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Sample records for waste-handling operations yucca

  1. Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

  2. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  3. Proposal for Managing Eco-efficient Operations Plant Dedicated to Waste Handling at Costa Rican Institute of Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Chinchilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different eco-efficient specifications were established considered by Ingeniería y Construcciónor IC (Engineering and Construction, a business of the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE, in Spanish, at the time of developing an operational plant devoted to the handling of waste, in order to make rational use of resources and generate the lowest environmental impact. Initially a general diagnosis was conducted to learn about the current process of waste management in IC, as well as the identification and assessment of its aspects and environmental impacts. An ecoefficiency proposal program was subsequently prepared to be implemented once the ordinary, special and hazardous waste plant is operating. As part of this investigation, eco-efficient measures and technologies were also identified; this can be adopted by IC or any organization to improve its waste management. Finally, it is necessary that the Eco-efficient Management Program (PGE, in Spanish is organized, planned and systematized over time; in addition, the need to have an Ecoefficiency Management Committee arises, which will allow to implement it and measure it through a series of indicators.

  4. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy ...

  5. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING SHIELD WALL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Padula

    2000-01-13

    The scope of this analysis is to estimate the shielding wall, ceiling or equivalent door thicknesses that will be required in the Waste Handling Building to maintain the radiation doses to personnel within acceptable limits. The shielding thickness calculated is the minimum required to meet administrative limits, and not necessarily what will be recommended for the final design. The preliminary evaluations will identify the areas which have the greatest impact on mechanical and facility design concepts. The objective is to provide the design teams with the necessary information to assure an efficient and effective design.

  6. A comparison of the consequences of different waste handling systems in two Danish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.; Thøgersen, John

    1995-01-01

    Results from a study conducted in two Danish communities with different waste handling systems are reported: Whereas one community introduced in the beginning of 1993 a system of combining economic incentives with structural improvements to promot separation, the other started in spring 1994...... a system based solely on non-economic incentives. The main objective was to compare citizen`s beliefs and attitudes towards waste handling systems and their consequence for motivations to co-operate. Th groups of hypotheses concerning the beliefs-attitude relationship, differences in attitudes between...

  7. 340 waste handling complex: Deactivation project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1998-06-25

    This document provides an overview of the strategy for deactivating the 340 Waste Handling Complex within Hanford`s 300 Area. The plan covers the period from the pending September 30, 1998 cessation of voluntary radioactive liquid waste (RLW) transfers to the 340 Complex, until such time that those portions of the 340 Complex that remain active beyond September 30, 1998, specifically, the Retention Process Sewer (RPS), can also be shut down and deactivated. Specific activities are detailed and divided into two phases. Phase 1 ends in 2001 after the core RLW systems have been deactivated. Phase 2 covers the subsequent interim surveillance of deactivated and stand-by components during the period of continued RPS operation, through the final transfer of the entire 340 Complex to the Environmental Restoration Contractor. One of several possible scenarios was postulated and developed as a budget and schedule planning case.

  8. Robotics Scoping Study to Evaluate Advances in Robotics Technologies that Support Enhanced Efficiencies for Yucca Mountain Repository Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Burgess; M. Noakes; P. Spampinato

    2005-03-17

    This paper presents an evaluation of robotics and remote handling technologies that have the potential to increase the efficiency of handling waste packages at the proposed Yucca Mountain High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository. It is expected that increased efficiency will reduce the cost of operations. The goal of this work was to identify technologies for consideration as potential projects that the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Office of Science and Technology International Programs, could support in the near future, and to assess their ''payback'' value. The evaluation took into account the robotics and remote handling capabilities planned for incorporation into the current baseline design for the repository, for both surface and subsurface operations. The evaluation, completed at the end of fiscal year 2004, identified where significant advantages in operating efficiencies could accrue by implementing any given robotics technology or approach, and included a road map for a multiyear R&D program for improvements to remote handling technology that support operating enhancements.

  9. A systematic critical review of epidemiological studies on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, France; Ncube, Esper Jacobeth; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-03-01

    The ultimate aim of this review was to summarise the epidemiological evidence on the association between municipal solid waste management operations and health risks to populations residing near landfills and incinerators, waste workers and recyclers. To accomplish this, the sub-aims of this review article were to (1) examine the health risks posed by municipal solid waste management activities, (2) determine the strengths and gaps of available literature on health risks from municipal waste management operations and (3) suggest possible research needs for future studies. The article reviewed epidemiological literature on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling published in the period 1995-2014. The PubMed and MEDLINE computerised literature searches were employed to identify the relevant papers using the keywords solid waste, waste management, health risks, recycling, landfills and incinerators. Additionally, all references of potential papers were examined to determine more articles that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 379 papers were identified, but after intensive screening only 72 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these studies, 33 were on adverse health effects in communities living near waste dumpsites or incinerators, 24 on municipal solid waste workers and 15 on informal waste recyclers. Reviewed studies were unable to demonstrate a causal or non-causal relationship due to various limitations. In light of the above findings, our review concludes that overall epidemiological evidence in reviewed articles is inadequate mainly due to methodological limitations and future research needs to develop tools capable of demonstrating causal or non-causal relationships between specific waste management operations and adverse health endpoints.

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Independent Waste Handling Facility, 211-F at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Currently, liquid Low Activity Waste (LAW) and liquid High Activity Waste (HAW) are generated from various process operational facilities/processes throughout the Savannah River Site (SRS) as depicted on Figure 2-1. Prior to storage in the F-Area tank farm, these wastes are neutralized and concentrated to minimize their volume. The Waste Handling Facility (211-3F) at Building 211-F Complex (see Figure 2-2) is the only existing facility onsite equipped to receive acidic HAW for neutralization and volume reduction processing. Currently, Building 221-F Canyon (see Figure 2-2) houses the neutralization and evaporation facilities for HAW volume reduction and provides support services such as electric power and plant, process, and instrument air, waste transfer capabilities, etc., for 21 1-F operations. The future plan is to deactivate the 221-F building. DOE`s purpose is to be able to process the LAW/HAW that will continue to be generated on site. DOE needs to establish an alternative liquid waste receipt and treatment capability to support site facilities with a continuing mission. The desire is for Building 211-F to provide the receipt and neutralization functions for LAW and HAW independent of 221-F Canyon. The neutralization capability is required to be part of the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Programs (NMSP) facilities since the liquid waste generated by the various site facilities is acidic. Tn order for Waste Management to receive the waste streams, the solutions must be neutralized to meet Waste Management`s acceptance criteria. The Waste Management system is caustic in nature to prevent corrosion and the subsequent potential failure of tanks and associated piping and hardware.

  11. Engineering solutions of environmental problems in organic waste handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhanov, A. Y.; Vasilev, E. V.; Shalavina, E. V.; Kucheruk, O. N.

    2017-10-01

    This study shows the urgent need to consider modernization of agricultural production in terms of sustainable development, which takes into account environmental implications of intensive technologies in livestock farming. Some science-based approaches are offered to address related environmental challenges. High-end technologies of organic livestock waste processing were substantiated by the feasibility study and nutrient balance calculation. The technologies were assessed on the basis of best available techniques criteria, including measures such as specific capital and operational costs associated with nutrient conservation and their delivery to the plants.

  12. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  13. Yucca Mountain Task 4, Final report FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1993-09-30

    Four major projects at UNRSL have been supported by NWPO-Neotectonics Yucca Mountain Task 4 funds during the last year: (1) Operation and analysis of data from the UNRSL microearthquake network at Yucca Mountain. (2) Continued operation, maintenance, and calibration of three broadband stations. Limited data analysis was also initiated. (3) Continued review by Dr. Brune of documents and literature related to seismic hazard and tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. (4) Testing of noise levels in boreholes.

  14. Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will review the environmental implications of dynamic policy objectives and instruments outlined in the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU-FP7 Project DYNAmic policy MIXes for absolute decoupling of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX to address reductions in food consumption, food waste and a change in waste handling systems. The environmental implications of reductions in protein intake, food waste reductions, food waste management and donations are addressed using a life cycle approach to find the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, land use and water consumption. Data are provided from the Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT food balance sheets for the European Union (EU with a base year of 2010 and life cycle inventory (LCI data from a meta-study of available GHG, land use and water consumption data for major food products. The implications are reviewed using a number of scenarios for the years 2030 and 2050 assuming policy instruments are fully effective. Results indicate that reductions in animal-based protein consumption significantly reduce environmental impacts, followed thereafter by reductions in food waste (assuming this also reduces food consumption. Despite the positive implications the policy mixes may have for targets for decoupling, they are not enough to meet GHG emissions targets for the EU outlined in the DYNAMIX project, although land and water use have no significant change compared to 2010 levels.

  15. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1992--September 30, 1992, Number 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    In accordance with section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), the Department has prepared the seventh in a series of reports on the progress of site characterization at the Yucca Mountain candidate site. The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program made significant progress during the reporting period at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Several important advances were made in the surface-based testing program including: initiation of borehole drilling utilizing the new, state-of-the-art LM-300 drill rig which employs dry drilling and coring techniques; neutron access borehole drilling to evaluate infiltration processes; excavations to aid geologic mapping; and trenching in Midway Valley to study Quaternary faulting. A Floodplain Assessment and Statement of Findings was published in the Federal Register which concluded there would be no significant impact nor cumulative impacts on floodplains resulting from Exploratory Studies Facility activities. The National Academy of Sciences` National Research Council released its report entitled ``Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise?`` which concluded that none of the evidence cited as proof of groundwater upwelling in and around Yucca Mountain could be reasonably attributed to that process and that significant water table excursions to the repository design level are not shown by the geologic record. The June 29, 1992, earthquake near Yucca Mountain provided scientists with a wealth of information relevant to understanding the neotectonics of the area and the geometry of faults at depth. Early findings suggest that accelerations recorded were well within proposed design limits for the surface waste handling facilities.

  17. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  18. Yucca Mountain Project public interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, B.E.

    1990-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project`s public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site.

  19. Emergy Evaluation of the Urban Solid Waste Handling in Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better treatment results. The aim of a thorough ecological-economic evaluation of different treatment technologies is to extract the maximum practical benefits from investments and to ensure the minimum environmental impacts of wastes. This paper compares four garbage treatment systems, including sanitary landfills systems, fluidized bed incineration system, grate type incineration system and the current landfills system in Liaoning Province, China. By considering the economic and environmental impacts of waste treatment and disposal, impact of emissions, and contribution of wastes input, this paper constructed an emergy-based urban solid waste model for evaluating the sustainability of the holistic systems. The results in Liaoning indicate that the human health losses caused by the harmful air emissions are ranked in this order: fluidized bed incineration > grate type incineration > current landfills > sanitary landfills, while the ecosystem losses are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. The electricity yield ratios are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. Taken together this suggests that in considering the incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating. Emergy analysis of the urban solid treatment systems can provide a set of useful tools which can be used to compare the comprehensive performances of different waste treatment processes for decision-making and optimizing the whole process.

  20. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  1. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertz, C.P.; Bartlett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) and establish an approved YMP baseline against which overall YMP progress and management effectiveness shall be measured. For the sake of brevity, this document will be referred to as the Project Plan throughout this document. This Project Plan only addresses activities up to the submittal of the repository license application (LA) to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A new Project Plan will be submitted to establish the technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the final design and construction phase of development extending through the start of repository operations, assuming that the site is determined to be suitable.

  2. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  3. Transportation cask decontamination and maintenance at the potential Yucca Mountain repository; Yucca Mountain Site characterization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, D.J.; Miller, D.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hill, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This study investigates spent fuel cask handling experience at existing nuclear facilities to determine appropriate cask decontamination and maintenance operations at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These operations are categorized as either routine or nonroutine. Routine cask decontamination and maintenance tasks are performed in the cask preparation area at the repository. Casks are taken offline to a separate cask maintenance area for major nonroutine tasks. The study develops conceptual designs of the cask preparation area and cask maintenance area. The functions, layouts, and major features of these areas are also described.

  4. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques.

  5. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  6. Two-dimensional velocity models for paths from Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.; Phillips, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    Vertical acceleration recordings of 21 underground nuclear explosions recorded at stations at Yucca Mountain provide the data for development of three two-dimensional crystal velocity profiles for portions of the Nevada Test Site. Paths from Area 19, Area 20 (both Pahute Mesa), and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain have been modeled using asymptotic ray theory travel time and synthetic seismogram techniques. Significant travel time differences exist between the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa source areas; relative amplitude patterns at Yucca Mountain also shift with changing source azimuth. The three models, UNEPM1, UNEPM2, and UNEYF1, successfully predict the travel time and amplitude data for all three paths. 24 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Selection of Batteries and Fuel Cells for Yucca Mountain Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R S

    2003-12-08

    The Performance Confirmation program of the Yucca Mountain Repository Development Project needs to employ remotely operated robots to work inside the emplacement drifts which will have an environment unsuitable for humans (radiation environment of up to 200 rad/hour (mostly gamma rays, some neutrons)) and maximum temperatures of 180 C. The robots will be required to operate inside the drifts for up to 8 hours per mission. Based on available functional requirements, we have developed the following specifications for the power needed by the robots:

  8. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holt, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Congress designated Yucca Mountain, NV, as the nation's sole candidate site for a permanent high-level nuclear waste repository in 1987, following years of controversy over the site-selection process...

  9. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-07

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.

  10. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  11. Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: Comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

  12. Prototype testing for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalia, H.N.; Oliver, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Girdley, W.A. [USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Yucca Mountain Project Office

    1990-02-01

    The US Department of Energy, through its Yucca Mountain Project Office, has been conducting prototype activities in welded and non-welded tuff. These activities are in preparation for characterization of the Yucca Mountain area, which is under consideration as a site for a geologic repository in which high-level nuclear waste could be safely stored. Investigators from organizations that will conduct the site investigation have been afforded opportunity, through the prototype program, to test, evaluate, and develop instruments, equipment, and methods. The Exploratory Shaft Facility will be used to collect significant amounts of underground site characterization data. The prototype tests are conducted under similar conditions. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  14. Hammering Yucca Flat, Part Two: Shear-Wave Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, T. S.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Tang, D. G.; James, S. R.; Haney, M. M.; Hampshire, J. B., II

    2015-12-01

    In preparation for the next phase of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), we conducted an active-source seismic survey of Yucca Flat, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. Results from this survey will be used to inform the geologic models associated with the SPE project. For this study, we used a novel 13,000 kilogram weight-drop seismic source to interrogate an 18-km North-South transect of Yucca Flat. Source points were spaced every 200 meters and were recorded by 350 to 380 3-component 2-Hz geophones with variable spacings of 10, 20, and 100 meters. We utilized the Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi) technique to create multiple 1D dispersion curves, which were then inverted for shear-wave velocity profiles using the Dix inversion method (Tsai and Haney, 2015). Each of these 1D velocity models was subsequently stitched together to create a 2D profile over the survey area. The dispersion results indicate a general decrease in surface-wave phase velocity to the south. This result is supported by slower shear-wave velocity sediments and increasing basin depth towards the survey's southern extent. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  16. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  17. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    to manage nuclear waste, including spent fuel reprocessing. One of the studies, by a consortium led by the French firm Areva , called a government...1936). In a 2008 report for GNEP, a consortium led by the French nuclear firm Areva recommended that U.S. spent fuel be reprocessed overseas from...shipment rate to Yucca Mountain. Many decades would be required to implement a reprocessing and recycling strategy. For example, the Areva consortium

  18. Revised mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    We have evaluated three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis. All data were obtained on core cuttings, or sidewall samples obtained from drill holes at and around Yucca Mountain. Previously published data are included with corrections, together with new data for several drill holes. The new data presented in this report used the internal standard method of quantitative analysis, which yields results of high precision for the phases commonly found in Yucca Mountain tuffs including opal-CT and glass. Mineralogical trends with depth previously noted are clearly shown by these new data. Glass occurrence is restricted almost without exception to above the present-day static water level (SWL), although glass has been identified below the SWL in partially zeolitized tuffs. Silica phases undergo well-defined transitions with depth, with tridymite and cristobalite occurring only above the SWL, opal-CT occurring with clinoptilolite-mordenite tuffs, and quartz most abundant below the SWL. Smectite occurs in small amounts in most samples but is enriched in two distinct zones. These zones are at the top of the vitric nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and at the top of the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member. Our data support the presence of several zones of mordenite and clinoptilolite-heulandite as shown previously. New data on several deep clinoptililite-heulandite samples coexisting with analcime show that they are heulandite. Phillipsite has not been found in any Yucca Mountain samples, but erionite and chabazite have been found once in fractures. 21 refs., 17 figs.

