane bioreactor system as post-treatment in waste water treatment for better removal of micropollutants. (United States)

    Arriaga, Sonia; de Jonge, Nadieh; Nielsen, Marc Lund; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Borregaard, Vibeke; Jewel, Kevin; Ternes, Thomas A; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund


    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) such as pharmaceuticals are persistent pollutants that are only partially degraded in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was used as a polishing step on a full-scale WWTP, and its ability to remove micropollutants was examined together with the development and stability of the microbial community. Two stages of operation were studied during a period of 9 months, one with (S1) and one without (S2) the addition of exogenous OMPs. Ibuprofen and naproxen had the highest degradation rates with values of 248 μg/gVSS·h and 71 μg/gVSS·h, whereas diclofenac was a more persistent OMP (7.28 μg/gVSS·h). Mineralization of (14)C-labeled OMPs in batch kinetic experiments indicates that higher removal rates (∼0.8 ng/mgTSS·h) with a short lag phase can be obtained when artificial addition of organic micropollutants was performed. Similar microbial populations dominated S1 and S2, despite the independent operations. Hydrogenophaga, Nitrospira, p55-a5, the actinobacterial Tetrasphaera, Propionicimonas, Fodinicola, and Candidatus Microthrix were the most abundant groups in the polishing MBR. Finally, potential microbial candidates for ibuprofen and naproxen degradation are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of the effluents from a waste-water treatment plant on the organic matter levels in its environment. Repercusion de los vertidos de una EDAR sobre los niveles de materia organica en su entorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuez Delgado, A.; Cardenas Botas, S.; Diaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.


    Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured in water samples from the environment of a wastewaters treatment plant. It was found that DO decreased in receiving waters, while COD generally increased. In sediment samples form the riverbeds, the levels of organic matter have not shown a clear relationship with the distance to the dumping sites. In the soil samples it was generally found an increase in the amount of organic matter near of the points of dumping. In several cases, soil texture changes and soil hydraulic conductivity diminution were observed. (Author) 14 refs.

  8. Solar-assisted MED treatment of Eskom power station waste water (United States)

    Roos, Thomas H.; Rogers, David E. C.; Gericke, Gerhard


    The comparative benefits of multi-effect distillation (MED) used in conjunction with Nano Filtration (NF), Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) are determined for waste water minimization for inland coal fired power stations for Zero Liquid Effluent Discharge (ZLED). A sequence of technologies is proposed to achieve maximal water recovery and brine concentration: NF - physico-chemical treatment - MED - EFC. The possibility of extending the concentration of RO reject arising from minewater treatment at the Lethabo power station with MED alone is evaluated with mineral formation modelling using the thermochemical modelling software Phreeq-C. It is shown that pretreatment is essential to extend the amount of water that can be recovered, and this can be beneficially supported by NF.

  9. Influence of the operating conditions in a municipal waste water treatment plant on biomass sediment ability characteristics. 2. Biomass study; Influencia de las condiciones de operacion de una EDAR municipal en las caracteristicas de sedimentabilidad de la biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moron, L. M.; Laino, H.; Omil, F.


    During the study carried out in the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the town of Sada (A Coruna), the development of filamentous microorganisms has been detected as a consequence of the incidence of sea water in the sewer system. 18 filamentous microorganisms have been detected, which cause to the biomass to appear highly dis aggregated or in the form of opened flocs with many bridges between them. Among the filaments characterised as dominants, the most problematic because of their high development are Type 021 N, Type 0961 and Nocardia, type 021N is the most difficult to remove by using the operational parameters. However, many filaments can be broken by increasing the dissolved oxygen in the system, which allows a better sedimentation of the biomass. (Author)

  10. Automation and remote control of waste-water treatment plants. Application to the WWTP of Genoa-Sturla; Automazione e telecontrollo degli impianti di trattamento per reflui urbani. Applicazioni nell'impianto di Genova-Sturla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvicini, V.; Siri, R.; Sammartino, P. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua, Genoa (Italy); Capodaglio, A.G.; Cavagliano, P. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Idraulica e Ambientale


    A characteristic of the upgrading carried out on the wastewater treatment plant of Genoa-Sturla lies in the fact that the facility has been fitted with a completely automatic operating and managing system capable of reducing all manual interventions in normal operating conditions to a minimum, while maintaining the requested degree of operational safety. The development of a program for the elaboration of raw data transmitted to the user by the remote control system was made possible through a critical analysis of the functional tests conducted on the electromechanical equipment and of the related signals, and by an in-depth study of the available remote control tools and operating logics that are used to adjust wastewater treatment processes dynamics. The monitoring of several characteristic parameters of the plant has been organized in such a way that it will be of better operational use to the plant operating Agency, in order to optimize the efficiency of the depuration processes, to further improve the technical and financial management of the facility and to prevent or promptly resolve possible occasional malfunctions. [Italian] Una particolarita' dell'intervento di completa ristrutturazione del depuratore di Genova-Sturla consiste nell'aver dotato la struttura di un sistema di conduzione di gestione completamente automatico tale da minimizzare le operazioni di tipo manuale nelle condizioni di esercizio ordinario assicurando, nel contempo, il richiesto grado di sicurezza. Un'analisi critica della fase di collaudo funzionale dei macchinari elettro-meccanici e dei relativi segnali, un approdondito studio degli strumenti di telegestione e delle logiche di funzionamento che regoleranno la dinamica dei processi di trattamento del liquame, hanno consentito di sviluppare un programma di elaborazione dei dati originari trasmessi all'utente dall'apparato di supervisione. Il monitoraggio dei numerosi parametri caratteristici dell

  11. Industrial wastewater treatment plant of sugar production


    Čad, Luka


    Sugar as product in our every day’s life’s been consumed in enormous quantities as one of main resources in food and drink industry. Production processes of sugar from sugar beet bring significant environmental impacts with it’s waste waters as the biggest pollutant. The thesis deals with sugar production waste water’s treatment process by presenting an example of waste water treatment plant of sugar factory, therefor presenting the production processes in sugar factories and their environmen...

  12. Novel, energy-optimized membrane design for biological waste water treatment systems; Ein neuentwickeltes Niedrig-Energie-Membransystem fuer Membran-Biologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbecke, S. [Preussag Wassertechnik GmbH, Bremen (Germany)


    In industrial waste water treatment, circular movement of waste water, scarcity of space for erecting waste water treatment plants, and economy are factors of eminent importance, calling for innovative, efficient process techniques. Up to now, separation of activated sludge from cleaned waste water has been done almost exclusively by means of sedimentation. But because of the slight difference in density between water and biomass, large final sedimentation tanks are indispensable, and attainable biomass concentrations in an activated sludge tank (or bioreactor) are low (3-4g/l). Given that cleaning performance is directly proportional to biomass concentration, achieving higher biomass concentrations spells substantially enhanced efficiency per unit of space of biological systems, thus saving reaction volume. For this task, membrane techniques are suitable, which, contrary to sedimentation, permit random-selection, operationally stable retention and concentration of biomass with a definitely smaller space requirement. (orig.) [German] Bei der industriellen Abwasserbehandlung stehen die Kreislauffuehrung des Abwassers, beengte Platzverhaeltnisse fuer die Errichtung von Abwasserbehandlungsanlagen und die Wirtschaftlichkeit im Vordergrund, so dass dort innovative, effiziente Verfahrenstechniken gefragt sind. Zur Abtrennung des Belebtschlammes vom gereinigten Abwasser wird bisher fast ausschliesslich die Sedimentation eingesetzt. Der geringe Dichteunterschied zwischen Wasser und Biomasse macht jedoch grosse Nachklaerbecken notwendig und die erreichbaren Biomassekonzentrationen im Belebungsbecken (bzw. Bioreaktor) sind gering (3-4 g/l). Da die Reinigungsleistung der Biomassekonzentration direkt proportional ist, kann mit der Einstellung hoeherer Biomassekonzentrationen die Raumumsatzleistung biologischer Systeme erheblich gesteigert und somit Reaktionsvolumen eingespart werden. Fuer diese Aufgabe koennen Membranverfahren eingesetzt werden, die im Gegensatz zur

  13. Laboratory tests of purifying coking plant waste water using coke dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcz, A.; Burmistrz, P.; Rozwadowski, A. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Wydzial Energochemii Wegla i Fizykochemii Sorbentow)


    Studies suitability of coke dust from dry coke quenching for cleaning waste water. Sorptive properties were compared to those of powdered Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon. The following factors were evaluated: chemical oxygen demand, total content of organic carbon, content of phenols, cyanides, thiocyanates, ammonia, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzopyrene. Amount of dust used was optimized in a series of experiments. Coke sedimentation was also studied within the range of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 g/dm[sup 3] concentrations, showing that the dust separates well after absorption. Special attention was paid to removal of phenols. Coke dust was found to have 38 to 98% of the sorptive power of activated carbon. Both adsorption materials made waste water lose its color and odor. Findings are provided in 5 tables. 2 refs.

  14. Polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium (Psy- g-PMA): a novel material for waste water treatment (United States)

    Kumar, Ranvijay; Sharma, Kaushlendra; Tiwary, K. P.; Sen, Gautam


    Polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium (Psy- g-PMA) was synthesized by microwave assisted method, which involves a microwave irradiation in synergism with silver sulfate as a free radical initiator to initiate grafting reaction. Psy- g-PMA grades have been synthesized and characterized on structural basis (elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, intrinsic viscosity study) as well as morphological and thermal studies, taking psyllium as reference. The effects of reaction time, amount of monomer and silver sulfate (free radical initiator) on grafting of PMA on psyllium backbone have been studied. It is observed that all the grades of Psy- g-PMA have higher intrinsic viscosities than that of psyllium. The best synthesized grade was Psy- g-PMA having intrinsic viscosity of 6.93 and 58 % grafting of PMA on the main polymer backbone. Further Psy- g-PMA applications as flocculants for waste water treatment have been investigated. Psy- g-PMA resulted in higher decrease in the flocculation parameters such as total dissolved solid or total solids compared to psyllium. Hence the result shows the possible application of grafted psyllium in wastewater treatment.

  15. Biological denitrification of waste water from wet lime-gypsum flue gas desulphurization plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, G.H.; Jepsen, S.E. (Water Quality Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark))


    Waste water from flue gas desulphurization by the wet lime-gypsum process is characterized by high contents of nitrate (150-300 mg/l N) and chloride (10-30 g/l cl) and high temperature (40-50{degree}C). Continuous and batch experiments with biological denitrification were performed with suspended cultures in lab-scale reactors fed with synthetic waste water with chloride concentrations up to 30 g/l Cl. Process temperatures in the range of 30-50{degree}C were investigated. Acetate was added as carbon source. The results of the experiments show that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in wet lime-gypsum flue gas desulphurization waste water. Stable continuous denitrification was performed at chloride concentrations up to 30 g/1 and at temperatures up to 45{degree}C. A temperature optimum of 40{degree}C was found for nitrate removal. At 50{degree}C the denitrification had ceased in the reactors. In batch experiments an increased tendency to intermediate nitrite accumulation at increased temperatures and increased chloride levels was observed. This indicates that efforts should be made to equal out load variations in high chloride and high temperature biological denitrification in order to avoid periodical nitrite accumulation. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Waste water regeneration technologies: the experience of a pilot plant using an MBR process and micro-ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in the waste water treatment plant at Canals-Lucidol de Cre spins (Valencia, Spain); Tecnologias para la regeneracion de aguas residuales: experiencia con planta piloto mediante un proceso MBR y membranas de micro-ultrafiltracion y osmosis inversa en la EDAR de Canals-L' Alcudia de Crespins (Valencia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Muro, J. L.; Garcia Garcia, J. J.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Lloret Salinas, R.; Pascual Garrido, J.; Escribano Romero, F.; Zarzo Martinez, D.


    This article looks at membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and the use of micro-ultrafiltration membranes systems for treating sewage prior to reverse osmosis to desalinate sewage plant affluent. MBR technology ensures stable effluent quality (it is not affected by problems of sedimentation of the biological sludge in the clarifier) and practical disinfecting of the sludge. Micro-ultra-filtration technologies, either as treatment prior to reverse osmosis, or as independent tertiary treatment systems, generally guarantee extremely demanding permeate characteristics: SDI15 < 3-fouling index-, absence of microbiological organisms, and cloudines < 1 NTU. (Author)

  17. The perfection of systems for water-supply, sewerage, and the purification of waste water at oil-refining plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioakimis, E.G.; Nurmukhametova, I.Z.


    A notable part of the management of a petroleum-processing plant is delegated to effective equipment cleaning and, the resultant costs waste water (SV) cleaning are large. This is why tasks were formulated for the improvement of the water-supply system, the sewerage system, and for the improvement of SV quantities and elimination of their pollution. The maximum use of cold air for local purification of the more polluted SV and for the intensification of existing purfication methods, is incoroporated into the tasks.

  18. Waste water recirculation and treatment in a housing project; Abwasserwaermerueckgewinnung und -wiederaufbereitung in einer Wohnhausanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, W.


    The 'Osgramgruende' settlement to the south of Vienna comprises 514 apartments in low-energy standard including passive use of solar energy. In order to save fresh water and energy, a novel concept for waste water recycling and treatment was installed. Details are described in this contribution. [German] Die geplante Wohnhausanlage 'Osramgruende' mit 514 Wohnungen im Sueden von Wien wurde in Niedrigenergie-Bauweise mit besonderer Beachtung der passiven Sonnenenergienutzung errichtet. Zur Einsparung von Frischwasser und Energie fuer die Warmwasserbereitung wurde bei dieser Anlage ein neuartiges Konzept umgesetzt, bei dem Abwasserwaermerueckgewinnung und -wiederaufbereitung kombiniert werden. Die Dusch- und Waschabwaesser werden zentral gesammelt und ihre Abwaerme ueber ein Waermerueckgewinnungssystem auf das Frischwasser uebertragen. Die Waermerueckgewinnung erfolgt in einer ersten Stufe mit Sicherheitswaermetauschern direkt und in einer zweiten Stufe mit Waermepumpe. Um ein Absinken des Wirkungsgrades zu verhindern, wird eine automatische Waermetauscherreinigung eingesetzt. Das bereits durch das Waermerueckgewinnungssystem vorgereinigte Grauwasser wird in einer Wasseraufbereitungsanlage mit Mehrschichtfiltern, Nanofiltration und UV-Entkeimung fast auf Trinkwasserqualitaet gereinigt und fuer die WC-Spuelung verwendet. Der Bedarf fuer die WC-Spuelung kann vollstaendig gedeckt werden und damit 1/3 des Trinkwasserverbrauchs eingespart werden. Sowohl Abwasserwaermerueckgewinnung als auch Grauwasserwiederaufbereitung befinden sich zur Zeit im Probebetrieb. (orig.)

  19. The use of sewage sludges from waste water treatment plants for re-vegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, F. I.; Camarero, J. G.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.; Fernandez, C.; Codoner, M. A.


    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in re-vegetation of closed urban landfill in which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with anaerobic sewage sludge. In this work we expose the phases and the design for the implementation of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by GIRSA, in a collaborative research between CIDE (CSIC-UVEG-GV), Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and DAM, S.L. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, bush and trees) after incorporation into the degrades soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. Twelve plots of 20 m by 8 m will be employed to a quarterly research of the effects on the soil and on the introduced vegetation of three doses (0,60, 120 tn/ha) of the anaerobic sewage sludge. (Author) 17 refs.

  20. The physico-chemical treatment of laundry waste water; Tratamiento fisicoquimica de aguas residuales de lavanderias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susial, P.; Jato, I. G.; Larranaga, I.


    Waste water from the washing of clot her is treated with aluminium sulphate + acrylamide to achieve coagulation/flocculation. The analytical data obtained in a jar-test using the FTU as the control parameter demonstrate the efficacy of the process, as reductions in the FTU approaching 100% and elimination rates of 80% in detergents and 85% in the COD were achieved. These results show that coagulation and flocculation are sufficient to treat laundry waste water, even though it contains a high pollutant load, since both organic and inorganic pollutants can be significantly reduced by such operations. (Author) 17 refs.

  1. Application of a dynamic simulation model for the audit of a WWTP (Waste water treatment plant); Applicazione di un modello di simulazione dinamica per la verifica di un impianto di depurazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G.; Foladori, P.; Gelmini, A.; Guglielmi, G.; Romani, S. [Trent Univ., Trent (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile ed Ambientale


    A dynamic model has been used for describing the behaviour of a full-scale MWWTP in the province of Trent. The model (CarbonNitrogen2) is based on the ASM 1 of IAWPRC (Henze et al., 1987) and it is implemented by a specific software (GPS-X(R)). The hydrodynamic behaviour of the activated sludge reactor was determined using lithium chloride (LiCl). The plant layout was drawn through the instruments provided by GPS-X. The model calibration has been carried out by evaluating kinetic and stoichiometric parameters with respirometric techniques. The validation has been performed using an on-line analyser for nitrate concentration (NITRATAX(R)). Finally, the model has been used to compare some schemes for nitrogen removal, i.e. Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification at different dissolved oxygen concentrations, and conventional pre-denitrification. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro e' stato utilizzato un modello di simulazione dinamica per descrivere il comportamento di un impianto di depurazione a scala reale sito in provincia di Trento. Il modello (CarbonNitrogen 2) si basa sul modlelo ASM 1 sviluppato dall'IAWPRC (Henze et al., 1987) ed e' implementato su un apposito software (GPS-X(R)). La valutazione del comportamento idrodinamico del comparto a fanghi attivi mediante tracciante conservativo (LiCl) ha permesso la definizione del layout dell'impianto utilizzando al meglio gli oggetti offerti dal software GPS-X(R). La valutazione dei parametri cinetici e la successiva fase di taratura del modello sono state condotte mediante tecniche respirometriche. La valutazione dei parametri cinetici e la successiva fase di taratura del modello sono state condotte mediante tecniche respirometriche. La validazione del modello e' stata eseguita monitorando in continuo il processo di nitrificazione, grazie ad un analizzatore on-line per la misura della concentrazione di nitrati (NITRATAX(R)) nell'effluente dalla vasca di ossidazione. Il modello e

  2. Optimising conventional treatment of domestic waste water: quality, required surface area, solid waste minimisation and biogas production for medium and small-scale applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S


    Full Text Available Municipal waste water, or sewage, is a combination of domestic and industrial effluent. The increasing volume of sewage due to urbanisation and economic growth places pressure on the treatment performance of existing waste treatment systems...

  3. Improved waste water treatment by bio-synthesized Graphene Sand Composite. (United States)

    Poornima Parvathi, V; Umadevi, M; Bhaviya Raj, R


    The photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of graphene biosynthesized from sugar and anchored on sand particles has been focused here. The morphology and composition of the synthesized Graphene Sand Composite (GSC) was investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDAX), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. SEM images show wrinkly edges. This is characteristic of graphenic morphology. Three types of waste water samples namely, textile waste (TW), sugarcane industrial waste water (SW) and domestic waste water from a local purification center at Kodaikanal (KWW) were collected and treated. Adsorption experiments showed effective removal of impurities at 0.2 g of GSC. Photocatalytic activity was analyzed under visible and ultraviolet irradiation. The rate constant for TW increased to 0.0032/min for visible light irradiation from 0.0029/min under UV irradiation. SW showed similar improved activity with rate constant as 0.0023/min in visible irradiation compared to 0.0016/min under UV irradiation. For KWW enhanced activity was seen only in visible light irradiation with rate constant 0.0025/min. GSC showed an inhibition zone of 20 mm against the bacterium Escherichia coli. Results suggest development of economic and effective waste water management systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electron Beam-Induced Immobilization of Laccase on Porous Supports for Waste Water Treatment Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri


    Full Text Available The versatile oxidase enzyme laccase was immobilized on porous supports such as polymer membranes and cryogels with a view of using such biocatalysts in bioreactors aiming at the degradation of environmental pollutants in wastewater. Besides a large surface area for supporting the biocatalyst, the aforementioned porous systems also offer the possibility for simultaneous filtration applications in wastewater treatment. Herein a “green” water-based, initiator-free, and straightforward route to highly reactive membrane and cryogel-based bioreactors is presented, where laccase was immobilized onto the porous polymer supports using a water-based electron beam-initiated grafting reaction. In a second approach, the laccase redox mediators 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and syringaldehyde were cross-linked instead of the enzyme via electron irradiation in a frozen aqueous poly(acrylate mixture in a one pot set-up, yielding a mechanical stable macroporous cryogel with interconnected pores ranging from 10 to 50 µm in size. The membranes as well as the cryogels were characterized regarding their morphology, chemical composition, and catalytic activity. The reactivity towards waste- water pollutants was demonstrated by the degradation of the model compound bisphenol A (BPA. Both membrane- and cryogel-immobilized laccase remained highly active after electron beam irradiation. Apparent specific BPA removal rates were higher for cryogel- than for membrane-immobilized and free laccase, whereas membrane-immobilized laccase was more stable with respect to maintenance of enzymatic activity and prevention of enzyme leakage from the carrier than cryogel-immobilized laccase. Cryogel-immobilized redox mediators remained functional in accelerating the laccase-catalyzed BPA degradation, and especially ABTS was found to act more efficiently in immobilized than in freely dissolved state.

  5. Master Plan Jakarta, Indonesia: The Giant Seawall and the need for structural treatment of municipal waste water. (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Hesse, Karl Jürgen; Schwarzbauer, Jan


    In order to take actions against the annual flooding in Jakarta, the construction of a Giant Seawall has been proposed in the Master Plan for National Capital Integrated Coastal Development. The seawall provides a combination of technical solutions against flooding, but these will heavily modify the mass transports in the near-coastal area of Jakarta Bay. This study presents numerical simulations of river flux of total nitrogen and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, a molecular tracer for municipal waste water for similar scenarios as described in the Master Plan. Model results demonstrate a strong accumulation of municipal wastes and nutrients in the planned reservoirs to extremely high levels which will result in drastic adverse eutrophication effects if the treatment of municipal waste water is not dealt with in the same priority as the construction of the Giant Seawall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Report on the research cooperation promoting project in fiscal 1998. Research cooperation related to the mine waste water treatment technology utilizing biomass; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo hokokusho. Bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper describes the achievement in relation with the mine waste water treatment technology utilizing biomass, from among the promotion projects for research cooperation with China. Waste water is converted into ferric iron (Fe{sup 3+}), which precipitates at low pH, by utilizing iron oxidizing bacteria which use ferrous iron (Fe{sup 2+}) in the waste water as the energy source, and is precipitated and removed by using low-cost calcium carbonate as a neutralizing agent. Fiscal 1998 has performed eight site surveys with 47 persons in total. The main survey items are the study and guidance of pilot plant operation and the survey on measures to prevent occurrence of contamination by heavy metals in Wushan Mine. Additional site surveys were made at Dexing Mine and Yinshan Lead/Zinc Mine. Continued from fiscal 1997, consumables required for the pilot plant were purchased, and items of the bench-scale testing equipment used by Japan for domestic researches (an oxidation and neutralization testing equipment and a copper recovering and testing equipment) were transported to China. The operation research data of the pilot plant were put in order and analyzed. This paper summarizes the concept design of the shaft waste water treatment facilities for the north mine in Wushan Mine, and the surveys on measures for heavy metal contamination sources. (NEDO)

  7. Design of patient rooms and automatic radioiodine-131 waste water management system for a thyroid cancer treatment ward: 'Suandok Model'. (United States)

    Vilasdechanon, N; Ua-Apisitwong, S; Chatnampet, K; Ekmahachai, M; Vilasdechanon, J


    The great benefit of (131)I radionuclide treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was acknowledged by the long survival rate. The main requirements for (131)I therapy in hospital were treatment facilities and a radiation safety plan that assured radiation protection and safety to patient, hospital worker, public, and environment. To introduce the concepts and methods of radiation safety design for a patient's room in a (131)I treatment ward and a system of radioactive waste water management in hospital. The design was based on principles of external and internal radiation protection for unsealed source and radioactive waste management. Planning for treatment facilities was concluded from clinical evidence, physical and physiological information for (131)I, radiation safety criteria, hospital resources and budget. The three phases of the working process were: construction, software development, and radiation safety assessment. The (131)I treatment facility and automatic radioactive waste water management system was completely implemented in 2009. The radiation waste water management system known as the 'Suandok Model' was highly recommended by the national regulator to hospitals who desire to provide (131)I treatment for thyroid cancer. In 2011, the Nuclear Medicine Division, Chiang Mai University was rewarded by the national authority for a very good radiation practice in development of safe working conditions and environment. The Suandok Model was a facility design that fulfilled requirements for the safe use of high radiation (131)I doses for thyroid cancer treatment in hospital. The facility presented in this study may not be suitable for all hospitals but the design concepts could be applied according to an individual hospital context and resources. People who use or gain benefit from radiation applications have to emphasise the responsibility to control and monitor radiation effects on individuals, communities and the environment.

  8. Presence of helminth eggs in sewage sludge from waste water plants; Presencia de huevos de helmintos en lodos procedentes de la depuracion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Muro, J. L.; Garcia Orenes, F.; Nieto Asensio, N.; Bonora, I. B.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.


    Land application of sewage sludge is a usual practice in wide areas of the Comunidad Valencia, due the low organic contents and nutrients of the soils, and the sewage sludge is a suitable material to use os organic amendment of soils. However the use of sewage sludge involves a very detailed characterization of sewage, to avoid sanitary hazards as the presence of helminth eggs and its high resistant to most of the treatment used to stabilize sewage sludge. The aim of this work was determine the parasitic contamination of helminths found in sewage sludge, stabilized by anaerobic digestion, from two waste water plants of Alicante (Alcoy y Benidorm) destined to agricultural land. Also it was studies the evolution of helminth eggs content of a sewage sludge subjected to composting process. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  10. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  11. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  12. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment for the waste water from the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas installations; Tratamiento anaerobio-aerobio de las aguas residuales de las instalaciones del IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The waste water treatment plant of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is analyzed. This plant originally was a plant of the activated sludge type (aerobic development), process that consumes large amounts of energy and that produces residual sludge 5 or 6 times greater than the anaerobic processes. The methodology and the techniques utilized were base in the analysis of the existing plant introducing an anaerobic treatment and performing laboratory experimentation. The plant design parameters considered are described. The results show the benefits of treating by anaerobic means the waste waters since depuration are obtained on the order of 75%, as well as the reduction of resulting residual sludge and in energy consumption. A reduction of 60% to 70% can be attained if a combination of anaerobic and aerobic processes is utilized [Espanol] Se analiza la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta planta era originalmente una planta de lodos activados (desarrollo aerobio), proceso que consume mucha energia y genera lodos residuales de 5 a 6 veces mas que los procesos anaerobios. La metodologia y las tecnicas utilizadas se basaron en el analisis de la planta de tratamiento existente en el IIE; en la caracterizacion residual del IIE; en la modificacion de la planta de tratamiento introduciendo un tratamiento anaerobio y efectuando experimentacion en laboratorio. Se describen los parametros de diseno de la planta considerados. Los resultados muestran los beneficios de tratar por medios anaerobios las aguas residuales ya que se obtienen depuraciones del orden del 75%, asi como la reduccion de lodos residuales resultantes y el consumo de energia, pueden reducirse de un 60% a un 70% si se utiliza la combinacion de los procesos anaerobios y aerobios

  13. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... analysed in the waste water from different institutions and industries thought to be potential sources. These were: car wash centers, a hospital, a kindergarten, an adhesive industry and a industrial laundry. Furthermore, analysis of the deposition in the area were carried out. This made it possible...... to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance...

  14. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah


    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  15. A biotechnological valorization and treatment of olive mill waste waters by selected yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouncif, M.


    Full Text Available Olive mill waste waters were diluted to 1/10, supplied with 2% urea and inoculated with yeast strains. 20 yeast strains isolated from Olive Mill Waste (OMW water were screened for their biomass production, GOD reduction and polyphenols bioconversión activities. Pure cultures of yeasts were realized in 100 ml erlen-meyer flasks. 50 ml cultures were used and the flasks were incubated at room temperature (22°G on a shaker. Biomass production, COD (chemical oxygen demand reduction and Polyphenols bioconversión were followed up in the inoculated OMW waters. Results showed that the urea supply improve significantly the biomass production relatively to the control. This reached in some assays 2.06% expressed as g of biomass dry weight per 100 mL of OMW water. Polyphenols removal was estimated to around 50% and the COD was decreased from 54.14 g/Kg to 21.56 g/Kg. This aerobic treatment lead to the biomass production and also to a pretreated efluent by the COD and the removal of the methanization inhibiting polyphenolic compounds.

    Aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna se diluyeron en la proporción 1/10, se le añadió un 2% de urea y se inoculó con cepas de levaduras. 20 cepas de levaduras aisladas de aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna (OMW se seleccionaron por su producción de biomasa, reducción DQO y actividades de bioconversión de polifenoles. Se llevaron a cabo cultivos puros de levaduras en matraces erlenmeyer de 100 mi. Se tomaron 50 ml de cultivos y los matraces se incubaron a temperatura ambiente (22°C en un agitador. Se siguió la producción de biomasa, la reducción de DQO (demanda química de oxígeno y la bioconversión de polifenoles en las aguas residuales de la aceituna. Los resultados mostraron que el suministro de urea mejoró significativamente la producción de biomasa en relación al control. Esta alcanzó en algunos ensayos el 2.06% expresado como g de peso seco de biomasa por 100 ml de

  16. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity. (United States)

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico


    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  17. Graphene wrapped Copper Phthalocyanine nanotube: Enhanced photocatalytic activity for industrial waste water treatment (United States)

    Mukherjee, Moumita; Ghorai, Uttam Kumar; Samanta, Madhupriya; Santra, Angshuman; Das, Gour P.; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K.


    To improve the photocatalytic performance of metal phthalocyanine based catalyst, Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite has been synthesized through a simple chemical approach. The obtained product was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The photocatalytic activity of the RGO/CuPc nanocomposite was performed by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the RGO/CuPc nanocomposite exhibits much stronger catalytic behavior than the pristine CuPc nanotube. A plausible mechanism for the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was suggested. The RGO wrapped CuPc nanotube composite materials offer great potential as active photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutions in industrial waste water.

  18. Mathematical modelling of biological processor for waste water treatment i sequencing batch reactors; Modellazione matematica di processi biologici per il trattamento delle acque reflue in reattori SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagni, A.; Bortone, E. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Bologna, Bologna (Italy). Sez. Depurazione e Ciclo dell' Acqua; Ratini, P. [SPES s.r.l., Fabriano, AN (Italy); Marsilli Libelli, S. [Florence Univ., Florence (Italy). Dipt. dei Sistemi e di Informatica


    The work shows a mathematical model based on the activated sludge model 2d of the IAWQ (International Association on Water Quality) for biological waste water treatment simulation. Ammonia inhibition and nitrite intermediate in the nitrification and denitrification processes have been added to the ASM2d. The modified model was calibrated and validated with experimental data of a lab scale SBR plant. The modified model is able to precisely fit experimental data. [Italian] Viene presentato un modello matematico sviluppato a partire dall'activated sludge model 2d dell'IAWQ (International Association on Water Quality) per il trattamento biologico dei reflui. Il modello viene integrato dall'introduzione delle cinetiche dell'inibizione nella nitrificazione e denitrificazione. Il modello e' stato calibrato e validato utilizzando dati sperimentali provenienti da un impianto SBR da laboratorio. Il modello e' in grado di prevedere in modo ragionevole le cinetiche degli inquinanti monitorati nella varie prove.

  19. A novel, integrated treatment system for coal waste waters. Quarterly report, June 2, 1994--September 1, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.


    The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the heavy metals present in coal conversion waste waters. A specific goal of the study is to remove and recover cationic and anionic heavy metals from aqueous solutions and coal conversion waste waters using modified-clay adsorbents developed in this study. We have carried out multi-step adsorption/desorption studies with these adsorbents which indicate that modified-smectites can be repeatedly used up to 5 times with less than 15% loss in their potency. Thus, it would appear that the DT coatings on DT-modified clays are quite stable. Continuous leaching experiments have been undertaken to verify the stability of adsorbed DT on DT-modified smectites, HCDT and MONT-DT. Potentiometric titrations and ESA measurements at different time intervals have been used respectively to determine the surface charge density and the sign of surface charge of DT-modified smectites. Our results show that, even after 44 hours of continuous leaching of DT-modified smectites by deionized water, the surface charge density as measured by pH titration is lower by less than 10% of its initial value. Further more, the surface charge remains positive in the pH range of 9.5-3.0. These results are in agreement with our earlier results based on Ninhydrin assay and organic carbon analysis of the same DT-modified smectites.