  19. Surface-Wave Tomography of Yucca Flat, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, L. D.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Preston, L. A.; Hoots, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, Sandia National Laboratories conducted an active-source seismic survey of Yucca Flat, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. The Yucca Flat basin hosted over 900 nuclear tests between 1951 and 1992. Data from this survey will help characterize seismic propagation effects of the area, informing models for the next phase of the Source Physics Experiments. The survey source was a 13,000-kg weight-drop at 91 locations along a 19-km N-S transect and 56 locations along an 11-km E-W transect. Over 350 three-component 2-Hz geophones were variably spaced at 10, 20, and 100 m along each line. We employed roll-along survey geometry to ensure 10-m receiver spacing within 2 km of the source. Phase velocity surface-wave analysis via the refraction-microtremor (ReMi) method was previously performed on this data in order to obtain an S-wave velocity model of the subsurface. However, the results of this approach were significantly impacted in areas where ray paths were proximate to underground nuclear tests, resulting in a spatially incomplete model. We have processed the same data utilizing group velocities and the multiple filter technique (MFT), with the hope that the propagation of wave groups is less impacted by the disrupted media surrounding former tests. We created a set of 30 Gaussian band-pass filters with scaled relative passbands and central frequencies ranging from 1 to 50 Hz. We picked fundamental Rayleigh wave arrivals from the filtered data; these picks were then inverted for 2D S-wave velocity along the transects. The new S-wave velocity model will be integrated with previous P-wave tomographic results to yield a more complete model of the subsurface structure of Yucca Flat. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  1. Distribution of potentially hazardous phases in the subsurface at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Drilling, trenching, excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility, and other surface and underground-distributing activities have the potential to release minerals into the environment from tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Some of these minerals may be potential respiratory health hazards. Therefore, an understanding of the distribution of the minerals that may potentially be liberated during site-characterization and operation of the potential repository is crucial to ensuring worker and public safety. Analysis of previously reported mineralogy of Yucca Mountain tuffs using data and criteria from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggests that the following minerals are of potential concern: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, opal-CT, erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite. The authors have re-evaluated the three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain above the static water level both in bulk-rock samples and in fractures, using quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite occur primarily in fractures; the crystalline-silica minerals, quartz, cristobalite, and tridymite are major bulk-rock phases. Erionite occurs in the altered zone just above the lower Topopah Spring Member vitrophyre, and an occurrence below the vitrophyre but above the Calico Hills has recently been identified. In this latter occurrence, erionite is present in the matrix at levels up to 35 wt%. Mordenite and palygorskite occur throughout the vadose zone nearly to the surface. Opal-CT is limited to zeolitic horizons.

  2. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2005-08-29

    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event.

  3. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data for Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, B.M.; Hall, I.J.; Peters, R.R.; Easterling, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.

    1992-02-01

    The geologic formations in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain are currently being studied as the host rock for a potential radioactive waste repository. Data from several drill holes have been collected to provide the preliminary information needed for planning site characterization for the Yucca Mountain Project. Hydrologic properties have been measured on the core samples and the variables analyzed here are thought to be important in the determination of groundwater travel times. This report presents a statistical analysis of four hydrologic variables: saturated-matrix hydraulic conductivity, maximum moisture content, suction head, and calculated groundwater travel time. It is important to modelers to have as much information about the distribution of values of these variables as can be obtained from the data. The approach taken in this investigation is to (1) identify regions at the Yucca Mountain site that, according to the data, are distinctly different; (2) estimate the means and variances within these regions; (3) examine the relationships among the variables; and (4) investigate alternative statistical methods that might be applicable when more data become available. The five different functional stratigraphic units at three different locations are compared and grouped into relatively homogeneous regions. Within these regions, the expected values and variances associated with core samples of different sizes are estimated. The results provide a rough estimate of the distribution of hydrologic variables for small core sections within each region.

  4. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Valentine

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain

  5. The paleohydrology of unsaturated and saturated zones at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Whelan, Joseph F.; Stuckless, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Surface, unsaturated-zone, and saturated-zone hydrologic conditions at Yucca Mountain responded to past climate variations and are at least partly preserved by sediment, fossil, and mineral records. Characterizing past hydrologic conditions in surface and subsurface environments helps to constrain hydrologic responses expected under future climate conditions and improve predictions of repository performance. Furthermore, these records provide a better understanding of hydrologic processes that operate at time scales not readily measured by other means. Pleistocene climates in southern Nevada were predominantly wetter and colder than the current interglacial period. Cyclic episodes of aggradation and incision in Fortymile Wash, which drains the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, are closely linked to Pleistocene climate cycles. Formation of pedogenic cement is favored under wetter Pleistocene climates, consistent with increased soil moisture and vegetation, higher chemical solubility, and greater evapotranspiration relative to Holocene soil conditions. The distribution and geochemistry of secondary minerals in subsurface fractures and cavities reflect unsaturated-zone hydrologic conditions and the response of the hydrogeologic system to changes in temperature and percolation flux over the last 12.8 m.y. Physical and fluid-inclusion evidence indicates that secondary calcite and opal formed in air-filled cavities from fluids percolating downward through connected fracture pathways in the unsaturated zone. Oxygen, strontium, and carbon isotope data from calcite are consistent with a descending meteoric water source but also indicate that water compositions and temperatures evolved through time. Geochronological data indicate that secondary mineral growth rates are less than 1–5 mm/m.y., and have remained approximately uniform over the last 10 m.y. or longer. These data are interpreted as evidence for hydrological stability despite large differences in surface moisture

  6. Site environmental report for calendar year 1994, Yucca Mountain Site, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization office has established an environmental program to ensure that facilities are operated in order to protect, maintain, and restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to the environment and the public, and comply with environmental policies and US DOE orders. The status of the environmental program has been summarized in this annual report to characterize performance, confirm compliance with environmental requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts during CY 1994. Monitoring, archaeology, groundwater, ecosystems, tortoise conservation, waste minimization, etc., are covered.

  7. PRESERVATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN ARID ENVIRONMENTS RELEVANT TO YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Chapman, A. Dansie, C. McCombie

    2006-02-24

    The objective of this study was to evaluate archaeological materials from underground openings or shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain and to draw conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could be of relevance to design and operational aspects of the high-level waste repository. The study has evaluated materials from cultures in the arid regions of the ancient Middle East and compared them with the preservation of ancient materials in dry cave sites in the Great Basin desert area of Nevada. The emphasis has been on materials found in undisturbed underground openings such as caves and un-backfilled tombs. Long-term preservation of such materials in underground openings and the stability of the openings themselves provide useful analogue information that serves as a reference point for considering the operation and evolution of the Yucca Mountain repository. Being able to shed light, by close physical and environmental analogy, on what happens in underground openings over many thousands of years provides valuable underpinning to illustrations of expected system performance and offers pointers towards optimizing repository system and operational design.

  8. Preliminary model of the pre-Tertiary basement rocks beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on analysis of gravity and magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Sweetkind, D.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, was developed to investigate the possible consequences to the environment of 40 years of nuclear testing on the Nevada Test Site. The majority of the tests were detonated underground, introducing contaminants into the ground-water system (Laczniak and others, 1996). An understanding of the ground-water flow paths is necessary to evaluate the extent of ground-water contamination. This report provides information specific to Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site. Critical to understanding the ground-water flow beneath Yucca Flat is an understanding of the subsurface geology, particularly the structure and distribution of the pre-Tertiary rocks, which comprise both the major regional aquifer and aquitard sequences (Winograd and Thordarson, 1975; Laczniak and others, 1996). Because the pre-Tertiary rocks are not exposed at the surface of Yucca Flat their distribution must be determined through well logs and less direct geophysical methods such as potential field studies. In previous studies (Phelps and others, 1999; Phelps and Mckee, 1999) developed a model of the basement surface of the Paleozoic rocks beneath Yucca Flat and a series of normal faults that create topographic relief on the basement surface. In this study the basement rocks and structure of Yucca Flat are examined in more detail using the basement gravity anomaly derived from the isostatic gravity inversion model of Phelps and others (1999) and high-resolution magnetic data, as part of an effort to gain a better understanding of the Paleozoic rocks beneath Yucca Flat in support of groundwater modeling.

  9. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning [Disposal Safety, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ``fresh-water head,`` a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface.

  10. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-29

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

  11. Tectonic stability and expected ground motion at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-10-02

    A workshop was convened on August 7-8, 1984 at the direction of DOE to discuss effects of natural and artificial earthquakes and associated ground motion as related to siting of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A panel of experts in seismology and tectonics was assembled to review available data and analyses and to assess conflicting opinions on geological and seismologic data. The objective of the meeting was to advise the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project about how to present a technically balanced and scientifically credible evaluation of Yucca Mountain for the NNWSI Project EA. The group considered two central issues: the magnitude of ground motion at Yucca Mountain due to the largest expected earthquake, and the overall tectonic stability of the site given the current geologic and seismologic data base. 44 refs.

  12. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  13. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater travel-time calculations for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.; Altman, S.J.; Arnold, B.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Groundwater flow through the unsaturated and saturated zones at Yucca Mountain has been modeled in support of the groundwater travel time regulations for the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Flow in the unsaturated zone was modeled using two conceptual models to test alternative methods of generating fast flow paths. Groundwater travel times from the potential repository location to the accessible environment range from less than 1,000 years to much more than 10,000 years, depending on the hydraulic properties of the rock units.

  15. Communicating A Controversial and Complex Project to the Public: Yucca Mountain Tours - Real and Virtual Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.B. Benson; P.V. Nelson; M. d' Ouville

    2000-03-01

    Since 1983, under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (42 U.S.C. 10101 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has been investigating a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development as the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. By far, the largest quantity of waste destined for geologic disposal is spent nuclear fuel from 118 commercial nuclear power reactors at 72 power plant sites and 1 commercial storage site across the United States. Currently, 104 of these reactors are still in operation and generate about 20 percent of the country's electricity. Under standard contracts that DOE executed with the utilities, DOE is to accept spent nuclear fuel from the utilities for disposal. Until that happens, the utilities must safely store their spent nuclear fuel in compliance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. As of December 1998, commercial spent nuclear fuel containing approximately 38,500 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) was stored in 33 states. The balance of the waste destined for geologic disposal in a repository is Department-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The Department's spent nuclear fuel includes naval spent nuclear fuel and irradiated fuel from weapons production, domestic research reactors, and foreign research reactors. For disposal in a geologic repository, high-level radioactive waste would be processed into a solid glass form and placed into approximately 20,000 canisters. No liquid or hazardous wastes regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 would be disposed of in a geologic repository. The difficulty in siting new facilities, particularly those designed as nuclear or nuclear-related facilities, is well documented. In this context, national boundaries are not significant distinguishing barriers. As one publication observed, &apos

  16. The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model for Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aziz, E.; James, S. C.; Arnold, B. W.; Zyvoloski, G. A.

    2006-12-01

    previous model calibration. Specific discharge at a point 5~km from the repository is also examined and found to be within acceptable uncertainty. The results show that updated model yields a calibration with smaller residuals than the previous model revision while ensuring that flowpaths follow measured gradients and paths derived from hydrochemical analyses. This work was supported by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, which is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE AC04 94AL85000.

  17. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker

    1998-12-01

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The Crater Flat volcanic zone is

  18. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinagra, T.A. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA); Harig, R. [Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ``MRS``) on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. This document contains A-D.

  19. Areal power density: A preliminary examination of underground heat transfer in a potential Yucca Mountain repository and recommendations for thermal design approaches; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Ryder, E.E.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the potential Yucca Mountain repository is subject to many thermal goals related to the compliance of the site with federal regulations. This report summarizes a series of sensitivity studies that determined the expected temperatures near the potential repository. These sensitivity studies were used to establish an efficient loading scheme for the spent fuel canisters and a maximum areal power density based strictly on thermal goals. Given the current knowledge of the site, a design-basis areal power density of 80 kW/acre can be justified based on thermal goals only. Further analyses to investigate the impacts of this design-basis APD on mechanical and operational aspects of the potential repository must be undertaken before a final decision is made.

  20. Scenarios constructed for basaltic igneous activity at Yucca Mountain and vicinity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.; Dockery, H.; Barnard, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valentine, G.; Crowe, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Basaltic volcanism has been identified as a possible future event initiating a release of radionuclides from a potential repository at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository site. The performance assessment method set forth in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE, 1988) requires that a set of scenarios encompassing all significant radionuclide release paths to the accessible environment be described. This report attempts to catalogue the details of the interactions between the features and processes produced by basaltic volcanism in the presence of the presumed groundwater flow system and a repository structure, the engineered barrier system (EBS), and waste. This catalogue is developed in the form of scenarios. We define a scenario as a well-posed problem, starting from an initiating event or process and proceeding through a logically connected and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes (FEPs) to the release of contaminants.

  1. Understanding the Potential for Volcanoes at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-08-01

    By studying the rocks and geologic features of an area, experts can assess whether it is vulnerable to future volcanic eruptions. Scientists have performed extensive studies at and near Yucca Mountain to determine whether future volcanoes could possibly affect the proposed repository for nuclear waste.

  2. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  3. Archaelogy of Arid Environment Points to Management Options for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Chapman; A. Dansie; C. McCombie

    2006-08-29

    As with all planned repositories for spent fuel, the critical period over which Yucca Mountain needs to provide isolation is the first hundreds to thousands of years after the fuel is emplaced, when it is at its most hazardous. Both the original and the proposed new EPA standards highlight the central importance of this performance period by focusing on repository behavior during the first 10,000 years. Archaeology has a lot to tell us about the behavior of materials and structures over this time period. There have been numerous studies of archaeological artifacts in conditions relevant to the groundwater saturated environments that are a feature of most international geological disposal concepts, but relatively few in arid environments like that of the Nevada desert. However, there is much information to be gleaned, not only from classic archaeological areas in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean but also, perhaps surprisingly to some, from Nevada itself. Our recent study evaluated archaeological materials from underground openings and shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain, drawing conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could help to assess design and operational options for the high-level waste repository.

  4. Uncertainty Regarding Waste Handling in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Ewert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available According to our study, based on interviews with households in a residential area in Sweden, uncertainty is a cultural barrier to improved recycling. Four causes of uncertainty are identified. Firstly, professional categories not matching cultural categories—people easily discriminate between certain categories (e.g., materials such as plastic and paper but not between others (e.g., packaging and “non-packaging”. Thus a frequent cause of uncertainty is that the basic categories of the waste recycling system do not coincide with the basic categories used in everyday life. Challenged habits—source separation in everyday life is habitual, but when a habit is challenged, by a particular element or feature of the waste system, uncertainty can arise. Lacking fractions—some kinds of items cannot be left for recycling and this makes waste collection incomplete from the user’s point of view and in turn lowers the credibility of the system. Missing or contradictory rules of thumb—the above causes seem to be particularly relevant if no motivating principle or rule of thumb (within the context of use is successfully conveyed to the user. This paper discusses how reducing uncertainty can improve recycling.

  5. Making the Postclosure Safety Case for the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Swift; A.V. Luik

    2006-08-28

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in its advisory standard for geological repositories promulgated jointly with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, explicitly distinguishes between the concepts of a safety case and a safety assessment. As defined in the advisory standard, the safety case is a broader set of arguments that provide confidence and substantiate the formal analyses of system safety made through the process of safety assessment. Although the IAEAYs definitions include both preclosure (i.e., operational) safety and post-closure performance in the overall safety assessment and safety case, the emphasis in here is on long-term performance after waste has been emplaced and the repository has been closed. This distinction between pre- and postclosure aspects of the repository is consistent with the U.S. regulatory framework defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 197, or 40 CFR 197) [2] and implemented by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Chapter 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63, or 10 CFR 63) [3]. The separation of the pre- and postclosure safety cases is also consistent with the way in which the U.S. Department of Energy has assigned responsibilities for developing the safety case. Bechtel SAIC Company is the Management and Operating contractor responsible for the design and operation of the Yucca Mountain facility and is therefore responsible for the preparation of the preclosure aspects of the safety case. Sandia National Laboratories has lead responsibility for scientific work evaluating post-closure performance, and therefore is responsible for developing the post-closure aspects of the safety case. In the context of the IAEA definitions, both preclosure and postclosure safety, including safety assessment and the safety case, will be documented in the license application being prepared for the

  6. Environmental Impacts of Transportation to the Potential Repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Sweeney; R. Best; P. Bolton; P. Adams

    2002-01-03

    The Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada analyzes a Proposed Action to construct, operate, monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. As part of the Proposed Action, the EIS analyzes the potential impacts of transporting commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain from 77 sites across the United States. The analysis includes information on the comparative impacts of transporting these materials by truck and rail and discusses the impacts of building a rail line or using heavy-haul trucks to move rail casks from a mainline railroad in Nevada to the site. This paper provides an overview of the analyses and the potential impacts of these transportation activities. The potential transportation impacts were looked at from two perspectives: transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste by legal-weight truck or by rail on a national scale and impacts specific to Nevada from the transportation of these materials from the State borders to the Yucca Mountain site. In order to address the range of impacts that could result from the most likely modes, legal-weight truck and rail, the EIS employed two analytical scenarios--mostly legal-weight truck and mostly rail. Estimated national transportation impacts were based on 24 years of transportation activities. Approximately 8 fatalities could occur from all causes in the nationwide general population from incident-free transportation activities of the mostly legal-weight truck scenario and about 4 from the mostly rail scenario. The analysis examined the radiological consequences under the maximum foreseeable accident scenario and also overall accident risk. The overall accident risk over the 24 year period would be about 0.0002 latent cancer fatality for

  7. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  8. Thermal stability of zeolitic tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bish, D.L.

    1990-04-01

    Thermal models of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, suggest that rocks near the proposed host rock will experience elevated temperatures for at least 1000 yrs. In order to assess the effects of elevated temperatures on zeolites clinoptilolite and mordenite were investigated using a combination of high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis, and long-term heating experiments. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Alternate conceptual model of ground water flow at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Attempts to predict the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States have lead to the development of alternative conceptual models of the ground watre flow field in which the repository will be located. This step has come about because of the lage uncertainties involved in predicting the movement of water and radionuclides through an unsaturated fractured rock. Further, one of the standards to which we are comparing performance is probabilistic, so we are forced to try to conceive of all credible scenarios by which ground water may intersect the repository horizon and perhaps transport radionuclides to a given compliance boundary. To simplify this task, the DOE set about identifying alternative conceptual models of ground water flow which are consistent with existing data. Modeling these concepts necessitates the use of simplifying assumptions. Among the modeling assumptions commonly utilized by analysts of the Yucca Mountain site are those of uniformly distributed, small volumes of recharge and matrix or porous media flow. Most scientists would agree that recharge at Yucca Mountain does not occur in this ideal and simplified fashion, yet modeling endeavors continue to commonly utilize this approach. In this paper, we examine the potential effects of focused recharge on the flow field at Yucca Mountain in concert with a fractured matrix and non-equilibrium view of ground water flow.

  10. Geodesy and contemporary strain in the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefer, W.R.; Coe, J.A.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Hunter, W.C.

    1997-10-01

    Geodetic surveys provide important information for estimating recent ground movement in support of seismotectonic investigations of the potential nuclear-waste storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Resurveys of established level lines document up to 22 millimeters of local subsidence related to the 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which is consistent with seismic data that show normal-slip rupture and with data from a regional trilateration network. Comparison of more recent surveys with a level line first established in 1907 suggests 3 to 13 centimeters of subsidence in the Crater Flat-Yucca Mountain structural depression that coincides with the Bare Mountain fault; small uplifts also were recorded near normal faults at Yucca Mountain. No significant deformation was recorded by a trilateration network over a 10-year period, except for coseismic deformation associated with the Little Skull Mountain earthquake, but meaningful results are limited by the short temporal period of that data set and the small rate of movement. Very long baseline interferometry that is capable of measuring direction and rates of deformation is likewise limited by a short history of observation, but rates of deformation between 8 and 13 millimeters per year across the basin and Range province are indicated by the available data.

  11. HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FAULTS AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. Dickerson

    2000-10-19

    Yucca Mountain comprises a series of north-trending ridges composed of tuffs within the southwest Nevada volcanic field, 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These ridges are formed of east-dipping blocks of interbedded welded and nonwelded tuff that are offset along steep, mostly west-dipping faults that have tens to hundreds of meters of vertical separation. Yucca Mountain is currently under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. To this end, an understanding of the behavior of ground-water flow through the mountain in the unsaturated zone and beneath the mountain in the saturated zone is critical. The percolation of water through the mountain and into the ground-water flow system beneath the potential repository site is predicated on: (1) the amount of water available at the surface as a result of the climatic conditions, (2) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the volcanic strata that compose the mountain. and (3) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the structures, particularly fault zones and fracture networks, that disrupt these strata. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  12. The effect of yucca on proliferation, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Štochmaľová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Yucca shidigera is a medicinal plant native to Mexico. Is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat a variety of ailmentary disorders, but its action on reproductive processes and possible mechanisms of such action remains unknown. Yucca schidigera extract contains a number of steroidal saponins that, because of their biological activity, have attracted attention from the food industry for many years. Yucca extract is used as a natural feed additive with positive effect to microflora, digestion, metabolism and to improve animal muscle growth. Its extract has been used as a foodstuff and folk medicine to treat a wide variety of diseases for many years. Nevertheless, it remaines unknown, whether consumption of yucca can affect reproductive system. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of yucca on basic ovarian cell functions - proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. Porcine ovarian granulosa cells were cultured with and without yucca extract (added at doses 0; 1; 10 and 100 μg.mL-1 of medium. Markers of proliferation (% of PCNA-positive cells and apoptosis (% cells containing bax were analysed by immunocytochemistry. Release of steroid hormones (progesterone and testosterone was measured by EIA. It was observed, that addition of yucca inhibited proliferation (expression of PCNA, increased apoptosis (expression of bax, stimulated progesterone and inhibited testosterone release. The ability of yucca to reduce ovarian cell proliferation, to promote ovarian cell apoptosis and affect steroidogenesis demonstrates the direct influence of yucca on female gonads. Furthermore, our observations suggest the multiple sites of action (proliferation, apoptosis, steroidogenesis of yucca on porcine ovarian cell functions. It is not to be excluded, that consumption of yucca can suppress female reproductive functions.

  13. Occupational allergic contact urticaria to yucca (Yucca aloifolia), weeping fig (Ficus benjamina), and spathe flower (Spathiphyllum wallisii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Estlander, T; Petman, L; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S

    2001-10-01

    Occupational contact urticaria (CU) from plants is often reported, but it is less often attributed to decorative houseplants. We present an atopic gardener and caretaker of plants who developed CU when occupationally exposed to weeping fig, spathe flower, and yucca. Sensitization was evaluated by skin prick tests (SPT) and analyses for IgE antibodies. SPT were positive to all three plants, and IgE antibodies were found to weeping fig and spathe flower. SPT were also performed with several decorative houseplants in more than 600 patients. Positive SPT was found to weeping fig (12%), African milk tree (8.3%), yucca (5.8%), Chinese rose (4.7%), massangana (4.6%), bird's nest fern (3.2%), and spathe flower (3.2%). Our study indicates that SPT and tests for IgE antibody are useful in detecting occupational CU caused by houseplants.

  14. Analysis of releases due to drilling at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1993-07-01

    Human Instrusion into the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was modeled in the Total-System Performance Assessment (``TSPA-91``) recently completed for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office of the DOE. The scenario model assumed that the repository would be penetrated at random locations by a number of boreholes drilled using twentieth-century rotary drilling techniques.

  15. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  16. Pyritic ash-flow tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada -- A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Larson, L.T.; Noble, D.C. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Textural and mineralogic evidence exists for at least one episode of widespread hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks deep in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Despite this evidence, Castor et al. infer that most of the pyrite found in tuffs at Yucca Mountain was introduced as ejecta (lithic fragments) incorporated during the eruptions of the tuffs, rather than by in-situ hydrothermal activity. Their conclusions appear to be based on their observation that most of the pyrite resides in unaltered to variably altered and veined lithic fragments, whereas pyrite-bearing veins are absent in the tuff matrix, titanomagnetite and mafic phenocrysts in the matrix are generally not replaced by pyrite, and feldspar phenocrysts in the pyritic tuff matrix are generally unaltered. Castor et al. dismiss the much smaller quantities of pyrite disseminated in the tuff matrix, including relatively rare pyritized hornblende and biotite grains, as xenolithic as well. The pyritic tuffs belong to large-volume, subalkaline rhyolite ash-flow units (ca. > 150 to 250 km{sup 3} each). The interpretation of Castor et al. has broad implications for the temperature, fO{sub 2} and fS{sub 2} of major ash flow eruptions. Pyrite origin also bears on the nature of past fluid flow and water-rock reactions at Yucca Mountain, which in turn are important factors in assessing the potential for currently undiscovered mineral resources in the area of the proposed nuclear waste repository. We have studied core and cuttings from the same drill holes studied by Castor et al., as well as other drill holes. It is our contention that the inconsistent lateral and stratigraphic distribution of the pyrite, textural features of the pyrite, and phase stability considerations are incompatible with the {open_quotes}lithic{close_quotes} origin of Castor et al., and are more reasonably explained by in-situ formation from hydrothermal fluids containing low, but geochemically significant, concentrations of reduced sulfur.

  17. Rg Wave Scattering from Collapse Craters in Yucca Flat, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J. L.; Pitarka, A.

    2016-12-01

    Short-period, fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) have been used as indicators of shallow source depth and are often preferred waveform features for estimating yield and moment tensor for underground explosions recorded at local distances. However, in regions with significant topography and/or complex tectonic structure, Rg can be rapidly attenuated or scattered such that the phase may not be observed within a few kilometers of the source, thus limiting its seismological applications. A unique dataset was collected in Yucca Flat, Nevada that allows additional insight into the effect of surface topography on Rg. The source was a large weight drop (the Seismic Hammer™), which is an efficient surface wave generator. Stations were placed at similar distance ranges ( 0.5 km) in an azimuthal array centered on the hammer source. The source-to-station paths included deep alluvium with and without topography, the topography being the result of collapse craters associated with historic nuclear tests in Yucca Flat. The craters dimensions were as much 1/3 of the entire propagation paths, which were as deep as 30 m. For flat paths, we often observe large amplitude Rg waves in the 3-15 Hz frequency band that are slightly dispersed. Contrarily, paths that cross collapse craters exhibit reduced Rg amplitudes or, in one case, essentially no observed fundamental mode surface waves. We have used SW4, an elastic wave propagation code, and a 3D velocity model for Yucca Flat, with and without topography, to simulate wave propagation. The synthetic and recorded ground motion was analyzed to better understand the effects of topographic scattering. We anticipate that the results of these simulations will help improve the configuration of the seismic stations network designed for Phase II of the Source Physics Experiment.

  18. Calculations supporting evaluation of potential environmental standards for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguid, J.O.; Andrews, R.W.; Brandstetter, E.; Dale, T.F.; Reeves, M. [INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 801 (US Congress, 1992) provides for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to contract the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to conduct a study and provide findings and recommendations on reasonable standards for the disposal of high-level wastes at the Yucca Mountain site. The NAS study is to provide findings and recommendations which include, among other things, whether a health-based standard based on dose to individual members of the public from releases to the accessible environment will provide a reasonable standard for the protection of the health and safety of the public. The EPA, based upon and consistent with the findings and recommendations of the NAS, is required to promulgate standards for protection of the public from releases from radioactive materials stored or disposed of in a repository at the Yucca Mountain site. This document presents a number of different ``simple`` analyses of undisturbed repository performance that are intended to provide input to those responsible for setting appropriate environmental standards for a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Each of the processes included in the analyses has been simplified to capture the primary significance of that process in containing or isolating the waste from the biosphere. In these simplified analyses, the complex waste package interactions were approximated by a simple waste package ``failure`` distribution which is defined by the initiation and rate of waste package ``failures``. Similarly, releases from the waste package and the engineered barrier system are controlled by the very near field environment and the presence and rate of advective and diffusive release processes. Release was approximated by either a simple alteration-controlled release for the high solubility radionuclides and either a diffusive or advective-controlled release for the solubility-limited radionuclides.

  19. Numerical modeling of perched water under Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, J.J.; Ge, S.; Fridrich, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of perched water near the potential high-level nuclear waste repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has important implications for waste isolation. Perched water occurs because of sharp contrasts in rock properties, in particular between the strongly fractured repository host rock (the Topopah Spring welded tuff) and the immediately underlying vitrophyric (glassy) subunit, in which fractures are sealed by clays that were formed by alteration of the volcanic glass. The vitrophyre acts as a vertical barrier to unsaturated flow throughout much of the potential repository area. Geochemical analyses (Yang et al. 1996) indicate that perched water is relatively young, perhaps younger than 10,000 years. Given the low permeability of the rock matrix, fractures and perhaps fault zones must play a crucial role in unsaturated flow. The geologic setting of the major perched water bodies under Yucca Mountain suggests that faults commonly form barriers to lateral flow at the level of the repository horizon, but may also form important pathways for vertical infiltration from the repository horizon down to the water table. Using the numerical code UNSAT2, two factors believed to influence the perched water system at Yucca Mountain, climate and fault-zone permeability, are explored. The two-dimensional model predicts that the volume of water held within the perched water system may greatly increase under wetter climatic conditions, and that perched water bodies may drain to the water table along fault zones. Modeling results also show fault flow to be significantly attenuated in the Paintbrush Tuff non-welded hydrogeologic unit.

  20. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  1. Effects of various radiation source characteristics on shielding requirements at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.W.; Miller, D.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hill, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-02-01

    This radiation shielding study provides dose rate information that can be used to estimate required shielding thicknesses for different repository configurations, including various hot cells and vaults in the waste-handling building, the boreholes in the underground emplacement area, and the transfer casks. The study determines gamma and neutron source strengths for various waste types and source geometries representative of conditions at the repository and determines dose rates as a function of shielding thickness for selected materials.

  2. The Application of CFD to Ventilation Calculations at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, G.; Bahrami, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents the results of the application of CFD to ventilation calculations at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX. Seven cases were selected to study the effect of the heat transport coefficient on the drift wall temperature distribution. It was concluded that variable heat transport coefficients such as those given by the differential-parameter CFD used in MULTIFLUX are considered the most appropriate approach of all cases presented. This CFD model agrees well with FLUENT results and produces the lowest temperature results, which is favorable to ventilation performance.

  3. Implementation of NUREG-1318 guidance within the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Monica, L.B.; Waddell, J.D.; Hardin, E.L.

    1990-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project is implementing a quality assurance program that fulfills the requirements of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Additional guidance for this program was provided in NUREG 1318, ``Technical Position on Items and Activities in the High-Level Waste Geologic Repository Program Subject to Quality Assurance Requirements`` for identification of items and activities important to public radiological safety and waste isolation. The process and organization for implementing this guidance is discussed. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. ERMYN: Environmental Radiation Model for the Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Wu; M.A. Wasiolek; J.J. Tappen; K.R. Rautenstrauch; A.J. Smith

    2002-11-18

    This paper briefly describes a new biosphere model, ERMYN, that was developed to characterize biosphere processes for radionuclides released from the proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Biosphere modeling for YM is conducted independently for two radionuclide release modes and resulting exposure scenarios, groundwater release and volcanic release. This paper focuses on the model for groundwater release. The groundwater release exposure scenario addresses the case in which the geosphere-biosphere interface is well extraction of contaminated groundwater.