  20. Resource-Saving Cleaning Technologies for Power Plant Waste-Water Cooling Ponds (United States)

    Zakonnova, Lyudmila; Nikishkin, Igor; Rostovzev, Alexandr


    One of the frequently encountered problems of power plant small cooling ponds is rapid eutrophication and related intensified development of phytoplankton ("hyperflow") and overgrowing of ponds by higher aquatic vegetation. As a result of hyper-flowering, an enormous amount of detritus settles on the condenser tubes, reducing the efficiency of the power plant operation. The development of higher aquatic vegetation contributes to the appearing of the shoals. As a result the volume, area and other characteristics of the cooling ponds are getting changed. The article describes the environmental problems of small manmade ponds of power plants and coal mines in mining regions. Two approaches to the problem of eutrophication are considered: technological and ecological. The negative effects of herbicides application to aquatic organisms are experimentally proved. An ecological approach to solving the problem by fish-land reclamation method is shown.

  1. Resource-Saving Cleaning Technologies for Power Plant Waste-Water Cooling Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakonnova Lyudmila


    Full Text Available One of the frequently encountered problems of power plant small cooling ponds is rapid eutrophication and related intensified development of phytoplankton (“hyperflow” and overgrowing of ponds by higher aquatic vegetation. As a result of hyper-flowering, an enormous amount of detritus settles on the condenser tubes, reducing the efficiency of the power plant operation. The development of higher aquatic vegetation contributes to the appearing of the shoals. As a result the volume, area and other characteristics of the cooling ponds are getting changed. The article describes the environmental problems of small manmade ponds of power plants and coal mines in mining regions. Two approaches to the problem of eutrophication are considered: technological and ecological. The negative effects of herbicides application to aquatic organisms are experimentally proved. An ecological approach to solving the problem by fish-land reclamation method is shown.

  2. The problem of slurries of industrial wastes water treatments; Problematica de los lodos procedentes del tratamiento de las aguas residuales de la actividad industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Frutos, J.L. [Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)


    The water treatment is not a problem today. The major problem are the slurries and fungi produced by the industrial waste water treatment. This article explains the different utilizations and the main applications of the water in the industrial process. The different treatments (thermal inertization sanitary landfills, etc) are presented.

  3. Research cooperation project in fiscal 1998. General report on research cooperation related to mine waste water treatment technology by utilizing biotechnology; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku sokatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper describes cooperative development of bio-treatment technology for mine waste water generated by operating mines in China. Certain types of bacteria have capability to oxidize ferrous iron in the waste water into ferric iron ions. The bacteria cause ferric iron oxides in low pH regions to get deposited, and can remove them from sedimentation by using cheap calcium carbonate as a neutralizer. Volumetric reduction in waste sediments may also be achieved during removing heavy metals in a pretreatment process. Great advance may be expected in taking actions to prevent water quality contamination. This paper summarizes activities taken in fiscal 1998. Eight site surveys in total were carried out using 47 persons in total. Major activities included operation study guidance of a pilot plant, and surveys for measures on heavy metal generation sources in Wushan Mine. In addition, site surveys were performed at Dexing Mine and Yinshan Zinc Mine. Subsequently from fiscal 1997, a bench scale testing equipment used in Japan and consumables were transported to China. The operation study data on the pilot plant were put into order and analyzed. Concept design was also made on a waste water treatment facility for Wushan Mine. (NEDO)

  4. Production of electricity from the treatment of urban waste water using a microbial fuel cell (United States)

    Rodrigo, M. A.; Cañizares, P.; Lobato, J.; Paz, R.; Sáez, C.; Linares, J. J.

    In this work, is studied the oxidation of the pollutants contained in an actual urban wastewater using a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). By using an anaerobic pre-treatment of the activated sludge of an urban wastewater treatment plant, the electricity generation in a MFC was obtained after a short acclimatization period of less than 10 days. The power density generated was found to depend mainly on the organic matter contain (COD) but not on the wastewater flow-rate. Maximum power densities of 25 mW m -2 (at a cell potential of 0.23 V) were obtained. The rate of consumption of oxygen in the cathodic chamber was very low. As the oxygen reduction is coupled with the COD oxidation in the anodic chamber, the COD removed by the electricity-generating process is very small. Thus, taking into account the oxygen consumption, it was concluded that only 0.25% of the removed COD was used for the electricity-generation processes. The remaining COD should be removed by anaerobic processes. The presence of oxygen in the anodic chamber leads to a deterioration of the MFC performance. This deterioration of the MFC process occurs rapidly after the appearance of non-negligible concentrations of oxygen. Hence, to assure a good performance of this type of MFC, the growth of algae should be avoided.

  5. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  6. Tracing Waste Water with Li isotopes (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.


    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and various domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. In the present study, we investigate waste water tracing by the use of Li isotopes in a small river basin near Orléans in France (l'Egoutier, 15 km² and 5 km long). It is well known that Li has strategic importance for numerous industrial applications including its use in the production of batteries for both mobile devices (computers, tablets, smartphones, etc.) and electric vehicles, but also in pharmaceutical formulations. In the present work, we collected river waters samples before and after the release from a waste water treatment plant connected to an hospital. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ7Li values around -0.5‰ ± 1 along the main course of the stream (n=7). The waste water sample is very different from the natural background of the river basin with Li concentration being twice of the values without pollution and significant heavy lithium contribution (δ7Li = +4‰). These preliminary results will be discussed in relation with factors controlling the distribution of Li and its isotopes in this specific system and compared with the release of other metals such as Pb or Zn.

  7. Effects of treated waste water irrigation on some qualitative charcterstics of forage sorghum, corn and millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza emami


    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of irrigation with different levels of urban treated waste water on feeding value of forage sorghum (Var. Speed feed and Sugar graze, maize (Var. SC 704 and millet (Var. Nutrifeed an experiment was conducted at Experimental Station No.1, Astan Qods Razavi Mashhad, and Animal Nutrition Laboratory, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Four varieties of forage plants with five levels of treated waste water: %0, %25, %50, %75 and %100 were compared in a split-plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications per treatment. Feeding values of forage plants such as Crude Protein content (CP, Neutral Detergent Fiber content (NDF, in vitro Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD, Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD and D-Value were measured. Results showed that treated waste water irrigation had a significant effect on crude protein content. The highest crude protein content was shown at % 100 treated waste water ( %13.76 and the lowest was shown at % treated waste water (%9.54. There were no significant differences between %0 and %25, and also %75 and %100 treated waste water in terms of crude protein content, but there were significant differences between %50 and other treated waste water treatments (except 75% treatments. There were no significant difference between irrigation with different levels of treated waste water in terms of NDF, in vitro DMD, OMD, and D-Value. There were significant differences between forage plants in all studied characteristics, but there were no significant differences on interactions between forage plants and different levels of treated waste water treatments. Forage maize had the highest in vitro DMD at %75 treated waste water and forage sorghum (var. Speed feed had the lowest in vitro DMD at %0 treated waste water treatments with averages of %77.57 and %61.6, respectively. The results indicated that treated waste water increased the percentage of crude


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay Alekseevich


    ments held. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes helps provide the proper quality of integrated biological treatment. Chambers of the aeration reactor are also equipped with the polymer feed of various compositions. Sludge treatment that is also strongly needed was performed by means of aerobic stabilization accompanied by ejecting aeration. The experiment findings demonstrate its substantial effect in terms of both components, including sewage and sludge treatment.

  9. A novel, integrated treatment system for coal waste waters. Quarterly report, March 2, 1994--June 1, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.


    The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the heavy metals present in coal conversion waste waters. A specific goal of the study is to remove and recover cationic and anionic heavy metals from aqueous solutions and coal conversion waste waters using modified-clay adsorbents developed in this study. To this end, a multi-step adsorption/desorption process has been carried out with hectorite-CBDA-DT (HCDT) as the adsorbent and Cr(VI) as the adsorbate. Adsorption was carried out at pH 4.0 in 0.02 M buffer, while desorption was effected at the same pH and in the same buffer with either 0.5 M NaCl or 0.02 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the desorbates. Multi-step involves cycling the same adsorbent through these two sets of operating conditions with a washing step after each adsorption/desorption sequence. The authors results indicate that, during the first two cycles, the potency of the adsorbent remains unchanged, but it diminishes after the third and the fourth cycles. The total decrease in potency is, however, only 15% even after 4 cycles of adsorption/desorption. Addition of 20% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to the reaction medium, however, diminishes the potency even more after 4 cycles of adsorption and desorption. Both the desorbates yielded identical results, and the overall mass balance on Cr(VI) was between 95 and 102%. Continuous leaching experiments on HCDT revealed that DT bound to HCDT is mobilized to the extent of only 10% after 44 hrs in aqueous medium while in 20% IPA-water mixtures the extent of dissolution of DT from the surface is close to 16%. Thus, the loss of potency of HCDT is attributed partly to the loss of DT from the surface and partly to the incomplete washing of the adsorbent between each adsorption/desorption step.

  10. Ozone pretreatment of process waste water generated in course of fluoroquinolone production. (United States)

    Daoud, Fares; Pelzer, David; Zuehlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver


    During production of active pharmaceutical ingredients, process waste water is generated at several stages of manufacturing. Whenever possible, the resulting waste water will be processed by conventional waste water treatment plants. Currently, incineration of the process waste water is the method to eliminate compounds with high biological activity. Thus, ozone treatment followed by biological waste water treatment was tested as an alternative method. Two prominent representatives of the large group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin) were investigated, focussing on waste water of the bulk production. Elimination of the target compounds and generation of their main transformation products were determined by liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The obtained results demonstrated, that the concentration of moxifloxacin and its metabolites can be effectively reduced (>99.7%) prior entering the receiving water. On the contrary, the concentration of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites remained too high for safe discharge, necessitating application of prolonged ozonation for its further degradation. The required ozonation time can be estimated based on the determined kinetics. To assure a low biological activity the ecotoxicity of the ozonated waste water was investigated using three trophic levels. By means of multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MSn) experiments several new transformation products of the fluoroquinolones were identified. Thus, previously published proposed structures could be corrected or confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge from waste water. Tratamiento termico de lodos procedentes de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G. (Universidad de Trento (Italy)); Canziani, R.; Ragazzi, M. (Politicnico de Milan (Italy))


    Thermal Treatment of sewage sludge can be beneficial as a pre-treatment step of many treatment/disposal options, but above all, it allows the recovery of the energetic content sludge. Energy recovery from sewage sludge can be performed in many ways; direct incineration thermal drying followed by incineration and co-combustion with municipal solid wastes or other non conventional fuels. Another option is the recovery of waste energy (e.g. from an endo thermal engine using biogas as fuel) to dry sludge wich, in turn can be used as a fuel. The paper will evaluate several options of thermal treatment of sewage sludge, with particular emphasis on the energetic yield from different processes. (Author)

  12. Electron beam-induced immobilization of laccase on porous supports for waste water treatment applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jahangiri, Elham; Reichelt, Senta; Thomas, Isabell; Hausmann, Kristin; Schlosser, Dietmar; Schulze, Agnes


    ... of environmental pollutants in wastewater. Besides a large surface area for supporting the biocatalyst, the aforementioned porous systems also offer the possibility for simultaneous filtration applications in wastewater treatment...

  13. Diagnostic and solutions for the odors problems in the waste water treatment plants in Monte Orgegia (Alicante) with olphactometry techniques; Diagnostico y soluciones a los problemas de olores en la E.D.A.R. de Monte Orgegia (Alicante) mediante tecnicas de olfatometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valor Herencia, I.; Cortada, C. [Labaqua, S.A., Alicante (Spain); Uribarri, E.; Suarez, C. [Haskoning, S.a., Madrid (Spain)


    The problem of odor nuisances affects our society more and more each day. There are many activities that generate bad odors, such as wastewater treatment plants, municipal waste treatment plants, industries, etc. These problems are difficult to solve as the solutions must be based on the knowledge of odor origin and intensity. Olfactometry techniques establish a relation between the origin of odors (generation and emission) and the nuisance caused in the surroundings (inmision). In this paper, a recent study for the identification of odor problems and the proposed of the solutions in a wastewater treatment plant in Alicante (Spain) using the olfactometry techniques is shown.



    Salas Colotta, G.; Facultad de Química e ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima-Perú


    We presented the design of a dissolved air flotation system (DAF) to separate coagulated solids (dye) in the wastewater of a textile plant. The obtained yields of removal of suspended solids (SS) they are 82%. The size of the float to treat 35 m3/h of residual water of a textile is 5,7 m. Se presenta el diseño de un flotador por aire disuelto (DAF) para separar sólidos coagulados y floculados (tinte) provenientes de los efluentes de una planta textil. Los rendimientos obtenidos de remoción...

  15. Management of Acidic Mine Waste Water by Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems: A Bench Scale Study


    Sheoran, A. S.


    Constructed wetlands have emerged as a viable option for treatment of acidic mine wastewater. Bench scale experiments were conducted, to evaluate the performance of wetland treatment system, with emergent macrophyte Desmostachya bipinnata and substrate (containing powdered goat manure, wood shavings and soil) for 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 hours of retention period for different water column heights (100mm, 150mm and 200mm). Within 24 hours of retention period the pH increased from 2.93 to 7.22, ...

  16. Waste Water treatment by membrane bioreactors; Tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas mediante reactores biologicos de membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malfeito, J. J.; Palacios, E.


    Wastewater reuse plants can be simplified to a single step process with a membrane bioreactor developed by PRIDESA. The process consists on a biological reactor integrated with immersed membranes that combines clarification and filtration of an activated sludge process into a simplified single step process. Because of the design of the membranes and plate and frame module, the hydrostatic pressure difference is enough to ensure the design permeate flowrate. That means low energy requirements and reduced fouling, as contaminants are not forced into the membrane pores. A 90-days pilot scale operation for reclamation of urban wastewater was studied and the performance of the system was investigated with a sludge retention time (SRT) of 25 days and membrane flux between 50.90 l/h. with different membranes. Averaged 98% of BODS, a 95% of COD and a 99.49% of SS were removed. (Author) 5 refs.

  17. Sustainable Waste Water Treatment in Developing Countries: A Case Study of IIT Kharagpur Campus (United States)

    Das, Sutapa; Bokshi, Sanjit


    Treatment of wastewater and its reuse in irrigation and agriculture can mitigate the inevitable scarcity of safe drinking water in coming decades. For developing countries like India and especially in its under-privileged regions, it is high time to focus on sustainable wastewater treatment which will be economical and easy to construct, operate and maintain by unskilled users without much dependency on electricity. Addressing this issue, various sustainable methods of wastewater treatment was critically analyzed and the Waste Stabilization Pond system was selected. A facility was designed for 20,000 residents of Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur campus based on its geo-climatic and wastewater characteristics. Detailed calculations were carried out to demonstrate the effluent quality with reduced BOD and E-coli is suitable for unrestricted irrigation. This project with minor customisation can act as a prototype for adjacent vast rural areas where land is available but water, electricity and skilled technicians are not. If implemented, this project will bear social benefits beyond campus such as water supply to drought prone areas, better harvest and rural employment. Moreover, it underpins government' several initiatives to develop rural infrastructure and inclusive growth of the country.

  18. Pure oxygen for the urban water waste treatment; Oxigeno puro para tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez Pastor, F.S.; Ferrer Gaztambide, J. [EDAR La China (Spain)


    The pilot plant for waste water treatment in La China (Spain) is described. This plant used pure oxygen for the waste water treatment. The best depuration, the flexibility to experiment the fluctuations of flow and change are studied. (Author)

  19. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment. (United States)

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben


    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  20. A process for the treatment of olive mill waste waters by immobilized cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElYachioui, M.


    Full Text Available Mould strains were immobilized on sawdust from woods as a solid material for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW waters. Assays were carried out in flasks. The treatment process was monitored by physico-chemical determinations including pH, polyphenols and COD, which were followed up during the incubation time. In parallel the chemical inhibitory activity of OMW was confirmed biologically by the determination of some microorganisms in the medium including the plate count, yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Results indicated that the polyphenol degradation level was 87 %. The COD was also reduced by 60 %. The pH of the effluent increased from 4.5 to 6.6. The microbial profiles showed their best growth during the treatment period indicating a removal of the inhibitory activities from the OMW waters. The growth patterns of all microorganism groups were similar and could reach high levels in the effluent.Cepas de moho fueron inmovilizadas sobre serrín de madera como material sólido para el tratamiento de aguas residuales de un molino de aceituna (OMW. Los ensayos se realizaron en matraces. El proceso de tratamiento se monitorizó mediante determinaciones físico-químicas incluyendo pH, polifenoles y DQO, que también se analizaron durante el tiempo de incubación. En paralelo, la actividad inhibidora química de las OMW se confirma biológicamente mediante su efecto sobre algunos microorganismos incluyendo levaduras y bactérias ácido lácticas. Los resultados indicaron que los polifenoles se degradan hasta un nivel del 87 %. La DQO se redujo también al 60 %. El pH del efluente aumentó de 4.5 a 6.6. Los perfiles microbiológicos mostraron un mejor crecimiento a medida que avanzaba el tratamiento indicando una supresión de las actividades inhibidoras de las aguas (OMW. El comportamiento del crecimiento de todos los grupos de microorganismos fue similar y puede alcanzar altos niveles en el efluente

  1. Treatment of Multi-Tonnage Manganese-Containing Waste Water Using Vermiculite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Anatolevna Matveeva


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of fieldand laboratory studies on the state of surface waters in the impact zone of one of the largest mining enterprises of the Russian Federation, i.e. Kovdor Mining and Processing Combine. On the basis of the data from the monitoring studies, the patterns of migration and transformation of manganese in the system of wastes of enrichment – surface water – are revealed. In order to solve the existing environmental problem, an effective method of treating sewage from manganese using organic sorbent based on vermiculite is proposed. The results of laboratory tests of the sorbent are described depending on the method of its modification, as well as on the composition and properties of the purified water. The proposed method of sewage treatment will reduce the negative impact of the company on surface water, thereby improving the ecological situation in the study area and improving the quality of life of the local population.

  2. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas


    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  3. Electrodialysis Treatment of Industrial Waste Waters That Generaters Little Sludge; Tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales por electrodialisis, tecnica que genera pocos lodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savastoma Mariel, C. [Universidad de Cantabria. Santander (Spain)


    Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes is reviewed as a separation technique and details are shown. The method is used in several process applications but its adoption looks particularly attractive in the treatment of waste water streams consisting primarily of diluted residual salts and electrolytes. It is argued that the main advantage shown by the technology compared to the classical treatment consisting of adding lime to neutralize the waste waters resides in tis avoiding the generation of voluminous sludges thus permitting savings in the management and disposal of the mud. Other interesting applications are those operations where generating acidity and/or alkalinity with addition of no extra chemicals is desirable, such as the regeneration of ion exchange resins. (Author) 34 refs.

  4. The Treatment of Waste Waters Containing Heavy Metals by Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Gešperová


    Full Text Available This study presents the synthesis and the characterization of the structural and sorption properties of magnetic nanoscale particles, which play a significant role in wastewater treatment technologies.Aqueous suspensions of magnetic particles were prepared by co-precipitation of Fe(III and Fe(II in the presence of NH4OH. Adsorption of heavy metal ions adsorption from single metal aqueous solutions was investigated in batch adsorption–equilibrium experiments. Magnetic particles were used in the adsorption of selected bivalent heavy metal ions, i.e. Cd(II, Cu(II and Pb(II from aqueous media containing different amounts of these ions (20–400 mg.l-1 and at different pH values of 2.0-8.0 at the sorbent concentration of 2 g.l-1. The model solutions of Cu(NO3 2, Cd(NO3 2, Pb(NO32 were used to realize the adsorption tests. The pH of the solutions was adjusted with a suitable concentration of NaOH and HNO3.Based on the experimental results it was observed that heavy metal ions could be adsorbed by nanoscale magnetic particles with the significant adsorption capacity.

  5. Recent advancements in supporting materials for immobilised photocatalytic applications in waste water treatment. (United States)

    Srikanth, B; Goutham, R; Badri Narayan, R; Ramprasath, A; Gopinath, K P; Sankaranarayanan, A R


    The aim of this paper is to provide a review on the usage of different anchoring media (supports) for immobilising commonly employed photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants. The immobilisation of nano-sized photocatalysts can eliminate costly and impractical post-treatment recovery of spent photocatalysts in largescale operations. Some commonly employed immobilisation aids such as glass, carbonaceous substances, zeolites, clay and ceramics, polymers, cellulosic materials and metallic agents that have been previously discussed by various research groups have been reviewed. The study revealed that factors such as high durability, ease of availability, low density, chemical inertness and mechanical stability are primary factors responsible for the selection of suitable supports for catalysts. Common techniques for immobilisation namely, dip coating, cold plasma discharge, polymer assisted hydrothermal decomposition, RF magnetron sputtering, photoetching, solvent casting, electrophoretic deposition and spray pyrolysis have been discussed in detail. Finally, some common techniques adopted for the characterisation of the catalyst particles and their uses are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protection of Reinforced Concrete Structures of Waste Water Treatment Reservoirs with Stainless Steel Coating Using Arc Thermal Spraying Technique in Acidified Water


    Lee, Han-Seung; Park, Jin-Ho; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Ismail, Mohamed A.


    Waste water treatment reservoirs are contaminated with many hazardous chemicals and acids. Reservoirs typically comprise concrete and reinforcement steel bars, and the main elements responsible for their deterioration are hazardous chemicals, acids, and ozone. Currently, a variety of techniques are being used to protect reservoirs from exposure to these elements. The most widely used techniques are stainless steel plating and polymeric coating. In this study, a technique known as arc thermal ...

  7. Environmental sustainability of waste water ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e...... and whole effluent toxicity have been developed. About 15 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies (or combinations) have been assessed. This paper will present the LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  8. Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  9. A novel, integrated treatment system for coal waste waters. Quarterly report, June 2, 1993--September 1, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.


    The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the heavy metals present in coal conversion waste waters. In this report, the following findings have been reported and discussed. Acid-base titration of Duomeen-T (DT), a diamine surfactant, that has been used in this study to modify smectite surfaces to form smectite-DT complexes has been undertaken. In aqueous medium containing 5% by volume iso propyl alcohol (IPA), DT shows a broad distribution of pKa with a mean value of 7.55. This finding suggests that DT is a much weaker base than a typical diamine and helps explain the fact that Cu(II) adsorbs specifically onto DT with maximal affinity in the pH range 7.2--7.5. Electrokinetic sonic amplitude (ESA) measurements on DT-smectite complexes also reveal that the mean pKa of the adsorbed DT is around 7.0. This finding supports our earlier observations that Cu(II) and Cd(II) cations bind strongly through specific interaction to DT-smectite surface in the pH range 7.0--8.0. Our results also show that DT is fully protonated at pH 4.5, and it is at this pH that Cr(VI) is maximally adsorbed as counterions to the DT-smectite surface. These and our earlier results provide a firm basis to conclude that a heterogeneous mixture of diamine surfactants can be used to adsorb and desorb cationic and anionic heavy metals from their respective aqueous solutions as a function of the solution pH.

  10. Characterization of wastewater from hog slaughterhouses in eastern Canada and evaluation of their in-plant wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D. I.; Masse, L. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lennoxville, PQ (Canada)


    Extant literature on slaughterhouse waste water treatment systems was reviewed with emphasis on technology usefulness and relevance to Canadian conditions. Waste water treatment practices in Quebec and Ontario were also reviewed and waste water characterized before and after treatment at the plant. In terms of organic strength, inorganic elements, alkalinity, and pH slaughterhouse waste water was judged to be adequate for biological treatment, although total chemical oxygen demand and suspended solid concentrations were found to be too high, requiring additional treatment. With regard to treatment practices two of the slaughterhouse only settled their waste water before discharging to the municipal sewer. Three plants applied primary treatment to precipitate blood and to remove floating fat; one plant further treated its waste water using an aerobic trickling filter. The additional treatment by municipal waste water treatment plants (for which they imposed a surcharge) produced large amounts of putrefactive and bulky sludge which required extended hydraulic retention time to allow for the degradation of suspended solids which represented between 27 and 67 per cent of total chemical oxygen demand. 36 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Re-use of waste water in a textile factory. Trials in a semi-industrial pilot plant with membranes; Reutilizacion de aguas residuales en una industrial textil. Ensayos en una planta piloto semiindustrial con membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo, C.


    This article reports on the results obtained in a semi-industrial pilot plant (1.5 m{sup 3}/h) with biologically treated waste water with a quality of 80-120 mg COD/l, 3,500-4,000 {mu}S/cm and dark red in colour. A treatment line was applied consisting of sand filtration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. The ultrafiltration was extremely efficient as a pre-treatment in ensuring the normal functioning of the osmosis, and in this way the water obtained was of the ideal quality for re-use in the factory. An economic study found that the cost of the treated water was 0.238 Euros/m{sup 3} and examined the economic viability of this solution taking into account the tax saving involved. (Author)

  12. Biotransformation of pharmaceuticals in surface water and during waste water treatment: identification and occurrence of transformation products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boix, C.; Ibáñez, M.; Sancho, J.V.; Parsons, J.R.; de Voogt, P.; Hernández, F.


    Venlafaxine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, irbesartan and ofloxacin are highly-consumed pharmaceuticals that show considerable removal efficiencies (between 40 and 98%) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Consequently, they are expected to generate transformation products (TPs) during wastewater

  13. Treatment of Slaughterhouse Waste Water Mixed with Serum from Lacteal Industry of Extremadura in Spain to Produce Clean Energy


    A.C. Marcos; A. Al-Kassir; Francisco Cuadros; Talal Yusaf


    The problem of slaughterhouse waste water can be resolved by mixing it with serum from lacteal industry to produce a biogas. The effect of serum addition on the anaerobic co-digestion of solid and liquid slaughterhouse waste has been studied. The experimental device consisted of a continuous digester by recirculation of biogas produced in the anaerobic digestion. The input effluent was a mixture of slaughterhouse waste from Badajoz city (Spain) and animal serum in a proportion of 20%. The ana...

  14. Realizing Steady Supply to a Treatment Plant from Multiple Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nooijen, R.R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.


    In sewer systems sewage from different areas is often treated in a shared Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP). Currently the flows from different areas are usually determined by needs local to that area. During dry weather this may result in large variations in the flow into the WWTP. There are two

  15. The presence of medicines and drugs in wastes water; Presencia de farmacos y drogas en aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postigo, C.; Gros, M.; Kuster, M.; Petrovic, M.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barcelo, D.


    Medicines and drugs are emerging pollutants. The presence of medicines, especially oestrogens, in the aquatic environment has already been much studied; more recently attention has also turned to detecting drugs. Their effect on the aquatic environment is through waste waters, after they have passed through a waste water treatment plant or not. The levels of each of the types of substances considered medicines in general, estrogens and drugs and their subgroups, detected in waste waters are reported together with the relationship between these levels and aspects such as the volume of the substances consumed, their metabolism and where they end up in the environment. (Author) 106 refs.

  16. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  17. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  18. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  19. Investigations of the application of Fenton's reagent for chemical oxidation in waste-water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerstein, W.


    The reactions of Fenton's reagent (H/sub 2/O/sub 2//Fe(II)) with model compounds for refractory aromatic waste water components (p-toluenesulfonic acid, aniline, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol) and a waste water from the chemical industry were investigated. The highest reaction rate in presence and in absence of aromatic substrates and best results with respect to the sum parameters of water chemistry are observed at pH 3. Feeding of oxygen or air into the reaction mixture improves considerably the oxidation efficiency. The specific hydrogen peroxide consumption for 50% reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand) was 0.5 to 0.9 mg H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ per mg of COD. 90% elimination of model compounds needs 1.7 to 2.4 mmole H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ per mmole of aromatic compound. Formation of nonbiodegradable intermediate products were detected with aniline as long as the compound itself was not quantitatively eliminated. Fenton's reagent in combination with feeding pure oxygen or air seems to be a promising oxidation reagent for the conversion of refractory aromatics into biodegradable substances. The specific oxygen reagent consumption is remarkably less than in the case of ozone.

  20. A Study on removal of chromium from tannery effluent treatment of chrome tanning waste water using tannery solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahaman


    Full Text Available This study illustrates the process of removal of chromium from chrome tanning waste-water by fly ash which was drive from chrome shaving dust. This experiment was carried out in a batch process with laboratory prepared adsorbent samples and chrome tanning water collected from local tanneries. The influence of various factors likes adsorbent doses, contact time, and initial concentration of chromium on the removal of chromium from effluent was investigated. FTIR analysis was done to identify the functional groups presents in the fly ash. The maximum removal of chromium and absorption capacity was found to be 97.86%. And 23.11 mg/g at chromium concentration of 1000.3mg/l and 1291 mg/l respectively. Total dissolve solid, turbidity, and conductivity were reduced significantly. Waste water samples containing several interfering ions like Na, Fe, Ca, Zn, Mn etc. The langmuir absorption isotherm was also used to explain the nature of adsorption. This result indicates that chrome shaving dust ash can be successfully used to treat chrome tanning wastewater.

  1. Performance of metal compound on thermolysis and electrolysis on sugar industries waste water treatment: COD and color removal with sludge analysis (batch-experiment) (United States)

    Sahu, Omprakash


    The sugar cane industry is one of the most water demanding industries. Sugar industries consume and generate excess amount of water. The generated water contains organic compounds, which would cause pollution. The aim of this research work is to study the effectiveness of metal compound for treatment of sugar industry waste water by thermolysis and electrolysis process. The result shows ferrous metal catalyst shows 80 and 85 % chemical oxygen demand and color removal at pH 6, optimum mass loading 4 kg/m3, treatment temperature 85 °C and treatment time 9 h. When ferrous material was used as electrode, maximum 81 % chemical oxygen demand and 84 % color removal at pH 6, current density 156 Am-2, treatment time 120 min and anode consumption 0.7 g for 1.5 L wastewater were obtained.

  2. Comparison of balance of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and at selected monitoring sites in the Vltava River, Elbe River and Jihlava (Dyje) River catchments in the Czech Republic. (United States)

    Hanslík, Eduard; Marešová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Sedlářová, Barbora


    During the routine operation, nuclear power plants discharge waste water containing a certain amount of radioactivity, whose main component is the artificial radionuclide tritium. The amounts of tritium released into the environment are kept within the legal requirements, which minimize the noxious effects of radioactivity, but the activity concentration is well measurable in surface water of the recipient. This study compares amount of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and the tritium activity detected at selected relevant sites of surface water quality monitoring. The situation is assessed in the catchment of the Vltava and Elbe Rivers, affected by the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant as well as in the Jihlava River catchment (the Danube River catchment respectively), where the waste water of the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant is discharged. The results show a good agreement of the amount of released tritium stated by the power plant operator and the tritium amount detected in the surface water and highlighted the importance of a robust independent monitoring of tritium discharged from a nuclear power plant which could be carried out by water management authorities. The outputs of independent monitoring allow validating the values reported by a polluter and expand opportunities of using tritium as e.g. tracer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental study for growth potential of unicellular alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa on dairy waste water: an integrated approach for treatment and biofuel production. (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Pathak, Vinayak V; Kumar, Virendra; Singh, D P


    This communication presents an integrated approach to study the potential of Chlorella pyrenoidosa for treatment of dairy wastewater (DWW) and biofuel extraction. The experiment was set up in two steps. The step-1 of the experiment was designed for treatment of dairy wastewater. The physical and chemical parameters of wastewater quality such as nitrate, phosphate, chloride, fluoride, hardness, etc., were studied. The level of nitrate and phosphate known, agents of eutrophication in water bodies was reduced by 60% and 87% in influent, 49% and 83% in the effluent, respectively. The step-2 of the experiment was designed for biofuel extraction by harvesting the biomass (algal strain) grown in dairy waste water. The result of this study shows that algal strain C. pyrenoidosa is not only an agent for mitigation of pollutant load, but it can also be used as potential agent for biofuel production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of Slaughterhouse Waste Water Mixed with Serum from Lacteal Industry of Extremadura in Spain to Produce Clean Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Marcos


    Full Text Available The problem of slaughterhouse waste water can be resolved by mixing it with serum from lacteal industry to produce a biogas. The effect of serum addition on the anaerobic co-digestion of solid and liquid slaughterhouse waste has been studied. The experimental device consisted of a continuous digester by recirculation of biogas produced in the anaerobic digestion. The input effluent was a mixture of slaughterhouse waste from Badajoz city (Spain and animal serum in a proportion of 20%. The anaerobic digestion was developed in a complete mixing continuous digester with a capacity of 6.2 L at 37 °C and a feed rate of 350 mL/day. From the results obtained for the co-digestion of the feeding effluent of the slaughterhouse waste, without and with serum added, in the same operating conditions, comparative data about the biological depuration and biogas production have been obtained. A 10 L biogas production was obtained with the slaughterhouse waste and 18 L with the slaughterhouse waste with serum added. In conclusion, the highest energetic yield (97.52% higher was obtained in the second case, due to the positive action of catalytic enzymes present in the animal serum.

  5. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide–gold nanohybrid for potential use in industrial waste-water treatment (United States)

    Kar, Prasenjit; Sardar, Samim; Liu, Bo; Sreemany, Monjoy; Lemmens, Peter; Ghosh, Srabanti; Pal, Samir Kumar


    Abstract Here, we report a facile approach, by the photochemical reduction technique, for in situ synthesis of Au-reduced graphene oxide (Au-RGO) nanohybrids, which demonstrate excellent adsorption capacities and recyclability for a broad range of dyes. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data confirm the successful synthesis of Au-RGO nanohybrids. The effect of several experimental parameters (temperature and pH) variation can effectively control the dye adsorption capability. Furthermore, kinetic adsorption data reveal that the adsorption process follows a pseudo second-order model. The negative value of Gibbs free energy (ΔG0) confirms spontaneity while the positive enthalpy (ΔH0) indicates the endothermic nature of the adsorption process. Picosecond resolved fluorescence technique unravels the excited state dynamical processes of dye molecules adsorbed on the Au-RGO surface. Time resolved fluorescence quenching of Rh123 after adsorption on Au-RGO nanohybrids indicates efficient energy transfer from Rh123 to Au nanoparticles. A prototype device has been fabricated using Au-RGO nanohybrids on a syringe filter (pore size: 0.220 μm) and the experimental data indicate efficient removal of dyes from waste water with high recyclability. The application of this nanohybrid may lead to the development of an efficient reusable adsorbent in portable water purification. PMID:27877889

  6. Using the tool of Life Cycle Assessment for evaluating processes of waste water and sludge treatment; Einsatzmoeglichkeiten des Life Cycle Assessment in der Bewertung von Verfahren der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigerl, T.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik; Wiebusch, B. [Eurawasser Aufbereitungs- und Entsorgungs GmbH, Berlin (Germany)


    Whenever advances in waste water treatment were achieved in the past they have spelt technically more sophisticated processes for the elimination of water-toxic products. At present, waste water treatment technology faces further demands. Apart from the issue of economy and the avoidance of excessive burdens to citizens, a question increasingly raised is whether waste water cleaning processes are themselves environment-friendly. Related studies are internationally known as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). (orig.) [German] Fortschritte in der Abwasserreinigung bedeuteten bisher jeweils technisch aufwendigerere Loesungen zur Eliminierung gewaesserschaedigender Stoffe. Heute muss sich die Abwassertechnik weiteren Anforderungen stellen. Neben der Wirtschaftlichkeit und damit der Vermeidung unzumutbarer Belastungen fuer die Buerger wird immer mehr die Frage gestellt, ob die Verfahren der Abwasserreinigung selbst umweltvertraeglich sind. Die damit verbundenen Untersuchungen werden international als 'Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)' bezeichnet. (orig.)

  7. Protection of Reinforced Concrete Structures of Waste Water Treatment Reservoirs with Stainless Steel Coating Using Arc Thermal Spraying Technique in Acidified Water. (United States)

    Lee, Han-Seung; Park, Jin-Ho; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Ismail, Mohamed A


    Waste water treatment reservoirs are contaminated with many hazardous chemicals and acids. Reservoirs typically comprise concrete and reinforcement steel bars, and the main elements responsible for their deterioration are hazardous chemicals, acids, and ozone. Currently, a variety of techniques are being used to protect reservoirs from exposure to these elements. The most widely used techniques are stainless steel plating and polymeric coating. In this study, a technique known as arc thermal spraying was used. It is a more convenient and economical method for protecting both concrete and reinforcement steel bar from deterioration in waste water treatment reservoirs. In this study, 316L stainless steel coating was applied to a concrete surface, and different electrochemical experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of coatings in different acidic pH solutions. The coating generated from the arc thermal spraying process significantly protected the concrete surface from corrosion in acidic pH solutions, owing to the formation of a double layer capacitance-a mixture of Cr 3+ enriched with Cr₂O₃ and Cr-hydroxide in inner and Fe 3+ oxide on the outer layer of the coating. The formation of this passive film is defective owing to the non-homogeneous 316L stainless steel coating surface. In the pH 5 solution, the growth of a passive film is adequate due to the presence of un-dissociated water molecules in the aqueous sulfuric acid solution. The coated surface is sealed with alkyl epoxide, which acts as a barrier against the penetration of acidic solutions. This coating exhibits higher impedance values among the three studied acidic pH solutions.

  8. Protection of Reinforced Concrete Structures of Waste Water Treatment Reservoirs with Stainless Steel Coating Using Arc Thermal Spraying Technique in Acidified Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee


    Full Text Available Waste water treatment reservoirs are contaminated with many hazardous chemicals and acids. Reservoirs typically comprise concrete and reinforcement steel bars, and the main elements responsible for their deterioration are hazardous chemicals, acids, and ozone. Currently, a variety of techniques are being used to protect reservoirs from exposure to these elements. The most widely used techniques are stainless steel plating and polymeric coating. In this study, a technique known as arc thermal spraying was used. It is a more convenient and economical method for protecting both concrete and reinforcement steel bar from deterioration in waste water treatment reservoirs. In this study, 316L stainless steel coating was applied to a concrete surface, and different electrochemical experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of coatings in different acidic pH solutions. The coating generated from the arc thermal spraying process significantly protected the concrete surface from corrosion in acidic pH solutions, owing to the formation of a double layer capacitance—a mixture of Cr3+ enriched with Cr2O3 and Cr-hydroxide in inner and Fe3+ oxide on the outer layer of the coating. The formation of this passive film is defective owing to the non-homogeneous 316L stainless steel coating surface. In the pH 5 solution, the growth of a passive film is adequate due to the presence of un-dissociated water molecules in the aqueous sulfuric acid solution. The coated surface is sealed with alkyl epoxide, which acts as a barrier against the penetration of acidic solutions. This coating exhibits higher impedance values among the three studied acidic pH solutions.

  9. Biotransformation of pharmaceuticals in surface water and during waste water treatment: Identification and occurrence of transformation products. (United States)

    Boix, Clara; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V; Parsons, John R; Voogt, Pim de; Hernández, Félix


    Venlafaxine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, irbesartan and ofloxacin are highly-consumed pharmaceuticals that show considerable removal efficiencies (between 40 and 98%) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Consequently, they are expected to generate transformation products (TPs) during wastewater treatment and in surface water (SW) receiving WWTP effluent. In this work, degradation experiments for these five pharmaceuticals have been carried out with SW and WWTP activated sludge under laboratory-controlled aerobic conditions to identify their transformation products by liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS). Initially, 22 pharmaceutical TPs were tentatively identified. A retrospective analysis was performed in effluent wastewater (EWW) and SW samples. All parent compounds as well as several TPs were found in some of the selected EWW and SW samples. Additionally, valsartan and 3 TPs were also detected by searching for common fragments in these waters. It is important to highlight that some TPs, such as O-desmethyl-venlafaxine and an oxidized gemfibrozil TP, were more frequently found than their corresponding parent compounds. On the basis of these results, it would be recommendable to include these TPs (at least those found in EWW and SW samples analyzed) in monitoring programs in order to gain a more realistic understanding of the impact of pharmaceuticals on water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Baker, Andy; Ward, David; Lieten, Shakti H; Periera, Ryan; Simpson, Ellie C; Slater, Malcolm


    Protein-like fluorescence intensity in rivers increases with increasing anthropogenic DOM inputs from sewerage and farm wastes. Here, a portable luminescence spectrophotometer was used to investigate if this technology could be used to provide both field scientists with a rapid pollution monitoring tool and process control engineers with a portable waste water monitoring device, through the measurement of river and waste water tryptophan-like fluorescence from a range of rivers in NE England and from effluents from within two waste water treatment plants. The portable spectrophotometer determined that waste waters and sewerage effluents had the highest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, urban streams had an intermediate tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, and the upstream river samples of good water quality the lowest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity. Replicate samples demonstrated that fluorescence intensity is reproducible to +/- 20% for low fluorescence, 'clean' river water samples and +/- 5% for urban water and waste waters. Correlations between fluorescence measured by the portable spectrophotometer with a conventional bench machine were 0.91; (Spearman's rho, n = 143), demonstrating that the portable spectrophotometer does correlate with tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity measured using the bench spectrophotometer.

  11. Flexible fermentation of organically loaded industrial waste waters using a beverage manufacturer as an example; Flexible Vergaerung organisch belasteter Industrie-Abwaesser am Beispiel eines Getraenkeherstellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganagin, Waldemar; Loewen, Achim; Nelles, Michael [HAWK Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec)


    Industrial organic waste water is usually treated directly in an own or public sewage treatment plant which is highly cost-intensive. The anaerobic digestion of those waste waters is sometimes difficult to control. HAWK is working in a project about this topic, where a fixed bed reactor is investigated for the operation as a flexible plant. For this reason a semi-industrial pilot plant was developed and the capability will be tested on several sites. The gas production ought to run according to the companies demands and is integrated in the operation and processes. This flexible plant is specifically designed to deal with small amounts of waste water with low organic components and even sometimes discontinuously loads. This process is tested in a beverage factory. The reactor was implemented in the existing infrastructure and their waste water is treated. The assessment of the measurements shows, that the fixed bed reactor can handle the organic compounds of the waste water very well and reduce them significantly. Even fluctuating loads and a low organic concentration do not harm the process. The effect of power generation is an additional benefit for this system This innovative approach with low energy input and additional profit from the power sale makes the waste water treatment on site as a real alternative to the conventional treatment. (orig.)

  12. Identification of hardly biodegradable residuals (sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances) during waste water treatment, including the development of analytical methods; Identifizierung von schwer abbaubaren Reststoffen (stickstoff- und schwefelhaltigen Verbindungen) bei der Abwasserbehandlung, einschliesslich analytischer Methodenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehle, E.; Huber, A.; Metzger, J.W.


    Organic residuals in sewage, which are not removed completely by waste water treatment may be relevant in environmental toxicology and may disturb drinking water treatment processes. The organic residuals must be identified before new techniques to eliminate these substances from waste water can be developed and steps can be taken to prevent them from polluting waste waters. In the research project sum parameters of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances in municipal waste water were determined. A new method was developed to determine the organic sulfur in compounds absorbed on activated carbon (AOS). The determination of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between total nitrogen and the sum of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NO{sub 2}{sup -}N. The removal of organic substances from the inorganic matrix was only possible for standard solutions, but not for real samples. More than 60 substances contributing to the sum parameters could be identified with GC-MS and GC-AED, an most of them could be quantified. 30-70% of the sulfur-containing substances detected with GC-AED could be identified. With the GC-MS screening method 21 drugs or drug metabolites could be identified and partly quantified. Hydrophilic organic residuals were identified and quantified with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV- and fluorescence detectors and also with a mass detector (ESI-MS-MS). With the methods described only a small percentage of the sum of AOS and DON could be detected, although new materials for the solid phase enrichment and new analytical methods, such as HPLC-MS-MS were used. In order to get information about the degree of elimination (absorption or degradation) of different drugs in a municipal sewage plant, laboratory-scale tests under aerobic conditions were performed. A batch reactor containing drugs in environmentally relevant concentrations and a suspension of activated sludge was coupled online with HPLC

  13. Characterisation, dissemination and persistence of gentamicin resistant Escherichia coli from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Sandvang, Dorthe; Hansen, Lars H


    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential spread of gentamicin resistant (GEN(R)) Escherichia coli isolates or GEN(R) determinants from a Danish university hospital to the waste water environment. Waste water samples were collected monthly from the outlets of the hospital bed wards...... and the inlet of the related waste water treatment plant (WWTP) from October 2002 to August 2003. Waste water samples were also collected monthly from a residential area in the same period to be able to compare the prevalence of GEN(R)E. coli isolates from hospital related and residential waste water. The waste...... (aac(3)-II, aac(3)-IV, ant(2'')-I, armA), phenotypic resistance pattern, and virulence genes (hlyA, chuA, sfaS, fogG, malX, traT, iutA, fyuA, iroN, cnf1) to investigate if the hospital and waste water could be reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance and virulence. The ability for GEN(R) determinants...

  14. Identification of Entamoeba moshkovskii in Treated Waste Water Used for Agriculture. (United States)

    Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Heredia, Rubén Darío; Ortiz, Carolina; Mazo, Martín; Clavijo-Ramírez, Carlos Arturo; Lopez, Myriam Consuelo


    We conducted an observational study to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba spp., in samples collected in a waste water treatment plant that provides water for agricultural irrigation. Samples were collected weekly over a period of 10 weeks at representative contamination stages from within the treatment plant. Protozoan identification was performed via light microscopy and culture. PCR amplification of small subunit rRNA gene sequences of E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was performed in culture positive samples. Light microscopy revealed the presence of Entamoeba spp., in 70% (14/20) of the raw waste water samples and in 80% (8/10) of the treated water samples. PCR amplification after culture at both 24 and 37°C revealed that 100% (29/29) of the raw waste water samples and 78.6% (11/14) of the treated waste water were positive for E. moshkovskii. We report the first isolation of E. moshkovskii in Colombia, confirmed by PCR. Recent reports of E. moshkovskii pathogenic potential suggest this finding could constitute a public health risk for people exposed to this water.

  15. Perspectives and limits of membrane biology for municipal and industrial waste water treatment; Perspektiven und Grenzen der Membranbiologie fuer die kommunale und industrielle Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, S.; Groemping, M.; Kollbach, J.S. [Enviro Consult, Aachen (Germany)


    Biological sewage treatment with subsequent membrane treatment was first investigated in the mid-eighties as a promising but costly technology. Since then, a significant reduction of membrane prices as well as some technical improvements for the particular requirements of municipal systems have made this technology generally applicable and economically competitive. Interesting details of the membrane biology are: A 50-80% reduction of excess sludge production, effluents that are free of bacteria and particulate matter, and the possibility of recovering and utilizing the purified waste water. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mitte der 80er Jahre erschienen erste Untersuchungen zur biologischen Abwasserbehandlung mit nachgeschalteter Membrantechnik als aussichtsreich. Allein der wirtschaftliche Betrieb einer solchen Verfahrenskombination zeigte noch entscheidende Defizite, am staerksten bei der kommunalen Abwasserbehandlung. Eine deutliche Reduzierung der Membranpreise und technische Weiterentwicklungen fuer eine Anwendung dieser Membransysteme auf die Randbedingungen einer kommunalen Anlage machen diese Technik heute auch fuer grosse Abwassermengen mit relativ niedriger Frachtbelastung technisch einsetzbar und wirtschaftlich konkurrenzfaehig. Interessante Details der Membranbiologie sind eine um 50 bis 80% reduzierte Ueberschussschlammproduktion, der bakterien- und partikelfreie Ablauf und die Moeglichkeit der Wiederverwendung des gereinigten Abwassers. (orig.)

  16. Inactivation Rates of Coliphages Isolated from Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluents in Georgia (United States)

    Coliphages are a type of host-specific bacteriophages that infect E. coli and are found abundantly in the gut of animals, including humans. They share many structural similarities with human enteric viruses and are being evaluated as indicators for the presence of enteric viral c...



    S. Karthiyayini; A. Sivabharathy; Sreehari, C; M. Sreepoorani; V. Vinjth


    Pollution caused by dairy effluents is a serious problem throughout the world. The major source of waste water is from dairy industry. The effluent from dairy processing unit affects the environment. As a solution our aim is to produce bio-gas from diary wastewater. There are various treatment technologies, among them anaerobic treatment technology is simple and encouraged due to the following advantages such as low cost of construction, pH stability, low maintenance and repair. The biogas is...

  18. New trends in the treatment of meat industry waste waters; Depuracion de aguas residuales de la industria carnica. Nueva tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, V.; Pozo, R. del [Universidad de Burgos. Burgos (Spain)


    In this work, several alternatives for the meat industry wastewater treatment are examined. It is also presented the way in which the new technologies are being applied to this sector, as well as the future tendencies in the development of treatment processes specially adapted for the meat industry. Authors expose which are the guidelines that, in their opinion, must rule the development of treatment systems based on the particular characteristics of this sector and the different troubles and limitations that came up when the new technologies have been applied to this kind of wastewater. (Author) 17 refs.

  19. Microbial degradation of chlorinated compounds. Application of specialized bacteria in the treatment of contaminated soil and waste water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhuis, Roelof


    The development of (aerobic) treatment technologies for polluted environments and waste streams will require an understanding of the microbial potential and the ecophysiology of the most suitable organisms. Therefore, we have studied physiological pathways and some kinetic aspects of the

  20. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.


    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas

  1. Flotation of ores and waste waters


    R. Radić; Ž. Milošević; S. Jurić; Čudić, S.


    World generally requires a very high standard of pollution control, and mining companies pride their organisations as being examples of excellence in this field. Hydrometallurgical mining processes decrease the production of gas and solid pollutants into the atmosphere and maximize the recirculation of solvents at every level of waste waters treatment. The extra electrowinning of metal using the circular hydrometallurgical process ensures that the maximum amount of mined metal is recovered. R...

  2. Treating waste waters from anchovy canneries for subsequent re-use by means of a combined anaerobic and anoxic-anaerobic biological process followed by physico-chemical tertiary treatment.; Tratamiento de aguas residuales de industrias conserveras de anchoas para su posterior reutilizacion, mediante un proceso biologico combinado anaerobio, anoxico-aerobio y un tratamiento terciario fisicoquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, N.; Alonso, E.; Giron, A. M.; Amieva, J. J.; Tejero, I. [Universidad de Cantabria. Torrelavaga (Spain)


    A study was made at a pilot plant of a method of treating waste waters from anchovy canneries so that they could subsequently be re-used. This waste contains high concentrations of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, oils and fats, and has a high degree of salinity. The first stage of the pilot plant consisted of a homogenization tank, a dissolved air flotation clarifier, a hybrid anaerobic digester (UASB+ plastic filling filter), an activated sludge aerobic reactor (which alternates aerobic and anoxic stages) and a secondary decanter. The effluent from the biological process was subjected to physicochemical treatment in a second pilot plant operating intermittent lt. The second pilot plant consisted of a granular active carbon filter, a 5 mn filter and a reverse osmosis membrane module. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. FY 2000 research cooperation project on the comprehensive research cooperation for environmental technology. Research cooperation for technology for prevention of the water pollution caused by plant waste water in Vietnam; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo gijutsu sogo kenkyu kyoryoku (Betonamu koku kojo haisui ni yoru suishitsu osen boshi taisaku gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the purpose of increasing the research capability of the Center for Consultancy, Training and Technology Transfer in Vietnam, research cooperation for prevention of water pollution was given for plants of the local industry located in the suburbs of Hanoi city. In the survey of the actual state of the water pollution in the industrial area in the suburbs of Hanoi city, the following was found out: In the area, approximately 110 companies of the production industry such as livestock feed, papermaking, dyeing, brewing, construction materials, etc. are in operation and are discharging the untreated waste water into rivers and waterways because waste water treatment facilities are not prepared yet. In this research cooperation, the following were carried out: detailed survey of specified plants and proposal for improvement, training of Vietnamese researchers/engineers in charge of water pollution prevention technology, invitation to/training at Japan of Vietnamese managers/researchers, seminar to be held on the site, equipment to be given that is needed to measure water quality. The equipment to be given is a portable multi-item water quality meter and analytical equipment such as spectrometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph. (NEDO)

  4. The Maritime Environment - International Conference and Exhibition on Ballast Water, Waste Water and Sewage Treatment on Ships and in Ports Held in Bremerhaven, Germany on 12-14 September 2001. Conference Proceedings. (United States)


    separation for AQUASET RO- freshwater generators and AQUACLEANER waste water treatment systems. PROMAC is an ISO 9001 and AQAP 110 certified as seriously as they take salmon fishing and tourism .” • Affects ships capable of carrying 50 or more overnight passengers, sets up a...Inspection - Welding Technology - Inspection of GRP Construction - Inspection of Materials - ISO 9000 Auditor Course - ISM Auditor Course April 2001

  5. Photocatalytic system to eliminate cyanide from waste water of carbon gasification plants; Eliminacion de Cianuros de Hidrogeno en Aguas Residuales de Plantas de Gasificacion de Carbon por medio de Procesos Fotocataliticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The main objective of this project has been testing a photocatalytic system to eliminate cyanide from waste water, 1 m``3. h, produced by an IGCC plant. The fulfillment of this objective required: (a) Preparation of catalysis with adequate fluidodynamic and mechanical characteristics, in addition to good photocatalytic properties, to be used in a large scale flow reactor. (b) Selection of a reliable analytical method to determine cyanide concentrations in the 100-0.2 ppm range. (c) Determination of the most adequate experimental conditions for the cyanide photodegradation reaction to increase conversion and decrease process costs. (d) Designing, building and testing a pilot plant photoreactor to treat 1 m``3.h of industrial waste water. Photocatalysts have been prepared with the following properties: (i) Adequate particle size, in order to keep the catalyst in the reactor, while working in the continuous flow mode, under stirring conditions. (ii) Strong retention of the titanium oxide active component by the alumina support, to avoid RiO{sub 2} loss during the photodegradation reaction (iii) Good cyanide photodegradation rates. This property should be favoured if the photocatalyst presents a high number of surface active sites for cyanide adsorption, low recombination rate of the photogenerated charge carriers and easy formation of active radicals for cyanide photodegradation.

  6. Determination of the Concentration of Total Cyanide in Waste Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanide has been listed as one of the toxic pollutants that is usually released into the environment. Cyanide is said to be released during the processing of cyanogenic plant parts which tobacco plant is one of them. This work determines the concentration of total cyanide in waste water collected in and around a tobacco ...

  7. Waste Water Facilities (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset contains the locations of municipal and industrial direct discharge wastewater treatment facilities throughout the state of Vermont. Spatial data is not...

  8. Comparison of bioindicator eukaryotes of activated sludge biocenoses on two water-treatment plants: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmadulina Farida Y.


    Full Text Available Activated sludge biocenoses were compared on waste-water treatment plants in the city of Kazan, Russian Federation and the city of Teplice, Czech Republic. Based on Palia-Kovnatski index, Acanthamoeba in Kazan, Epistylis in Teplice, and Acanthamoeba and Centropyxis were dominant genera in both plants. The major subdominant generas identified were Arcella, Opercularia and Aspidisca. This indicates high nitrification ability, high water purification potential and matured activated sludge. Chemical composition of the waste-water was identified as the main factor determining the sludge biocenoses diversity. Higher sludge biodiversity (Shannon, Margalef, and Sorensen indexes was found in Kazan corresponding to more concentrated inflow water.

  9. Chloroform stripping from waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, N.; Darakchiev, R.; Semkov, K. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering


    The problem treated in this paper is the purification of waste industrial waters from chloroform. An industrial installation with a stripping column is designed, and the results of its study and industrial tests are presented. It is shown that, in a column with 6400 mm total height of the used packing (Holpack), the chloroform concentration in the waste water decreases 150,000 times, approaching that of drinking water.

  10. From waste water treatment to land management: Conversion of aquatic biomass to biochar for soil amelioration and the fortification of crops with essential trace elements. (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Cole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky


    Macroalgae can be grown in industrial waste water to sequester metals and the resulting biomass used for biotechnological applications. We have previously cultivated the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium at a coal-fired power station to treat a metal-contaminated effluent from that facility. We then produced biochar from this biomass and determined the suitability of both the biomass and the biochar for soil amelioration. The dried biomass of Oedogonium cultivated in the waste water contained several elements for which there are terrestrial biosolids criteria (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se and Zn) and leached significant amounts of these elements into solution. Here, we demonstrate that these biomass leachates impair the germination and growth of radishes as a model crop. However, the biochar produced from this same biomass leaches negligible amounts of metal into solution and the leachates support high germination and growth of radishes. Biochar produced at 750 °C leaches the least metal and has the highest recalcitrant C content. When this biochar is added to a low-quality soil it improves the retention of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Mo) from fertilizer in the soil and the growth of radishes by 35-40%. Radishes grown in the soils amended with the biochar have equal or lower metal contents than radishes grown in soil without biochar, but much higher concentrations of essential trace elements (Mo) and macro nutrients (P, K, Ca and Mg). The cultivation of macroalgae is an effective waste water bioremediation technology that also produces biomass that can be used as a feedstock for conversion to biochar for soil amelioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective oxidation of organic compounds in waste water by ozone-based oxidation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, M.A.


    For many different types of waste water, treatment systems have been implemented in the past decades. Waste water treatment is usually performed by biological processes, either aerobic or anaerobic, complemented with physical / chemical post treatment techniques.

  12. Covering and ventilation for deodorising waste water treatment facilities; Cobertura y ventilacion para la desodorizacion de instalaciones de dupracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarca Diaz de la Espian, E.; Palacios Moreno, C.; Fernandez Cano, A.


    The solution to the odour problems in Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) is reduce to the treatment of the gas, one that the necessary actions and corrections for the appearance of these compounds in their liquid state in the least. In general, the next step is to contain, transport and treat it afterwards. Nowadays, the available technologies for chemical control of odour in ventilation air are very efficient, in consequence improvement are given by appropriate industrial ventilation design. (Author) 6 refs.

  13. Application of Integrated Control of Linked Water and Waste Water Systems in the Hoeksche Waard (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Heeringen, K.-J.; Mol, B.


    Presented is a project in which an experimental integrated automatic control system for sewer systems and open water is developed for a rural region in The Netherlands, containing five municipalities and one water board. The goal of the project is to improve the water quality through increased cooperation between the authorities. The most effective method for realizing the water quality goals is to reduce the number of sewer spills, and to position the spills on locations less sensitive to sewer spills. In the project, three main methods are used to reduce the number of sewer spills: The first method involves optimizing the use of the available storage in the sewer system; the control of the pumps aim at keeping the filling rates of the sewer subsystems equal. A second method entails increasing the inflow of the Waste Water Treatment Plants during heavy rainfall events without disturbing the treatment process. The third method is about controlling the system in such a way that spills occur at less sensitive locations, thus avoiding spills in ecologically valuable waterbodies. All these methods require an extensive sensor network and centrally real-time controlled systems (RTC). An extensive study of the waste water chain constitutes the basis for the deployment of the automatic central control. The project has resulted so far in an extensive knowledge on the functioning of the waste water systems and an increased cooperation between water authorities. Preliminary results on the central control indicate that the number and volume of spills have decreased.

  14. Autotrophic nitrogen removal from low strength waste water at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Wang, Y.; Kampman, C.; Zeeman, G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    Direct anaerobic treatment of municipal waste waters allows for energy recovery in the form of biogas. A further decrease in the energy requirement for waste water treatment can be achieved by removing the ammonium in the anaerobic effluent with an autotrophic process, such as anammox. Until now,

  15. Biological cleaning method for radioactive waste water; Biologisches Reinigungsverfahren fuer radioaktive Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasch, M.; Krumpholz, U. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft (Germany); Eickelpasch, N.; Schohe, W. [VAK Kahl (Germany)


    Depending on the size of power plants, the waste water consisting of laundry drains and rinsing liquids from the nuclear laundry and the wash rooms within the controlled area may vary between some hundred and some thousand cubic meters. Common practice so far for water cleaning is careful filtration/sedimentation for extraction of radioactive substances, and subsequent discharge into the draining body. If radioactivity removal is insuffient, the water is evaporated for enhancing purification. The paper describes a biological method developed at the Gundremmingen reactor station. The organic matter in the waste water is removed by bacterial biodegradation, boosted by air. The time required for waste water treatment in the collecting tanks of the power plant for removal of the washing agents is approx. 10 hours, and the resulting waste water is then filtered for radioactivity removal from the water, which in the absence of detergents is much more efficient. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In Kernkraftwerken fallen, je nach Anlagengroesse, einige hundert bis zu einigen tausend Kubikmetern Waschlaugen und Spuelwaesser aus der nuklearen Waescherei sowie aus den Duschen innerhalb des Kontrollbereichs an. Bisherige Praxis ist es, diese Waesser einer sorgfaeltigen Filtration/Sedimentation zur Abtrennung der Radioaktivitaet zu unterwerfen, um sie dann an den Vorfluter abgeben zu koennen. Sofern die Abscheidung der Radioaktivitaet nicht befriedigend moeglich ist, koennen solche Waesser durch Verdampfung gereinigt werden. Im Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen wurde ein biologisches Verfahren zur Reinigung von Wasch- und Duschwaessern entwickelt. Dabei werden diese Waesser unter Einblasen von Luft bakteriell von organischen Bestandteilen befreit. Behandlungszeiten von ca. 10 Stunden in den im Kraftwerk vorhandenen Sammelbehaeltern reichen aus, um die Waschmittel weitestgehend abzubauen. Wenn die Waschmittel aus der Loesung entfernt worden sind, kann die Abfiltration der radioaktiven

  16. Evaluation of toxicological test in waste waters of the purification plants in the province of Ancona; Valutazione di test ecotossicologici su effulenti di impianti di depurazione della provincia di Ancona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tombolesi, P. [S.M.S.P. Area Biotossicologica, Ancona (Italy). Settore Inquinamento delle Acque e del Suolo


    According to the law 319/76 and following changes, it has been identified in the PMP the technical organ of security and inspection for dumping going in to superficial waters, to protect them from pollution. During the last years, the bio toxicological area of the PMP in Ancona has controlled waste waters of the provincial purification plants, searching for foreseen parameters by table A in the law 319/76: total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. In the last years these additional toxicological tests have been made in waste waters: test of acute toxicity with bioluminescent bacteria; test of acute toxicity with Daphnia magna; test of phytoxicity with Lepidium sativum. They have made to evaluate the negative effects of toxicants, not foreseen by table A, in different trophic levels in the ecosystem. In the same time it has been performed an accurate study of micro fauna in the oxidation tanks. [Italian] Con la legge 319/76 e successive modifiche veniva individuato nel PMP l'organo tecnico di vigilanza e controllo degli scarichi diretti in acque superficiali, cio' a tutela delle stesse dall'inquinamento. L'Area Biotossicologica del PMP di Ancona ha effettuato nel corso degli anni regolari controlli sugli effluenti degli impianti di depurazione della provincia, ricercando i paramentri previsti dalla tabella A della legge 319/76: coliformi totali, coliformi fecali e streptococchi fecali. Negli ultimi anni sono stati eseguiti sui reflui, in aggiunta ai precedenti, anche test tossicologici quali: test di tossicita' acuta con batteri bioluminescenti; test di tossicita' acuta con Daphnia magna; test di fitotossicita' con Lepidium sativum; cio' al fine di valutare eventuali effetti negativi di inquinanti, non previsti in tabella A, su differenti livelli della rete trofica. E' stato eseguito contemporaneamente lo studio della microfauna nella vasca di ossidazione. Si riportano di seguito i risultati ottenuti.

  17. Influence of biological aerosol from wastewater treatment plants on workers and the local residents health – literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Michalak


    Full Text Available Bioaerosol forms microbes, their toxins and fragments of microorganisms suspended as small droplets or solid particles. The group particularly exposed are workers of sewage treatment plants and local residents. Literature reports stress the role of the fecal bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and yeasts, which create a real risk of air pollution near the waste water treatment plants Emission of pathogenic microbes prevails in the neighbourhood of of sedimentation tanks, sludge drying beds. Research shows that the extent of bioaerosol influence reaches the distance of 3 km away from any waster water treatment plant.. The most frequent symptoms reported by workers from waste water treatment plants and local residents are respiratory disorders. There are also gastrointestinal and skin problems and general disorders, that can be explained by exposure to endotoxins in bioaerosol.