  5. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  6. Task 5 -- Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Progress on the tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region is described. Results are reported in the following: regional overview of structure and geometry of Meozoic thrust faults and folds in the area around Yucca Mountain; Evaluation of pre-middle Miocecne structure of Grapevine Mountains and it`s relation to Bare Mountain; Kinematic analysis of low and high angle normal faults in the Bare Mountain area, and comparison of structures with the Grapevine Mountains; and Evaluation of paleomagnetic character of tertiary and pre-tertiary units in the Yucca Mountain region.

  7. MIC evaluation and testing for the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Rivera, A.; Lain, T.; Jones, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential deep geological repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, for the containment and storage of high-level nuclear waste. There is growing awareness that biotic factors could affect the integrity of the repository directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of waste package (WP) materials and other repository elements. A program to determine the degree that microorganisms, especially bacteria, influence the corrosion of waste package materials has therefore been undertaken. These studies include testing candidate waste package materials for their susceptibility to MIC, and also seek to determine rates of biocorrosion under varying environmental conditions, as well as predict rates of waste package corrosion over the long term. Previous characterization of bacterial isolates derived from YM geologic material showed that many possessed biochemical activities associated with MIC, 2. Various Yucca Mountain microbes demonstrated the abilities to oxidize iron, reduce sulfate to sulfide, produce acids, and generate exopolysaccharides (or `slime`). Table 1 summarizes previously characterized YM organisms and their associated relevant activities. A subset of the characterized YM bacteria were spread on WP alloy coupons in systems designed to collect polarization resistance (Rp) data for corrosion rate calculations, and to determine cathodic and anodic potentiodynamic polarization to assess corrosion mechanisms. Coupons inoculated with bacteria were compared to those that remained sterile, to determine the bacterial contribution to overall corrosion rates.

  8. Isotopic studies of Yucca Mountain soil fluids and carbonate pedogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnaughey, T.A.; Whelan, J.F.; Wickland, K.P.; Moscati, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Secondary carbonates occurring within the soils, faults, and subsurface fractures of Yucca Mountain contain some of the best available records of paleoclimate and palehydrology for the potential radioactive waste repository site. This article discusses conceptual and analytical advances being made with regard to the interpretation of stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates, specifically related to the {sup 13}C content of soil CO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, precipitation mechanisms, and isotopic fractionations between parent fluids and precipitating carbonates. The {sup 13}C content of soil carbon dioxide from Yucca Mountain and vicinity shows most of the usual patterns expected in such contexts: Decreasing {sup 13}C content with depth decreasing {sup 13}C with altitude and reduced {sup 13}C during spring. These patterns exist within the domain of a noisy data set; soil and vegetational heterogeneities, weather, and other factors apparently contribute to isotopic variability in the system. Several soil calcification mechanisms appear to be important, involving characteristic physical and chemical environments and isotopic fractionations. When CO{sub 2} loss from thin soil solutions is an important driving factor, carbonates may contain excess heavy isotopes, compared to equilibrium precipitation with soil fluids. When root calcification serves as a proton generator for plant absorption of soil nutrients, heavy isotope deficiencies are likely. Successive cycles of dissolution and reprecipitation mix and redistribute pedogenic carbonates, and tend to isotopically homogenize and equilibrate pedogenic carbonates with soil fluids.

  9. Strain accumulation near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1983-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.; Gross, W.K.; King, N.E.; Svarc, J.L. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-09-10

    Over the decade 1983-1993 the U.S. Geological Survey has measured the deformation of a 50-km-aperture trilateration network centered on Yucca Mountain, the proposed disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in the United States. The network was surveyed in 1983, 1984, and 1993. The average annual principal strain rates are 0.010 {+-} 0.020{mu}strain/yr N90{degrees}W {+-} 24{degrees} and {minus}0.009 {+-} 0.021{mu}strain/yr N00{degrees}E {+-} 24{degrees}, indicating no significant strain accumulation. The southeast corner of the network was disturbed on June 29, 1992, by the Little Skull Mountain earthquake (M{sub s} = 5.4), the epicenter of which is about 20 km southeast of the Yucca Mountain site. Using the seismically determined fault plane (dip 54{degrees}S55{degrees}E), the authors find that 0.580 {+-} 0.075 m of normal slip on a 5-km square rupture surface at a depth of about 8 km provides a good fit to the observed deformation in the southeast corner of the network. The inferred seismic moment is (4.4 {+-} 0.6) {times} 10{sup 17} N m, which compares well with the observed seismic moment of 4.1 {times} 10{sup 17} N m. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Judd, B.R. [Decision Analysis Co., Portola Valley, CA (United States); Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D. [Weston Technical Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  11. Word images as policy instruments: Lessons from the Yucca Mountain Controversey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conary, J.S.; Soden, D.L.; Carns, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    A study is described which explores word images which have developed about nuclear issues by Nevadans. The study is based on results of a survey conducted regarding issues related to the Yucca Mountain repository.

  12. Gravity and magnetic investigations of the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-12-31

    Ground magnetic and gravity data collected along traverses across the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults on the eastern and western flanks, respectively, of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Gravity and magnetic data and models along traverses across the Ghost Dance and Solitario Canyon faults show prominent anomalies associated with known faults and reveal a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by several small amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small scale faulting.

  13. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  14. Yucca Mountain Site Charecterization Project Design Package 1C System Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRW

    1995-10-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package IC, Surface Utilities (for a list of package 1C subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1C structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1C structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations. Hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis.

  15. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (k{sub d}) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone.

  16. Public Interaction and Educational Outreach on the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Benson; Y. Riding

    2002-11-14

    In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the nation's first long-term geologic repository site for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than twenty years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. This paper describes public interaction and outreach challenges faced by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project in the past and what additional communication strategies may be instituted following the July 2002 approval by the U.S. Congress to develop the site as the nation's first long-term geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The DOE public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations--the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. Because the Department anticipated and later received much public interest in this high-profile project, the agency decided to go beyond regulatory-required public involvement activities and created a broad-based program that implemented far-reaching public interaction and outreach tactics. Over the last two decades, DOE informed, educated, and engaged a myriad of interested local, national, and international parties using various traditional and innovative approaches. The Yucca Mountain Project's intensive public affairs initiatives were instrumental in involving the public

  17. Geology of the Yucca Mountain site area, southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, W.R.; Whitney, J.W.; Buesch, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada is a prominent, irregularly shaped upland formed by a thick apron of Miocene pyroclastic-flow and fallout tephra deposits, with minor lava flows, that was segmented by through-going, large-displacement normal faults into a series of north-trending, eastwardly tilted structural blocks. The principal volcanic-rock units are the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, which consist of volumetrically large eruptive sequences derived from compositionally distinct magma bodies in the nearby southwestern Nevada volcanic field, and are classic examples of a magmatic zonation characterized by an upper crystal-rich (>10% crystal fragments) member, a more voluminous lower crystal-poor (underground storage facility, was studied by using rock varnish cation-ratio and 10Be and 36Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2-4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22-18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time. Major faults at Yucca Mountain-from east to west, the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, Stagecoach Road, Solitario Canyon, Fatigue Wash, Windy Wash, and Northern and Southern Crater Flat Faults-trend predominantly north, are spaced 1-5 km apart, have bedrock displacements ranging from 125 m to as much as 500 m, and exhibit Quaternary movements of

  18. MISTY ECHO Tunnel Dynamics Experiment--Data report: Volume 1; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.S.; Luke, B.A.; Long, J.W.; Lee, J.G.

    1992-04-01

    Tunnel damage resulting from seismic loading is an important issue for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. The tunnel dynamics experiment was designed to obtain and document ground motions, permanent displacements, observable changes in fracture patterns, and visible damage at ground motion levels of interest to the Yucca Mountain Project. Even though the maximum free-field loading on this tunnel was 28 g, the damage observed was minor. Fielding details, data obtained, and supporting documentation are reported.

  19. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  20. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

  1. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-03-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3-CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3–CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3–CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTCs 1, 2, and 3 (Revision 0, September 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Robert; Marutzky, Sam

    2000-09-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate Corrective Action Alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 97, collectively known as the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU, consists of 720 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU extends over several areas of the NTS and constitutes one of several areas used for underground nuclear testing in the past. The nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity as well as downgradient of the underground test areas. Based on site history, the Yucca Flat underground nuclear tests were conducted in alluvial, volcanic, and carbonate rocks; whereas, the Climax Mine tests were conducted in an igneous intrusion located in northern Yucca Flat. Particle-tracking simulations performed during the regional evaluation indicate that the local Climax Mine groundwater flow system merges into the much larger Yucca Flat groundwater flow systems during the 1,000-year time period of interest. Addressing these two areas jointly and simultaneously investigating them as a combined CAU has been determined the best way to proceed with corrective action investigation (CAI) activities. The purpose and scope of the CAI includes characterization activities and model development conducted in five major sequential steps designed to be consistent with FFACO Underground Test Area Project's strategy to predict the location of the contaminant boundary, develop and implement a corrective action, and close each CAU. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs in the subsequent corrective action decision document.

  4. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HO,CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH,JIM; WILSON,MICHAEL L.

    1999-12-21

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided.

  5. Technical Data Catalog: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-30

    This report presents reference information contained in the Yucca Mountain Project Automated Technical Data Tracking System. The Department of Energy is seeking to design and maintain a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. However, before this repository can be built, the DOE must first do a comprehensive site evaluation. This evaluation is subject to many regulations. This report fulfills the reporting requirements of the Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on a quarterly basis. This catalog contains: description of data; time, place, and method of acquisition; and where data may be examined.

  6. Illuminating the Decision Path: The Yucca Mountain Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, E.; Slothouber, L.

    2003-02-25

    On February 14, 2002, U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham provided to the President the ''Recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Regarding the Suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site for a Repository Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982.'' This Recommendation, along with supporting materials, complied with statutory requirements for communicating a site recommendation to the President, and it did more: in 49 pages, the Recommendation also spoke directly to the Nation, illuminating the methodology and considerations that led toward the decision to recommend the site. Addressing technical suitability, national interests, and public concerns, the Recommendation helped the public understand the potential risks and benefits of repository development and placed those risks and benefits in a meaningful national context.

  7. Summary report on the geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Rundberg, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    This report gives a detailed description of work at Los Alamos that will help resolve geochemical issues pertinent to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It is necessary to understand the properties and setting of the host tuff because this rock provides the first natural barrier to migration of waste elements from a repository. The geochemistry of tuff is being investigated with particular emphasis on retardation processes. This report addresses the various aspects of sorption by tuff, physical and chemical makeup of tuff, diffusion processes, tuff/groundwater chemistry, waste element chemistry under expected repository conditions, transport processes involved in porous and fracture flow, and geochemical and transport modeling.

  8. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-03

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime.

  9. Technical experts in public communication - the Yucca Mountain experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, J.H.; Hill, C.R. [SAIC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Yucca Mountain Project has developed a public outreach program that includes science centers and facility tours.The results of having technical experts engage the public and do the talking for the project have been very positive. The perspective of people has changed significantly after touring the site and meeting the scientists. Conversations with members of the public indicate that one of the most impressive things about the presentations, exhibits, and tours is the chance to talk with the people who are doing the work. Informal questionnaires show a major change in perspective about the project by members of the public, and they indicate that briefings by the experts is a prime reason.

  10. Saturated Zone Plumes in Volcanic Rock: Implications for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Kelkar; R. Roback; B. Robinson; G. Srinivasan; C. Jones; P. Reimus

    2006-02-14

    This paper presents a literature survey of the occurrences of radionuclide plumes in saturated, fractured rocks. Three sites, Idaho National laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are discussed in detail. Results of a modeling study are also presented showing that the length to width ratio of a plume starting within the repository footprint at the Yucca Mountain Project site, decreases from about 20:1 for the base case to about 4:1 for a higher value of transverse dispersivity, indicating enhanced lateral spreading of the plume. Due to the definition of regulatory requirements, this lateral spreading does not directly impact breakthrough curves at the 18 km compliance boundary, however it increases the potential that a plume will encounter reducing conditions, thus significantly retarding the transport of sorbing radionuclides.

  11. Evolution of the unsaturated zone testing at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-09-01

    The evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site has evolved from intensive surface based investigations in the early 1980s to current focus on testing in underground drifts. Different periods of site-characterization activities and prominent issues concerning the unsaturated zone are summarized. Data-collection activities have evolved from mapping of faults and fractures, to estimation of percolation through tuff layers, and to quantification of seepage into drifts. Evaluation of discrete flow paths in drifts has led to fracture-matrix interaction and matrix diffusion tests over different scales. The effects of tuff interfaces and local faults are evaluated in fractured-welded and porous-nonwelded units. Mobilization of matrix water and redistribution of moisture are measured in thermal tests. Lessons learned from underground tests are used to focus on processes needed for additional quantification. Migration through the drift shadow zone and liquid flow through faults are two important issues that have evolved from current knowledge.

  12. Results of Chemical Analyses in Support of Yucca Mountain Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeanette

    2007-12-11

    Ground water monitoring for the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (NCEWDP) was established to monitor underground water sources of the area and to protect communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from potential radionuclide contamination of these water sources. It provides hydrological information pertaining to groundwater flow patterns and recharge issues in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) obtained groundwater samples from select NCEWDP wells shown in Figure 1. These samples were analyzed for major cations, major anions, trace elements, rare earth elements, alkalinity, pH and conductivity. These geochemical results can be used to evaluate the degree of interaction between the aquifers sampled, leading to a thorough mapping of the aquifer system. With increased analysis down gradient of the Yucca Mountain area, evaluations can identify viable groundwater flow paths and establish mixing of the groundwater systems. Tracer tests provide insight into groundwater flow characteristics and transport processes of potential contaminants. These tests are important for contaminant migration issues including safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials and remediation of potentially released contaminants. At a minimum, two conservative (non-sorbing) tracers with different diffusion coefficients are used for each tracer test. The tracer test performed under this cooperative agreement utilized fluorinated benzoic acids and halides as conservative tracers. The tracers are of differing size and have differing rates of diffusion into the rock. Larger molecules can not enter the pore spaces that are penetrated by the smaller molecules, therefore larger tracers will travel faster through thegroundwater system. Identical responses of the two tracers indicate no appreciable diffusion into pores of the aquifer system tuff. For the Nye County Tracer Tests, the HRC provided chemical analysis for the tracer

  13. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambeau, C.B.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The recent, 1992, report prepared by the Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/Hydrothermal Systems at Yucca Mountain for the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? has generated critical reviews by Somerville et al. (1992) and by Archambeau (1992). These reviews were submitted as reports to the Nuclear Waste Project Office, State of Nevada by Technology and Resource Assessment Corporation under Contract No. 92/94.0004. A copy of the review report by C. B. Archambeau was also sent to Dr. Frank Press, President of the National Academy of Sciences, along with a cover letter from Dr. Archambeau expressing his concerns with the NRC report and his suggestion that the Academy President consider a re-evaluation of the issues covered by the NRC report. Dr. Press responded in a letter to Dr. Archambeau in February of this year which stated that, based on his staff recommendations and a review report by Dr. J. F. Evernden of the United States Geological Survey, he declined to initiate any further investigations and that, in his view, the NRC report was a valid scientific evaluation which was corroborated by Evernden`s report. He also enclosed, with his letter, a copy of the report he received from his staff. In March of this year Dr. Archambeau replied to the letter and NRC staff report sent by Dr. Press with a detailed point-by-point rebuttal of the NRC staff report to Press. Also, in March, a critical review of Dr. Evernden`s report by M. Somerville was submitted to the Nuclear Waste Project Office of the State of Nevada and this report, along with the earlier review of the NRC report by Somerville et al., was included as attachments to the letter sent to Dr. Press.

  14. Modeling unsaturated-zone flow at Rainier Mesa as a possible analog for a future Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Rainier Mesa is structurally similar to Yucca Mountain, and receives precipitation similar to the estimated long-term average for Yucca Mountain. Tunnels through the unsaturated zone at Rainier Mesa have encountered perched water and, after the perched water was drained, flow in fractures and faults. Although flow observations have been primarily qualitative, Rainier Mesa hydrology is a potential analog for Yucca Mountain hydrology in a wetter climate. In this paper, a groundwater flow model that has been used in the performance assessment of Yucca Mountain--the weeps model--is applied to Rainier Mesa. The intent is to gain insight in both Rainier Mesa and the weeps flow model.

  15. Hydrology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCain, Gary D.; Stuckless, John S.

    2012-01-01

    The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was investigated as a possible site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. Scientific investigations included infiltration studies, matrix properties testing, borehole testing and monitoring, underground excavation and testing, and the development of conceptual and numerical models of the hydrologic processes at Yucca Mountain. Infiltration estimates by empirical and geochemical methods range from 0.2 to 1.4 mm/yr and 0.2–6.0 mm/yr, respectively. Infiltration estimates from numerical models range from 4.5 mm/yr to 17.6 mm/yr. Rock matrix properties vary vertically and laterally as the result of depositional processes and subsequent postdepositional alteration. Laboratory tests indicate that the average matrix porosity and hydraulic conductivity values for the main level of the proposed repository (Topopah Spring Tuff middle nonlithophysal zone) are 0.08 and 4.7 × 10−12 m/s, respectively. In situ fracture hydraulic conductivity values are 3–6 orders of magnitude greater. The permeability of fault zones is approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of the surrounding rock unit. Water samples from the fault zones have tritium concentrations that indicate some component of postnuclear testing. Gas and water vapor movement through the unsaturated zone is driven by changes in barometric pressure, temperature-induced density differences, and wind effects. The subsurface pressure response to surface barometric changes is controlled by the distribution and interconnectedness of fractures, the presence of faults and their ability to conduct gas and vapor, and the moisture content and matrix permeability of the rock units. In situ water potential values are generally less than −0.2 MPa (−2 bar), and the water potential gradients in the Topopah Spring Tuff units are very small. Perched-water zones at Yucca Mountain are associated with the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Tuff or the Calico

  16. The Enhanced Plan for Features, Events, and Processes (FEPS) at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Freeze

    2002-03-25

    A performance assessment is required to demonstrate compliance with the post-closure performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), as stated in 10 CFR Part 63.1 13 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). A performance assessment is defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (66 FR 55732, p. 55794) as an analysis that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of those FEPs upon the performance of the potential geologic repository; and (3) estimates the expected dose incurred by a specified reasonably maximally exposed individual as a result of releases caused by significant FEPs. The performance assessment must also provide the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs in the performance assessment as stated in 10 CFR 63.114 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). An initial approach for FEP development, in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000e), was documented in Freeze et al. (2001). The development of a comprehensive list of FEPs potentially relevant to the post-closure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository is an ongoing, iterative process based on site-specific information, design, and regulations. Although comprehensiveness of the FEPs list cannot be proven with absolute certainty, confidence can be gained through a combination of formal and systematic reviews (both top-down and bottom-up), audits, and comparisons with other FEP lists and through the application of more than one classification scheme. To support TSPA-SR, DOE used a multi-step approach for demonstrating comprehensiveness of the initial list of FEPs. Input was obtained from other international radioactive waste disposal programs as compiled by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to establish a general list of FEPs. The list was subsequently refined to include YMP

  17. Linear thermal expansion data for tuffs from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, B.M.; Chocas, C.S.

    1992-07-01

    Experiment results are presented for linear thermal expansion measurements on tuffaceous rocks from the unsaturated Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Data were obtained both with and without confining pressure. The accuracy of the unconfined data collected between 50 and 250{degrees}C is better than 1.8 percent, with the precision better than 4.5 ;percent. The accuracy of the unconfined data collected between ambient temperature and 50{degrees}C and is approximately 11 percent deviation from the true value, with a precision of 12 percent of the mean value. Because of experiment design and the lack of information related calibrations, the accuracy and precision of the confined thermal expansion measurements could not be determined.

  18. YUCCA6 over-expression demonstrates auxin function in delaying leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jeong Im

    2011-04-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana YUCCA family of flavin monooxygenase proteins catalyses a rate-limiting step in de novo auxin biosynthesis. A YUCCA6 activation mutant, yuc6-1D, has been shown to contain an elevated free IAA level and to display typical high-auxin phenotypes. It is reported here that Arabidopsis plants over-expressing YUCCA6, such as the yuc6-1D activation mutant and 35S:YUC6 transgenic plants, displayed dramatic longevity. In addition, plants over-expressing YUCCA6 exhibited classical, delayed dark-induced and hormone-induced senescence in assays using detached rosette leaves. However, plants over-expressing an allele of YUCCA6, that carries mutations in the NADPH cofactor binding site, exhibited neither delayed leaf senescence phenotypes nor phenotypes typical of auxin overproduction. When the level of free IAA was reduced in yuc6-1D by conjugation to lysine, yuc6-1D leaves senesced at a rate similar to the wild-type leaves. Dark-induced senescence in detached leaves was accompanied by a decrease in their free IAA content, by the reduced expression of auxin biosynthesis enzymes such as YUCCA1 and YUCCA6 that increase cellular free IAA levels, and by the increased expression of auxin-conjugating enzymes encoded by the GH3 genes that reduce the cellular free auxin levels. Reduced transcript abundances of SAG12, NAC1, and NAC6 during senescence in yuc6-1D compared with the wild type suggested that auxin delays senescence by directly or indirectly regulating the expression of senescence-associated genes. 2011 The Author(s).

  19. Estimation of the limitations for surficial water addition above a potential high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewell, M.E.; Sobolik, S.R.; Gauthier, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to design site characterization activities with minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. One activity of site characterization is the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, consisting of underground shafts, drifts, and ramps, and the accompanying surface pad facility and roads. The information in this report addresses the following topics: (1) a discussion of the potential effects of surface construction water on repository-performance, and on surface and underground experiments; (2) one-dimensional numerical calculations predicting the maximum allowable amount of water that may infiltrate the surface of the mountain without affecting repository performance; and (3) two-dimensional numerical calculations of the movement of that amount of surface water and how the water may affect repository performance and experiments. The results contained herein should be used with other site data and scientific/engineering judgement in determining controls on water usage at Yucca Mountain. This document contains information that has been used in preparing Appendix I of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS and Yucca (Yucca schidigera on Broiler Performance, Carcass Traits, Intestinal Viscosity and Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Sariozkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of dried distillers’ grain with soluble (DDGS and yucca (Yucca schidigera on broiler performance, intestinal viscosity, carcass traits, and marketing. A total of 360, 21-d-old male broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups as 1: Control (C, corn based diet, without DDGS and yucca (Y supplementation, 2: DDGS (30%, 3: C + Y (120 mg/kg Yucca and 4: DDGS (30% + Y (120 mg/kg with 6 replicates (15 chicks x 6 replicates. The study was performed between 21 to 42 days of age. As a result, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate (P>0.05. The carcass traits and effects of different marketing type (whole sale or cutting parts on profit were compared. A slight decrease was determined in group 4 in terms of leg quarter ratio to cold carcass weight and carcass yield. Intestinal viscosity, bacterial counts and pH values (in duodenum and ileum were not different among the groups (P>0.05. The lowest production cost was determined in DDGS and DDGS+Y groups (P

  1. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry; B. Youngs

    2000-11-06

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model (AMR) report is twofold. (1) The first is to present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and extended in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) The second purpose of the AMR is to present probability calculations based on PVHA outputs. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers located within the repository footprint (conditional on the dike intersecting the repository). The probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint was calculated in the AMR ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (CRWMS M&O 2000g) based on the repository footprint known as the Enhanced Design Alternative [EDA II, Design B (CRWMS M&O 1999a; Wilkins and Heath 1999)]. Then, the ''Site Recommendation Design Baseline'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) initiated a change in the repository design, which is described in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Consequently, the probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint has also been calculated for the current repository footprint, which is called the 70,000 Metric Tons of Uranium (MTU) No-Backfill Layout (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The calculations for both

  2. Evaluation of Yucca schidigera extract as feed additive on performance of broiler chicks in winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarada Prasanna; Kaur, Daljeet; Sethi, A P S; Sharma, A; Chandra, M

    2015-04-01

    Yucca schidigera extract has been successfully used as feed additives in the poultry industry. It enhances the growth and productivity in broiler production. Hence, the present study was designed to analyze the effect of Y. schidigera extract in growth, carcass quality and behavior along with its economical utility in broiler rearing. Total, 120 numbers of day-old broiler chicks of equal sex ratio were randomly divided into Yucca supplemented treatment and control group, each having 60 birds in three replications of 20 numbers. The feeding management and rearing conditions were similar for all the groups as per the standard except the Yucca supplementation in the treatment group @ 125 mg/kg of feed. The parameters with respect to growth, carcass, behavior, and litter content were recorded as per standard procedures. The Yucca supplementation can effectively enhance growth of 173 g in 6(th) week by utilizing lesser feed intake than control group, which ultimately proves better feed conversion rate, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio in broiler production. Eviscerated weight of 58.50% for the treatment group was significantly higher (pbroiler's growth performance, efficiency to utilize feed, protein and energy, and survivability. Hence, use of Yucca powder in broiler ration could be beneficial to maintain the litter quality, which directly enhances the productivity in broiler production without any adverse effect.

  3. A seismic study of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, southern Nevada; data report and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, L.R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    From 1980 to 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted seismic refraction studies at the Nevada Test Site to aid in an investigation of the regional crustal structure at a possible nuclear waste repository site near Yucca Mountain. Two regionally distributed deployments and one north-south deployment recorded nuclear events. First arrival times from these deployments were plotted on a location map and contoured to determine traveltime delays. The results indicate delays as large as 0.5 s in the Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat areas relative to the Jackass Flats area. A fourth east-west deployment recorded a chemical explosion and was interpreted using a two-dimensional computer raytracing technique. Delays as high as 0.7 s were observed over Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain. The crustal model derived from this profile indicates that Paleozoic rocks, which outcrop to the east at Skull Mountain and the Calico Hills, and to the west at Bare Mountain, lie at a minimum depth of 3 km beneath part of Yucca Mountain. These results confirm earlier estimates based on the modeling of detailed gravity data. A mid-crustal boundary at 15 ? 2 km beneath Yucca Mountain is evidenced by a prominent reflection recorded beyond 43 km range at 1.5 s reduced time. Other mid-crustal boundaries have been identified at 24 and 30 km and the total crustal thickness is 35 km.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of yucca schidigera: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piacente S

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yucca schidigera is a medicinal plant native to Mexico. According to folk medicine, yucca extracts have anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant contains several physiologically active phytochemicals. It is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and is used commercially as a saponin source. Saponins have diverse biological effects, including anti-protozoal activity. It has been postulated that saponins may have anti-arthritic properties by suppressing intestinal protozoa which may have a role in joint inflammation. Yucca is also a rich source of polyphenolics, including resveratrol and a number of other stilbenes (yuccaols A, B, C, D and E. These phenolics have anti-inflammatory activity. They are inhibitors of the nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB. NFkB stimulates synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, which causes formation of the inflammatory agent nitric oxide. Yucca phenolics are also anti-oxidants and free-radical scavengers, which may aid in suppressing reactive oxygen species that stimulate inflammatory responses. Based on these findings, further studies on the anti-arthritic effects of Yucca schidigera are warranted.

  5. Expert judgment in assessing radwaste risks: What Nevadans should know about Yucca Mountain; [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1992-06-01

    For phenomena characterized by accurate and largely complete data, quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides extraordinarily valuable and objective information. However, with phenomena for which the data, models, or probabilities are incomplete or uncertain, QRA may be less useful and more questionable, because its conclusions are typically empirically and theoretically underdetermined. In the face of empirical or theoretical underdetermination, scientists often are forced to make a number of methodological value judgments and inferences about how to estimate and evaluate the associated risks. The purpose of this project is to evaluate instances of methodological value judgments and invalid or imprecise inferences that have occurred in the QRA done for the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste facility. We shall show (1) that questionable methodological value judgments and inferences have occurred in some Yucca Mountain QRA`S; (2) that questionable judgments and inferences, similar to those in the Yucca Mountain studies, have occurred in previous QRA`s done for other radiation-related facilities and have likely caused earlier QRA`s to err in specific ways; and (3) that, because the value judgments and problems associated with some Yucca Mountain QRA`s include repetitions of similar difficulties in earlier studies, therefore the QRA conclusions of some Yucca Mountain analyses are, at best, uncertain.

  6. Hydrology of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada-California : investigative results through mid-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, R.K.; Robison, J.H.; Blankennagel, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is one of several sites under consideration for construction of the first repository for high-level nuclear waste. The climate is arid; few perennial streams are present in the region. Flash floods occasionally occur. The site is underlain by at least 1,800 meters of volcanic tuffs of Tertiary age; limestones and dolomites of Paleozoic age underlie much of the surrounding region, and, together with alluvial deposits, comprise the major aquifers. Yucca Mountain is in the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek Ranch ground-water subbasin, which is part of the Death Valley ground-water basin. Discharge occurs at Alkali Flat almost entirely by evapotranspiration, and at Furnace Creek Ranch from small springs and seeps. Beneath Yucca Mountain, depth to water ranges from about 460 to 700 meters; the rock under consideration for construction of the repository is in the unsaturated zone. Rate of recharge at Yucca Mountain is small, perhaps much less than 5 millimeters per year. Within the saturated zone, water movement is principally along fractures. The hydraulic gradient is small east (downgradient) of Yucca Mountain, and increases to the north and west. Lack of effective-porosity data presently precludes accurate calculation of flow velocity and travel times. (USGS)

  7. PORE-WATER ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION AND UNSATURATED-ZONE FLOW, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Yang

    2000-10-23

    Site characterization at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, has included studies of recharge, flow paths, percolation flux, perched water bodies, and chemical compositions of the water in the thick unsaturated zone (UZ). Samples of pore water from cores of two recently drilled boreholes, USW SD-6 near the ridge top of Yucca Mountain and USW WT-24 north of Yucca mountain, were analyzed for isotopic compositions as part of a study by the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-97NV12033. The purpose of this report is to interpret {sup 14}C, {delta}{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H, {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O isotopic compositions of pore water from the core of boreholes USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 in relation to sources of recharge and flow paths in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. Borehole designation USW SD-6 and USW WT-24 subsequently will be referred to as SD-6 and WT-24. The sources of recharge and flow paths are important parameters that can be used in a UZ flow model, total system performance assessment (TSPA), and the license application (LA) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  8. Major results of geophysical investigations at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, H.W.; Ponce, D.A. [eds.] [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hunter, W.C. [ed.] [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Branch

    1995-12-31

    In the consideration of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for storing high level nuclear waste, a number of geologic concerns have been suggested for study by the National Academy of Sciences which include: (1) natural geologic and geochemical barriers, (2) possible future fluctuations in the water table that might flood a mined underground repository, (3) tectonic stability, and (4) considerations of shaking such as might be caused by nearby earthquakes or possible volcanic eruptions. This volume represents the third part of an overall plan of geophysical investigation of Yucca Mountain, preceded by the Site Characterization Plan (SCP; dated 1988) and the report referred to as the Geophysical White Paper, Phase 1, entitled Status of Data, Major Results, and Plans for Geophysical Activities, Yucca Mountain Project (Oliver and others, 1990). The SCP necessarily contained uncertainty about applicability and accuracy of methods then untried in the Yucca Mountain volcano-tectonic setting, and the White Paper, Phase 1, focused on summarization of survey coverage, data quality, and applicability of results. For the most part, it did not present data or interpretation. The important distinction of the current volume lies in presentation of data, results, and interpretations of selected geophysical methods used in characterization activities at Yucca Mountain. Chapters are included on the following: gravity investigations; magnetic investigations; regional magnetotelluric investigations; seismic refraction investigations; seismic reflection investigations; teleseismic investigations; regional thermal setting; stress measurements; and integration of methods and conclusions. 8 refs., 60 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project: Technical Data Catalog quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  10. ELECTRICAL IMAGING AT THE LARGE BLOCK TEST YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Ramirez

    2000-10-01

    A monolithic block of densely welded tuff was excavated from a site on Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada so that coupled thermohydrological processes could be studied in a controlled, in situ experiment. A series of heaters were placed in a horizontal plane about 3 m from the top of the 3 m by 3 m by 4.5 m high block. Temperatures were measured at many points within and on the block surface and a suite of other measurements were taken to define the thermal and hydrologic response. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to map 2 dimensional images of moisture content changes along four planes in the block. The ERT images clearly delineate the drying and wetting of the rockmass during the 13 months of heating and subsequent six months of cool down. The main feature is a prominent dry zone that forms around the heaters then gradually disappears as the rock cools down. Other features include linear anomalies of decreasing moisture content which are fractures dehydrating as the block heats up. There are also examples of compact anomalies of wetting. Some of these appear to be water accumulation in fractures which are draining condensate from the block. Others may be rain water entering a fracture at the top of the block. During cooldown a general rewetting is observed although this is less certain because of poor data quality during this stage of the experiment.