  18. Application of SBR technology for domestic waste water treatment; Aplicacion de la tecnologia SBR para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domesticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, S.; Mata-Alvarez, J.


    The objective of the present study is to give an overall vision of SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactors) technology as an alternative way for treating domestic and municipal wastewaters. This technology has been gaining popularity through years, mainly due to its single-tank design and the ease of its automation. There are a lot of cases in literature dealing with the treatment of this kind of effluents with this technology, whether a lab-scale, pilot scale or industrial scale. Thus, this paper includes relevant experiments found in literature concerning domestic wastewater treatment. There is also a special attention given to an application that has been studied recently: the use of this technology in wastewater treatment plants, concretely for the treatment of the reject water found after anaerobic digesters, which contains high concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen. (Author)

  19. Thermal energy from waste water in Zwolle, Netherlands; Thermische energie uit afvalwater in Zwolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluck, J.; Van den Bulk, J.; Flameling, T.; De Brauw, H.


    An overview is provided of the results of a study on the options of heat recovery from the (waste) water chain in Zwolle, the Netherlands. The feasibility was checked by looking at three research questions: (1) What does the heat system in the water chain look like and what are the best locations for heat recovery?; (2) What are the possible effects of heat recovery on the functioning of the waste water treatment plant?; and (3) Which techniques are available for heat recovery from the waste water chain? [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de resultaten van een studie naar de mogelijkheden voor het terugwinnen van warmte uit de (afval)waterketen in Zwolle. De haalbaarheid is onderzocht aan de hand van drie onderzoeksvragen: (1) Hoe ziet de warmtehuishouding in de waterketen eruit en wat zijn de beste locaties voor warmteterugwinning?; (2) Wat zijn de mogelijke effecten van warmteterugwinning op het functioneren van een afvalwaterzuiveringsinstallatie?; en (3) Welke technieken bestaan er voor de terugwinning van warmte uit de afvalwaterketen?.

  20. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management.......  Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows...... to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow...

  1. Increase of the processing capacity through modification and enlargement of the assets areas preparation and waste water purification in the fermentation plant Kirchstockach; Durchsatzsteigerung der Vergaerungsanlage Kirchstockach durch Umbau und Erweiterung der Anlagenbereiche Aufbereitung und Prozesswasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschenhofer, M. [LRA Muenchen (Germany). Tiefbau, Verkehrsplanung, Abfallwirtschaft; Kroner, T. [ia GmbH - Wissensmanagement und Ingenieurleistungen, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Kommunale Abfallwirtschaft und Energie; Niefnecker, U. [M. Ganser GmbH und Co. Entsorgungsbetriebe KG, Brunnthal/Kirchstockach (Germany)


    At the fermentation plant Kirchstockach the operations for the rectification of deficiencies and process optimisations were completed in 2004. Now process results of 2005 show the success of the performed actions. In the asset area of preparations the existing rake discharge system was removed and the use of the new discharge reservoir with a drainage coil conveyor system minimises deadlock times and rises preparations throughput. With the new set-up of the light material presses the process procedure was optimised, too. The installation of the new process water reservoir was conditional on the non-uniform hydraulic load of the waste-water purification, which results from the operation of the facility. With the higher buffer capacity, realised by the new process water reservoir, a uniform hydraulic load of the purification system and an optimised process control was implemented. With the optimised performance of the wastewater purification wastewater thresholds are guaranteed now and it is possible to realise the increased throughput of the preparation in the complete system of the fermentation plant Kirchstockach. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Butarewicz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the toxicity of crude and purified sewage from three municipal sewage treatment plants located in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. The bioindicative analysis, based on the use of the Microtox M500 analyzer and Vibrio fischeri bacteria, has shown high or significant toxicity in all the raw wastewater samples, according to Persoone classification. Classification by Sawicki differentiates more the results of acute toxicity tests of crude sewage, because only 66% of samples were toxic. All treated wastewater samples showed no toxicity. The obtained results of the study indicate the efficacy of removing toxic compounds in waste water treatment plants based on the classic activated sludge technology and sequential reactors (SBR and no risk at discharging the treated sewage into the water of receivers.

  3. A problem and its solutions. Treatment of mineral-oil-polluted waste water; Ein Problem und seine Loesungen. Behandlung mineraloelbelasteter Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemenz, M.


    Even minimum quantities of mineral oils and light mineral fluids like carburettor and diesel fuel impair the quality of water. The legislator has taken this fact into account by laying down the procedures and conditions for the discharge of mineral-oil-polluted waste water into sewers or receiving bodies of water in the water management act. Relative provisions are made in the appendices to the water management act (for instance, appendix 49 on cleaning, maintenance and underseal removal of motor vehicles), which are practically executed by the federal states in the form of administrative regulations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mineraloel und mineralische Leichtfluessigkeiten wie Vergaser- und Dieselkraftstoff beeintraechtigen die Wasserqualitaet schon bei Zugabe in geringsten Mengen. Der Gesetzgeber trug diesem Umstand dadurch Rechnung, dass im Wasserhaushaltsgesetz Vorgehensweisen und Bedingungen fuer die Einleitung von mineraloelbelasteten Abwaessern in Kanalisation oder Vorflut festgelegt wurden. Massgebend sind hier Anhaenge zum Wasserhaushaltsgesetz (zum Beispiel Anhang 49 `Fahrzeugreinigung, -Instandhaltung und-Entkonservierung`), die durch die Bundeslaender im Rahmen von Verwaltungsvorschriften in die praktische Anwendung umgesetzt werden. (orig.)

  4. Treatment of waste waters in oil fields by a new technology-MDIF; Tratamento de aguas de descarte em campos produtores de petroleo atraves de nova tecnologia-MDIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Junior, W.E.; Paulo, J.B.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail:; Rolim, T.A.; Chiavenato, M.C.; Lima, A.F. [PETROBRAS, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios


    Mixer-settlers are usual equipment for phase separation in liquid-liquid systems. They consist of a mixer and a settling chambers. The critical point of this equipment is the length of the settling chamber. This characteristic is specially relevant where space is limited in lay-out of an industrial plant, for example, in an off-shore platform for oil exploration. An alternative to solve this problem is done by means of 'The Method of Separation by Phase Inversion' which is the base of operation of a new design of mixer-settler named MDIF. The equipment has hybrid characteristics between conventional mixer-settler and extraction columns. This equipment has been used to treat waste waters coming from production oil fields. The laboratory prototype showed an efficiency of separation up to 96% on treating waste waters with oil in a concentration of 100 to 1500 mg/L and total flow of 100 L/h. The effluent on exit of MDIF has approached 20 mg/L of oil (Resolucao CONAMA N. 20). A prototype in a semi-industrial scale of MDIF was designed to operate in real industrial conditions. A hundred times factor of scale laboratory/field was used. In this work a Statistical Experimental Design is carried out to laboratory conditions to get a model to predict the influence of operational variables as: total flow, organic/aqueous ratio on a volumetric basis and speed of agitation into mixer chamber upon efficiency of separation. These data are essential to perform the scale-up of the equipment. (author)

  5. Case study treatment of waste water for 17α-ethinylestradiol and microorganisms with UV and photocatalysis in an on-going process of introducing AOP techniques in the Danish water sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen


    Failure to obtain a sufficient disinfection of waste water, initiated an investigation of the use of UV light and photocatalysis with TiO2 for treating the waste water. Furthermore, the ability of such a system to degrade endocrine disrupting chemicals was investigated through experiments...

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.


    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  7. Characterization of nutrient transport below the root zone of a willow plantation irrigated with municipal waste water in the Boreal-Parkland transition zone, Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Gainer, A. E.; Dyck, M. F.; Kachanoski, G.


    Irrigation of willow and poplar species with municipal waste water offers municipalities a variety of opportunities including reduced energy and waste management costs and preservation of surface water quality. Municipal waste water contains various nutrients that are beneficial to plants such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The woody species reduce treatment costs by further removing many of these nutrients and potentially using the resulting biomass to fuel the facilities. Diversion of municipal waste water from rivers and water bodies improves water quality by reducing the amount of nutrients entering water bodies, decreasing pollution such as eutrophication. As found by many European countries, the bioenergy combined with waste water treatment approach is promising but there are environmental drawbacks including nutrient leaching to groundwater and degradation to soil hydraulic properties. Various nitrogen forms like nitrate are of concern due to impacts on human and environmental health, most notably methemoglobinemia in infants. The overall objective of this research is to assess ecosystem resilience and sustainability with repeated applications of municipal wastewater over the life cycle of a willow plantation. The specific objective of this presentation is to quantify nutrient transport below the root zone of a poplar plantation previously irrigated with municipal waste water under natural climatic conditions using soil solution samplers at 4 depths (50 cm, 90 cm, 120 cm and 150 cm). Meteorological data (precipitation, temperature, evaporimeter) was collected as well. Transport of conservative tracers, bromide and chloride, are compared to the transport of nutrients (nitrogen forms and DOC,). Parameterization of the measured breakthrough curves may be used to predict future nutrient fluxes. The goal of this research is to improve the design of municipal waste water subsurface irrigation systems by minimizing leaching and water losses.

  8. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 μg/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

  9. Heat production thanks to waste water; Produire de l'energie grace aux eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.


    The district heating of a large residential compound in Rheinfelden, Switzerland has been refurbished and extended in order to include new buildings and take advantage of the heat from the municipal waste water treatment plant. The initial system was built in 1976 and delivered heat to 3000 people in 1050 housing units, from three natural gas fired boilers with a total power of 3 MW. In 1993, a study supported by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy identified considerable possible energy savings. Some operational measures were implemented immediately. The recent extension of the district heating to a second residential compound in the neighbourhood increased the heat demand by about 50%. In the course of the planning process it was recognized that waste water from the joint municipal treatment plant of Rheinfelden and Magden - a second city located in the vicinity - has to be cooled by 5 K before being rejected into the Rhine River. This water is now used after filtration as the heat source for two big heat pumps (total 2.5 MW; working fluid: ammonia) supplying the refurbished and extended district heating. Peak heat demand is covered by natural gas boilers (total 9 MW) that can operate alone or in parallel with the heat pumps. Provision has been made to later connect another waste heat source to the district heating network: the municipal skating rink and swimming pool sport facility.

  10. Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering Education. (United States)

    Caceres, L.; And Others


    Proposes that inclusion of waste water treatment subjects within the chemical engineering curriculum can provide students with direct access to environmental issues from both a biotechnological and an ethical perspective. The descriptive details of water recycling at a copper plant and waste water stabilization ponds exemplify this approach from…

  11. Surface Disposal of Waste Water Treatment Plant Biosludge – an Important Source of Perfluorinated Compound Contamination in the Environment? (United States)

    With more than a decade of intensive scientific research and increasing regulatory pressure worldwide, the sources of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the environment and routes of human exposure still need to be fully characterized. Several studies have documented PFAA contaminat...

  12. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachiket P Marathe

    Full Text Available Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20% to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial

  13. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production. (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Shetty, Sudarshan A; Shouche, Yogesh S; Larsson, D G Joakim


    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS) technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL) in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20%) to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial community in PETL

  14. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.


    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  15. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China


    Baoling Duan; Fenwu Liu; Wuping Zhang; Haixia Zheng; Qiang Zhang; Xiaomei Li; Yushan Bu


    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also c...

  16. Uso de la simulación con SuperPro Designer en las prácticas de laboratorio de tratamiento de agua y residuales Using SuperPro Designer simulation in water and waste water treatment laboratory practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Isabel Barreto Torrella


    Full Text Available This article aims to describe results of introducing simulation practice, using Super Pro Designer program, in laboratory practices of Water and Waste Water Treatment in Chemical Engineering career of the “Ignacio Agramonte Loynaz” University and designed teaching strategy for that purpose. The subject was studied to set its system of contents, frontier and environment, the relation to other subjects and the system, subsystem and learning dynamics as a whole. A system of laboratory practices and a teaching strategy to use the simulator SuperPro Designer were design. Learning and skills development were assessed through self-preparation control, performance in doing tasks, findings registered in the corresponding reports and application in other homework tasks. The set of activities designed favored students’ independent work of students by presenting problematic situations in a nice graphical environment and under the teacher leadership continue varying operating conditions to evaluate results. The strategy fostered the horizontal and vertical connection of subjects of and the fulfillment of language, economy and ICT curricular strategies. Keywords: , , , .

  17. Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant Project (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In southeastern Washington State, Bechtel National, Inc. is designing, constructing and commissioning the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant for the...

  18. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol in waste waters by photo-fenton treatment; Degradacion del 2,4-diclorofenol en aguas residuales mediante tratamiento foto-fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, M. A.; Pardos, M.; Ormad, P.; Ovelleiro, J. L. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)


    Photo-Fenton treatment (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe/UV) is an advanced oxidation process very studied as an application for the elimination of persistent contaminants in waters. It consists on the formation of OH. radicals, strong oxidizers that destroy almost all the organic substances present. In this work, it is applied to the study of 2-4 dichlorophenol degradation by means of the treatment of an aqueous synthetic sample. The results obtained include a 95% degradation of contaminant in 5 minutes of treatment with a decrease of the parameters total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX)of the 30% and 60% respectively. (Author) 14 refs.

  19. The evolution of the treatment of urban waste water Spain; La evolucion de la depuracion de las aguas residuales urbanas en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajigas Delgado, A.


    This article reviews the evolution of the wastewater treatment sector in Spain during the last three decades and identifies the milestone events that influenced its transformation. It analyses the situation before and after the major development plans and how they have had influence in the main regulations. (Author)

  20. Microbial contamination of the air at the wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová


    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs primarily serve to protect the environment. Their task is to clean waste water from the agglomerations. On the other hand wastewater treatment plants can also negatively affect the environment in their neighbourhood. These include emissions of odour and microorganisms. This article discusses the microbial contamination of the air, called bioaerosols in selected wastewater treatment plant for 18 000 p.e. From results of the work is evident that the largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic fungi. The number of psychrophilic bacteria ranged from 14 to 12 000 CFU/m3 (colony forming units in 1 m3, the number of mesophilic bacteria varied in the range from 20 to 18 500 CFU/m3 and the fungi from 25 to 32 000 CFU/m3 in the air. The amount of actinomycetes ranged from 1 to 1 030 CFU/m3 and faecal coliform bacteria from 0 to 2 500 CFU/m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the highest air contamination was around the activation tank, area for dewatered sludge and around the building of mechanical cleaning, depending on the season. The density of studied microorganisms correlated with air temperature.

  1. Occurrence and behaviour of dissolved, nano-particulate and micro-particulate iron in waste waters and treatment systems: new insights from electrochemical analysis. (United States)

    Matthies, R; Aplin, A C; Horrocks, B R; Mudashiru, L K


    Cyclic-, Differential Pulse- and Steady-state Microdisc Voltammetry (CV, DPV, SMV) techniques have been used to quantify the occurrence and fate of dissolved Fe(ii)/Fe(iii), nano-particulate and micro-particulate iron over a 12 month period in a series of net-acidic and net-alkaline coal mine drainages and passive treatment systems. Total iron in the mine waters is typically 10-100 mg L(-1), with values up to 2100 mg L(-1). Between 30 and 80% of the total iron occurs as solid phase, of which 20 to 80% is nano-particulate. Nano-particulate iron comprises 20 to 70% of the nominally "dissolved" (i.e. systems. Oxidation, hydrolysis, precipitation, coagulation and sedimentation occur in all treatment systems and - independent of water chemistry and the type of treatment system - hydroxides and oxyhydroxysulfates are the main iron sinks. The electrochemical data thus reveal the rationale for incomplete iron retention in individual systems and can thus inform future design criteria. The successful application of this low cost and rapid electrochemical method demonstrates its significant potential for real-time, on-site monitoring of iron-enriched waters and may in future substitute traditional analytical methods.

  2. Treatment of high salt oxidized modified starch waste water using micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic aerobic and electrolysis for reuse (United States)

    Yi, Xuenong; Wang, Yulin


    A combined process of micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic, aerobic and electrolysis was investigated for the treatment of oxidized modified starch wastewater (OMSW). Optimum ranges for important operating variables were experimentally determined and the treated water was tested for reuse in the production process of corn starch. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of micro-electrolysis, methanation reactor, aerobic process and electrolysis process were 5, 24, 12 and 3 h, respectively. The addition of iron-carbon fillers to the acidification reactor was 200 mg/L while the best current density of electrolysis was 300 A/m2. The biodegradability was improved from 0.12 to 0.34 by micro-electrolysis. The whole treatment was found to be effective with removal of 96 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 0.71 L/day of methane energy recovery. In addition, active chlorine production (15,720 mg/L) was obtained by electrolysis. The advantage of this hybrid process is that, through appropriate control of reaction conditions, effect from high concentration of salt on the treatment was avoided. Moreover, the process also produced the material needed in the production of oxidized starch while remaining emission-free and solved the problem of high process cost.

  3. Modelling of suspended matter transport and turnover in biofilters for waste water treatment; Modellierung von Stofftransport und -umsatz in Biofiltern zur Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telgmann, U. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Horn, H. [Fachhochschule Magdeburg (Germany). Hydro- und Abfallchemie


    Essential elements of the presented model for biofilters are suspended matter transfer in the boundary layer water/biofilm, the gradient of concentration for substrate turnover in the biofilm with limited diffusion, and the gradient of concentration and biomass distribution both in the biofilm and over the height of the reactor. Problematic in biofilm modelling is linking the turnover of substrate in the biofilm affixed to the carrier material with changes in concentration along the reactor height. This means that concentration profiles need to be calculated both in the biofilm and over the height of the reactor. The presented model describes substrate turnover in the biofilm by means of a Monod kinetics, and diffusive suspended matter transport with the aid of Fick's second law. The change in concentration over the filter bed height is taken into account by dividing the reactor volume into five complete-mixing segments. Further elements of modelling are biomass production and the corresponding discharge from the biofilter. In exemplary manner, a biofilter for downstream denitrification with methanol was modelled and the results were compared with measurements taken at a semi-technical pilot plant. (orig.) [German] Wesentliche Elemente des hier vorgestellten Modells fuer Biofilter sind der Stoffuebergang in der Grenzschicht Wasser/Biofilm, der Konzentrationsgradient beim diffusionslimitierten Substratumsatz im Biofilm, der Konzentrationsgradient und die Biomasseverteilung sowohl im Biofilm als auch ueber die Reaktorhoehe. Problematik bei der Modellierung eines Biofilms ist die Verknuepfung von Substratumsatz in dem auf dem Traegermaterial haftenden Biofilm mit der Konzentrationsveraenderung entlang der Reaktorhoehe. Die Konzentrationsprofile muessen also sowohl im Biofilm als auch ueber die Reaktorhoehe berechnet werden. Im praesentierten Modell wird der Substratumsatz im Biofilm mit einer Monodkinetik und der diffusive Stofftransport mit Hilfe des 2. Fick

  4. Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty M.


    Full Text Available The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6. Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54% toxic concentrations of Cr+6 from contaminated mine waste water when passed through succeeding water hyacinth ponds. The reduction of toxic chromium level varied with the plant age and passage distance of waste water. Chromium phytoaccumulation and Bio-Concentration Factor (BCF was maximum at growing stage of plant i.e. 75 days old plant. High BCF (10,924 and Transportation Index (32.09 for water hyacinth indicated that the weeds can be used as a tool of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination in mining areas.

  5. Assessing the phytoplankton and water quality of Kingston Harbour and Hellshire coast, Jamaica, after the implementation of a waste water treatment facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen A. Liu


    Full Text Available Deteriorating water quality of Kingston Harbour, due primarily to sewage discharge and its effect on nearby Hellshire Coast, has been an issue since the 1970s. The implementation of a new sewage treatment facility in 2007 to receive the harbour’s waste at Soapberry was expected to make a positive difference. Physico-chemical and biological parameters were used to assess water quality to determine the effect of the facility. Eleven stations used in earlier studies (1990 to 1998 were re-sampled to represent Kingston, Hunts Bay and North East Hellshire coastline over a four week sampling regime between May and June 2011. While temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and pH remained unchanged between the 1990’s and 2011, BOD5, faecal coliform and nitrate concentrations indicated that the water quality had improved minimally in Kinsgton and Hellshire,and deteriorated significantly in Hunts. Phytoplankton biomass decreased in Kingston (from 3.84 mg m-3 in 1998 to 2.81 mg m-3 in 2011 and increased significantly in Hunts (from 14.69 mg m-3 in 1998 to 24.17 mg m-3 in 2011. Biomass along Hellshire was similar (2.15 mg m-3 in 1998; 2.45 mg m-3 in 2011. In 1998 the nanoplankton biomass (2.7 to 20μm dominated throughout the Harbour. In 2011 Hunts Bay was dominated by net-plankton (>20μm, indicative of eutrophic waters.

  6. Development and characterization of a novel immobilized microbial membrane for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand load in industrial waste-waters. (United States)

    Rastogi, Shikha; Kumar, Anil; Mehra, N K; Makhijani, S D; Manoharan, A; Gangal, V; Kumar, Rita


    The rapid determination of waste-water quality of waste-water treatment plants in terms of pollutional strength, i.e. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is difficult or even impossible using the chemical determination method. The present study reports the determination of BOD within minutes using microbial BOD sensors, as compared to the 5-day determination using the conventional method. Multiple criteria establish the basis for the development of a BOD biosensor useful for rapid and reliable BOD estimation in industrial waste-waters. Of these, preparation of a suitable novel immobilized microbial membrane used in conjunction with an apt transducer is discussed. As a result, a microbial biosensor based on a formulated, synergistic, pre-tested microbial consortium has been developed for the measurement of BOD load of various industrial waste-waters. The sensor showed maximum response in terms of current difference, when a cell concentration of 2.25 x 10(10) CFU, harvested in their log phase of growth were utilized for microbial membrane construction. The sensor showed a stability of 180 days when the prepared membranes were stored at a temperature of 4 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate buffer of pH 6.8. The reusability of the immobilized membranes was up to 200 cycles without appreciable loss of their response characteristics. A linear relationship between the current change and a glucose-glutamic acid (GAA) concentration up to 60 mg l(-1) was observed (r=0.999). The lower detection limit was 1.0 mg l(-1) BOD. The sensor response was reproducible within +/-5% of the mean in a series of ten samples having 44 mg l(-1) BOD using standard a GGA solution. When used for the BOD estimation of industrial waste-waters, a relatively good agreement was found between the two methods, i.e. 5-day BOD and that measured by the developed microbial sensor.

  7. Wastewater Treatment Plants (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  8. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.


    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  9. Development and testing of evaluation methods for data acquired to adapt the Waste Water Ordinance (AbwasserVwV) to the technical developments in treatment and avoidance measures. Final report; Entwicklung und Ueberpruefung von Auswerteverfahren wasserrechtlicher Vollzugsdaten zur Anpassung der AbwasserVwV`en an die technische Entwicklung von Behandlungs- und Vermeidungsmassnahmen. T. 1: UDIS-Handbuch fuer Abwasserspezialisten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterger, O.; Luedtke, T. [comps.


    This volume is part of the final report on project NO. 102 06 2212 `Development and testing of evaluation methods for data acquired to adapt the Waste Water Ordinance (AbwasserVwV) to the technical develoments in treatment and avoidance measures`. It contains the information required for practical implementation of UDIS and addresses especially the waste water experts of the German federal and state governments. [Deutsch] Dieser Band des Abschlussberichts zum Vorhaben 102 06 221 `Entwicklung und Ueberpruefung von Auswerteverfahren wasserrechtlicher Vollzugsdaten zur Anpassung der AbwasserVwV`en an die technische Entwicklung von Behandlungs- und Vermeidungsmassnahmen` umfasst die zur praktischen Anwendung von UDIS erforderlichen Anleitungen und Informationen und richtet sich vor allem an den Abwasserfachmann auf der Ebene des Bundes oder der Laender. (orig.)

  10. Falluja Waste Water Treatment System, Falluja, Iraq (United States)


    project assumptions. Advantages to Both Systems Lagoon System Inexpensive to construct and operate Simple technology/lowest lifecycle cost...100 millimeter (mm) polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) pipes. Influent wastewater is aerated to form ―activated sludge‖ – a bacterial colony that degrades...Resident Office representative stated some of the PVC diffusers in the tanks have been exposed to sunlight and will need to be replaced before

  11. Compliance to oseltamivir among two populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom affected by influenza A(H1N1pdm09, November 2009--a waste water epidemiology study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Singer

    Full Text Available Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu® compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3-4 and 120-154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45-60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan.

  12. Electrooxidation of organics in waste water (United States)

    Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.


    Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.

  13. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović


    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  14. Unraveling cyanobacteria ecology in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). (United States)

    Martins, Joana; Peixe, Luísa; Vasconcelos, Vítor M


    Cyanobacteria may be important components of wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) biological treatment, reaching levels of 100% of the total phytoplankton density in some systems. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their associated toxins in these systems present a risk to the aquatic environments and to public health, changing drastically the ecology of microbial communities and associated organisms. Many studies reveal that cyanotoxins, namely microcystins may not act as antibacterial compounds but they might have negative impacts on protozoans, inhibiting their growing and respiration rates and leading to changes in cellular morphology, decreasing consequently the treatment efficacy in WWTP. On the other side, flagellates and ciliates may ingest some cyanobacteria species while the formation of colonies by these prokaryotes may be seen as a defense mechanism against predation. Problems regarding the occurrence of cyanobacteria in WWTP are not limited to toxin production. Other cyanobacterial secondary metabolites may act as antibacterial compounds leading to the disruption of bacterial communities that biologically convert organic materials in WWTP being fundamental to the efficacy of the process. Studies reveal that the potential antibacterial capacity differs according to cyanobacteria specie and it seems to be more effective in Gram (+) bacteria. Thus, to understand the effects of cyanobacterial communities in the efficiency of the waste water treatment it will be necessary to unravel the complex interactions between cyanobacterial populations, bacteria, and protozoa in WWTP in situ studies.

  15. Agricultural use of treated waste water and sludge. Final report on the PIA-9-5 Project (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Autonomous Government of Andalusia); Uso agricola de agua residuales depuradas y lodos. Informe final sobre el proyecto PIA-9-5 (Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca, Junta de Andalucia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olalla Mercade, L.; Diaz Diez, M.; Pozuelo Garcia, J. M.; Lillo Roldan, E.


    This article presents the results of the work carried out at the CIFA-Malaga on the agricultural use of treated waste water and the sludge from waste treatment processes. The latest data are reported from the systematic sampling of treated waste water (secondary effluent) and treatment sludge in certain treatment plants on the coast of Malaga. The physicochemical analytical data obtained from the regenerated waste water suggest that there may be ceratin salinity problems (mainly due to chlorides). There may also be problems with relatively high boron content and possibly with N and P content. The concentration of heavy metals did not generally present any immediate problems, but it must be monitored. When using sludge, it is recommended that it be mixed with organic matter and composted to facilitate its application to the soil, as this a more complex matter and must be subject to greater control. (Author) 7 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuri Zaenuri


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efektivitas pengoperasian instalasi pengolah air limbah (IPAL perusahaan peraih sel1ifikasi ISO 14001 di Kawasan Simongan Kota Semarang. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif-komparatif dan inferensial dengan menggunakan uji-t. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, pada perusahaan farmasi, rata-rata konsentrasi TSS, BOD, dan COD periode 1989-1998 (sebelum memperoleh ISO 14001 masing-masing sebesar 92,3229 mg/I, 45,5022 mg/I, dan 87,3691 mg/I, sedangkan rata-rata pH sebesar 7,2388. Parameter BOD dan COD memenuhi baku mutu, pH dalam interval baku mutu yang ditetapkan, sedangkan TSS berada di atas baku mutu. ABSTRACT This research was intended to analyze the effectivity of  waste water treatment plan operated by industrial companies holding ISO 14001 certificates in Simongan Area of SemarangCity. The data were analyzed descriptively, comparatively and inferentially using t-tests. The analyses showed that prior to obtaining ISO 14001 certificate (1989-1998, the pharmaeutical company had its average concentrations of TSS, BOD, and COD of 92.3229, 45.5022 and 87.3691 mg/l respectively, with an average pH of 7.2388. These parameters of BOD and COD had already met the prevailing standard qualities, the TSS parameter was above the standard quality, and the pH was within the prevailing standard quality interval. After obtaining the ISO 14001 certificate (2005-2008, this pharmaeutical company was able to maintain all of the key parameters to meet the prevailing stadard qualities. In case of the galvanizing company prior to obtaining ISO 14001 certificate (1989-1998, its average concentrations of TSS and CN were 256.3469 and 0.25575 mg/l respectively (above the prevailing standard qualities, those for total Cr, C+6, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb were 0.0510, 0.0036, 0.236060, 0.7242, 0.01790 and 0.0286 mg/l respectively (still under the prevailing standard qualities, while the an average pH was within the

  17. Handbook in energy conservation on pump systems for waste water; Haendbog i energibesparelser pae pumpesystemer til spildevand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The handbook primarily addresses staff responsible for the daily operation of local waste water pump stations, but it can also be of use to other professions which are engaged in planning, operation and maintenance of waste water plants. The aim of the handbook is energy conservation, but at the same time all recommendations for energy conservation initiatives take working environment and operating safety into consideration. (BA)

  18. Vertical flow soil filter for the elimination of micro pollutants from storm and waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janzen, Niklas; Banzhaf, Stefan; Scheytt, Traugott


    A technical scale activated soil filter has been used to study the elimination rates of diverse environmentally relevant micro pollutants from storm and waste water. The filter was made of layers of peat, sand and gravel. The upper (organic) layer was planted with reed (phragmites australis......, synthetic waste water spiked to 3000 ng L−1 with the selected compounds was used. Elimination rates with low hydraulic load (61 L m−2 d−1, water retention time: 2 d) were higher than 96%. During a storm water simulation experiment (hydraulic load: 255 L m−2, water retention time:

  19. Report on research cooperation for bio-aided treatment of waste water from mining pits, conducted in FY1996. Data edition; 1996 nendo bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report carries the results of (1) surveys on properties of waste water discharged from pits in Wushan Mine in Province of Jiangxi, China, (2) monitoring the environments around the mine, (3) monitoring the environments around the mine (photographs) and (4) surveys on properties of waste water discharged from pits in other mines, and also outlines (5) the Chinese research activities. More specifically, it carries (1) water analysis results of pH and heavy metals at -40mL and -160mL pits and raw water pit on the earth's surface, (2) analysis results of pH and heavy metals for water discharged from the mine at 15 points, 7 at the north of the mine, 4 at the south of the mine, 2 at the tailings, 1 at Chihu, and 1 at the eastern tailings, (4) the data regarding waste water discharged from pits in 5 mines in the same province, including copper, copper-sulfur and copper-zinc mines, and (5) results of the (bacteria-culturing tests for high-efficiency oxidation of iron) carried out in Wushan Mine. The tests comprised the nutrient addition, raw water load and residence time tests, and the results of each test are reported. Fe (II) is oxidized to 95 to 98% at a residence time of 0.75 hours. (NEDO)

  20. Economics of wastewater treatment in GTL plant using spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enyi, G.C.; Nasr, G.G.; Burby, M. [University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)


    In a Gas-to-liquid (GTL) plant, significant quantities of CO2 and reaction water are produced and various chemicals are used as intermediate treatment chemicals. The reaction water is contaminated by these chemicals which impair the pH and the related properties of the water. The pH has to be controlled in the effluent treatment unit before the water is re-used or released to the environment. The overall aim of this investigation is to create a novel technique to address the problem of waste water treatment in GTL plants which will assist in the reduction of greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere. A laboratory-scale effluent neutralisation unit for pH control utilising gas injectors was designed and built. The unit used the CO2 produced as a by-product of GTL process as wastewater treatment chemical instead of the conventional Sulphuric acid. The quality of wastewater after treatment with CO2 met the standards set by the state regulatory agency. The economics of the new process shows a better payout period of 3.6 years for capital investment of $1,645 Million compared to 4.7 years for an existing plant layout with capital investment of $1,900 Million. The effects of increase in plant capacity showed a lower payback back of 2.8 years for plant capacity of 140,000 barrels/day (22258 m3/day), 3.6 years for 34,000 barrels/day and 6.0 years for 12,500 barrels/day (1987 m3/day) plant capacity. The sensitivity analysis using crystal ball simulator with 'Microsoft Excel' shows that the annual revenue has the greatest effects on the NPV of the plant than the CAPEX and inflation rate. Apart from the environmental benefits the process generates by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the study also concludes that the replacement of conventional Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) unit with CO2 improves the economics of the plant.