  11. Strain accumulation near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1993-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.; Svarc, J. L.; Prescott, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    A 50-km aperture geodetic network centered on the proposed high-level radioactive waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was surveyed with GPS in 1993 and 1998. The average deformation rate across the area is described by the principal strain rates 22.8±8.8 nstrain yr-1 N77.6°W±13.5° and -8.8±11.9 nstrain yr-1 N12.5°E±13.5° (extension reckoned positive) and a clockwise rotation rate about a vertical axis of 9.6±7.4 nrad yr-1 relative to fixed North America. Quoted uncertainties are standard deviations. Those strain rates are consistent with the geodetic strain rates (2±12 nstrain yr-1 N87°±12°W and -22±12 nstrain yr-1 N03°±12°E) previously reported by Savage et al. [1999] for the 1983-1998 interval and with the low extension rate (5-20 nstrain yr-1) [Marrett et al., 1998] inferred from the geologic record. None of those strain rates is consistent with the 50±9 nstrain yr-1 N65°W extension rate for the area reported by Wernicke et al. [1998].

  12. Flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time (GWTT-95)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, S.J.; Arnold, B.W.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Ho, C.K.; McKenna, S.A.; Eaton, R.R.

    1996-09-01

    In 1983, high-level radioactive waste repository performance requirements related to groundwater travel time were defined by NRC subsystem regulation 10 CFR 60.113. Although DOE is not presently attempting to demonstrate compliance with that regulation, understanding of the prevalence of fast paths in the groundwater flow system remains a critical element of any safety analyses for a potential repository system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Therefore, this analysis was performed to allow comparison of fast-path flow against the criteria set forth in the regulation. Models developed to describe the conditions for initiation, propagation, and sustainability of rapid groundwater movement in both the unsaturated and saturated zones will form part of the technical basis for total- system analyses to assess site viability and site licensability. One of the most significant findings is that the fastest travel times in both unsaturated and saturated zones are in the southern portion of the potential repository, so it is recommended that site characterization studies concentrate on this area. Results support the assumptions regarding the importance of an appropriate conceptual model of groundwater flow and the incorporation of heterogeneous material properties into the analyses. Groundwater travel times are sensitive to variation/uncertainty in hydrologic parameters and in infiltration flux at upper boundary of the problem domain. Simulated travel times are also sensitive to poorly constrained parameters of the interaction between flow in fractures and in the matrix.

  13. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog: Quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed-in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  14. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with t requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to@ previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  15. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog (Quarterly supplement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  16. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project bibliography, January--June 1995. Supplement 4, Add.3: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, P.M. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1995, through June 30, 1995. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it.

  17. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, H.W. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Hardin, E.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Nelson, P.H. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA)] [eds.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Yucca Mountain site characteriztion project bibliography. Progress Report, 1994--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project which was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 1995. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology database which were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it.

  19. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the U.S. Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. This report is the ninth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  20. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1992--March 31, 1993, No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993. This report is the eighth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  1. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Yucca Mountain Project, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections.

  2. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography, January--June 1993. An update: Supplement 4, Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, P.M. [ed.

    1995-01-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1994 through June 30, 1994. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers,and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it.

  3. Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

    2006-03-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

  4. The origin and history of alteration and carbonatization of the Yucca Mountain ignimbrites. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J.S.

    1992-04-01

    This document contains Volume I of the report entitled The Origin and History of Alteration and Carbonatization of the Yucca Mountain Ignimbrites by Jerry S. Szymanski and a related correspondence with comments by Donald E. Livingston. In the Great Basin, the flow of terrestrial heat through the crust is affected in part by the flow of fluids. At Yucca Mountain, the role of fluids in crustal heat transport is manifested at the surface by youthful calcretes, sinters, bedrock veins, hydrothermal eruption breccias and hydrothermal alteration. This report discusses evidence for recent metasomatism high in the stratigraphic section at Yucca Mountain. Over the last several hundred years, episodes of calcite emplacement contemporaneous with local mafic volcanism have occurred at intervals that are not long in comparison with the isolation time required for a High-Level Radioactive Waste repository.

  5. Geohydrologic data and models of Rainier Mesa and their implications to Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Cook, N.G.W.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Carnahan, C.L.; Javandel, I.; Tsang, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The geohydrologic data collected at Rainier Mesa provide the only extensive observations in tunnels presently available on flow and transport in tuff units similar to those of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This information can, therefore, be of great value in planning the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) testing in underground drifts at Yucca Mountain. In this paper, we compare the geohydrologic characteristics of tuff units of these two sites and summarize the hydrochemical data indicating the presence of nearly meteoric water in Rainier Mesa tunnels. A simple analytic model is used to evaluate the possibility of propagating transient pulses of water along fractures or faults through the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff unit to reach the tunnel beds below. The results suggest that fast flow could occur without significant mixing between meteoric fracture water and matrix pore water. The implications of these findings on planning for the ESF Calico Hills study at Yucca Mountain are discussed.

  6. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography, July--December 1994: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Charactrization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Science and Technology Database from July 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it.

  7. Independent management and financial review, Yucca Mountain Project, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-15

    The Yucca Mountain Project is one part of the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (the Program) which was established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, and as amended in 1987. The Program`s goal is to site the nation`s first geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste, in the form of spent fuel rod assemblies, generated by the nuclear power industry and a smaller quantity of Government radioactive waste. The Program, which also encompasses the transportation system and the multipurpose canister system was not the subject of this Report. The subject of this Review was only the Yucca Mountain Project in Nevada. While the Review was directed toward the Yucca Mountain Project rather than the Program as a whole, there are certain elements of the Project which cannot be addressed except through discussion of some Program issues. An example is the Total System Life Cycle Cost addressed in Section 7 of this report. Where Program issues are discussed in this Report, the reader is reminded of the scope limitations of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) contract to review only the Yucca Mountain Project. The primary scope of the Review was to respond to the specific criteria contained in the NARUC scope of work. In responding to these criteria, the Review Team understood that some interested parties have expressed concern over the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act relative to the Yucca Mountain Project and the nature of activities currently being carried out by the Department of Energy at the Yucca Mountain Project site. The Review Team has attempted to analyze relevant portions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as Amended, but has not conducted a thorough analysis of this legislation that could lead to any specific legal conclusions about all aspects of it.

  8. Calcite/opal deposits at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Pedogenic or hypogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C.A.; Schluter, C.M.; Harmon, R.S. [and others

    1994-01-01

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed assessment of the geology and geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. The purpose of this paper is to consider all of the geological and geochemical data available for the calcite/opal deposits at Yucca Mountain and to ascertain whether this data favors a pedogenic or hyogene origin for these deposits. Far from being of esoteric concern, this subject is of paramount importance to the debate which rages around the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a high-level radioactive waste repository site. It is also the purpose of this paper to serve as a foundation for a lengthy feature article to be submitted for publication in 1994. In addition, a stand has been taken by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences against the upwelling-water model (a vote of 17 to 0 against), and this same panel report has concluded that {open_quotes}there is no compelling evidence for the repetitive flooding of the environment by expulsion of groundwater{close_quotes} and that {open_quotes}instead, the evidence strongly supports the idea that the near-surface mineral deposits resulted from percolating rainwater, which carried soil minerals down into rock fractures{close_quotes}. Based on such information the Department of Energy has stated that it {open_quotes}finds no basis to continue to study the origin of these specific deposits{close_quotes}. This study, based upon many different independent lines of evidence, reaches the opposite conclusion and instead favors a hypogene spring-travertine origin for the controversial calcite/opal deposits at Yucca Mountain. This study recognizes a pedogenic carbonate component at Yucca Mountain, but argues that this component is distinct from, and sometimes intermixed with, the calcite/opal deposits.

  9. TSPA 1991: An initial total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.; Wilson, M.L.; Dockery, H.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; Eaton, R.R.; Bingham, F.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-07-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term performance of a repository system that contains deeply buried highly radioactive waste; the system is assumed to be located at the potential site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study includes an identification of features, events, and processes that might affect the potential repository, a construction of scenarios based on this identification, a selection of models describing these scenarios (including abstraction of appropriate models from detailed models), a selection of probability distributions for the parameters in the models, a stochastic calculation of radionuclide releases for the scenarios, and a derivation of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for the releases. Releases and CCDFs are calculated for four categories of scenarios: aqueous flow (modeling primarily the existing conditions at the site, with allowances for climate change), gaseous flow, basaltic igneous activity, and human intrusion. The study shows that models of complex processes can be abstracted into more simplified representations that preserve the understanding of the processes and produce results consistent with those of more complex models.

  10. Site environmental report for calendar year 1996: Yucca Mountain site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The environmental program established by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office (YMSCO) has been designed and implemented to protect, maintain, and restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to the environment and the public, and comply with environmental policies and US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. In accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE, 1990a), to be superseded by DOE Order 231.1 (under review), the status of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) environmental program has been summarized in this annual Site Environmental Report (SER) to characterize performance, document compliance with environmental requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts during calendar year 1996.

  11. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Project Publications (1979-1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhala, E.R.; Klein, S.H. [comps.

    1997-06-01

    This over-350 title publication list reflects the accomplishments of Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project researchers, who, since 1979, have been conducting multidisciplinary research to help determine if Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is a suitable site for a high-level waste repository. The titles can be accessed in two ways: by year, beginning with 1996 and working back to 1979, and by subject area: mineralogy/petrology/geology, volcanism, radionuclide solubility/ground-water chemistry; radionuclide sorption and transport; modeling/validation/field studies; summary/status reports, and quality assurance.

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Project publications (1979--1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowker, L.M.; Espinosa, M.L.; Klein, S.H. [comps.

    1995-11-01

    This over-300 title publication list reflects the accomplishments of Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project researchers, who, since 1979, have been conducting multidisciplinary research to help determine if Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is a suitable site for a high-level waste repository. The titles can be accessed in two ways: by year, beginning with 1994 and working back to 1979, and by subject area: mineralogy/petrology/geology, volcanism, radionuclide solubility/groundwater chemistry; radionuclide sorption and transport; modeling/validation/field studies; summary/status reports, and quality assurance.

  14. Assessment of the importance of mixing in the Yucca Mountain hydrogeological system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F.; Gimeno, Maria; Acero, Patricia (Geochemical Modelling Group, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Peterman, Zell; Oliver, Thomas A. (U.S. Geological Survey (United States)); Gascoyne, Mel (Gascoyne Geoprojects Inc (Canada)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work is to assess the importance of mixing on the hydrochemistry of waters in and around Yucca Mountain, most importantly in those waters south of Yucca Mountain. Due to the general north-south gradient of groundwater flow in the Yucca Mountain area, leakage from the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository would have the greatest consequences in the saturated zone waters south of Yucca Mountain. In this area (Amargosa River, Amargosa Flat and Ash Meadows), three main aquifers interact: the Regional Palaeozoic Carbonate Aquifer (RCA), the Tertiary Tuffs Aquifer (TTA) and the Quaternary Basin-fill Aquifer (QBfA). One consequence of upward leakage from the Palaeozoic Carbonate Aquifer would be to dilute the contaminant plume should one develop from the radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The reverse, downward leakage from the Tertiary Tuffs Aquifer or the Quaternary Basin-fill Aquifer into the Palaeozoic Carbonate Aquifer would contaminate a major aquifer system. It is clearly of the utmost importance to explore the links between theses aquifer systems and to assess the degree of mixing between the groundwaters. To attain this general objective, the following specific objectives have been either defined in advance or decided as being important during the development of the project: 1. Compile a dataset of water samples from the Yucca Mountain area. This dataset should contain samples from all the potential water types that contribute to the chemistry of the groundwaters in the aquifer systems in the area. 2. Perform a careful total-system exploratory analysis on the initial (raw) dataset in order to identify trends and outliers. 3. Perform a detailed exploratory analysis of each individual hydrofacies with the aim of identifying and eliminating from the raw dataset all the samples heavily affected by processes other than mixing (e.g. water-rock interaction, evaporation, cation exchange). PHREEQC simulations were

  15. Synthesis of Subsurface Fracture Characteristics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, K. J.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Landis, P. S.; Waiting, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    Fractures are among the most abundant geologic structures found in rocks. Although individual fractures are rarely of great importance, the sheer number of fractures makes them a key component of many geologic and engineering-related processes. Fractures directly affect geotechnical processes for stability of underground openings and indirectly influence processes such as thermal stress accommodation. Near-surface water infiltration and flow, and unsaturated zone radionuclide transport are tunnel- and mountain-scale processes influenced by fractures. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the site of the United States' potential high-level nuclear waste repository. This presentation provides an up-to-date synthesis of subsurface fracture data collected in the repository host horizon interval from two tunnels, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross-drift at Yucca Mountain. The primary goals are to: (1) summarize fracture data collected by both detailed line survey and full-periphery geologic mapping techniques; and (2) provide a rigorous analysis of key fracture characteristics, including fracture orientation, spacing and size. Definitive cooling joints and vapor phase partings are present in all zones within the Topopah Spring Tuff (the proposed repository host horizon), but are not abundant and represent only 5 to 11% of all recorded fractures. Fractures with measurable displacement are also present, but account for only 3 to 4% of the total population. These fractures, however, are predominantly subvertical with either a northwest or northeast strike. Regardless of lithostratigraphic interval (i.e., presence or absence of lithophysae), distinctive orientation-based fracture sets are present -- fractures are not randomly distributed. This observation holds for analyses of long and short fractures. The overall distribution of fracture size based on observed trace length is strongly skewed with short

  16. Secondary plant succession on disturbed sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented.

  17. Characterization of hydrogeologic units using matrix properties, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flint, L.E.

    1998-09-01

    Determination of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste requires the use of numerical flow and transport models. Input for these models includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all rock materials within the unsaturated zone, as well as some of the upper rocks in the saturated zone. There are 30 hydrogeologic units in the unsaturated zone, and each unit is defined by limited ranges where a discrete volume of rock contains similar hydrogeologic properties. These hydrogeologic units can be easily located in space by using three-dimensional lithostratigraphic models based on relationships of the properties with the lithostratigraphy. Physical properties of bulk density, porosity, and particle density; flow properties of saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture-retention characteristics; and the state variables (variables describing the current state of field conditions) of saturation and water potential were determined for each unit. Units were defined using (1) a data base developed from 4,892 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow and 8 deep boreholes, (2) described lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (3) recognition of transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (4) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (5) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. This study describes the correlation of hydrologic properties to porosity, a property that is well related to the lithostratigraphy and depositional and cooling history of the volcanic deposits and can, therefore, be modeled to be distributed laterally.

  18. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry; R. Youngs

    2004-10-14

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is threefold: (1) Present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996 [DIRS 100116]). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and applied in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed, as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) Present revised probability calculations based on PVHA outputs for a repository footprint proposed in 2003 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162289]), rather than the footprint used at the time of the PVHA. This analysis report also calculates the probability of an eruptive center(s) forming within the repository footprint using information developed in the PVHA. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes located within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers (conditional on a dike intersecting the repository) located within the repository footprint. (3) Document sensitivity studies that analyze how the presence of potentially buried basaltic volcanoes may affect the computed frequency of intersection of the repository footprint by a basaltic dike. These sensitivity studies are prompted by aeromagnetic data collected in 1999, indicating the possible presence of previously unrecognized buried volcanoes in the YMR (Blakely et al. 2000 [DIRS 151881]; O'Leary et al. 2002 [DIRS 158468]). The results of the sensitivity studies are for informational purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of assessing repository performance.