  1. Oil and grease (O&G removal from commercial kitchen waste water using carbonised grass as a key media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Siti Nazahiyah


    Full Text Available Oil and grease (O&G are usually found in kitchen waste water. O&G are poorly soluble in water and can cause serious problems during the wastewater treatment. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the treatment of kitchen waste water and very economical. Activated carbon is the most effective adsorbent for this application. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to determine the potential of four materials (i.e. sand, gravel, carbonised grass (CG and clay powder as filter media for O&G removal. The CGs were originated from “Elephant Grass” and it is a fast growing plant with significant potential as carbon. The clay acts as a magnet, drawing the oil molecules out of the water and causing them to attach to the surfaces of the clay. In the current study, two filters were developed with different media materials to get the best percentage removal. Filters 1 and 2 were filled with sand, gravel and CG, and sand, gravel, CG and powder clay, respectively. Three samples were taken during peak hour between April and May 2016. The initial O&G concentration varied from 101.37 mg/l to 248.30 mg/l and the final concentration varied from none to 22.57 mg/l for both filters. The percentage removal (% of O&G were between 90.9 and 97.3 (Filter 1 and between 94.3 and 100 (Filter 2. Overall, both filters could efficiently remove O&G in the waste water and the quality of the carbonised grass proved to be as good as carbon produced from other traditional sources.

  2. Technological processing waste water using the dressing the ejector system for pretreament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Milan


    Full Text Available Slaughter industry produces large amounts of waste water, which endanger and degrade the natural recipients - recipients, given that the waste vode najčešće discharged without any form of treatment or purification. Wastewater slaughter industry carry faeces, straw, unprocessed animal feed, various stomach secretions, blood, fat, a variety of solid waste and other organic matter present. Many applied technical and technological solutions in order to prevent harming the recipients are not given adequate results from the ecological aspect. The reconstruction of a system for pre-treatment and slaughter waste water by applying technological solutions ejector - pump, not only have obtained good results required by the project, but also pointed to the possibility of their use in many types of agro-industrial waste water, especially with the growing number of small agro-industrial drive .

  3. Description of station waste water treatment and study of reclaiming industry ceramic red; Caracterizacao de residuos de estacao de tratamento de agua e estudo de reaproveitamento na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Junior, B.S.; Bezerra, L.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)


    So that the water meets potability standards required by the laws it passes through various treatment processes which generate waste called WTS (Water Treatment Sludge). This sludge is disposed of without any processing, however, environmental agencies and the public are demanding alternatives to this situation. Knowing this, this study aims to characterize the sludge from the Water Treatment Plant Botafogo and analyze its viability as a feedstock in the manufacture of red bricks. (author)

  4. Removal heavy metals and sulphate from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnierová Mária


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the process of bacterial sulphate reduction, which is used to removal of heavy metals and sulphate ions from waste waters.The life of animals and plants depends on the existence of microscopic organisms – microorganisms (MO, which play an important role in cycle changes of biogenic elements on the earth. The sulphur cycle in the nature is considered as one of the oldest and most significant biological systems (Fig. 1. The sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB miss the assimilatory part of the cycle and produce sulphides. The microbial population of this dissimilatory part is called “sulfuretum”. The SRB can be found in anaerobic mud and sediments of freshwater, thermal or non-thermal sulphur springs, mining waters from sulphide deposits, oil deposits, sea and ocean beds, and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. The SRB represent a group of chemoorganotrophic, strictly anaerobic and gramnegative bacteria, which exhibit a great morphological and physiological diversity. Despite of their considerable morphological variety, they have one property in common, which is the ability to utilise preferentially sulphates (occasionally sulphites, thiosulphates, tetrathionates as electron acceptors, which are reduced to sulphides, during anaerobic respiration. The electron donors in these processes are simple organic compounds as lactate, malate, etc.,(heterotrophically reduction or gaseous hydrogen (autotrophically reduction. SRB can produce a considerable amount of hydrogen sulphide, which reacts easily in aqueous solution with the cations of heavy metals, forming metal sulphides that have low solubility. The bacterial sulphate reduction can be used for the treatment of acid mine drainage waters, which is considered to be the major problem associated with mining activities.In order to remove heavy metals from waste waters, e.g., from galvanizing plants, mine waters (Smolnik, Šobov locality and metallurgic plants (works

  5. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.M.; Daughton, C.G.; Harris, G.J.


    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process waste waters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogenous heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment processes designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential. Quantification of organic nitrogen in biological and agricultural samples is usually accomplished using the time-consuming, wet-chemical Kjeldahl method. For oil shale waste waters, whose primary inorganic nitorgen constituent is amonia, organic Kjeldahl nitrogen (OKN) is determined by first eliminating the endogenous ammonia by distillation and then digesting the sample in boiling H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The organic material is oxidized, and most forms of organically bound nitrogen are released as ammonium ion. After the addition of base, the ammonia is separated from the digestate by distillation and quantified by acidimetric titrimetry or colorimetry. The major failings of this method are the loss of volatile species such as aliphatic amines (during predistillation) and the inability to completely recover nitrogen from many nitrogenous heterocycles (during digestion). Within the last decade, a new approach has been developed for the quantification of total nitrogen (TN). The sample is first combusted, a

  6. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben


    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...... calibrated. This calibration is done based on data batches stored at each pump cycle, hence makes the approach a self calibrating system. The approach is tested on a pumping station operating in a real waste water network....

  7. Principles of Charging for Water and Waste Water Services


    John W. Sawkins; Valerie A. Dickie


    This report analyses the principles of charging for water and waste water services in Great Britain, with particular reference to Scotland. The objectives of the report are: (a) to discuss the objectives of charging household and business customers for water and waste water services, highlighting those principles which should underpin charging policy. (b) to review charges in Scotland, England and Wales in the light of these principles. (c) to present water and waste water charging case studi...

  8. Energy efficiency in the waste water system; Energieeffizienz im Abwasserbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panckow, Kathrin; Wienke, Andreas (comps.)


    The volume 51 of the publication series of the Municipal Environmental Campaign U.A.N. (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the energy efficiency in the waste water section. This volume consists of the following contributions: (a) How much energy is necessary for the sewage plant? (Artur Mennerich); (b) Possibilities of energy saving in the sewer system (Wolfgang Buehler); (c) Possibilities of energy saving at sewage plants: a Survey (Ulf Theilen); (d) Possibilities of energy saving at sewage plants: Examples from the practice (Wilfried Osterloh); (e) Review of the possibilities of power generation at sewage plants (K.-H. Rosenwinkel, Linda Hinken); (f) Potentials of production and utilization of fouling gas (Johannes Mueller); (g) Realisation of a 5 MW biological gas facility with waste heat utilization for sewage sludge drying (Marc Stueben); (h) The micro gas turbine: An alternative for the compact cogeneration plant (Christian Schaum); (i) PR report: Energy efficiency - (rational utilization of energy), energy concepts - (analysis of energy, strategic perspectives) (Martin Mergelmeyer, Gerhard Seibert-Erling).

  9. Improved operating efficiency due to the use of pure oxygen in biological treatment plants for industrial effluents; Mejora de la eficiencia en la operacion de plantas depuradoras biologicas de efluentes industriales mediante la utilizacion de oxigeno puro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, R.; Bargallo, J.; Crespi, M.


    The use of pure oxygen in biological waste water treatment plants offers a number of advantages due to its physicochemical properties in relation to Henry's Law Flick's Law. Pure oxygen is employed in addition to, or instead of, the existing oxygenation system for treating waste in plants in industrial sectors such as foods, chemicals, paper-making, textiles and others. Its main application is in heavy load treatments and when there are problems of space for siting or enlarging the plant, as it combines well with membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequence batch reactor (SBR) treatments, as has been shown in several plants in operation. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Optimising the physicochemical treatment of textile effluents by supplementing it with biological processes; Optimizacion de la depuracion fisocoquimica en efluentes textiles, completandola con procesos biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi Rosell, M. [Instituto de Investigacion Textil y Cooperacion Industrial de Tarrasa (Spain)


    This article sets out how to increase the elimination of organic material in physicochemical coagulation/flocculation processes. It describes the optimisation of a coagulation/flocculation waste water treatment plant in a flock dyeing factory through increasing the biological activity in the homogenization pond by supplementing it with a percolating filter. Other modifications made subsequently to physicochemical waste water treatment plants for the same purpose are also described. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Trends in monitoring of waste water systems. (United States)

    Lynggaard-Jensen, A


    A review of the trends in monitoring of waste water systems is given - with the focus on the use of sensors for on-line real-time monitoring and control. The paper formed a basis for discussion at the workshop on Methodologies for Wastewater Quality Monitoring, Nimes, 29-30 October 1998, organised by the European Commission and Ecoles des Mines d'Alès. The basic structure of the typical organisation of monitoring and control based on sensors and the handling of the sensor data are discussed and the different types of sensors are classified according to the method used for their introduction into the structure. Existing and new sensor technologies are briefly described, and the possibilities of how standardisation of on-line in-situ sensors can encourage further developments and use of sensors are presented.

  12. Removing Dissolved Silica from Waste Water with Catechol and Active Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanoscale Sciences Dept.; Brady, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Energy Program; Krumhansl, James L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geosciences Dept.; Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Physical Chemical and Nano Sciences Center


    Fresh water scarcity is going to be a global great challenge in the near future because of the increasing population. Our water resources are limited and, hence, water treatment and recycling methods are the only alternatives for fresh water procurement in the upcoming decades. Water treatment and recycling methods serve to remove harmful or problematic constituents from ground, surface and waste waters prior to its consumption, industrial supply, or other uses. Scale formation in industrial and domestic installations is still an important problem during water treatment. In water treatment, silica scaling is a real and constant concern for plant operations. The focus of this study is on the viability of using a combination of catechol and active carbon to remove dissolved silica from concentrated cooling tower water (CCTW). Various analytical methods, such as ICP-MS and UV-vis, were used to understand the structure-property relationship between the material and the silica removal results. UV-Vis indicates that catechol can react with silica ions and form a silica-catecholate complex. The speciation calculation of catechol and silica shows that catechol and silica bind in the pH range of 8 – 10; there is no evidence of linkage between them in neutral and acidic pHs. The silica removal results indicate that using ~4g/L of catechol and 10g/L active carbon removes up to 50% of the dissolved silica from the CCTW.

  13. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...

  14. Modelling and automation of the process of phosphate ion removal from waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lupa


    Full Text Available Phosphate removal from waste waters has become an environmental necessity, since these phosphates stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and planktons and contribute to the eutrophication process in general. The physicochemical methods of phosphate ion removal are the most effective and reliable. This paper presents studies on the process of phosphate ion removal from waste waters resulting from the fertiliser industry’s use of the method of co-precipitation with iron salts and with calcium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent. The optimal process conditions were established as those that allow achievement of a maximum degree of separation of the phosphate ions. The precipitate resulting from the co-precipitation process was analysed for chemical composition and establishment of thermal and structural stability, and the aim was also to establish in which form the phosphate ions in the formed precipitate can be found. Based on these considerations, the experimental data obtained in the process of phosphate ion removal from waste waters were analysed mathematically and the equations for the dependence of the degree of phosphate separation and residual concentration versus the main parameters of the process were formulated. In this paper an automated scheme for the phosphate ion removal from waste waters by co-precipitation is presented.

  15. Survey report of the projects: Characterization and management of waste water from desulfurization of flue gas by the wet absorption process with following oxidation. Biological removal of nitrogen from waste water from desulfurization of flue gas by the gypsum producing wet absorption process. Resumerapport for projekterne: Karakterisering og behandling af spildevand fra roeggasafsvovling ved vaadabsorptionsprocessen med efterfoelgende oxidation. Biologisk kvaelstoffjernelse fra spildevand fra roeggasafsvovling ved den gipsproducerende vaadabsorptionsproces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Kristensen, G.; Jepsen, S.-E.; Mose Pedersen, B. (Vandkvalitetsinstituttet (DK)); Sund, C. (I. Krueger A/S (DK))


    Aspects of the treatment of waste water from the wet desulphurization process dealt with are: data evaluation of the waste water before and after treatment, estimation of possible effluent standards, the origin and fate of heavy metals in the desulphurization process, the description and evaluation of potential processes for reduction of heavy metals, laboratory experiments with the chemical precipitation of waste water from West German power plants, laboratory experiments with biological denitrification at high temperature and with high salt and nitrate concentration, the evaluation of the applicability of external carbon sources (methanol and acetate), and the technical/economical evaluation of process alternatives prepared in the light of the investigations mentioned above. It is claimed that sulphide precipitation is a highly effective method to remove heavy metals from waste water. It is recommended to add ferric chloride to remove possible excess of sulphide after the precipitation, thereby preventing formation of hydrogen sulphide. By hydroxide/sulphide precipitation a dissolved concentration of mercury on < 0.5 {mu}g/l and a concentration of cadmium on approximately 6 {mu}g/l was achieved. It was possible with acetate as carbon source to obtain biological denitrification even at a concentration of 30,000 mg chloride/l and a temperatue of 40 deg. C. At higher temperature the denitrification rate decreased and stopped at 50 deg. C. The cost of construction for a treatment plant for removal of hevy metals by chemical precipitation and biological removal of nitrate including a plant for production of gypsum is estimated to be in the order of 30 million and with annually operating costs of approximately 3.5 million (1989). (AB).

  16. Restoration of wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skabo, R.R. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States)


    Corrosion in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) has always been a problem. As systems increase in size, corrosion of materials in certain areas of the plant can become more serious. Concrete is the primary material used in RWPS, and it can be severely corroded by the environment in a WWTP. This paper discusses some of the more common types of HWP corrosion, which occur in both concrete and metallic structures. Corrosion caused by poor design will be discussed also. Examples of corrosion will be described and practical solutions for restoration of corroded surfaces will be presented The advantages and disadvantages of various restoration methods will be compared and alternative construction methods and design changes will be offered. These alternatives will improve the corrosion performance of common construction materials.

  17. Study of Material Used in Nanotechnology for the Recycling of Industrial Waste Water (United States)

    Larbi, L.; Fertikh, N.; Toubal, A.

    The objective of our study is to recycle the industrial waste water of a industrial Complex after treatment by the bioprocess MBR (membrane bioreactor). In order to apply this bioprocess, the water quality in question was first of all studied. To characterize this industrial waste water, a series of physicochemical analysis was carried out according to standardized directives and methods. Following-up the water quality to meet the regulatory requirements with rejection of this industrial waste water, a study was done thanks to the permanently monitoring of the following relevant parameters(P): the flow, the potential of hydrogen (pH), the total suspended solids(TSS), the turbidity (Turb), the chemical oxygen demand (COD),the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), the Kjeldahl total nitrogen (KTN) and ammonia (NH4+), the total phosphorus (Ptot), the fluorine (F), the oils (O), the fats (F) and the phenols (Ph). According to collected information, it was established the sampling rates to which the quality control was done, the selected analytical methods were validated by the control charts and the analysis test number was determined by the Cochran test. The results of the quality control show that some rejected water contents are not in the Algerian standards, but, in our case, the objective is the preoccupation for a standard setting of these industrial water parameters so as to recycle it. The process adopted by MBR for waste water treatment is being studied, first in the development of the experimental characterizing of the reactor and the selected membrane.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dąbrowski


    Full Text Available Energy consumption during waste water treatment is a very important factor affecting food industry plants. Apart from highly efficient treatment of dairy and meat sewage, a low energy consumption is required in order to lower its costs. During the research period parameters of raw and treated sewage were tested (BOD, COD, N-total, P-total. Also, the energy consumption from selected processes as well as total consumption were measured. Indicators of energy consumption per m3 and removed load were calculated. It was found that biological treatment and aeration played the main role in energy consumption in both objects. It was respectively 40 and 47% for Bielmlek and JBB plants. The second biggest energy consuming stage of treatment in both objects was sludge processing. Energy required to process excessive sludge equaled 30% of the total energy usage in both plants. Energy consumption factors related to hydraulic flow gave results in the range from 2,05 to 3,3 kWhm-3 and from 2,72 to 3,23 kWhm-3 for Bielmlek and JBB plants respectively. The research will be continued in order to optimize energy consumption while retaining high efficiency treatment in food industry WWTPs. Finally a mathematical model will be prepared for optimizing energy consumption in food industry WWTPs.

  19. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience. (United States)

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V


    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  20. Model reactor for photocatalytic degradation of persistent chemicals in ponds and waste water. (United States)

    Franke, R; Franke, C


    A laboratory scale flow-through model reactor for the degradation of persistent chemicals using titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photocatalyst immobilized on glass beads is presented. In the test system with a volume of 18 L contaminated water is pumped to the upper part of the floating reactor and flows over the coated beads which are exposed to UV-radiation. The degradation of two dyes of different persistence was investigated. Primary degradation of methylene blue did not fit a first order kinetic due to coincident adsorption onto the photocatalyst and direct photolysis, resulting in a half-life of 6 h. A filtrate of a green algae suspension accelerated the colour removal. In contrast, reactive red 2 was degraded only by photocatalysis; neither adsorption nor direct photolysis led to a colour removal. The course of primary degradation followed a first order kinetic with a half-life of 18 h and a rate constant of 0.04 h-1. Analysis of the degradation products indicated mineralization by detection of NO2- and NO3-, accompanied by a decrease of pH and an increase of conductivity. A successful adaptation of the model reactor (scale 1:10) to dimensions required for surface waters and waste water treatment plants would be a cost-efficient and environmentally sustainable application of photocatalysis for the treatment of industrially polluted water and could be of relevance for third world countries, particularly those favoured by high solar radiation.

  1. Multi isotopic characterization (Li-Cu-Zn-Pb) of waste waters pollution in a small watershed (Loire River basin, France) (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.


    The goal of this study is to use multi-isotopic signature to track the pollution in surface waters, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in the environment. In the present study, we investigate waste water releases from a hospital water treatment plant and its potential impact in a small river basin near Orléans in France (Egoutier watershed: 15 km²and 5 km long). We decided to monitor this small watershed which is poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is located in a pristine area (forested area), while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. A sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Isotopic ratios were measured using a MC-ICP-MS at BRGM, after a specific protocol of purification for each isotopic systematics. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters along the main course of the stream. The waste water signal is very different from the natural background with significant heavy lithium contribution (high δ7Li). Lead isotopic compositions are rather homogenous in river waters and sediments with values close to geologic background. For Zn, the sediments with high concentrations and depleted isotopic compositions (low δ66Zn), typical of an anthropic pollution, are strongly impacted. The analyses of Cu isotopes in sediments show the impact of waster waters, but also isotopic fractionations due to redox processes in the watershed. To better understand these processes controlling the release of metals in water, sequential extractions on sediments are in progress under laboratory conditions and will provide important constraints for metal distribution in this river basin.

  2. Laboratory Investigation of Mineralization of Refractory Nitrogen from Sewage Treatment Plants (United States)

    Benoit, Gaboury; Wang, Peng


    Laboratory studies were conducted and modeled to evaluate whether refractory organic nitrogen in tertiary-treated wastewater effluent could become bioavailable by conversion to mineral forms. Multiday incubations of effluent collected from the Branford and New Haven, Connecticut, waste water treatment plants (WWTP) revealed low but steady conversion of organic nitrogen to nitrate (NO3 -). In Branford, the principal form of organic nitrogen was dissolved, and in New Haven it was particulate. Modeling suggested that in both the cases conversion to NO3 - from organic forms occurred at several per cent per day, and appeared to happen via the intermediary NH4 +. The results suggest that organic nitrogen may be an important source of bioavailable N, contributing to the problem of hypoxia in Long Island Sound and other estuaries.

  3. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Ellison


    Full Text Available The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn and metalloids (As and Se in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se. Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  4. Identification and Characterization of Yeast Isolates from Pharmaceutical Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Recek


    Full Text Available In order to develop an efficient an system for waste water pretreatment, the isolation of indigenous population of microorganisms from pharmaceutical waste water was done. We obtained pure cultures of 16 yeast isolates that differed slightly in colony morphology. Ten out of 16 isolates efficiently reduced COD in pharmaceutical waste water. Initial physiological characterization failed to match the 10 yeast isolates to either Pichia anomala or Pichia ciferrii. Restriction analysis of rDNA (rDNA-RFLP using three different restriction enzymes: HaeIII, MspI and CfoI, showed identical patterns of the isolates and Pichia anomala type strain. Separation of chromosomal DNAs of yeast isolates by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the 10 isolates could be grouped into 6 karyotypes. Growth characteristics of the 6 isolates with distinct karyotypes were then studied in batch cultivation in pharmaceutical waste water for 80 hours.

  5. Coastal circulation off Bombay in relation to waste water disposal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Josanto, V.; Sarma, R.V.

    Flow patterns in the coastal waters of Bombay were studied using recording current meters, direct reading current meters, floats and dye in relation to the proposed waste water disposal project of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay from...

  6. Strains of toxic and harmful microalgae, from waste water, marine, brackish and fresh water. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palacio, M C; Crisóstomo-Vázquez, L; Alvarez-Hernández, S; Lozano-Ramírez, C


    Some microalgae are economically important in Mexico and the world because they can be potentially toxic. Algal explosive population growths are named harmful algal blooms and are frequently recorded in Mexico. The authors set up potentially toxic microalgae cultures from the Gulf of Mexico (Garrapatas tideland, Barberena river, Carpintero lagoon in Tamaulipas State; Chalchoapan and Catemaco lakes in Veracruz State), from the Mexican Pacific Ocean, Guerrero, Colima and Michoacán States, and from interior water bodies such as Vicente Aguirre dam, Chapultepec lake and several waste water treatment plants. This research is about the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton in relation a specific site because of harmful algal bloom events. Microalgae cultures are useful in order to solve taxonomic problems, to know life cycles, molecular studies, for the study of toxic species, and the isolation of useful metabolites. The cultures for this research are clonal, non-axenic, semi-continuous, 12:12 light/dark photoperiod, 20 ± 1 °C temperature and 90.5 µmol m(-2)s(-1) illumination. Four different culture media were used. This collection is open to the worldwide scientific community as a source of organisms in controlled conditions that can be used as a useful tool for microalgae research work.

  7. Crow Nation Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  8. Environmental Risk Implications of Metals in Sludges from Waste Water Treatment Plants: The Discovery of Vast Stores of Metal-Containing Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Tou, Feiyun; Yang, Yi; Feng, Jingnan; Niu, Zuoshun; Pan, Hui; Qin, Yukun; Guo, Xingpan; Meng, Xiangzhou; Liu, Min; Hochella, Michael F


    Nanoparticle (NP) assessment in sludge materials, although of growing importance in eco- and biotoxicity studies, is commonly overlooked and, at best, understudied. In the present study, sewage sludge samples from across the mega-city of Shanghai, China were investigated for the first time using a sequential extraction method coupled with single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) to quantify the abundance of metal-containing NPs in the extraction fractions and transmission electron microscopy to specifically identify the nanophases present. In general, most sludges observed showed high concentrations of Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Pb, exceeding the maximum permitted values in the national application standard of acid soil in China. NPs in these sludges contribute little to the volume and mass but account for about half of the total particle number. Based on electron microscopy techniques, various NPs were further identified, including Ti-, Fe-, Zn-, Sn-, and Pb-containing NPs. All NPs, ignored by traditional metal risk evaluation methods, were observed at a concentration of 107 -1011 particles/g within the bioavailable fraction of metals. These results indicate the underestimate or misestimation in evaluating the environmental risks of metals based on traditional sequential extraction methods. A new approach for the environmental risk assessment of metals, including NPs, is urgently needed.

  9. Preliminary cleaning of brewery waste water in a two-stage anaerobic plant: influence of COD in the inflow on cleaning efficiency and biogas formation; Vorreinigung von Brauereiabwasser in zweistufigen Anaerob-Anlagen: Einfluss des CSB im Zulauf auf die Reinigungsleistung und Biogasbildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, A.P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Prozesstechnik; Janke, H.D. [Gesellschaft fuer Umweltkompatible Prozesstechnik mbH (upt), Saarbruecken (Germany); Chmiel, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Umweltkompatible Prozesstechnik mbH (upt), Saarbruecken (Germany); Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Prozesstechnik


    Using a continuously operated, two-stage laboratory system (acidification reactor and packed-bed methane reactor) and with brewery waste water as a substrate, systematic studies concerning the influence of COD{sup inflow} on fatty acid formation, COD reduction and biogas formation were carried out. In the upshot, the executed pilot tests permit the conclusion that treatment of a partial stream (COD{sup inflow} {>=} 5000mg/l), though not advantageous in terms of space/time yield, may be more economical on the whole under certain boundary conditions than treatment of the entire stream (COD{sup inflow} 1800-3000 mg/l). (orig.) [German] Mit einer kontinuierlich betriebenen, zweistufigen Laboranlage (Versaeuerungsreaktor und Festbett-Methanreaktor) wurden unter Verwendung von Brauereiabwasser als Substrat systematische Untersuchungen zum Einfluss des CSB{sup ZULAUF} auf die Fettsaeurebildung, CSB-Reduktion und Biogasbildung durchgefuehrt. Aus den durchgefuehrten Modellversuchen laesst sich zusammenfassend ableiten, dass eine Teilstrombehandlung (CSB{sup ZULAUF}{>=}5.000 mg/l) zwar hinsichtlich der Raum/Zeit-Ausbeute keine Vorteile mit sich bringt, aber unter bestimmten Randbedingungen insgesamt wirtschaftlicher als eine Vollstrombehandlung (CSB{sup ZULAUF} 1.800-3.000 mg/l) sein kann. (orig.)

  10. Quality Assessment of Waste Waters Generated by some Important Hospitals from Cluj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocsana Ileana Opriş


    Full Text Available Hospitals produce large quantities of waste water that may contain various potentially hazardous materials. Moreover, these effluents usually do not undergo any specific treatment before being discharged into the urban sewage networks. As a consequence, a proper management of hospital effluents is vital. In the present study, the quality of the effluents generated by 11 important hospitals in Cluj County was investigated. The analysed parameters were: pH, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, residual free chlorine, and detergents. For all the effluents, the biochemical oxygen demand and the detergents content were within the permissible limits for waste water discharged in the urban sewerage system, while the other parameters exceeded the permissible limits.

  11. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Various Industrial Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Şahin Dündar


    Full Text Available Important part of the environmetal pollution consists of waste water and water pollution. The water polluted by anthropogenical, industrial, and agricultural originated sources are defined as waste waters which are the main pollution sources for reservoirs, rivers, lakes, and seas. In this work, waste waters of leather, textile, automotive side, and metal plating industries were used to determine the levels of Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb and Ni by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. As a result, highest mean levels of copper in supernatants of plating and textile industries were observed as 377,18 ng ml-1, respectively 103 ng ml-1 lead and 963,6 ng ml-1 nickel in plating industry, 1068,2 ng ml-1 zinc and 14557,1 ng ml-1 chromium in plating and leather industries were determined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj


    Full Text Available The question of small water users having no centralized wastewater collecting, cleaning and discharging system is of maximal actuality in Romania. Therefor economically efficient solutions are looked for. For disperse mountain villages, farms, or detached households traditional systems, with high maintenance expences because of long networks for small flows, can be economicaly not advantageos. Very small capacity treatement plants are a solution for such cases. The aim of the experimental part of the present work is to simulate situations, damages which can occur during running of a low capacity wastewater treatement plant. Low capacity hosehold wastewater treatement plants are economic alternatives which remove the disadvantages of emptyable basins namely the high costs, the frequvent empying operations, with unpleasant smelling, continous danger of groundwater infection, need for massive and expensive concrete buildings. The proposed plants are based on a classical treatement technology and need emptying of the exess mud only once or twice a year. In opposition with the case of classical plants, the mixture extracted from the proposed low cost systems does not smell and has a relatively low content of solid matter.

  13. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water. (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti


    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria.

  14. Sorption Capacity Measurement of Chlorella Vulgaris and Scenedesmus Acutus to Remove Chromium from Tannery Waste Water (United States)

    Ardila, Liliana; Godoy, Rubén; Montenegro, Luis


    Tanning process is a polluting activity due to the release of toxic agents into the environment. One of the most important of those toxic chemicals is chromium. Different alternatives have been proposed for the removal of this metal from tanning waste water which include the optimization of the productive processes, physicochemical and biochemical waste water treatment. In this study, the biological adsorption process of trivalent chromium was carried out in synthetic water and tannery waste water through two types of native green microalgae, called Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acutus in Free State and immobilized in PVA state. This, considering that cellular wall of microalgae has functional groups like amines and carboxyl that might bind with trivalent chromium. Statistical significance of variables as pH temperature, chromium and algae concentrations was evaluated just like bio sorption capacity of different types of water and kind of bioadsorbent was calculated to determine if this process is a competitive solution comparing to other heavy metal removal processes.

  15. The cost of hybrid waste water systems : A systematic framework for specifying minimum cost-connection rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max


    To determine the optimal connection rate (CR) for regional waste water treatment is a challenge that has recently gained the attention of academia and professional circles throughout the world. We contribute to this debate by proposing a framework for a total cost assessment of sanitation

  16. Microorganism and Agricultural Based Biosorbents Towards Removal of Cadmium from Waste-Water: An Overview. (United States)

    Pal, Souvik; Mukherjee, Subhankar; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun


    Non-degradable and persistent nature of Cadmium (Cd) poses high toxicity to human, plants and animals. Several industrial processes generated wastes are the main anthropogenic pathway through which Cd enters into the environment. Although, World Health Organization (WHO) has set the limit of Cd in drinking water is 0.005 mg L-1, the industrial activities release much higher concentrations of metal ions to the water stream than the prescribed limits, which leads to the increasing health hazards and environmental pollution. To address this issue, one of the major applicable solutions is the treatment or purification of contaminated water and effluents. The implantation of wastewater treatment systems aims to minimize environmental impacts, but ultimately generates waste materials, such as sewage sludge, which must be properly recycled. In this review, we focus on the research efforts being made towards the removal of Cd (II) from waste waters using biological means with a special emphasis on the microorganism and agricultural based biosorbents. Mechanistic pathway towards removal of Cd (II) ions from the wastewater, efficiency of the adsorbents and the factors affecting the process have been studied with specific examples. Also the recent patents related to this area have been taken into considerations to understand applicability of microorganism and agricultural based biosorbents. This overview presents various scientific reports towards low-cost microorganism and agricultural based biosorbents for efficient removal of Cd (II) by producing less toxic waste and the future perspective of the process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  17. Emission of nitrous oxide (N[sub 2]O) from denitrificating wastewater treatment plants. Die Emission von Lachgas (N[sub 2]O) in denitrifizierenden Belebungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, R. von.


    The human intrusion in the nitrogen cycle has reached a dimension that disturbs its natural balance. As nitrogen is the growth limiting factor of algae in the sea, the epidemic occurrences of algae in the North- und East Sea in the last years are explained by the increased impact of nitrogen. Switzerland is among other countries responsible for the nitrogen pollutant of the North Sea. Therefore, nitrogen removal (denitrification) has to be incorporated into waste water treatment within the next years. Denitrification is the microbiological reduction of nitrate to elementary nitrogen. Nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide are intermediate product of this process. Nitrous oxide affects the global climate as a greenhouse gas and via chemical destruction of the ozone layer. Therefore, the waste water treatment plants must operate with a minimum of nitrous oxide emission. The goal of this work was to estimate the N[sub 2]O emission of waste water treatment plants, to identify critical operating conditions and to determine the main mechanisms of the emission. Batch experiments in a bench scale reactor were performed in which under controlled conditions all involved nitrogen species could be analysed. It could be seen that under normal operating conditions no significant amount of nitrous oxide is emitted. However, high nitrite conditions and low oxygen concentrations favour the emission of N[sub 2]O but not of nitric oxide. With a mathematical model that includes the reduction of nitrate, nitrite and nitrous oxide, segments of the experiments can be described satisfactorily. By including the enzyme synthesis and decay of denitrification enzymes in the model the whole experiments can be described. Even when the kinetic parameters could not be determined precisely, some general conclusions could be drawn. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  18. Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview) (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.


    The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

  19. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications. (United States)

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979


    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  20. Limited bacterial diversity within a treatment plant receiving antibiotic containing waste from bulk drug production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marathe, Nachiket P.; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Larsson, D.G.J.


    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted

  1. Use of textile waste water along with liquid NPK fertilizer for production of wheat on saline sodic soils. (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Jafar, Abdul Aleem; Naveed, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad


    A field experiment in collaboration with a private textile industry (Noor Fatima Fabrics Private (Ltd.), Faisalabad) was conducted to evaluate the effect of disposed water from bleaching unit, printing unit and end drain for improving growth and yield of wheat under saline sodic soil. Textile waste water along with canal water (control) was applied with and without liquid NPK fertilizer. The application of liquid NPK fertilizer with end drain waste water increased plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, root length, number of tillers (m(-2)), number of fertile tillers (m(-2)), 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield up to 21, 20, 20, 44, 17, 20, 14, 44, 40 and 41%, respectively compared to canal water (control). Similarly, the NPK uptake in grain was increased up to 15, 30 and 28%, respectively by liquid fertilizer treated end drain water as compare to canal water with liquid fertilizer. Moreover, concentration of different heavy metals particularly Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was decreased in grains by application of waste water along with liquid NPK. The result may imply that waste water application along with liquid-NPK could be a novel approach for improving growth and yield of wheat in saline sodic soils.

  2. Antioxidative properties of some phototropic microalgae grown in waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Peter

    for the screening and selection of the species. In this study,the potential antioxidant activities of 12 micro algal sample from Chlorella., Spirulina., Euglena, Scenedesmus and Haematococcus species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facilities were evaluated using three antioxidant assays, including...

  3. Lipid profiling of some authotrophic microalgae grown on waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Per

    that microalgae-biomass can be used as an alternative valuable resource in fish feed. In this work, 10 fresh water and marine microalgae from Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Haematococcus, Nannochloropsis, Nannochloropsis and Dunialiella species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facility were harvested...

  4. Bioelectricity from students' hostel waste water using microbial fuel cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrodes used were carbon and copper which were utilized in producing a carboncarbon and copper-copper fuel cells respectively. A 1% sodium chloride and 2% agar proton exchange membrane was used to connect both chambers of the fuel cells. Waste water generated from students' hostel in Federal University ...

  5. Understanding the efficacy of influent waste water on microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory Division of Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Environ Technology Limited ... Pollution due to textile industry effluent has increased during recent years. Moreover, it is very difficult to ..... differed between the WWTPs and no separate clusters were observed in the diagram.

  6. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños


    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  7. Bacteriological And Physico-Chemical Qualities Of Waste Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste water in the accumulation pond and final discharge point of Nigerian Bottling Company PLC in Owerri, Nigeria was analyzed to determine their bacteriological and physico-chemical characteristics. Species of organisms isolated included Staphyloccus, Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus. Others include ...


    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  9. Inactivation of plant infecting fungal and viral pathogens to achieve biological containment in drainage water using UV treatment. (United States)

    Urban, M; Motteram, J; Jing, H-C; Powers, S; Townsend, J; Devonshire, J; Pearman, I; Kanyuka, K; Franklin, J; Hammond-Kosack, K E


    To explore whether ultraviolet (UV) light treatment within a closed circulating and filtered water drainage system can kill plant pathogenic species. Ultraviolet experiments at 254 nm were conducted to determine the inactivation coefficients for seven plant pathogenic species. At 200 mJ cm(-2), the individual species log reductions obtained for six Ascomycete fungi and a cereal virus were as follows: Leptosphaeria maculans (9·9-log), Leptosphaeria biglobosa (7·1-log), Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) (4·1-log), Mycosphaerella graminicola (2·9-log), Fusarium culmorum (1·2-log), Fusarium graminearum (0·6-log) and Magnaporthe oryzae (0·3-log). Dilution experiments showed that BSMV was rendered noninfectious when diluted to >1/512. Follow-up large-scale experiments using up to 400 l of microbiologically contaminated waste water revealed that the filtration of drainage water followed by UV treatment could successfully be used to inactivate several plant pathogens. By combining sedimentation, filtration and UV irradiation within a closed system, plant pathogens can be successfully removed from collected drainage water. Ultraviolet irradiation is a relatively low cost, energy efficient and labour nonintensive method to decontaminate water arising from a suite of higher biological containment level laboratories and plant growth rooms where genetically modified and/or quarantine fungal and viral plant pathogenic organisms are being used for research purposes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of highly developed medicinal usages of plants in the treatment of cancer. In the last decades, the cancer treatment has been included in this range of plant use, due to plant active substances. Active substances or secondary metabolites are generally known for their widespread application. When it comes to the cancer treatment, these substances affect the uncontrolled cell division. Therefore, the plants which are the source of these substances are proved to be irreplaceable in this field of medicine. This paper deals with some of the most significant plants well known for their multiple aspects of beneficial medicinal influence. The group of the plants described is comprised of the following species: Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae, Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae, Camptotheca accuminata (Cornaceae, and Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae. The comprehensive description of the plants in this paper includes the morphological characteristics, the features and the representation of the molecular structures of active substances, the particular influence that these active substances have and the general importance of the substances as seen from the aspect of cancer treatment mostly with reference to the impacts on cell cycle.

  11. Enrichment of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) in a continuous flow laboratory scale plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafiriadis, I.; Kapagiannidis, A. G.; Aivasidis, A.


    Enhanced Biological Phosphate Removal (EBPR) is a well established method for efficient removal of phosphate during wastewater treatment by using biological instead of chemical phenomena. EBPR is currently implemented at a number of Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and usually phosphate removal occurs by recirculating activated sludge between an anaerobic and a aerobic tank. (Author)

  12. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (II): Pilot plant experiences; Aplicacion del permanganato potasico para la eliminacion de cianuros de cobre en aguas residuales de la planta de lixiviacion en una mina de oro (II): Ensayos en planta piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Gracia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.


    The search for a detoxification treatment of the wastewater generated during industrial processes, has been a constant for all companies in general and for gold mining in particular, whose wastewater generally contains high concentrations of cyanide compounds with high toxicity. In the previous research work, developed in the laboratory, the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent for cyanidic wastewater, from a gold hydrometallurgical plant, has been demonstrated, achieving the destruction of copper cyanide complexes present in solution and the subsequent metal removal by precipitation as hydroxide. This paper presents the conclusions obtained after the implementation of the process developed in the laboratory, at pilot-plant scale. (Author) 30 refs.

  13. Mobil pilot unit of the advanced oxidation process for waste water treatment and reuse of the hydrics effluents; Unidade piloto movel de processo oxidativo avancado aplicado a tratamento e reuso de efluentes hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Lucia Maria Limoeiro; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Henriques, Sheyla de Oliveira Carvalho; Jacinto Junior, Agenor [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The chemical oxidation processes which generate free hydroxyl radicals are called Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). These processes have been studied, in the last decades, as a new alternative for pollutants degradation. In the (AOP)'s there are in situ formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH{center_dot}), which are highly oxidant. Its high oxidation strength becomes it indicated in the treatment of effluent with highly refractory contaminants. It can be used as a partial treatment (taking the effluent to more degradable compounds), as a final treatment (taking the effluent to complete mineralization) or as a complementary treatment to other processes, allowing, for example, its reuse. The applicability of this technology in oily water effluents in all segments of the oil industry, has taken to the development, in the LARA (Laboratory of Treatment and Reuse of Waters - CENPES), of the Advanced Oxidation Process Mobile Pilot Unit (AOP's- MU) with capacity up to 1 m3/h. The (AOP's- MU) are able to produce hydroxyl radical from Fenton's reaction, titanium dioxide heterogeneous photo catalysis and hydrogen peroxide, photo-radiated or not. It is equipped with ultraviolet reactors of different wave lengths and power. (author)

  14. Fresh water production from municipal waste water with RO membrane technology and its application for agriculture and industry in arid area (United States)

    Yokoyama, F.


    One of the biggest problems of the 21st century is the global water shortage. Therefore it is difficult to increase the quantity of conventional water resources such as surface water and groundwater for agriculture and industry in arid area. Technical advancement in water treatment membrane technology including RO membrane has been remarkable especially in recent years. As the pore size of RO membrane is less than one nanometer, it is possible to produce the fresh water, which satisfies the drinking water quality standards, with utilizing RO membrane. In this report a new fresh water resource from municipal waste water is studied to apply to the plant factory which is the water saving type agriculture and industry in arid area.

  15. Problems of reliability and economy work of thermal power plants water treatment based on baromembrane technologies (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.


    The introduction of baromembrane water treatment technologies for water desalination at Russian thermal power plants was beganed more than 25 years ago. These technologies have demonstrated their definite advantage over the traditional technologies of additional water treatment for steam boilers. However, there are problems associated with the reliability and economy of their work. The first problem is a large volume of waste water (up to 60% of the initial water). The second problem a expensive and unique chemical reagents complex (biocides, antiscalants, washing compositions) is required for units stable and troublefree operation. Each manufacturer develops his own chemical composition for a certain membrane type. This leads to a significant increase in reagents cost, as well as creates dependence of the technology consumer on the certain supplier. The third problem is that the reliability of the baromembrane units depends directly on the water preliminary treatment. The popular pre-cleaning technology with coagulation of aluminum oxychloride proves to be unacceptable during seasonal changes in the quality of the source water at a number of stations. As a result, pollution, poisoning and lesion of the membrane structure or deterioration of their mechanical properties are observed. The report presents ways to solve these problems.

  16. The use of short rotation willows and poplars for the recycling of saline waste waters (United States)

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Ioannis Dimitriou; Jill A. Zalesny; Timothy A. Volk; Warren E. Mabee


    The production of high-salinity waste waters by landfills and other waste sites causes environmental concerns. This waste water often contains high concentrations of sodium and chloride, which may end up in local ground and surface waters. Vegetation filter systems comprised of willows and poplars can be used for the recycling of saline waste water. These vegetation...

  17. By-products of the oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol formed during the treatment of waste waters; Subproductos de oxidacion del 2,4-diclorofenol formados durante el tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardos, M.; Alfonso, M. A.; Ormad, P.; Ovelleiro, J. L. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)


    Nowadays, new technologies for the elimination of toxic and persistent substances present in industrial processes wastewater are being developed. One of these technologies uses the Fenton's reactive (iron salts and hydrogen peroxide) and UV light. In this work, it has been made an study about by-products generated and their formation mechanism, when an oxidation treatment is apply to a synthetic sample of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aquatic medium. During the treatment it is detected the aromatic ring dehalogenation, the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated organic compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, and acids) and an important decreasing of the toxicity. (Author) 15 refs.

  18. Cost effective modular unit for cleaning oil and gas field waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinberg, M.B.; Nenasheva, M.N.; Gafarov, N.A.


    Problems of environmental control involving conservation of water resources are vital for the development of giant oil and gas condensate fields near Caspian Sea (Russia) characterized by water shortages. One of the urgent tasks of oil production industry is to use all field waste water consisting of underground, processing and rain water. It was necessary to construct a new highly effective equipment which could be used in local waste water treatment. Now we have at our disposal a technology and equipment to meet the requirements to the treated water quality. Thus we have installed a modular unit of 100 m{sup 3}/a day capacity to clean waste water from oil products, suspended matter and other organic pollutants at Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, Russia. The unit provides with a full treatment of produced water and comprises a settling tank with adhesive facility, the number of sorption filters, Trofactor bioreactors and a disinfecting facility. The equipment is fitted into three boxes measuring 9 x 3.2 x 2.7 in each. The equipment is simple in design that enables to save money, time and space. Sorption filters, bioreactors as well as the Trofactor process are a part of know-how. While working on the unit construction we applied well known methods of settling and sorption. The process of mechanic cleaning is undergoing in the following succession: (1) the gravitational separation in a settling tank where the floated film oil products are constantly gathered and the sediment is periodically taken away, (2) the settled water treatment in sorption Filters of a special kind.

  19. The technical standard IBAMA (NT01/11) and its applications in waste water treatment in offshore platforms; A NT/ 01/11 do IBAMA e suas aplicacoes no tratamento de efluentes nas plataformas offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paravidino, Thadeu Crespo; Miocque, Andre; Oliveira, Cristiane Lopes de [Vicel Comercio e Industria e Servico Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper aims to present the technical standard IBAMA (NT01/11) as it applies to wastewater treatment projects in maritime exploration and production of oil and gas, and the solutions proposed by the company VICEL to meet with this standard and the other existing laws in force in Brazil. To meet these objectives, the paper covers the following topics: environmental legislation applicable to maritime enterprises of exploration and production of oil and gas operating in Brazil: concepts and definitions of MARPOL and CONAMA Resolution 357 (amended by CONAMA 430), Law 9966/2000 and NT01/11; PCP - Pollution Control Project required by IBAMA; the solutions proposed by VICEL - Gray Water Policy Management and Treatment System (GWTS). Throughout its development, this paper presents in detail the analysis of the gray water effluents generated on board of a drilling rig, and the results obtained with the installation of a prototype system for treating gray water (GWTS). Finally, this paper demonstrates that IBAMA NT01/11 regulation is intended to guide and create means for monitoring all maritime enterprises of exploration and production of oil and gas operating in Brazil, in order to promote the reduction of the pollution caused by their operation (ecological footprint), concludes as compulsory the treatment for the gray water generated on board, and presents VICEL solutions for the implementation of a waste management policy and the installation of a Gray Water Treatment System (GWTS). (author)

  20. Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer (United States)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo


    One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes δ18O, δ2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 μgL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 μgL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination

  1. Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Reinhard


    Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

  2. Offshore degasser vessel capacity versus performance qualitative evaluation for waste water treatment; Avaliacao qualitativa da capacidade versus desempenho de vaso degaseificador em plataformas offshore visando tratamento de agua produzida para descarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Marcel V.; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Daniel B.V.F. [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software (ESSS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Present work shows a qualitative evaluation of an offshore degasser vessel aiming the improvement of the water processing plant capacity. For such computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allowed the analysis of the flow pattern inside the vessel for different operational flow rates and internal geometries. This vessel is responsible for the process of water final polishing to be disposed into the sea. Original capacity of the vessel is 13.308 m{sup 3}/d, but after some changes in the outlet section, the processing capacity increased to 24.000 m{sup 3}/d, without changing its separation efficiency. However, as newer production predictions state that the new processing capacity should be increased to 26.000 m{sup 3}/d, there is some uncertainty on how would be this vessel behaviour, given the new operational condition. CFD analysis will be used to evaluate the flow characteristics inside the vessel (residence time distribution), therefore providing information on the separation performance for each one of the specified conditions and internal modifications. (author)

  3. Germination of grass seeds with recycling waste water


    Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell Padrino, Maria Victoria; Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel; Delgado Arroyo, Maria del Mar


    This study was designed to determine the effects of residual water irrigation on the rate and percentage of germination of grass seeds. Germination tests were carried out to compare the seeds irrigated with recycling waste water with seeds irrigated with distilled water. Test with Festuca arundinacea Sch. and Agrostis tenuis L. seeds was performed under laboratory conditions. Parameters used to evaluate germination were: number of germinated seeds (Gmax), mean germination time (MGT), the time...

  4. Purification of metal electroplating waste waters using zeolites. (United States)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; García-Sánchez, A; Querol, X


    The sorption behaviour of natural (clinoptilolite) and synthetic (NaP1) zeolites has been studied with respect to Cr(III), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) in order to consider its application to purify metal finishing waste waters. The batch method has been employed using metal concentrations in solution ranged from 10 to 200 mg/l and solid/liquid ratios ranged from 2.5 to 10 g/l. The Langmuir model was found to describe well all sorption processes, allowing to establish metal sorption sequences from which the main retention mechanism involved for each metal has been inferred. Synthetic zeolite exhibited about 10 times greater sorption capacities (b(Cr)=0.838 mmol/g, b(Ni)=0.342 mmol/g, b(Zn)=0.499 mmol/g, b(Cu)=0.795 mmol/g, b(Cd)=0.452 mmol/g) than natural zeolite (b(Cr)=0.079 mmol/g, b(Ni)=0.034 mmol/g, b(Zn)=0.053 mmol/g, b(Cu)=0.093 mmol/g, b(Cd)=0.041 mmol/g), appearing, therefore, as most suitable to perform metal waste water purification processes. This mineral showed the same high sorption capacity values when used in the purification of metal electroplating waste waters.

  5. The treatment of waste waters from pig abattoirs using Sequencing Batch Reactor technology; Depuracion de las aguas residuales generadas en los mataderos de porcino mediante tecnologia Sequencing Batch Reactor, SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Guiteras, J.


    A description is provided of a pig abattoir with a provision of 200-250 l/pig, a COD load of between 10,000 and 6,000 mg/l and a BOD of between 4,000 and 2,500 mg/l and 750-500 mg-NKT/l. The pretreatment line includes a system for separating coarse and fine components, flotation and a homogenisation tank/lung. the treatment line consists of a an SBR in which the organic matter is metabolised sequentially, the nitrogen eliminated and the remainder decanted. The clarified water with 98% less organic content and 99% less nitrogen is then disposed of. The sludge is thickened and dehydrated. (Author)

  6. Management post-treatment of sewage plant sludge. The UE directives affect its re-use and encourage waste-to-energy recovery; Gestion y postratamientos de fangos de EDAR. Las directivas de la UE condicionan su reutilizacion e inducen a la valoracion energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, X.


    As the number of urban waste-water treatment plants increases, so does the amount of sludge generated and this sludge must be treated so that it can be finally disposed of as a by-product or waste. This article examines and classifies the various different post-treatment techniques and processes for sludge, including the most recent, especially in regard to its use in energy production. It also looks at the major conditions laid downs by European Union (EU) legislation and points out that long-term planning of sludge waste management is required, as the choice of a particular treatment process, which generally involves a large capital outlay, must take into consideration the legal, technical and financial aspects based on a forecasts of how they are likely to perform over time in order to guarantee its future viability. Characterisation of biodegradation in waste water from the canning industry in sequencing batch reactors. (Author) 23 refs.

  7. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation. (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

  8. Production of bioenergy in anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and sludge blanket (UASB) in the treatment os swine waste water; Producao de bioenergia em reatores anaerobios compartimentado (RAC) e de manta de lodo (UASB) no tratamento de efluentes de suinocultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moterani, Fabricio; Pereira, Erlon Lopes; Campos, Claudio M.M. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], email:


    The biogas is obtained in the processes of degradation of organic matter by the action of bacterial consortium in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biogas production in anaerobic UASB and ABR in swine wastewater treatment. For this we used the theoretical estimated and actual production of biogas measured by anaerobic gasometers installed in the units. Methane was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and its theoretical output was 66 LCH4 kgSVT d{sup -1} and 11.9 LCH4 kgSVT d{sup -1} and 24.7 m{sup 3} d{sup -1} and 5.4 m{sup 3} d{sup -1} to ABR and UASB, respectively. Regarding the actual production of biogas in the reactor provided by the gas tank, found the values of 1,166.4 m{sup 3}; 0.1 m{sup 3}; 27.4 m{sup 3} and 12,598.5 m{sup 3} of biogas for compartments 1, 2 and 3 and ABR for the UASB reactor, respectively, totaling, production of 13,792.4 m{sup 3} in the units together, with an average of 113 m{sup 3} of biogas per day. But, it concludes with this research that the use of effluent from produce energy through biogas in swine farming is effective, which can be used in rural productive system itself. (author)

  9. Understanding the efficacy of influent waste water on microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assembling of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a significance of environmental conditions. In the present research work, activated sludge from different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were exploited at a molecular level to determine the influence of the complexity of the influent composition ...

  10. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture. (United States)

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga


    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process.

  11. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew


    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  12. The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacha Joseph Sarima


    Full Text Available Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize, Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew, Helianthus annuus (sunflower and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. annuus and C. bengelensis plant have promising potential for removal of Pb, Cu and Cd from wastewater though their ability to remove Zn from contaminated solutions is not much different from that of Z. mays and A. hybridus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabrera Estrada


    Full Text Available The increase of the sewage is a serious global problem. The objective of this work is to make an technical, economic and environmental evaluation of the resizing of the plant for the treatment of waste water from the textile company "Desembarco del Granma", in Santa Clara and to offer a proposal to improve the functioning of the same company, specifically with its process of biological treatment using activated sludge. As a preliminary step, using experimental techniques, the characteristics of the tributary and the effluent from the system were evaluated. COD values higher than 90 mg/L showed adverse implications for the body receiver and an apparent inability of the system to remove organic matter to the levels required. The recalculation of the parameters of design/operation of the plant for the current conditions of the tributary was made. It is obtained that these parameters are not within the recommended values and finally, it was proposed and evaluated the increased to 50 and 75 % of the volume of the aeration tank and the commissioning of two or three of the air vents. With the expansion of the plant's capacity will be achieve a treatment that allows the effluent meet established standards for dumping and therefore avoids damage to the environment and the payment of fines for these concepts. The economic indicators NPV, IRR and PBP calculated, demonstrate the acceptability of the investment required to implement the modifications. All this together proves that the project is deployable.

  14. Do pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other organic waste water compounds persist when waste water is used for recharge? (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Duran, Norma L.; Bouwer, Herman; Rice, Robert C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.; Kolpin, Dana W.


    A proof-of-concept experiment was devised to determine if pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water compounds (OWCs), as well as pathogens, found in treated effluent could be transported through a 2.4 m soil column and, thus, potentially reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in arid or semiarid climates. Treated effluent was applied at the top of the 2.4 m long, 32.5 cm diameter soil column over 23 days, Samples of the column inflow were collected from the effluent storage tank at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment, and a sample of the soil column drainage at the base of the column (Bend) was collected at the end of the experiment. Samples were analyzed for 131 OWCs including veterinary and human antibiotics, other prescription and nonprescription drugs, widely used household and industrial chemicals, and steroids and reproductive hormones, as well as the pathogens Salmonella and Legionella. Analytical results for the two effluent samples taken at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment indicate that the number of OWCs detected in the column inflow decreased by 25% (eight compounds) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by 46% while the effluent was in the storage tank during the 23-day experiment. After percolating through the soil column, an additional 18 compounds detected in Tend (67% of OWCs) were no longer detected in the effluent (Bend) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by more than 70%. These compounds may have been subject to transformation (biotic and abiotic), adsorption, and (or) volatilization in the storage tank and during travel through the soil column. Eight compounds—carbamazapine; sulfamethoxazole; benzophenone; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; N,N-diethyltoluamide; tributylphosphate; tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; and cholesterol—were detected in all three samples indicating they have the potential to reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in

  15. Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment During Pregnancy. (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Leal-Silva, Thais; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu


    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of great importance that affects an increasing number of people every day. In particular, diabetes is a common and important disease during pregnancy and is marked by complications, both fetal and maternal, that increase the risks of morbidity and mortality for diabetic pregnant women and their offspring. Drugs such as insulin and hypoglycemic drugs are given to treat diabetes, but regular exercise and adequate diet have also been indicated. Furthermore, coadjutant therapies such as medicinal plants are popularly used to reduce diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, either within or outside the context of pregnancy. However, studies examining plant use for diabetes treatment are necessary to confirm its possible effects and its safety for the mother and fetus. The objective of this literature review was to conduct a survey of plant species that are utilized worldwide and their stated therapeutic uses. A literature search was performed using the terms "diabetes and pregnancy", which resulted in the identification of 31,272 articles. Of these studies, only 12 (0.0038%) were related to medicinal plants, demonstrating that there has been little investigation into this issue. Of the papers analyzed in this review, half evaluated plant leaves, indicating that these scientific studies attempted to reproduce the preparations commonly used by various populations, i.e., in the form of tea. Additionally, more than 90% of studies utilized experimental animals to evaluate the maternal-fetal safety of medicinal plant substances that may potentially be dangerous for humans. Thus, once confidence levels for plant-derived substances are established based on toxicological analyses and safety is confirmed, it is possible that plants will be used to complement conventional diabetes therapies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  16. Determination of biological removal of recalcitrant organic contaminants in coal gasification waste water. (United States)

    Ji, Qinhong; Tabassum, Salma; Yu, Guangxin; Chu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Zhenjia


    Coal gasification waste water treatment needed a sustainable and affordable plan to eliminate the organic contaminants in order to lower the potential environmental and human health risk. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-aerobic intermittent system carried out 66 operational cycles together for the treatment of coal gasification waste water and the removal capacity of each organic pollutant. Contaminants included phenols, carboxylic acids, long-chain hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds, wherein the relative content of phenol is up to 57.86%. The long-term removal of 77 organic contaminants was evaluated at different hydraulic retention time (anaerobic24 h + aerobic48 h and anaerobic48 h +aerobic48 h). Contaminant removal ranged from no measurable removal to near-complete removal with effluent concentrations below the detection limit. Contaminant removals followed one of four trends: steady-state removal throughout, increasing removal to steady state (acclimation), decreasing removal, and no removal. Organic degradation and transformation in the reaction were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technology.

  17. A novel growth method for diatom algae in aquaculture waste water for natural food development and nutrient removal. (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Marella, Thomas Kiran; Tao, Ling; Peng, Liang; Song, Chao-Feng; Dai, Li-Li; Tiwari, Archana; Li, Gu


    Diatom algae are known to play an important role as primary producers in many diverse ecosystems, including artificial aquaculture ponds where they also aid in maintaining water quality by consuming excess nutrients. But factors influencing their growth are still poorly understood. In the present study the effect of micronutrients, N:P ratio and silica concentration on benthic diatom Synedra sp. grown in fish pond waste water was studied along with nutrient removal efficiency. We have studied nine different treatments, of which addition of micronutrient mixture Nualgi along with adjusted N:P to 6:1 resulted in highest cell density, followed by silicate enrichment, whereas only N:P adjustment and Nualgi addition had no significant effect on diatom growth. At the end of the growth experiment, the N removal efficiencies of treatment groups (50.23%-65.44%) were significantly higher (P algae growth and simultaneous nutrient removal from aquaculture waste water.

  18. Potential accumulation of estrogenic substances in biofilms and aquatic plants collected in sewage treatment plant (STP) and receiving water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultis, T.; Kuch, B.; Kern, A.; Metzger, J.W. [Inst. for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management ISWA, Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)


    During the past years the estrogenic potency of natural (e.g. estrone and 17{beta}-estradiol E2) and synthetic hormones (e.g. ethinylestradiol EE2) and xenoestrogens (e.g. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), alkylphenolic compounds or bisphenol A (BPA)) has attracted increasing scientific attention. Especially the occurrence and behaviour of these substances in waste water of sewage treatment plants (STPs) were often investigated. Andersen et al. found steroid estrogen concentrations in the effluent of a municipal STP always below the limit of quantification of 1 ng/l. However, Aerni et al. detected E2 and EE2 concentrations up to 6 ng/l and 2 ng/l, and alkylphenols, alkylphenolmonoand diethoxylates even at {mu}g/l concentrations in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant with a significant industrial impact3. In activated and digested sewage sludge concentrations of estrone and E2 up to 37 ng/g and 49 ng/g, of the synthetic EE2 up to 17 ng/g were observed4. In river sediments the concentrations detected were lower with up to 2 ng/g estrone and 0,9 ng/g EE24. In the meantime many studies exist about raw and treated water in STPs, but there is little knowledge about the influence of estrogenic active substances on aquatic plants so far. In this study we investigated therefore the potency of estrogenic substances to accumulate in the duckweed Lemna minor from STP in comparison to the estrogenicity of duckweed from a natural pond, biofilms in drain and microsieve of the STP by the in vitro E-Screen- and LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase). In addition, we tested the estrogenic activity of moss-like aquatic plants collected at different sites of the receiving water and analyzed the concentrations of four phenolic xenoestrogens in the effluent by GC/MS.

  19. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant. (United States)

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed


    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  20. tannery wastes water treatment using moringa stenopetala seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    some heavy metal ions play important roles in living systems, they are very toxic and hence capable of causing serious environmental health problems. Chromium (Cr) is a heavy metal used in various industrial processes like in chrom- plating, wood preserving, textile dyeing, pigmenting, chromium chemical production, ...

  1. Waterbirds at Paarl Waste Water Treatment Works, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resident species dominated from December to April, whereas Palaearctic migrants peaked from December to March. Ducks and geese had greatest numbers from December to April and resident waders and grebes peaked from April to July. Flamingos peaked in October and November with another small peak in June.

  2. Evaluation Of Communal Wastewater Treatment Plant Operating Anaerobic Baffled Reactor And Biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Hendriarianti


    Full Text Available Construction of communal Waste Water Treatment Plant, WWTP in city of Malang since 1998 but until recently had never done an evaluation the performance. Communal WWTP performance evaluation is needed to see how far the efficiency of processing result. Until now, Environmental Agency Malang City only measure effluent from WWTP Communal  to know the suitability  with domestic wastewater quality standards. Effluent quality data in 2014 showed value above the quality standard of domestic wastewater from East Java Governor Regulation No. 72 in 2013 for parameters BOD and COD. WWTP Communal USRI research objects are on a six (6 locations by involving the user community during the planning, construction, operation and maintenance. Technology choice of ABR followed by a biofilter reactor with the stone media proved capable of processing organic matter of BOD and COD with the removal levels respectively by 78% -99% and 71% -99%. As for the parameters of TSS, NO3 and PO4 have the ranges of removal respectively by 56% -100%, (43% - 72%, (2% - 13%. Ratio BOD and COD in influent are low and ranged from 0.22 to 0.41. From the evaluation shows that high organic matter concentrations in influent along with the HRT and operation time high will result in a higher removal level

  3. Optimization of sewage treatment plants through adjustment of the acid capacity; Optimierung von Klaeranlagen durch Saeurekapazitaetseinstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, B.; Soelter, K. [Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V., Koeln (Germany)


    In many areas with soft water (low water hardness), variations of degradation behaviour are noted in the biological cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water. The use of acidic precipitation agents and processes of biological ammonium oxidation (nitrification) reduce the acid capacity of water. Addition of lime in different forms can prevent this drop in acid capacity. As a new development in this field, lime hydrate can be added in dry form. This form of application dispenses with some of the elements normally installed at sewage treatment plants. Several examples demonstrate the advantages offered by this technique, especially the need for less metal salts to eliminate phosphate. (orig.) [German] In vielen Weichwassergebieten (geringer Wasserhaerte) treten bei der biologischen Reinigung von kommunalen und industriellen Abwaessern Schwankungen des Abbauverhaltens auf. Der Einsatz von sauren Faellmitteln und die Prozesse der biologischen Ammoniumoxidation (Nitrifikation) senken die Saeurekapazitaet des Wassers ab. Durch die Zugabe von Kalk in verschiedenen Dosierformen kann die Saeurekapazitaetsabsenkung verhindert werden. Eine neue Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet ist die Trockendosierung von Kalkhydrat. Wesentliche Teile der sonst installierten Anlagentechnik sind bei dieser Art der Dosierung nicht mehr notwendig. Anhand von mehreren Beispielen wird erlaeutert, welche Vorteile dieses Verfahren bieten kann, insbesondere bei der Einsparung von Metallsalzen zur Phosphatentfernung. (orig.)

  4. An Ultrasonic Multi-Beam Concentration Meter with a Neuro-Fuzzy Algorithm for Water Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Hyun Lee


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic concentration meters have widely been used at water purification, sewage treatment and waste water treatment plants to sort and transfer high concentration sludges and to control the amount of chemical dosage. When an unusual substance is contained in the sludge, however, the attenuation of ultrasonic waves could be increased or not be transmitted to the receiver. In this case, the value measured by a concentration meter is higher than the actual density value or vibration. As well, it is difficult to automate the residuals treatment process according to the various problems such as sludge attachment or sensor failure. An ultrasonic multi-beam concentration sensor was considered to solve these problems, but an abnormal concentration value of a specific ultrasonic beam degrades the accuracy of the entire measurement in case of using a conventional arithmetic mean for all measurement values, so this paper proposes a method to improve the accuracy of the sludge concentration determination by choosing reliable sensor values and applying a neuro-fuzzy learning algorithm. The newly developed meter is proven to render useful results from a variety of experiments on a real water treatment plant.