  19. Seismicity in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the Period October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-11-26

    This report describes earthquake activity within approximately 65 km of Yucca Mountain site during the October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006 time period (FY05-06). The FY05-06 earthquake activity will be compared with the historical and more recent period of seismic activity in the Yucca Mountain region. The relationship between the distribution of seismicity and active faults, historical patterns of activity, and rates of earthquakes (number of events and their magnitudes) are important components in the assessment of the seismic hazard for the Yucca Mountain site. Since October 1992 the University of Nevada has compiled a catalog of earthquakes in the Yucca Mountain area. Seismicity reports have identified notable earthquake activity, provided interpretations of the seismotectonics of the region, and documented changes in the character of earthquake activity based on nearly 30 years of site-characterization monitoring. Data from stations in the seismic network in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain is collected and managed at the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Nevada Reno (UNR). Earthquake events are systematically identified and cataloged under Implementing Procedures developed in compliance with the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) Quality Assurance Program. The earthquake catalog for FY05-06 in the Yucca Mountain region submitted to the Yucca Mountain Technical Data Management System (TDMS) forms the basis of this report.

  20. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  1. Characteristics of Fault Zones in Volcanic Rocks Near Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II

    2007-11-27

    During 2005 and 2006, the USGS conducted geological studies of fault zones at surface outcrops at the Nevada Test Site. The objectives of these studies were to characterize fault geometry, identify the presence of fault splays, and understand the width and internal architecture of fault zones. Geologic investigations were conducted at surface exposures in upland areas adjacent to Yucca Flat, a basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site; these data serve as control points for the interpretation of the subsurface data collected at Yucca Flat by other USGS scientists. Fault zones in volcanic rocks near Yucca Flat differ in character and width as a result of differences in the degree of welding and alteration of the protolith, and amount of fault offset. Fault-related damage zones tend to scale with fault offset; damage zones associated with large-offset faults (>100 m) are many tens of meters wide, whereas damage zones associated with smaller-offset faults are generally a only a meter or two wide. Zeolitically-altered tuff develops moderate-sized damage zones whereas vitric nonwelded, bedded and airfall tuff have very minor damage zones, often consisting of the fault zone itself as a deformation band, with minor fault effect to the surrounding rock mass. These differences in fault geometry and fault zone architecture in surface analog sites can serve as a guide toward interpretation of high-resolution subsurface geophysical results from Yucca Flat.

  2. An overview of the Yucca Mountain Global/Regional Climate Modeling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Behl, Y.K. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, S.L. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1992-01-10

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a site characterization plan (SCP) to collect detailed information on geology, geohydrology, geochemistry, geoengineering, hydrology, climate, and meteorology (collectively referred to as ``geologic information``) of the Yucca Mountain site. This information will be used to determine if a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) capable of isolating high-level radioactive waste without adverse effects to public health and safety over 10,000 years, as required by regulations 40 CFR Part 191 and 10 CFR Part 60, could be constructed at the Yucca Mountain site. Forecasts of future climates conditions for the Yucca Mountain area will be based on both empirical and numerical techniques. The empirical modeling is based on the assumption that future climate change will follow past patterns. In this approach, paleclimate records will be analyzed to estimate the nature, timing, and probability of occurrence of certain climate states such as glacials and interglacials over the next 10,000 years. For a given state, key climate parameters such as precipitation and temperature will be assumed to be the same as determined from the paleoclimate data. The numerical approach, which is the primary focus of this paper, involves the numerical solution of basic equations associated with atmospheric motions. This paper describes these equations and the strategy for solving them to predict future climate conditions around Yucca Mountain.

  3. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 1: Introduction and Site Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This first volume contains an introduction to the viability assessment, including the purpose, scope, waste forms, technical challenges, an historical perspective, regulatory framework, management of the repository, technical components, preparations for the license application, and repository milestones after the assessment. The second part of this first volume addresses characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  4. Unsaturated-zone fast-path flow calculations for Yucca Mountain GWTT analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.; Brown, T.J.; Altman, S.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed calculational tools and modeling domains for groundwater-flow analyses; these tools are being used for evaluation of the Postclosure Geohydrology guideline in 10 CFR 960 [with emphasis on the Groundwater Travel Time (GWTT) disqualifying condition] for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV. The emphasis of this work is on investigations of hydrologic processes and hydrogeologic features that may produce fast-path flow in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain. Based on the current understanding, conceptual models for UZ flow at Yucca Mountain generally assume that flow in fractures will be the mechanism for fastest water movement, and thus for fastest contaminant transport. The models used for these analyses require saturated conditions in the rock before UZ fracture flow can be initiated and sustained. This work investigates the initiation of fracture flow due to the creation of locally saturated zones in the unsaturated Yucca Mountain tuffs caused by natural heterogeneities in the rock units. For this purpose, we have developed model domain, using the composite-porosity flow model, where local saturation can be achieved without arbitrarily introducing saturated boundary conditions.

  5. Potentially disruptive hydrologic features, events and processes at the Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoxie, D.T.

    1995-04-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been selected by the United States to be evaluated as a potential site for the development of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the site is determined to be suitable for repository development and construction is authorized, the repository at the Yucca Mountain site is planned to be constructed in unsaturated tuff at a depth of about 250 meters below land surface and at a distance of about 250 meters above the water table. The intent of locating a repository in a thick unsaturated-zone geohydrologic setting, such as occurs at Yucca Mountain under the arid to semi-arid climatic conditions that currently prevail in the region, is to provide a natural setting for the repository system in which little ground water will be available to contact emplaced waste or to transport radioactive material from the repository to the biosphere. In principle, an unsaturated-zone repository will be vulnerable to water entry from both above and below. Consequently, a major effort within the site-characterization program at the Yucca Mountain site is concerned with identifying and evaluating those features, events, and processes, such as increased net infiltration or water-table rise, whose presence or future occurrence could introduce water into a potential repository at the site in quantities sufficient to compromise the waste-isolation capability of the repository system.

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1995 quality program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-07-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s (YMP`s) quality assurance program for January 1 to September 30, 1995. The report includes major sections on program activities and trend analysis.

  7. Analysis of Fracture in Cores from the Tuff Confining Unit beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Prothro

    2008-03-01

    The role fractures play in the movement of groundwater through zeolitic tuffs that form the tuff confining unit (TCU) beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, is poorly known. This is an important uncertainty, because beneath most of Yucca Flat the TCU lies between the sources of radionuclide contaminants produced by historic underground nuclear testing and the regional carbonate aquifer. To gain a better understanding of the role fractures play in the movement of groundwater and radionuclides through the TCU beneath Yucca Flat, a fracture analysis focusing on hydraulic properties was performed on conventional cores from four vertical exploratory holes in Area 7 of Yucca Flat that fully penetrate the TCU. The results of this study indicate that the TCU is poorly fractured. Fracture density for all fractures is 0.27 fractures per vertical meter of core. For open fractures, or those observed to have some aperture, the density is only 0.06 fractures per vertical meter of core. Open fractures are characterized by apertures ranging from 0.1 to 10 millimeter, and averaging 1.1 millimeter. Aperture typically occurs as small isolated openings along the fracture, accounting for only 10 percent of the fracture volume, the rest being completely healed by secondary minerals. Zeolite is the most common secondary mineral occurring in 48 percent of the fractures observed.

  8. Distance learning and its application to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Sizemore, J. [SAIC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of distance learning, which is used to exchange information via electronic media with real time interaction. Issues concerning policy, funding, legislation, accessibility, and programming are outlined. Possible applications for education, business, and federal projects, with a focus on the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, are also discussed.

  9. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guideline for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EA), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as of five sites suitable for characterization.

  10. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  11. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  12. Mineralogic Zonation Within the Tuff Confining Unit, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Prothro

    2005-09-01

    Recently acquired mineralogic data from drill hole samples in Yucca Flat show that the tuff confining unit (TCU) can be subdivided into three mineralogic zones based on the relative abundances of primary and secondary mineral assemblages. These zones are (1) an upper zone characterized by the abundance of the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite with lesser amounts of felsic and clay minerals; (2) a middle zone with felsic minerals dominant over clinoptilolite and clay minerals; and (3) a basal argillic zone where clay minerals are dominant over felsic minerals and clinoptilolite. Interpretation of the mineralogic data, along with lithologic, stratigraphic, and geophysical data from approximately 500 drill holes, reveals a three-layer mineralogic model for the TCU that shows all three zones are extensive beneath Yucca Flat. The mineralogic model will be used to subdivide the TCU in the Yucca Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model, resulting in a more accurate and versatile framework model. In addition, the identification of the type, quantity, and distribution of minerals within each TCU layer will permit modelers to better predict the spatial distribution and extent of contaminant transport from underground tests in Yucca Flat, at both the level of the hydrologic source term and the corrective action unit.

  13. Burnup Credit Approach Used in the Yucca Mountain License Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy has submitted a license application (LA) for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The license application is currently under review by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper will describe the methodology and approach used in the LA to address the issue of criticality and the role of burnup credit during the postclosure period. The most significant and effective measures for prevention of criticality in the repository include multiple redundant barriers that act to isolate fissionable material from water (which can act as a moderator, corrosive agent, and transporter of fissile material); inherent geometry of waste package internals and waste forms; presence of fixed neutron absorbers in waste package internals; and fuel burnup for commercial spent nuclear fuel. A probabilistic approach has been used to screen criticality from the total system performance assessment. Within the probabilistic approach, criticality is considered an event, and the total probability of a criticality event occurring within 10,000 years of disposal is calculated and compared against the regulatory criterion. The total probability of criticality includes contributions associated with both internal (within waste packages) and external (external to waste packages) criticality for each of the initiating events that could lead to waste package breach. The occurrence of and conditions necessary for criticality in the repository have been thoroughly evaluated using a comprehensive range of parameter distributions. A simplified design-basis modeling approach has been used to evaluate the probability of criticality by using numerous significant and conservative assumptions. Burnup credit is used only for evaluations of in-package configurations and uses a combination of conservative and bounding modeling approximations to ensure conservatism. This paper will review the NRC regulatory

  14. Chlorine-36 alidation Study at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Paces

    2006-08-28

    The amount, spatial distribution, and velocity of water percolating through the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are important issues for assessing the performance of the proposed deep geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To help characterize the nature and history of UZ flow, isotopic studies were initiated in 1995, using rock samples collected from the Miocene ash-flow tuffs in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), an 8-km-long tunnel constructed along the north-south extent of the repository block, and the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift, a 2.5-km-long tunnel constructed across the repository block (Figure 1-1, Sources: Modified from DOE 2002 [Figure 1-14] and USBR 1996). Scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) analyzed for chlorine-36 ({sup 36}Cl) in salts leached from whole-rock samples collected from tunnel walls and subsurface boreholes, and scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, uranium, lead, thorium, and strontium in secondary minerals collected from subsurface fractures and lithophysal cavities. Elevated values for ratios of {sup 36}Cl to total chloride ({sup 36}Cl/CL) at the level of the proposed repository indicated that small amounts of water carrying bomb-pulse {sup 36}Cl (i.e., {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios greater than 1250 x 10{sup -15} resulting from {sup 36}Cl produced by atmospheric testing of nuclear devices during the 1950s and early 1960s) had percolated through welded and nonwelded tuffs to depths of 200 to 300 meters (m) beneath the land surface over the past 50 years. Because of the implications of short travel times to the performance of the proposed repository, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Repository Development (ORD), decided to verify the {sup 36}Cl/Cl data with an independent validation study. DOE asked the USGS

  15. Moisture Observations in Sealed Tunnels at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, N. M.; Winterle, J.; Arlt, H.; Dinwiddie, C.; Fedors, R.

    2002-12-01

    assessments of deep percolation and seepage. The NRC staff believes that long-term empirical observations in sealed tunnels could be an element of a performance confirmation plan for Yucca Mountain.

  16. The Effects of Site Characterization Activities on the Abundance of Ravens (Corvus corax) in the Yucca Mountain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.E. Lederle

    1998-05-08

    In response to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed and is implementing the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Raven abundance was measured from August 1991 through August 1995 along treatment and control routes to evaluate whether site characterization activities resulted in increased raven abundance at Yucca Mountain. This study fulfills the requirement set forth in the incidental take provisions of the Biological Opinion that DOE monitor the abundance of ravens at Yucca Mountain. Ravens were more abundant at Yucca Mountain than in the control area, and raven abundance in both areas increased over time. However, the magnitude of differences between Yucca Mountain and control surveys did not change over time, indicating that the increase in raven abundance observed during this study was not related to site characterization activities. Increases over time on both Yucca Mountain and control routes are consistent with increases in raven abundance in the Mojave Desert reported by the annual Breeding Bird Survey of the US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Evidence from the Desert Tortoise Monitoring Program at Yucca Mountain suggests that ravens are not a significant predator of small tortoises in this locale. Carcasses of small tortoises (less than 110 mm in length) collected during the study showed little evidence of raven predation, and 59 radiomarked hatchlings that were monitored on a regular basis were not preyed upon by ravens. Overall, no direct evidence of raven predation on tortoises was observed during this study. Small tortoises are probably encountered so infrequently by ravens that they are rarely exploited as a food source. This is likely due to the relatively low abundance of both desert tortoises and ravens in the Yucca Mountain area.

  17. SYSTHESIS OF VOLCANISM STUDIES FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, F. V.; Crowe, G. A.; Valentine, G. A.; Bowker, L. M.

    1997-09-23

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The hazard of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The distribution of Pliocene and Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers is evaluated with respect to tectonic models for detachment, caldera, regional and local rifting, and the Walker Lane structural zone. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of past basaltic volcanic centers and possible future magmatic processes. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the

  18. Toxic liquid waste handling eased with portable tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, R.D. (ABCO Industries, Roebuck, SC); Milford, C.O.; Powers, J.

    1983-03-01

    Hazardous wastes generated by the chemical processes at ABCO Industries, Roebuck, SC, are treated in the new Thermal Oxidation Division established by the firm for this purpose. The wastes result from the production of acrylic polymers for textile sizing. ABCO also treats hazardous wastes received from other firms that generate the material and require a suitable means of disposal. The highly effective treatment provided by the facility has attracted clients from afar. ABCO is currently receiving waste shipments from as far north as Massachusetts and as far west as the Mississippi River. Most of the volume, however, originates within a 200-mile radius of the plant. The portable tanks used by these shippers have simplified their transport problems and have enabled them to abide by federal and state regulations effectively.

  19. Public health implications of waste handling and consumption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    297(152 waste handlers and 145 food vendors) specimen obtained from the participants were examined for parasitic infections using Kato-Katz ... observed among waste handlers were 15.8%, 5.3% and 1.3% for Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura respectively and; 28%, 27% and 6.2% respectively for ...

  20. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  1. Theoretical Issues of Legal Regulation of Municipal Solid Waste Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altynbekkyzy Alua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of comparative analysis of legal regulation of environmental protection is due to several reasons. Firstly, it expands the boundaries of interpretation of legal norms and acts of environmental law. Secondly, it allows relying on experience in the latest achievements of legislative activity in developed countries. Thirdly, taking into consideration the legislative mistakes of other countries, it helps to avoid similar mistakes in the process of improving Kazakh legislation. And finally, it is the starting point for multilateral and bilateral cooperation in the field of environmental law.