  5. The Role of Bakau Snail, Telescopium telescopium L., as Biofilter in Waste Water Management of Intensive Shrimp Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Hamsiah


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective the experiment is to know the role of bakau snail, Telescopium telescopium L., as biofilter for improving waste water quality in shrimp culture.  The experiment was carried out at laboratory scale.  The parameters that observed in this experiment are physical, chemical and biological of waste water.  Growth and survival rate of snail were also observed. Waste water quality measurement was carried out during a week, while the growth and survival rate were measured during two months.  The aquarium of 30x40x40 cm were filled with 30 l of waste water from intensive shrimp culture.  Bakau snail were stocked to the aquarium with density of 0 (control, 6, 9 and 12 snail/aquarium, and these treatment were replicated 3 times.  The result shown that total organic matter (TOM, total ammonia, dissolved oxygen (DO of waste water, and growth and survival rate of snail were not different between treatment of stocking density, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solid (TSS, nitrite and nitrate were significantly different (pKey words :  Bakau snail, Telescopium telescopium L.,  biofilter, shrimp culture waste water. ABSTRAKPercobaan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji peranan keong bakau, Telescopium telescopium L., sebagai biofilter terhadap perbaikan mutu air limbah budidaya tambak udang intesif.  Pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup keong bakau juga dikaji.  Percobaan dilakukan dalam skala laboratorium.  Pengamatan kualitas air fisika, kimia dan biologi air limbah budidaya tambak dilakukan selama seminggu, sedangkan pertumbuhan keong dilakukan selama 2 bulan.  Wadah percobaan yang digunakan adalah akuarium ukuran 30x40x40 cm dan diisi air sebanyak 30 liter yang berasal dari buangan budidaya udang intensif di tambak.  Perlakuan percoban berupa padat tebar keong bakau dalam akuarium yaitu: 0 (tanpa keong, 6, 9 dan 13 ekor/akuarium, dan setiap perlakuan diulang 3 kali. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa respon

  6. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Basic survey on promotion of the joint implementation (a survey on improvement in wastes treatment system in Tapioka starch manufacturing plants); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa (Tapioka denpun kako kojo no haikibutsu shori no kaizen chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to promote the joint implementation based on COP3, a survey and a discussion were given on improvement in wastes treatment systems and reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission in Tapioka starch manufacturing plants scattered in Indonesia. Currently, the wastes are disposed untreated, discharging methane gas into atmosphere as a result of putrefaction and contamination. Ten factories were picked up as the object of the survey. The following processes are to be adopted as the most suitable method for treating waste water and waste substances: solids (peels and fibers) are composted, and rinsing waste water is subjected to simple aerobic treatment; purified waste water is recovered of methane gas by means of anaerobic treatment; and the reduction amount of greenhouse effect gas converted to CO2 is estimated to reach 314,824 tons per year in total of the ten factories. If the carbon dioxide discharge right can be transacted at a sales price of a dollar per ton, assuming the compost sales price at 200 Rp./kg, the IRR will be 10% or higher, making the project very highly profitable. An IRR of 8% may not be assured unless the discharge right can be sold at 5 dollars per ton if the compost sales price is 150 Rp./kg. The Indonesian Government expects financial assistance from Japan for the pilot plant demonstration. (NEDO)

  7. Residential and biological exposure assessment of chemicals from a wood treatment plant. (United States)

    Dahlgren, James; Takhar, Harpreet; Schecter, Arnold; Schmidt, Reynold; Horsak, Randy; Paepke, Olaf; Warshaw, Raphael; Lee, Alexander; Anderson-Mahoney, Pamela


    This paper evaluates the results of contamination of residents and residential homes located in close proximity to a Wood Treatment Plant. The plant has produced treated wood products continuously since 1904. The principle chemicals used to treat the wood, which is primarily used for railroad ties (oblong objects laid perpendicular to the rails to act as a base for the tracks), are creosote and pentachlorophenol. For a number of years, the plant burned treated waste wood products containing creosote and pentachlorophenol. First the plant pressure impregnates the wood with creosote and pentachlorophenol, and then the wood is stacked on open ground to allow it to air dry. Chemicals from recently treated wood ties are allowed to evaporate into the air or drip onto the ground surrounding the stacked wood. Small drainage ditches carry the liquid wastes into larger water channels where eventually the waste streams are discharged into a river adjacent to the plant. The river serves as a source of drinking water for the nearby community. Prevailing wind patterns favor a drift of air emissions from the plant's boiler stack over the nearby community and its residents. Over the past few years, the town's residents have become increasingly concerned about their health status and have voiced concerns regarding multiple health problems (including cancer), possibly associated with plant discharges. The intention of this study is to examine a representative sample of the potentially affected residents and to evaluate their residential environment for the presence of dioxin and/or its congeners. Data obtained from EPA's Toxic Release Information (TRI) database revealed the plant routinely discharged creosote, pentachlorophenol, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds into the ambient air via fugitive air emissions and surface waste waters. Sampling of household dust and water sediment within and outside of residences within a 2-mile radius of the plant revealed the presence of

  8. Disinfection process of municipal wastewater through ultraviolet radiation: Application in the wastewater treatment plant of Jerez de la Frontera; Desinfeccion de aguas residuales urbanas mediante radiacion ultravioleta: Aplicacion enla EDAR de Jerez de la Frontera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo Davila, I.; Andrades Balao, J. A.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.


    This paper reports the results obtained of the disinfection through ultraviolet radiation of the treated municipal wastewater in the plant of Jerez de la Frontera for possible municipal and tourist/recreational reuse. The results obtained show that 1.265 J/m''2 of UV doses cause nearly a 99, 9% decrease of the studied microorganisms (total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal strepto cocos) in more than 77% of the carried out studies. The disinfection unitary cost, at industrial scale, was 0.03 E/m''3 waste-water, which means the UV radiation treatment is very competitive against others disinfection systems. (Author) 10 refs.

  9. Physical chemical properties of sludges of a chemical treatment of boilers feed water and ways of their utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krasnenko


    Full Text Available Water is a necessary process for TPP power plant operation. To the power station, in the production of electricity and heat as a result of the preparation of large amounts of water to compensate for losses associated with the release of process steam for production, produce large quantities of waste water treatment - water treatment chemical sludge (WTCS.

  10. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater. Application for food industry; Depuracion anaerobia del aguas residuales. Se aplicacion en la industria alimentaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceller Rosa, J. M.


    Activated sludge aerobic reactors is a wide spread system in waste water treatment plants. Excessive proliferations of filamentous microorganisms give rise to bulking and foaming problems. Wastewater from food and drink industries as well as paper mill and related industries has severe risk of bulking episodes. Incorporation of anaerobic pre-treatment previous to existing aerobic treatment previous to existing aerobic treatment avoids bulking problems. Anaerobic systems are therefore indicated in waste waters with high concentrations of ready biodegradable organic substrates, such us waste waters from breweries, distilleries, soft drinks, paper mill industries, vegetable processing industries, etc. Basic principles of anaerobic wastewater treatment are exposed in this paper, with special reference to the most wide spread anaerobic systems: UASB, EGSB e IC reactors. Operational parameters of anaerobic and aerobic systems are compared, as well as investment and management costs, including biogas recovery. (Author) 7 refs.

  11. Hazardous Waste Water Remediation by Ecoresin-Dry Cow Dung Powder (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha


    Water, the matter, matrix, medium and the mother of our life, is indeed one of the drivers of Nature. Through water cycle only the intra and inter equilibrium is maintained constantly between entire 'green' and 'blue'. Unfortunately, with each successive epoch of industrialization and urbanization, human societies have produced non-biodegradable waste hulk with far beyond handling capacities of mankind. At this juncture the very need is to appreciate and move towards the cost as well as time effective scientific alternatives for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutants. Green chemistry advocates the utilization of naturally available bio-resins which are environmentally benign alternative to current synthetic materials and technologies employed for waste water treatment. This explicit investigation aims to explore Dry Cow dung powder, DCP, a natural biosorbent as a green and clean alternative for the aqueous waste water treatment. It is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid'(HA). The HA has been successfully extracted by authors from DCP and this piece of work has been published in the International Journal [1]. We have developed simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutant such as Cr(VI) [2], Cd(II), Cr(III) [3] and Hg(II) as well radiotoxic 90Sr(II) [4], employing DCP. DCP is employed without any pre or post treatment. Being freely and easily available DCP has an edge over processed natural adsorbent considering their cost, time and energy efficiency. In nutshell we have to remember that prevention is better than the cure. If we fail to meet this, the situation will surely augment which will drain our water, our life, to slaughters knife..! Reference: 1. H.K.Bagla, N.S.Barot, Soil Amendement by Green Supplement: Dry Cowdung powder, EGUGA - 11

  12. Status of the membrane procedure - Possible applications to waste water digestion; Stand der Technik von Membranverfahren. Einsatzmoeglichkeiten bei der Vergaerung von Abwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeli, H.; Edelmann, W.


    In waste water with low organic loadings anaerobic microorganisms are working at a low efficiency. The plant's energy balance becomes negative because a big need of process energy to warm up the 'unproductive' water is created. This can be dealt with by concentrating the waste waters my means of membrane systems. Separation of slightly loaded flows into purified permeate and digestible concentrate may therefore increase the potential of digestion in industrial waste water significantly. As a basis for this report the following connections were used: congresses and exhibitions, personal contacts with people and companies who work and have published in this field as well as data base research. According to the technical standard the different processes of nano filtration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis are used to purify industrial or domestic waste water. Therefore, the majority of classic suppliers of waste water technology offer membrane systems. The membrane bio-reactors belong to the typical systems used. In this system the biomass is separated and retained by a membrane. Due to this combination the volume of the reactor can be reduced and the grade of degradation increased. Simultaneously a permeate is produced which can reach the quality of the desired effluent and which can be re-used manifold. Additional concentration of weakly loaded waste water to be used in a subsequent digestion can reduce energy consumption. Due to the fact that mainly the technical feasibility of the membrane technology was emphasised, some further evaluation in regard of energy consumption and cost has to be made. (author)

  13. Long-term effect of irrigation with water from sewage treatment plant on AMF biodiversity and microbial activities. (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Torres, M. P.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.


    Shortage of water is one of the most important environmental problem in the Mediterranean areas that implicates the search for strategies for saving good quality water. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land can be a good solution for this problem because it reduces the utilization of fresh water and potentially could improve soil key parameters, but can modify physical-chemical and biological properties of the same. The aim of this work was to study the effect of long-term irrigation with treated waste water on microbial diversity, mainly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the soil and other properties related with the microbial community. The experiment was developed in an agricultural area with Citrus orchard, located in Alicante in the southeast Spain. Here, we tested whether the communities of AMF as well as soil microbial properties were affected by irrigation with water coming from sewage treatment plant during 40 years in a soil. To carry out this study the soil properties (dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, glomalin related soil protein, microbial biomass C and aggregate stability) and AMF diversity (the AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses) were analysed in the soil from two different plots with the same soil but with different type of irrigation (irrigated with fresh water and irrigated with treated water). The first results did not show significant differences in some soil properties between soil irrigated with water treated or not.

  14. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants. (United States)

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V


    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  15. Radiation treatment of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jinho E-mail:; Yoon, J.-H.; Chung, H.-H.; Lee, M.-J


    Radiation treatment using gamma-rays was investigated in order to reclaim the secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant. The radiation treatment reduced BOD by 85% irrespective of absorbed dose, and the removals of COD, TOC and color were up to 64%, 34% and 88%, respectively, at a dose of 15 kGy. Gamma-rays effectively disinfected microorganisms and completely removed them at a dose of 0.3 kGy. The combination of gamma-rays and titanium dioxide significantly improved the treatment process. The increases of COD, TOC and color removals were 40%, 10% and 20%, respectively. As confirmed by EPR and the spin-trapping method, this increase was partly caused by the increase of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of titanium dioxide.

  16. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  17. Natural product based composite for extraction of arsenic (III) from waste water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N Akartasse; E Mejdoubi; B Razzouki; K Azzaoui; S Jodeh; O Hamed; M Ramdani; A Lamhamdi; M Berrabah; I Lahmass; W Jodeh; S El Hajjaji


    ...) from waste water were synthesized and evaluated. Several composites with various compositions were prepared by the wet chemical method and analyzed using various spectroscopic and analytical methods...

  18. Pilot study of seasonal occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and drug resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants in Slovakia. (United States)

    Birošová, Lucia; Mackulak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman


    This work presents environmental and quality-control data from the analyses of 33 antibiotics in influent and effluent water from two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the capital and the biggest city of Slovakia. Seeing that consumption of antibiotics depends on epidemiological season, samples were collected during February and August. Among assessed antibiotics ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were detected in highest concentrations in influent water. Seasonal changes were observed only in plant A when antibiotic concentrations decreased. On the other hand an increase in some cases was observed in plant B. Insufficient degradation of some macrolides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim was detected according to their higher concentrations in effluent water. Contact of antibiotics in subinhibitory concentrations and sludge bacteria in WWTPs represent the base for the development of significant levels of microbial resistance. Simultaneously, antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci from sewage sludge was evaluated. Majority of coliform bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. A significant seasonal difference was determined only in case of high-level resistance. In summer samples, an increase in the strains resistant to concentrations higher than the resistance breakpoints established by EUCAST and NCCLS was observed. No antibiotic resistance in streptococci was observed. However, as a part of sewage sludge is mixed with compost and utilized in agriculture, better processing of sludge should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Usage of membrane bioreactors in municipal treatment plants


    Maučec, Miha


    We wanted to present the usage of membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment plants. In industries such systems are widely spread contributing to improve wastewater treatment. With increasing standards on discharges from wastewater treatment plants began usage of membrane bioreactors at municipal treatment plants. The aim of the thesis was to describe the process of wastewater treatment with membrane bioreactors and to present advantages and disadvantages of these systems. Compa...

  20. Percent CO2. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook. (United States)

    Wooley, John F.

    Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module on digestor gas analysis provides waste water treatment plant operators with the basic skills and information needed to: (1) successfully run the carbon dioxide analysis test; (2) accurately record…

  1. Transformation products and reaction kinetics of fragrances in advanced wastewater treatment with ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janzen, Niklas; Dopp, Elke; Hesse, Julia


    ) ethanone (musk ketone/MK), and 1-(2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (OTNE) with ozone in tap water as well as waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is described. Several transformation products are characterized by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass...

  2. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook. (United States)

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  3. Spectrographic analysis of waste waters; Analisis espectrografico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Alduan, F.; Capdevila, C.


    The Influence of sodium and calcium, up to a maximum concentration of 1000 mg/1 Na and 300 mg/1 Ca, in the spectrographic determination of Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn and Pb in waste waters using graphite spark excitation has been studied. In order to eliminate this influence, each of the elements Ba, Cs, In, La, Li, Sr and Ti, as well as a mixture containing 5% Li-50% Ti, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. This mixture allows to obtain an accuracy better than 25%. Sodium and calcium enhance the line intensities of impurities, when using graphite or gold electrodes, but they produce an opposite effect if copper or silver electrodes are used. (Author) 1 refs.

  4. New tailor-made bio-organoclays for the remediation of olive mill waste water (United States)

    Calabrese, Ilaria; Gelardi, Giulia; Merli, Marcello; Rytwo, Giora; Sciascia, Luciana; Liria Turco Liveri, Maria


    A systematic study aimed at obtaining new organoclays for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste water (OMW) has been performed. Several organoclays have been prepared by loading different amounts of the biocompatible surfactant Tween20 onto the K10 montmorillonite (MMT). Complementary kinetic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of the Tween20 onto the MMT have been carried out and the characterization of the new tailor-made bio-materials has been performed by means of the XRD and FT-IR measurements. Finally the prepared bio-organoclays have been successfully applied for the OMW remediation and they proved to be highly effective in decreasing the organic content (OC) to an extent that depends on both the amount of loaded surfactant and the experimental protocols applied.

  5. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.


    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  6. An Update on Modifications to Water Treatment Plant Model (United States)

    Water treatment plant (WTP) model is an EPA tool for informing regulatory options. WTP has a few versions: 1). WTP2.2 can help in regulatory analysis. An updated version (WTP3.0) will allow plant-specific analysis (WTP-ccam) and thus help meet plant-specific treatment objectives...

  7. Optimal design of wastewater treatment plant using adaptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This paper deals with the application of Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) for the optimal design of the wastewater treatment plant. The plant ... In this work a successful attempt has been made to use the ASA for optimal design of wastewater treatment plant.

  8. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ... (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  9. Nitrogen removal on recycling water process of wastewater treatment plant effluent using subsurface horizontal wetland with continuous feed (United States)

    Tazkiaturrizki, T.; Soewondo, P.; Handajani, M.


    Recycling water is a generic term for water reclamation and reuse to solve the scarcity of water. Constructed wetlands have been recognized as providing many benefits for wastewater treatment including water supply and control by recycling water. This research aims to find the best condition to significantly remove nitrogen using constructed wetland for recycling water of Bojongsoang Waste Water Treatment Plan (WWTP) effluent. Using media of soil, sand, gravel, and vegetation (Typha latifolia and Scirpus grossus) with an aeration system, BOD and COD parameters have been remarkably reduced. On the contrary, the removal efficiency for nitrogen is only between 50–60%. Modifications were then conducted by three step of treatment, i.e., Step I is to remove BOD/COD using Typha latifolia with an aeration system, Step II is todecrease nitrogen using Scirpus grossus with/without aeration, and Step III isto complete the nitrogen removal with denitrification process by Glycine max without aeration. Results of the research show that the nitrogen removal has been successfully increased to a high efficiency between 80–99%. The combination of aeration system and vegetation greatly affects the nitrogen removal. The vegetation acts as the organic nitrogen consumer (plant uptake) for amino acids, nitrate, and ammonium as nutrition, as well as theoxygen supplier to the roots so that aerobic microsites are formed for ammonification microorganisms.

  10. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque


    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  11. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China. (United States)

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan


    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index I(geo) and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. I(geo) classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes.

  12. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs in Shanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoling Duan


    Full Text Available Heavy metals (HMs in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. Igeo classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes.

  13. Restoration of Wadi Aquifers by Artificial Recharge with Treated Waste Water

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.


    Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country\\'s treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Purification of simulated waste water using green synthesized silver nanoparticles of Piliostigma thonningii aqueous leave extract (United States)

    Shittu, K. O.; Ihebunna, O.


    Synthesis of nanoparticles from various biological systems has been reported, but among all such systems, biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plants is considered the most suitable method. The use of plant material not only makes the process eco-friendly, but also the abundance makes it more economical. The aim of this study was to biologically synthesize silver nanoparticle using Piliostigma thonningii aqueous leaf extract and applied in the purification of laboratory stimulated waste with optimization using the different conditions of silver nanoparticle production such as time, temperature, pH, concentration of silver nitrate and volume of the aqueous extract. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, nanosizer, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The time intervals for the reaction with aqueous silver nitrate solution shows an increase in the absorbance with time and became constant giving a maximum absorbance at 415 nm at 60 min of incubation. The pH of 6.5, temperature 65 °C, 1.25 mM of silver nitrate and 5 ml of plant extract was the best condition with maximum absorbance. The results from nanosizer, UV-vis and TEM suggested the biosynthesis silver nanoparticle to be spherical ranging from 50 nm to 114 nm. The EDX confirmed the elemental synthesis of silver at 2.60 keV and FTIR suggested the capping agent to be hydroxyl (OH) group with -C=C stretching vibrations. The synthesized silver nanoparticle also shows heavy metal removal activity in laboratory simulated waste water. The safety toxicity studies show no significant difference between the orally administered silver nanoparticles treated water group and control group, while the histopathological studies show well preserved hepatic architecture for the orally administered silver nanoparticle treated waste water group when compared with the control

  15. Focus on 14 sewage treatment plants in the Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify the treatment methods used in different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Mpumalanga Province and to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment by these plants, municipal STPs were surveyed, and raw and treated wastewater samples collected. A total of 14 STPs were visited and the ...

  16. Sustainability study of domestic communal wastewater treatment plant in Surabaya City (United States)

    Bahar, E.; Sudarno; Zaman, B.


    Sanitation is one of the critical infrastructure sectors in order to improve community health status. The Ministry of Public Works of the Republic of Indonesia to define that word sanitation include: domestic waste water management, solid waste management, rain water management (drainage management) as well as the provision of clean water. Surabaya city as the capital of East Java province and Indonesia’s second largest city with a population of 2,853,661 inhabitants in 2014 (the second largest after Jakarta), but the people who have been served by the sanitation infrastructure systems were expected at 176,105 families or about 26.95 % of the population of the city is already using sanitation facilities. In the White Book Sanitation of Surabaya City in 2010, Surabaya City sanitation development mission is to realize the wastewater management of settlements in a sustainable and affordable by the community. This study aims to assess the sustainability of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) domestic communal in the city of Surabaya. The method in this research is quantitative method through observation, structured interviews and laboratory testing of the variables analyzed. Analyses were performed using a technique Multidisciplinary rapid appraisal (Rap-fish) to determine the level of sustainability of the management of communal WWTP based on a number of attributes that easy scored. Attributes of each dimension includes the technical, environmental quality, institutional, economic, and social. The results of this study are sustainability index of environmental quality dimension at 84.32 with highly sustainable status, technical dimension at 62.61 with fairly sustainable status, social dimension at 57.98 with fairly sustainable status, economic dimension at 43.24 with less sustainable status, and institutional dimension at 39.67 with less sustainable status.

  17. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence (United States)

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  18. Microbial Communities in Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz

    Activated sludge treatment plants are the most used wastewater treatment systems worldwide for biological nutrient removal from wastewater. Nevertheless, the treatment systems have been for many years operated as so called “black-box”, where specific process parameters were adjusted without...... was devoted into detailed analysis of almost fifty full-scale treatment plants (Microbial Database over Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants.) in order to learn more about the activated sludge communities and the rules that govern their presence and growth. This is one of the first such comprehensive long......-term investigations of the microbial community in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, where conventional identification, molecular identification by quantitative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and extensive process information related to treatment plant design and process performance have been compiled...

  19. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants. (United States)

    Gikas, Petros


    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  20. Assessment of Cr and Ni phytotoxicity from cutlery-washing waste-waters using biomass and chlorophyll production tests on mustard Sinapis alba L. seedlings. (United States)

    Fargasová, Agáta; Molnárová, Marianna


    The aim of this work was to determine phytotoxicity of washing waste-waters from a cutlery production line with high content of Cr and Ni. These waters were previously classified, without verification, as dangerous and it is now necessary to question the justice of the present classification under the new legislation for waste management (Waste Law No. 223/2001) in the Slovak Republic. Young seedling of the dicotyledon terrestrial plant mustard Sinapis alba L. were used for determination of the dry and fresh root and shoot biomass and photosynthetic pigment production. Observed parameters were evaluated in laboratory experiments with three types of washing waste-waters from a cutlery production line. All contamination of tested washing waste-waters came from heavy metals (Ni, Cr), non-polar extractable compounds (NEC; residues of oils and waxes from polishing of stainless steel cutlery) and detergents (used for cutlery degreasing). Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, and total carotenoids) were extracted in 96% ethanol and measured spectrophotometrically at 665, 649, and 470 nm. All phytotoxicity tests were carried out in triplicate, and they included a control in tap water. All tested washing waters reduced root dry mass, whereas the shoot dry mass was either unaffected or it increased. The tested washing waters' effect was stronger on fresh mass production than on dry mass production. This indicated problems in water reception and translocation. The adverse effect on photosynthetic pigments production increased only slowly with remaining washing waste-water concentration. Almost all Chl a/b ratios were the same as for the control and this indicated no significant differences in the reduction of either a or b chlorophylls. As opposed to chlorophylls, carotenoids content increased in the presence of tested washing waste-waters and equaled or exceeded their content in the control. As the ratio of Chl(a + b)/Car was lower than that for the control for almost

  1. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with socio-economic documentation of medicinal plant species against jaundice and hepatitis. A total of 30 plant species belonging to 24 families were reported by local practitioners for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis. The most important plant species are Adiantum capillus, Boerhaavia ...

  2. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  3. Retention of contaminants in northern natural peatlands treating mine waste waters (United States)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn


    The mining industry in Finland is growing, leading to an increasing number of working and proposed mine sites. As a consequence, the amount of mine waste waters created is likewise increasing. This poses a great challenge for water management and purification, as these mine waste waters can lead to severe environmental and health consequences when released to receiving water bodies untreated. In the past years, the use of natural peatlands for cost-effective passive waste water treatment has been increasing. In this study, the fate of mine water contaminants in a treatment peatland receiving process waters from the Kittilä gold mine was investigated. Special attention was paid to the fate of potentially harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony or nickel. During the 4 years of operation, the peatland removed contaminants from process waters at varying efficiencies. While arsenic, antimony and nickel were retained at high efficiencies (>80% retention), other contaminants such as zinc, sulfate or iron were not retained or even leaching from the peatland. Soil samples taken in 2013 showed a linear increase of arsenic, antimony and nickel concentration in the peatland as compared to earlier sampling times, in agreement with the good retention efficiencies for those contaminants. Measured concentrations exceeded guideline values for contaminated soils, indicating that the prolonged use of treatment peatlands leads to high soil contamination and restrict further uses of the peatlands without remediation measures. Soil and pore water samples were taken along a transect with varying distance from the process water distribution ditch and analyzed for total and more easily mobile concentrations of contaminants (peat soil) as well as total and dissolved contaminants (water samples). Concentrations of contaminants such as arsenic, manganese or antimony in peat and pore water samples were highest near the distribution ditch and decreased with increasing distance from the

  4. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    these treatments had 21 - 89% more numbers of leaves compared to plants from the untreated seed tubers. Crude essential oils from dill weed at .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to filter paper ..... is a valid reference frame in postharvest ageing studies. Postharvest ...

  5. [The use of the R1-fish cell culture for detection of toxicity of waste water according to the German Waste Water Act (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Halder, M.


    A fibroblastic cell line (R1) established in 1981 from the liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been used for cytotoxicity testing of 301 waste water samples. The results obtained were compared with the results of the fish test performed parallely according to the German Waste Water Act. 54% of the samples proved to be neither fish toxic nor cytotoxic, 22% were fish and cytotoxic, 5% only fish toxic and 19% only cytotoxic. The results show that the R1-cell culture is useful to determine cytotoxicity of aquatic pollutants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Janiszewska


    Full Text Available In this study characterization of sensory and physical-chemical properties of representative samples of technological waste water after hydraulic unloading fish from fishing vessels, including fishing boats equipped with RSW (Refrigerated Sea Water System or CSW (Chilling Sea Water System system was described. Sensory quality and analytical determinations in technological waste water samples was analyzed. They demonstrated that their sensory quality attributes and physical-chemical properties were different and depending on the destination of fish caught (consumption or industrial fishing, contact time-caught fish with seawater and water temperature (winter or summer season. Because technological waste water has a lot of substance content of protein, fat, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorine compounds it is a threat to the natural environment. In connection with such a broad problem of utilization of technological waste water from fishing boats for Baltic fish is one of the most important issues to solve for fishermen and environmentalists.

  7. Waste water discharge and its effect on the quality of water of Mahim creek and bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    Coastal environment around Mahim was monitored to evaluate the effects of domestic and industrial waste water discharge in Mahim Creek, Maharashtra, India. Vertical salinity and DO gradient occasionally observed in the Mahim Bay during postmonsoon...

  8. Traits of fatty acids composition of surface lipids of some aquatic plants under the influence of pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Alexeevs’ka


    Full Text Available It was shown that some emergent aquatic plants may be used for treatment of waste waters. The plants have specific composition of surface lipids (SL. The SL composition was found to be changed under the influence of water pollutants. These changes concerned the processes of elongation and desaturation of the SL components. The response to contamination was specific for each species.

  9. Polyphenol removal from olive mill waste waters by selected mould strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Yachioui, M.


    Full Text Available Mould strains were isolated from Olive Mill Waste (OMW waters, characterized and screened for their activities on polyphenols hydrolysis by reculturing on the olive mill waste waters itself. The selected strains were then used for polyphenols removal in pure culture assays in flasks. Prior to the inoculation, OMW water was diluted to prepare three initial concentrations of polyphenols (2.2 g/L; 4.5g/L; 14.5g/L. Chemical characteristics including polyphenols and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD were followed up in these assays. Results showed that the polyphenols removal by some strains was estimated to around 95.14% and the COD was also decreased by 43%. Olive mill waste waters are normally colored in dark because of the polyphenols oxidation. The microbial strains by hydrolysing the polyphenols had decolored completely these effluents and a clear liquid was obtained afier 12-15 days of treatment under aerobic shaking in laboratory. Polyphenols may have some inhibitory effect which would cause problems to the biological treatment of these effluents. Their removal would facilitate the treatment of the waste.Cepas de moho fueron aisladas del alpechín (OMW, caracterizadas y analizadas para determinar sus actividades en la hidrólisis de polifenoles mediante su recultivo en el mismo alpechín. Las cepas seleccionadas se usaron posteriormente para la eliminación de polifenoles en ensayos de cultivos puros en matraces. Antes de la inoculación, el alpechín fue diluido para obtener tres concentraciones iniciales de polifenoles (2,2g/L; 4,5g/L; 14,5g/L. Las características químicas, incluyendo polifenoles y la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, fueron analizadas en estos ensayos. Los resultados muestran que los polifenoles eliminados por algunas cepas fueron del 95.14% y la DQO disminuyó un 43%. El alpechín es normalmente oscuro por la oxidación de los polifenoles. Las cepas microbianas al hidrolizar los polifenoles decoloraron completamente estos



    Dorota Janiszewska; Kamila Kozieł; Bogusław Pawlikowski


    In this study characterization of sensory and physical-chemical properties of representative samples of technological waste water after hydraulic unloading fish from fishing vessels, including fishing boats equipped with RSW (Refrigerated Sea Water System) or CSW (Chilling Sea Water System) system was described. Sensory quality and analytical determinations in technological waste water samples was analyzed. They demonstrated that their sensory quality attributes and physical-chemical properti...

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in Dutch recreational waters influenced by wastewater treatment plants. (United States)

    Blaak, Hetty; de Kruijf, Patrick; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M


    Outside health care settings, people may acquire ESBL-producing bacteria through different exposure routes, including contact with human or animal carriers or consumption of contaminated food. However, contact with faecally contaminated surface water may also represent a possible exposure route. The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in four Dutch recreational waters and the possible role of nearby waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as contamination source. Isolates from recreational waters were compared with isolates from WWTP effluents, from surface water upstream of the WWTPs, at WWTP discharge points, and in connecting water bodies not influenced by the studied WWTPs. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in all four recreational waters, with an average concentration of 1.3 colony forming units/100ml, and in 62% of all samples. In surface waters not influenced by the studied WWTPs, ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in similar concentrations, indicating the existence of additional ESBL-E. coli contamination sources. Isolates with identical ESBL-genes, phylogenetic background, antibiotic resistance profiles, and sequence type, were obtained from effluent and different surface water sites in the same watershed, on the same day; occasionally this included isolates from recreational waters. Recreational waters were identified as a potential exposure source of ESBL-producing E. coli. WWTPs were shown to contribute to the presence of these bacteria in surface waters, but other (yet unidentified) sources likely co-contribute. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro modulation of inflammatory target gene expression by a polyphenol-enriched fraction of rose oil distillation waste water. (United States)

    Wedler, Jonas; Weston, Anna; Rausenberger, Julia; Butterweck, Veronika


    Classical production of rose oil is based on water steam distillation from the flowers of Rosa damascena. During this process, large quantities of waste water accrue which are discharged to the environment, causing severe pollution of both, groundwater and surface water due to a high content of polyphenols. We recently developed a strategy to purify the waste water into a polyphenol-depleted and a polyphenol-enriched fraction RF20-(SP-207). RF20-(SP-207) and sub-fraction F(IV) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells. Since there is a close interplay between these actions and inflammatory processes, here we focused on the fractions' influence on pro-inflammatory biomarkers. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with RF20-(SP-207), F(IV) (both at 50μg/mL) and ellagic acid (10μM) for 24h under TNF-α (20ng/mL) stimulated and non-stimulated conditions. Gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cellular protein secretion of IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 was determined by ELISA based assays. RF20-(SP-207) and F(IV) significantly decreased the expression and cellular protein secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1. The diminishing effects on inflammatory target gene expression were slightly less pronounced under TNF-α stimulated conditions. In conclusion, the recovered polyphenol fraction RF20-(SP-207) from rose oil distillation waste water markedly modified inflammatory target gene expression in vitro, and, therefore, could be further developed as alternative treatment of acute and chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Water from (waste)water--the dependable water resource. (United States)

    Asano, Takashi


    Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water resource depends upon close examination and synthesis of elements from infrastructure and facilities planning, wastewater treatment plant siting, treatment process reliability, economic and financial analyses, and water utility management. In this paper, fundamental concepts of water reuse are discussed including definitions, historical developments, the role of water recycling in the hydrologic cycle, categories of water reuse, water quality criteria and regulatory requirements, and technological innovations for the safe use of reclaimed water. The paper emphasizes the integration of this alternative water supply into water resources planning, and the emergence of modern water reclamation and reuse practices from wastewater to reclaimed water to repurified water.

  14. Soil water repellency patterns following long-term irrigation with waste water in a sandy calcareous soil, SE Spain (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, J.; García-Irles, L.; Morugán, A.; Doerr, S. H.; García-Orenes, F.; Atanassova, I.; Navarro, M. A.; Ayguadé, H.


    % of R samples (mean WDPT=135s), 95% of F samples (mean WDPT=802s), and 93% of FD samples (mean WDPT=267s). A good correlation between WR and OC was found by pooling all groups of samples (r=0.830***), and in some cases separately per group: R samples (r=0.885***), FD samples (r=0.651***). However, the correlation within group of F samples was low (r=0.269ns). This sample group had the highest frequency occurrence and the highest mean values of WR, indicating that not only quantity of OC is controlling the development of WR. This notion is supported by the results from samples F10 and F31. Despite their exposure to the same waste water, the organic material extracted from the highly repellent sample F10 exhibited more than twice the content of n-alkanols (~C26) and alkanoic acids (C18-24) compared to sample F31. Based on these results we speculate that for the study plot, the combination of the following factors allowed high levels of water repellency to develop: (1) sandy soil texture, (2) long-term use of waste water, (3) low quality of waste water treatments, and (4) potentially also organic matter inputs from the vegetation have. The results suggest that rather than total OC content, a specific fraction of the organic matter pool controls repellency development, with n-alkanols and alkanoic acids playing a key role. It is conceivable that water repellency-induced preferential flow has led to an increased accumulation of these compounds at the flow path margins, leading to a self-enhancement of water repellency in sample F10.

  15. A systematic methodology for controller tuning in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Jørgensen, S.B.; Sin, G.


    Wastewater treatment plants are typically subject to continuous disturbances caused by influent variations which exhibits diurnal patterns as well as stochastic changes due to rain and storm water events. In order to achieve an efficient operation, the control system of the plant should be able...... to respond appropriately and reject these disturbances in the influent. A methodology is described here which systematically addresses the assessment of the plant and the influent dynamics, in order to propose a controller tuning that is best adapted to an existing or planned wastewater treatment plant...

  16. Energy recovery from dairy waste-waters: impacts of biofilm support systems on anaerobic CST reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, E.V.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Central Univ., Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology, Pondicherry (India)


    Anaerobic digestion is one of the major steps involved in the treatment of dairy industry waste-waters and many CSTRs (continuously-stirred tank reactors) are functioning for this purpose all over the world. In this paper, the authors describe their attempts to upgrade a CSTR's performance by incorporating a biofilm support system (BSS) within the existing reactor. The focus of the work was to find an inexpensive and easy to install BSS which could significantly enhance the rates of waste treatment and methane recovery. Rolls of nylon mesh (with {approx}1 mm openings), of 5 cm height and 2 cm dia, when incorporated in the CSTR at the biofilm surface (with a digester volume ratio 0.3 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}), enabled the CSTR to perform better with > 20% improvement in the methane yield. Such simple BSS devices can significantly improve the performance of a CSTR anaerobic digester treating dairy wastes. The enhancement is due to the development of active biofilms which not only enhance the micro-organism-waste contact but also reduce the microbial washout. Such devices are inexpensive and very easy to incorporate -- the gains are thus achieved with very little cost and effort. (Author)

  17. Exploration on the technology for ozone reduction in urban sewage treatment (United States)

    Yang, Min; Sun, Yi; Han, Zhicheng; Liu, Jun


    With the rapid development of China’s economy, urban water consumption is increasing. However, sewage treatment plants will produce large amounts of sludge after treatment of sewage. Generally, and the sludge treatment costs are relatively high. Therefore, the problem about how to deal with the sewage sludge becomes the hot issues. Municipal waste water treatment plant produces a lot of sludge. This paper summarized the abroad study of ozonation minimization technology. Introduction and discussion were made on the principle of ozonated efficiency of sludge minimization, the efficiency of sludge minimization and the relationship between efficiency and ozone dosage, as well the effect of return sludge ozonated on waste water treatment running and the sludge setting and the dewatering characteristic. The economic estimation was also made on this technology. It’s showed that sludge minimization technology exhibits extensive application foreground.

  18. Potential of Electric Power Production from Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC in Evapotranspiration Reactor for Leachate Treatment Using Alocasia macrorrhiza Plant and Eleusine indica Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Badrus


    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell is one of attractive electric power generator from nature bacterial activity. While, Evapotranspiration is one of the waste water treatment system which developed to eliminate biological weakness that utilize the natural evaporation process and bacterial activity on plant roots and plant media. This study aims to determine the potential of electrical energy from leachate treatment using evapotranspiration reactor. The study was conducted using local plant, namely Alocasia macrorrhiza and local grass, namely Eleusine Indica. The system was using horizontal MFC by placing the cathodes and anodes at different chamber (i.e. in the leachate reactor and reactor with plant media. Carbon plates was used for chatode-anodes material with size of 40 cm x 10 cm x1 cm. Electrical power production was measure by a digital multimeter for 30 days reactor operation. The result shows electric power production was fluctuated during reactor operation from all reactors. The electric power generated from each reactor was fluctuated, but from the reactor using Alocasia macrorrhiza plant reach to 70 μwatt average. From the reactor using Eleusine Indica grass was reached 60 μwatt average. Electric power production fluctuation is related to the bacterial growth pattern in the soil media and on the plant roots which undergo the adaptation process until the middle of the operational period and then in stable growth condition until the end of the reactor operation. The results indicate that the evapotranspiration reactor using Alocasia macrorrhiza plant was 60-95% higher electric power potential than using Eleusine Indica grass in short-term (30-day operation. Although, MFC system in evapotranspiration reactor system was one of potential system for renewable electric power generation.

  19. Use of a New Simltaneous Absorbance-Fluorescene Instrument to Monitor Hydraluic Fracture Mining Waste Water to Prevent Drinking Water Contamination (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.


    Recently, the issue of waste water effuse from oil and gas mining, especially that including hydraulic fracturing, has resurfaced on the news and the political atmosphere as an area of concern. One of the key concerns is drinking water contamination from the hydraulic fracturing chemicals and chemicals contained in the water introduced into the well at high-pressure and the flowback and produced water associate with the petroleum product extraction. The key to successfully meeting drinking water safety requirements lies in the drinking water treatment plant's ability to deal with often dramatic source-water variations in natural organic matter (NOM) content that can react during disinfection with high levels of chloride and bromide found in hydraulic facture waste water to form toxc disinfection by-products (DBPs). Importantly, the brominated DBP species are particularly dangerous. Whereas the regulated levels of NOM can roughly determined by measuring total organic carbon (TOC), often this parameter does not provide rapid or cost-effective qualitative or quantitative assessment of the various humic, fulvic and other aromatic NOM components associated with DBP formation. However, two main optical techniques namely UV absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission mapping can be used for rapid assessment with precise identification of humic and fulvic components that cause DBPs. This study presents data from a new type of instrument which simultaneously measures the UV-VIS absorbance spectrum and EEM. The rapid absorbance-EEM is facilitated by a single system that is more than 100 time faster than conventional scanning absorbance and fluorescence optical benches. The new system can continuously collect EEMs and absorbance spectra at a rate often greater than 1 per min with the extra capacity to monitor the UV254 absorbance and fluorescence emission spectrum excited at 254 nm in 4 ms intervals (an equivalent scan rate of 5.5 million nm/min). The EEM spectral data is

  20. Starting up a mesophilic anaerobic digester. The experience of the Lagares treatment plant (Vigo, Spain); Puesta en marcha de un digestor anaerobio mesofilo. Experiencia en la EDAR de Lagares (Vigo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, R.; Solis Sierra, D.; Cabana Gonzalez, J. L.; Nunez-Torron Lopez, J.


    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is one of the most commonly used treatments in large capacity waste water treatment plants for stabilising sludge. The process of starting up an anaerobic digester is slow and complex, and have a decisive effect on how if functions later on. At the Lagares WWTO, previous attempts to start up the digesters led to periods of acid regression associated with overfeeding and vertical stratification, due to the characteristics of the affluent and the layout of the digesters. That is why a start-up protocol was established ensuring low feed speeds, which would then be gradually speeded up, and thorough homogenisation of the mixture. In the start-up, sludge from another digester was employed as inoculation and no problems such as acidification, sludge leaks or loss of microbial activity occurred during the process, nor was it necessary to add lime to control the pH and alkalinity. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  2. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  3. Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) Sewer Treatment Plants (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a point feature dataset showing the locations of sewer treatment plants. These facility locations are part of the safe drinking water information system...

  4. Wastewater Treatment Plants, North America, 2010, Dun and Bradstreet (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — D&B 20101220 Wastewater Treatment Plants Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, Canada, and Mexico, Released Quarterly...

  5. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar


    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role...

  6. Methodology for Plantwide Design and Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria Dragan, Johanna; Zubov, Alexandr; Sin, Gürkan


    Design of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is a complex engineering task which requires integration of knowledge and experience from environmental biotechnology, process engineering, process synthesis and design as well as mathematical programming. A methodology has been formulated and applied...

  7. Antibacterial effects of engineered nanomaterials: implications for wastewater treatment plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N


    Full Text Available ). With the increasing number of applications and uses of ENMs comes an increasing likelihood of nanoscale materials posing potential risks to the environment and engineered technical systems such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Recent scientific data suggests...


    Two chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood-treatment plants were assessed for their waste minimization practices. These practices have been reflected in several areas, including facility designs, process controls, and management practices. he objectives were to estimate the amount...

  9. Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  10. Dye Removal From Textile Waste Water Through The Adsorption By Pumice Used In Stone Washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Körlü Aysegül Ekmekçi


    Full Text Available Because the waste production is inevitable in almost all industries, the elimination of these wastes is a requirement in terms of environmental regulations and welfare of all the creatures in the future. In this study, the use of the waste pumice stones of a denim washing mill is intended to eliminate the pollutant by a waste material and obtain economic benefits by converting it to the adsorbent. The pollutants in the effluents obtained from three different localisations of waste water treatment system of the same factory were removed through the adsorption. The experimental studies were carried out in three different steps; characterisation of adsorbent before and after adsorption; adsorption isotherm studies and biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD measurements. Characterisation studies showed that the waste pumice has almost the same structural properties with unused one except the existence of some organic residues coming from washing process. The results of adsorption studies conducted at the adsorbent concentrations changing from 5 to 35 g/l revealed that the decolourisation was initial dye-concentration dependent. According to the BOD and COD measurements, the supernatants obtained at the end of adsorption could be assumed as somewhat polluted and this result indicates that the organic impurities other than indigo were also removed through the adsorption.

  11. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio. (United States)

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K


    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed.

  12. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Olive Mill Waste Water - OMWW Secoiridoid Lactones. (United States)

    Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Pratsinis, Harris; Grougnet, Raphaël; Halabalaki, Maria; Kletsas, Dimitris; Deguin, Brigitte; Skaltsounis, Leandros A


    Olive mill waste water is the major byproduct of the olive oil industry containing a range of compounds related to Olea europaea and olive oil constituents. Olive mill waste water comprises an important environmental problem in olive oil producing countries, but it is also a valuable material for the isolation of high added value compounds. In this study, an attempt to investigate the secoiridoid content of olive mill waste water is described with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (±)-high-resolution mass spectrometry and centrifugal partition chromatography methods. In total, seven secoiridoid lactones were isolated, four of which are new natural products. This is the first time that a conjugate of hydroxytyrosol and a secoiridoid lactone has been isolated from olive mill waste water and structurally characterized. Furthermore, the range of isolated compounds allowed for the proposal of a hypothesis for the biotransformation of olive secoiridoids during the production of olive mill waste water. Finally, the ability of the representative compounds to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species was assessed with the dichlorofluorescein assay in conjunction with the known antioxidant agent hydroxytyrosol. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Responses of some Nigerian vegetables of plant growth regulator treatments. (United States)

    Kadiri, M; Mukhtar, F; Agboola, D A


    The effects of single and combined growth regulator treatments of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and coconut milk on plant height, yield, chlorophyll and vitamin contents of Abelmoschus esculetus L and Solanum gilo L were investigated. The single growth regulator treatments consisted of 50mg/L, 100 mg/L of IAA and GA3 and 10%, 15% of coconut milk. In case of combined growth regulator treatments, the treatments were 100mg/L IAA + 100mg/L GA3, 100mg/L IAA + 15% coconut milk and 100mg/L GA3 + 15% coconut milk. Control vegetable plants were sprayed with water. Single treatments of 100mg/L IAA,100mg/L GA3. 10% and 15% coconut milk resulted in significantly increased plant height, chlorophyll contents and yield of A. esculentus, H. sabdariffa and S. gilo while only combined treatments of 100mg/L IAA + 10% coconut milk and 100mg/L GA3 + 15% coconut milk had such an effect on A. esculentus and S. gilo but not on H. sabdariffa. Moreover, singletreatments of 100mg/L GA3 and 15% coconut milk caused significantly higher vitamins A, B6 and C contents of treated plants whereas the combined treatments produced such an effect on only vitamin C contents of treated plants. Growth regulator treatments of 100mg/L GA3 and 15% coconut milk were consistently the best out of the entire growth regulator treatments tried with the treated plants having the greatest plant height, yield, chlorophyll and vitamin C contents.

  14. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte


    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied...... to quantify plant-integrated, real-time emissions of methane and nitrous oxides. Two mobile cavity ring-down spectroscopy sampling devices were used to record downwind gas concentrations emitted from a municipal WWTP situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. This plant is equipped to remove biological nitrogen...... in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant...

  15. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...... for improved and more efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants. Unfortunately, their evaluation and comparison – either practical or based on simulation – is difficult. This is partly due to the variability of the influent, to the complexity of the biological and biochemical phenomena...

  16. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs from a single-source precursor and characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–vis spectra. • The NPs were tested as effective photocatalyst toward degradation of RB and MB dyes. • The possible pathway of the photocatalytic decomposition process has been discussed. • The active species, OH·, was detected by TA photoluminescence probing techniques. - Abstract: γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]NO{sub 3} by a simple thermal decomposition process and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopic techniques. The NPs were highly pure and well crystallized having hexagonal morphology with an average particle size of 35 nm. The prepared γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) NPs show effective photo-catalytic activity toward the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes under visible light irradiation and can easily be recoverable in the presence of magnetic field for successive re-uses. The possible photo-catalytic decomposition mechanism is discussed through the detection of hydroxyl radical (OH·) by terephthalic acid photo-luminescence probing technique.

  17. Environmental system analysis of the waste water and organic wastes from households - synthesis of handling systems studied in the program 'Organic waste as a plant nutrient resource'; Miljoesystemanalys av hushaallens avlopp och organiska avfall - syntes av hanteringssystem undersoekta inom FoU-programmet 'Organiskt avfall som vaextnaeringsresurs'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, E.; Joensson, Haakan; Gruvberger, C.; Dalemo, M.; Sonesson, Ulf; Stenstroem, T.A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)


    Knowledge derived within the R and D programme 'Organic waste as a plant nutrient resource' was in this study used to compare four systems for handling wastewater and organic waste. In the conventional system, the sewage is treated in a sewage plant (SP) with mechanical, biological (incl. 70% nitrogen reduction) and chemical treatment. The sludge is anaerobically digested, dewatered and stored for 20 days. In the energy forest irrigation system the SP has no special nitrogen or phosphorus reduction and the effluent water is stored during winter and used for irrigation during summer. In the liquid compost system the wastewater from the vacuum toilets is co-treated with organic household waste in a reactor at 55 deg C for 7 days. In the other systems, the organic household waste is treated in a central windrow compost. In the urine separation system, the source-separated urine is hygienised by separate storage for 6 months. In the liquid compost and urine separation systems the grey water or the grey water plus faecal wastewater respectively is treated in a SP with phosphorus reduction but without nitrogen reduction. The residual products of the systems fertilise arable land 10 km away. The mass flows, environmental effects, energy turnover and resource utilisation were simulated using ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch model), assuming that the wastewater and organic household waste from 20 000 people were treated by the systems. Table values were used for composition of wastewater etc. Industrial wastewater and surface water were excluded from the study. The risk of disease transmission was discussed from the flows and faecal concentrations of the wastewater and from estimated intake of Salmonella, EHEC and Cryptosporidium by some animals under assumed conditions. Throughout the study, it was assumed that the systems function well, without disruptions, and that they are used as intended. The compared environmental effects and resource usage were prioritised

  18. Purification and recycling of the waste water of a paper mill using mechanical pulp; Mekaanista massaa kaeyttaevaen paperitehtaan jaeteveden puhdistus ja uudelleenkaeyttoe - EKY 07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattelemaeki, R. [Enso Oyj, Imatra (Finland)


    The objective of the project was to study which levels of organic and inorganic substances could be obtained by treatment of waste waters of mechanical pulper and paper machine biologically and after that with solid matter removal. Another target was also to test the utilisation of the purified water in pulp and paper manufacture, and to study the properties of purified water. The three months test runs with PK 4 and TMP plant clarified waters were carried out using a pilot-scale plant, which also consisted of two serial aerobic bioreactors and a parallel anaerobic line as a reference. The solid matter was removed by chemical flocculation, flotation and sand filtration. The purification efficiencies of both waters were similar both in aerobic and anaerobic lines. The reduction of soluble COD in biological stage was about 75 % and that of the whole line about 85 %. The solid matter reduction was 60-70 %. Solid fines, including bacteria, could not be removed sufficiently from the water by flotation and sand filtration so the water cannot be recommended to be used to replace fresh water. Circulating water sheets were produced, and pulp washing tests, retention tests and microbiological tests were carried out in order to estimate the recyclability of the water. Minor lowering of whiteness of the sheets were observed when a part of the fresh water was replaced with recycled water. Microscopic analysis shoved that after the sand filter there were a lot of free bacteria in the water. Further research will be concentrated to recycling of purified water, e.g. To research on how the colour of the water effects on the quality of the product. (orig.)

  19. Mass balance-based plant-wide wastewater treatment plant models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 3, 2006 ... Mass balance-based plant-wide wastewater treatment plant models – Part 3: Biodegradability of activated sludge organics under anaerobic conditions. GA Ekama*, SW Sötemann and MC Wentzel. Water Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape, ...

  20. Treatment of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents by solar photocatalysis using low TiO{sub 2} concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto-Rodriguez, L.; Miralles-Cuevas, S. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Carretera de Senes Km 4, 04200 (Tabernas, Almeria) (Spain); Oller, I. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Carretera de Senes Km 4, 04200 (Tabernas, Almeria) (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, A. [Pesticide Residue Research Group, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Puma, G. Li [Photocatalysis and Photoreaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Malato, S., E-mail: [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Carretera de Senes Km 4, 04200 (Tabernas, Almeria) (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low TiO{sub 2} concentration suitable for removal of contaminants in WWTP effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The low concentration of TiO{sub 2} limits the reaction rate due to the loss of photons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contaminant degradation >85% is possible after a certain reaction time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New developments in CPC photoreactors with as large an O.D. are necessary. - Abstract: The optimal photocatalyst concentration for industrial wastewater treatment in current photoreactor designs is several hundreds of milligrams per liter. However, the elimination of emerging contaminants (ECs), which are present at extremely low concentrations in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents might be accomplished at much lower catalyst (TiO{sub 2}) concentrations. One of the main drawbacks of reducing catalyst loading below the optimum is the loss of useful photons which instead are transmitted through the TiO{sub 2} suspension without being absorbed by the catalyst. Accordingly, in this work, laboratory and solar pilot-scale experiments were performed with real WWTP effluents to evaluate the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of 52 emerging contaminants under realistic (ppb) concentrations. The analysis of the samples was accomplished by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In view of the results, low concentrations of TiO{sub 2} of the order of tens of milligrams per liter were found to be insufficient for the degradation of the ECs in photoreactors with a short light-path length (29 cm). However, it was established that solar reactors of diameters of several hundreds of millimetres could be used for the efficient removal of ECs from WWTP effluents. The results presented show a general methodology for selecting the most efficient reactor diameter on the basis of the desired catalyst concentration.

  1. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Arie; van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.


    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can

  2. Cleaning and reusing backwash water of water treatment plants (United States)

    Skolubovich, Yury; Voytov, Evgeny; Skolubovich, Alexey; Ilyina, Lilia


    The article deals with the treatment of wash water of water treatment plants open water sources. The results of experimental studies on the choice of effective reagent, cleaning and disposal of wash water of filters. The paper proposed a new two-stage purification technology and multiple reuse of wash water of water purification stations from open surface sources

  3. THMs assessment in Khuzestan rural water treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Aims: The trihalomethanes (THMs concentration was investigated in some of rural water treatment plants in Khuzestan. Materials and Methods: Fifteen of the water treatment plants with the same drinking water source (Karoon river were selected for analysis of THMs to assess the levels and the relationship between THMs and total organic carbon (TOC, pH, temperature, chlorination dose, and free chlorine residue. Results: THMs ranged from 1.8 to 219 mg/l in winter and 1.7 to 98 in summer, where the level in some treatment plants is higher than the Maximum Concentration Level (MCL. The ratio of total THMs levels was significantly correlated with temperature, pH, chlorination dose, and free chlorine residue, but negative correlation with TOC. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies using total THMs levels should be considered in the analysis of water treatment plant′s results, and regulatory check of this parameter with drinking water guidelines.

  4. Effect of coagulants upon turbidity removal of waste water from the Chasnala coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G.; Singh, P.K. [Bira Institute of Technology Sindri, Dhanbad (India)


    In this paper, attempt has been made to control the extremely high turbidity of mine waste water by using different coagulants and it is observed that ferrous sulphate is the most effective coagulant followed by alum, ferric sulphate and lime. Also combinations of coagulants are used for getting the optimal results. Further steps are also discussed to make this water portable and a scheme of low cost water supply system of mine waste water has been suggested under the Water Management Strategies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Transport and fate of microplastic particles in wastewater treatment plants. (United States)

    Carr, Steve A; Liu, Jin; Tesoro, Arnold G


    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are frequently suspected as significant point sources or conduits of microplastics to the environment. To directly investigate these suspicions, effluent discharges from seven tertiary plants and one secondary plant in Southern California were studied. The study also looked at influent loads, particle size/type, conveyance, and removal at these wastewater treatment facilities. Over 0.189 million liters of effluent at each of the seven tertiary plants were filtered using an assembled stack of sieves with mesh sizes between 400 and 45 μm. Additionally, the surface of 28.4 million liters of final effluent at three tertiary plants was skimmed using a 125 μm filtering assembly. The results suggest that tertiary effluent is not a significant source of microplastics and that these plastic pollutants are effectively removed during the skimming and settling treatment processes. However, at a downstream secondary plant, an average of one micro-particle in every 1.14 thousand liters of final effluent was counted. The majority of microplastics identified in this study had a profile (color, shape, and size) similar to the blue polyethylene particles present in toothpaste formulations. Existing treatment processes were determined to be very effective for removal of microplastic contaminants entering typical municipal WWTPs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (I); Aplicacion del permanganato potasico para la eliminacion de cianuros de cobre en aguas residuales de la planta de lixiviacion en una mina de oro (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Garcia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.


    The use of cyanide in the hydrometallurgical and chemical industries has led to the emergence of a major environmental problem due to its high toxicity. Te wastewater generated at these plants is hazardous to the environment and therefore must be managed properly. For this purpose, they undergo detoxification processes after lodes from the plant are accumulated in waste-resistant containment ponds that mast be waterproof to prevent environmental disasters from leakages or massive flood. This work shows the results obtained in laboratory tests carried out with plant waters and demonstrates the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidant of cyanide wastewater from a gold hydrometallurgical plant. In the process the destruction of the copper cyanide complexes is solution is achieved and copper metal ions are eliminated through precipitation mostly as hydroxide. (Author) 28 refs.

  7. Uncertainty assessment of a model for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal: Application to a large wastewater treatment plant (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Cosenza, Alida; Viviani, Gaspare

    In the last few years, the use of mathematical models in WasteWater Treatment Plant (WWTP) processes has become a common way to predict WWTP behaviour. However, mathematical models generally demand advanced input for their implementation that must be evaluated by an extensive data-gathering campaign, which cannot always be carried out. This fact, together with the intrinsic complexity of the model structure, leads to model results that may be very uncertain. Quantification of the uncertainty is imperative. However, despite the importance of uncertainty quantification, only few studies have been carried out in the wastewater treatment field, and those studies only included a few of the sources of model uncertainty. Seeking the development of the area, the paper presents the uncertainty assessment of a mathematical model simulating biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The uncertainty assessment was conducted according to the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology that has been scarcely applied in wastewater field. The model was based on activated-sludge models 1 (ASM) and 2 (ASM2). Different approaches can be used for uncertainty analysis. The GLUE methodology requires a large number of Monte Carlo simulations in which a random sampling of individual parameters drawn from probability distributions is used to determine a set of parameter values. Using this approach, model reliability was evaluated based on its capacity to globally limit the uncertainty. The method was applied to a large full-scale WWTP for which quantity and quality data was gathered. The analysis enabled to gain useful insights for WWTP modelling identifying the crucial aspects where higher uncertainty rely and where therefore, more efforts should be provided in terms of both data gathering and modelling practises.

  8. Hydro-geochemical characterization of Treated Domestic Waste Water for possible use in homestead irrigation and managed aquifer recharge in the coastal city of Khulna, Bangladesh (United States)

    Hamid, T.; Ahmed, K. M.


    Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world. Rapid and unplanned urbanization in Bangladesh has resulted in heterogeneous land use pattern and larger demands for municipal water. To meet the ever-increasing demand of water for such population, the usage of treated domestic waste water (DWW) has become a viable option that can serve specific purposes, i.e. homestead irrigation, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in major cities like Khulna, the largest city in the southwest coastal region. It is an attractive solution to minimize the deficit between the demand and supply of water in the study area where, in specific parts, city-dwellers suffer year round shortage of potable water due to high salinity in shallow depths. However, certain degree of treatment is mandatory for DWW in order to ensure the compliance of the output water with a set of standards and regulations for the DWW reuse. At present, the DWW is being treated through Constructed Wetlands but the treated water is not used and discharged into the sewer system. Wastewater that has been treated through a constructed wetland is a resource that can be used for productive uses in homestead garden irrigation, artificial aquifer recharge, and other non-potable uses. The study addresses the effectiveness of constructed wetlands in improving the quality of wastewater through on the hydro-geochemical characterization of both raw and treated DWW as well as baseline water quality analysis of surface and ground water in and around the treatment plant with consideration of seasonal variations. The study aims at sustainable development through conservation of water, satisfaction of demands, reliability of water supply, contribution to urban food supply, sustenance of livelihood and replenishment of the depleting aquifer by assessing the suitability of the treated DWW for various non-potable uses and also to provide guidelines for possible uses of treated DWW without adverse impact on environment


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple cost effective and eco-friendly method for the remediation of lead from industrial wastewater has been investigated. A novel biomaterial, Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a medicinal plant, was used for the removal of lead ions from synthetic wastewater and the method was also applied for real sample analysis.

  10. Integrated plant for treatment of liquid radwaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen Gupta, S.K. [Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario (Canada)


    In the early 1980`s, AECL Research, at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site, built a Waste Treatment Centre for managing low-level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes. At present, two industrial liquid waste streams are being routinely treated. One stream originates from the central Decontamination Centre (DC), where reactor components, protective plastic clothing, and respirators are cleaned. The other Active Drain (AD) stream is produced from a large and diverse number of research laboratories and radioisotope production facilities. The two waste streams, totalling about 2500 m per year (0.66 million US gallons), are volume reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO), and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies; two thin-film evaporators (TFE) are employed for (i) the final volume reduction step, and (ii) the subsequent solidification of evaporator bottom with bitumen for containment of the radioactivity.

  11. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento


    Full Text Available The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and Mastic. From the plants Sambacaitá, Open Nettle, Yellow Uchi, Corona, Xiquexique, Senna and Pindaíba no properties to prove their indication was found for wound treatment. The stem bark was the most indicated part (96.15%, 81.03% of participants informed that plants should be kept dry for conservation. Studies to clarify the biological activities and collateral effects of medicinal plants are needed, beyond training for healers about indications, prepare, storage/conservation, and expiration date.

  12. Fuel treatments alter native plant composition and increase non-native plant cover (United States)

    Suzanne Owen


    Slash-pile burning and mechanical mastication are commonly prescribed fuel treatments for wildfire mitigation. Researchers from Flagstaff, AZ, and Spain recently published an article in Forest Ecology and Management that compared effects of the treatments on understory plant composition in Colorado pinyon-juniper woodlands (Owen and others 2009). Results showed that...

  13. Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems. (United States)

    Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi


    This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors.

  14. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld


    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  15. Nanosponge cyclodextrin polyurethanes and their modification with nanomaterials for the removal of pollutants from waste water: A review. (United States)

    Leudjo Taka, Anny; Pillay, Kriveshini; Yangkou Mbianda, Xavier


    Water is a worldwide vital resource for sustaining life and due to the pollution of water by different classes of pollutants (inorganic, organic and pathogens), many ongoing studies in water purification remain a critical issue to governments, scientists and industries. The challenge is to develop a water purification technology which will be effective at removing these contaminants simultaneously and reducing their concentrations to ultra low levels from waste water. This review article serves to give an overview on cyclodextrin nanosponge adsorbents which have already been used for water treatment. The modification of these cyclodextrin nanosponges with existing adsorbent nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, TiO2 and silver nanoparticles) and the factors affecting the adsorption capacity of these nanosorbents are discussed. The nanotoxicity of these engineered nanosorbents material is also addressed since nanotoxicity is a major concern to human health and environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Asmari


    Full Text Available Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41% was preferred followed by roots (19%, whole plant (14% and seeds (9%. The use of latex (4%, stem (3%, flowers (3% and bark (3% was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%, rhizome (1% and shoot (1% were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  17. Operational energy performance assessment system of municipal wastewater treatment plants. (United States)

    Yang, Lingbo; Zeng, Siyu; Chen, Jining; He, Miao; Yang, Wan


    Based on the statistical analysis of operational energy consumption and its influential factors from data of 599 Chinese WWTPs in 2006, it is noticed that the most influential factors include treatment technology adopted, treated sewage amount, removed pollutants amount, etc. Using the conclusion above, this paper sets up an integrated system of operational energy performance assessment for municipal wastewater treatment plants. Combining with result from on-spot research and model simulation, the calculating method of benchmark value and score of 7 energy efficiency indicators grouped into 3 levels is stated. Applying the assessment system to three plants, its applicability and objectivity are proved and suggestions to improve energy performance are provided.

  18. effect of petroleum waste water on new calabar river and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Effect of petroleum waste water on New Calabar River and its sediments in Buguma, Rivers State of Nigeria, was investigated. ... downstream 1 and 11. Some physico-chemical properties [pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, and salinity] were ..... utilizing bacteria in Nigerian Soils contaminated with spent motor oil.

  19. Generation of Electricity from Abattoir Waste Water with the Aid of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The generation of electricity from high strength abattoir waste water has been demonstrated to be feasible at room temperature using a novel electron acceptor as catholyte in dual-chambered microbial fuel cell systems with agar- salt bridge inter-connection. The utilization of this electron acceptor in the single ...

  20. Effect of GarriI processing effluents [waste water] on the cyanide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of GarriI processing effluents [waste water] on the cyanide level of some root tubers commonly consumed in the South East of Nigeria. ... implications of chronic low–level exposure to cyanide from African root tubers as a result of poor waste disposal methods. Keywords: Tubers, cyanide, toxicity, soil, contamination