  2. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  3. Peak Ground Velocities for Seismic Events at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coppersmith; R. Quittmeyer

    2005-02-16

    This report describes a scientific analysis to bound credible horizontal peak ground velocities (PGV) for the repository waste emplacement level at Yucca Mountain. Results are presented as a probability distribution for horizontal PGV to represent uncertainties in the analysis. The analysis also combines the bound to horizontal PGV with results of ground motion site-response modeling (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027]) to develop a composite hazard curve for horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level. This result provides input to an abstraction of seismic consequences (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169183]). The seismic consequence abstraction, in turn, defines the input data and computational algorithms for the seismic scenario class of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Planning for the analysis is documented in Technical Work Plan TWP-MGR-GS-000001 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171850]). The bound on horizontal PGV at the repository waste emplacement level developed in this analysis complements ground motions developed on the basis of PSHA results. In the PSHA, ground motion experts characterized the epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability in their ground motion interpretations. To characterize the aleatory variability they used unbounded lognormal distributions. As a consequence of these characterizations, as seismic hazard calculations are extended to lower and lower annual frequencies of being exceeded, the ground motion level increases without bound, eventually reaching levels that are not credible (Corradini 2003 [DIRS 171191]). To provide credible seismic inputs for TSPA, in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 63.102(j) [DIRS 156605], this complementary analysis is carried out to determine reasonable bounding values of horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level for annual frequencies of exceedance as low as 10{sup -8}. For each realization of the TSPA seismic scenario, the results of this analysis provide a constraint on the values sampled from the

  4. Well ER-6-1 Tracer Test Analysis: Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2006-09-01

    The ER-6-1 multiple-well aquifer test-tracer test (MWAT-TT) investigated groundwater flow and transport processes relevant to the transport of radionuclides from sources on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) through the lower carbonate aquifer (LCA) hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU). The LCA, which is present beneath much of the NTS, is the principal aquifer for much of southern Nevada. This aquifer consists mostly of limestone and dolomite, and is pervasively fractured. Groundwater flow in this aquifer is primarily in the fractures, and the hydraulic properties are primarily related to fracture frequency and fracture characteristics (e.g., mineral coatings, aperture, connectivity). The objective of the multiple-well aquifer test (MWAT) was to determine flow and hydraulic characteristics for the LCA in Yucca Flat. The data were used to derive representative flow model and parameter values for the LCA. The items of specific interest are: Hydraulic conductivity; Storage parameters; Dual-porosity behavior; and Fracture flow characteristics. The objective of the tracer transport experiment was to evaluate the transport properties and processes of the LCA and to derive representative transport parameter values for the LCA. The properties of specific interest are: Effective porosity; Matrix diffusion; Longitudinal dispersivity; Adsorption characteristics; and Colloid transport characteristics. These properties substantially control the rate of transport of contaminants in the groundwater system and concentration distributions. To best support modeling at the scale of the corrective action unit (CAU), these properties must be investigated at the field scale. The processes represented by these parameters are affected by in-situ factors that are either difficult to investigate at the laboratory scale or operate at a much larger scale than can be reproduced in the laboratory. Measurements at the field scale provide a better understanding of the effective average parameter values. The

  5. Quantification of unsaturated-zone alteration and cation exchange in zeolitized tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, David T.; Chipera, Steve J.; Bish, David L.; Carey, J. William; Levy, Schön S.

    2001-10-01

    Zeolitized horizons in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA, are an important component in concepts for a high-level nuclear waste repository at this site. The use of combined quantitative X-ray diffraction and geochemical analysis allows measurement of the chemical changes that accompanied open-system zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. This approach also provides measures of the extent of chemical migration that has occurred in these horizons as a result of subsequent cation exchange. Mass-balance analysis of zeolitized horizons with extensive cation exchange (drill hole UZ-16) and with only minimal cation exchange (drill hole SD-9) shows that Al is essentially immobile. Although zeolitization occurred in an open system, the mass transfer of constituents other than water is relatively small in initial zeolitization, in contrast to the larger scales of cation exchange that can occur after zeolites have formed. Cation exchange in the clinoptilolite ± mordenite zeolitized horizons is seen in downward-diminishing concentration gradients of Ca, Mg, and Sr exchanged for Na and (to lesser extent) K. Comparison with data from drill hole SD-7, which has multiple zeolitized horizons above the water table, shows that the upper horizons accumulate Ca, Mg, and Sr to such an extent that transport of these elements to the deepest UZ zeolitized horizon can be blocked. Quantitative analysis of zeolite formation yields insight into processes that are implied from laboratory studies and modeling efforts but are otherwise unverified at the site. Such analysis also yields information not provided by or contradicted by some models of flow and transport. The results include the following: (1) evidence of effective downward flow through zeolitic horizons despite the low permeability of these horizons, (2) evidence that alkaline-earth elements accumulated by zeolites are mostly derived from eolian materials in surface soils, (3) validation of the very effective

  6. Pre-waste-emplacement ground-water travel time sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed to estimate critical factors in the performance of the site with respect to a criterion in terms of pre-waste-emplacement ground-water travel time. The degree of failure in the analytical model to meet the criterion is sensitive to the estimate of fracture porosity in the upper welded unit of the problem domain. Fracture porosity is derived from a number of more fundamental measurements including fracture frequency, fracture orientation, and the moisture-retention characteristic inferred for the fracture domain.

  7. Three-dimensional hydrological and thermal property models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A.; McKenna, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the creation of three-dimensional numerical models of selected rock-matrix properties for the region of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, which is located in southern Nevada. The models have been generated for a majority of the unsaturated and shallow saturated zone within an area referred to within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization project as the site area. They comprise a number of material properties of importance both to detailed process-level modeling activities and to more summary-style performance assessment modeling. The material properties within these models are both spatially variable (heterogeneous) and spatially correlated, as the rocks are understood from data obtained from site-characterization drill holes widely scattered across the site area.

  8. Questions to be addressed in the next Yucca Mountain performance assessment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    The next total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) analyses are designed to aid DOE in performing an ``investment analysis`` for Yucca Mountain. This TSPA must try to bound the uncertainties for several issues that will contribute to the decision whether the US should proceed with the development of a nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Because site-characterization experiments and data collection will continue for the foreseeable future, the next TSPA (called TSPA-IA) will again only be able to use partially developed models and partial data sets. In contrast to previous analyses however, TSPA-IA must address more specific questions to be of assistance to the investment-analysis deliberations.

  9. Spotlight back on LHW with Yucca Mountain on Trump's horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, St George' s Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    After years of argument and delay could the US be edging closer to resurrecting proposals to build a national repository for high level nuclear waste (HLW) at Yucca Mountain in Nevada? The federal government has looked at the site with a view to establishing a repository since the 1970s. However, after pouring billions of dollars into projects and studies over the decades, the project remained bogged down in legal battles and opposition from politicians and pressure groups. Now, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) said it had directed its staff to use the equivalent of about EUR 95,000 from the national Nuclear Waste Fund on ''information-gathering activities'' that could pave the way for resuming a licensing review of Yucca Mountain as a potential deep geologic repository (DGR).

  10. Site characterization progress report, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Number 19, April 1, 1998--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-01

    The nineteenth semiannual report of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) summarizes activities during the period from April 1, 1998, through September 30, 1998. Project activities are aimed at evaluating Yucca Mountain as a potential location for permanent geologic disposal of nuclear materials, as directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA). The progress report documents activities this period that contribute to completing the Project`s near-term programmatic and statutory objectives. These objectives include completing the Viability Assessment, the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), a possible US Department of Energy (DOE) Secretarial Site Recommendation to the President, and, if the site is suitable, submittal of a license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Project work this period continued to be concentrated in three integrated activities: site characterization, engineering design and construction, and performance assessment. Accomplishments this period and their relation to near-term objectives are briefly summarized.

  11. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 9, Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1994 quality program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    This status report is for calendar year 1994. It summarizes the annual activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP or Project) quality assurance program. By identifying the accomplishments of the quality program, a baseline is established that will assist in decision making, improve administrative controls and predictability, and allow us to annually identify adverse trends and to evaluate improvements. This is the fourth annual status report.

  13. Interpretation of chemical and isotopic data from boreholes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, I.C.; Rattray, G.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Yu, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Analyses of pore water from boreholes at Yucca Mountain indicate that unsaturated-zone pore water has significantly larger concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids than the saturated-zone water or perched-water bodies. Chemical compositions are of the calcium sulfate or calcium chloride types in the Paintbrush Group (Tiva Canyon, Yucca Mountain, Pah Canyon, and bedded tuffs), and sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type water in the Calico Hills Formation. Tritium profiles from boreholes at Yucca Mountain indicate tritium-concentration inversions (larger tritium concentrations are located below the smaller tritium concentration in a vertical profile) occur in many places. These inversions indicate preferential flow through fractures. Rock-gas compositions are similar to that of atmospheric air except that carbon dioxide concentrations are generally larger than those in the air. The delta carbon-13 values of gas are fairly constant from surface to 365.8 meters, indicating little interaction between the gas CO{sub 2} and caliche in the soil. Model calculations indicate that the gas transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain agrees well with the gas-diffusion process. Tritium-modeling results indicate that the high tritium value of about 100 tritium units in the Calico Hills Formation of UZ-16 is within limits of a piston-flow model with a water residence time of 32 to 35 years. The large variations in tritium concentrations with narrow peaks imply piston flow or preferential fracture flow rather than matrix flow. In reality, the aqueous-phase flow in the unsaturated zone is between piston and well-mixed flows but is closer to a piston flow.

  14. Independent management and financial review, Yucca Mountain Project, Nevada. Final report, Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-15

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425), as amended by Public Law 100-203, December 22, 1987, established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the Department of Energy (DOE), and directed the Office to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine if this site is suitable for the construction of a repository for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. Work on site characterization has been under way for several years. Thus far, about $1.47 billion have been spent on Yucca Mountain programs. This work has been funded by Congressional appropriations from a Nuclear Waste Fund to which contributions have been made by electric utility ratepayers through electric utilities generating power from nuclear power stations. The Secretary of Energy and the Governor of the State of Nevada have appointed one person each to a panel to oversee an objective, independent financial and management evaluation of the Yucca Mountain Project. The Requirements for the work will include an analysis of (1) the Yucca Mountain financial and, contract management techniques and controls; (2) Project schedules and credibility of the proposed milestones; (3) Project organizational effectiveness and internal planning processes, and (4) adequacy of funding levels and funding priorities, including the cost of infrastructure and scientific studies. The recipient will provide monthly progress report and the following reports/documents will be presented as deliverables under the contract: (1) Financial and Contract Management Preliminary Report; (2) Project Scheduling Preliminary Report; (3)Project Organizational Effectiveness Preliminary Report; (4) Project Funding Levels and Funding Priorities Preliminary Report; and (5) Final Report.

  15. Determination of Rock Mass Modulus Using the Plate Loading Method at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Riggins, M.

    1999-08-02

    A suite of plate loading tests has recently been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Fielding of these in situ tests as well as other approaches undertaken for the determination of rock mass modulus are described. The various methodologies are evaluated and their data compared. Calculation by existing empirical methods and numerical modeling are compared to each other as well as to field data.

  16. Site environmental report for the Yucca Mountain Project. Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This site environmental report describes the environmental program conducted during 2005 by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Repository Development. The report describes the environmental laws and regulations that were applicable to the Yucca Mountain Project in 2005, the actions taken to comply with those laws and regulations, and the Project’s environmental program. The report also summarizes the data collected to monitor potential impacts of the Project on the environment.

  17. Two-phase unsaturated flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Report on Current Understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.

    1998-08-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear waste program is unique in its focus on disposal of high-level wastes in the unsaturated zone (UZ), above the water table. The potential repository site currently under investigation is located in a semi-arid region of the southwestern U.S. at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geology of the site consists of layered sequences of faulted, fractured, and bedded tuffs. The groundwater table is approximately 600 m beneath the land surface, while the proposed repository horizon is at a nominal depth of approximately 375 m. In this kind of environment, two-phase flow is not just a localized perturbation to natural conditions, as in the saturated zone, but is the predominant mode of water and gas flow. The purpose of this report is to review the current understanding of gas and water flow, and mass transport, in the unique hydrogeologic environment of Yucca Mountain. Characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site are examined, and concepts and mathematical modeling approaches are described for variably saturated flow in thick unsaturated zones of fractured rock. The paper includes a brief summary of the disposal concept and repository design, as developed by a team of engineering contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with strong participation from the DOE National Laboratories.

  18. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project bibliography, 1992--1994. Supplement 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1993. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization`s list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it. Earlier information on this project can be found in the first bibliography DOE/TIC-3406, which covers 1977--1985, and its three supplements DOE/OSTI-3406(Suppl.1), DOE/OSTI-3406(Suppl.2), and DOE/OSTI-3406(Suppl.3), which cover information obtained during 1986--1987, 1988--1989, and 1990--1991, respectively. All entries in the bibliographies are searchable online on the NNW database file. This file can be accessed through the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  19. Paleoseismic investigations of Stagecoach Road fault, southeastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A.; Lundstrom, S.C.; Paces, J.B.; Mahan, S.A.; Widmann, B.; Murray, M.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of paleoseismic investigations at two trenches (SCR-T1 and SCR-T3) excavated across the Stagecoach Road (SCR) fault at the southeastern margin of Yucca Mountain. The results of these studies are based on detailed mapping or logging of geologic and structural relationships exposed in trench walls, combined with descriptions of lithologic units, associated soils, and fault-related deformation. The ages of trench deposits are determined directly from geochronologic dating of selected units and soils, supplemented by stratigraphic and soil correlations with other surficial deposits in the Yucca Mountain area. The time boundaries used in this report for subdivision of the Quaternary period are listed in a table. These data and interpretations are used to identify the number, amounts, timing, and approximately lengths of late to middle Quaternary (less than 200 ka) surface-faulting events associated with paleoearthquakes at the trench sites. This displacement history forms the basis for calculating paleoearthquake recurrence intervals and fault-slip rates for the Stagecoach Road fault and allows comparison with fault behavior on other Quaternary faults at or near Yucca Mountain.

  20. Inclusion of Yucca schidigera and zeolite in dog feed: influence on mineral excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.F. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding Yucca schidigera and zeolite (Clinoptilolite to feed (super premium and standard for adult dogs on the apparent indigestibility coefficient of minerals. In the first assessment, 21 dogs were used, with average weight of 12.5kg±1.46 in seven treatments in two periods (super premium diet referred to as control and control with the addition of 125, 250, 375ppm Yucca schidigera and 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% zeolite. The second assessment was conducted with standard feed, using 21 experimental plots distributed in three treatments (standard diet referred to as control and control with the addition of 375ppm of Yucca schidigera and 1.0% zeolite. The additives did not affect the acceptability of feed and fecal characteristics in both assessments (P>0.05. With the exception of calcium, no minerals were affected by the inclusion of additives (P>0.05 in the experiment with super premium feed. In the assessment with standard feed, calcium as phosphorus and magnesium presented decreased excretion (P<0.05 with the inclusion of additives. It is possible to conclude that the inclusion of additives in the tested concentrations may interfere with the excretion of some minerals in the diet.

  1. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada--hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  2. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  3. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT RECOMMENDATION BY THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY REGARDING THE SUITABILITY OF THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR A REPOSITORY UNDER THE NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY ACT OF 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-03-26

    For more than half a century, since nuclear science helped us win World War II and ring in the Atomic Age, scientists have known that !he Nation would need a secure, permanent facility in which to dispose of radioactive wastes. Twenty years ago, when Congress adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA or ''the Act''), it recognized the overwhelming consensus in the scientific community that the best option for such a facility would be a deep underground repository. Fifteen years ago, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to investigate and recommend to the President whether such a repository could be located safely at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since then, our country has spent billions of dollars and millions of hours of research endeavoring to answer this question. I have carefully reviewed the product of this study. In my judgment, it constitutes sound science and shows that a safe repository can be sited there. I also believe that compelling national interests counsel in favor of proceeding with this project. Accordingly, consistent with my responsibilities under the NWPA, today I am recommending that Yucca Mountain be developed as the site for an underground repository for spent fuel and other radioactive wastes. The first consideration in my decision was whether the Yucca Mountain site will safeguard the health and safety of the people, in Nevada and across the country, and will be effective in containing at minimum risk the material it is designed to hold. Substantial evidence shows that it will. Yucca Mountain is far and away the most thoroughly researched site of its kind in the world. It is a geologically stable site, in a closed groundwater basin, isolated on thousands of acres of Federal land, and farther from any metropolitan area than the great majority of less secure, temporary nuclear waste storage sites that exist in the country today. This point bears emphasis. We are not confronting a hypothetical problem. We have a

  4. FY17 Status Report on the Computing Systems for the Yucca Mountain Project TSPA-LA Models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reynolds, John Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garland, Jason P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) continued evaluation of total system performance assessment (TSPA) computing systems for the previously considered Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). This was done to maintain the operational readiness of the computing infrastructure (computer hardware and software) and knowledge capability for total system performance assessment (TSPA) type analysis, as directed by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE 2010. This work is a continuation of the ongoing readiness evaluation reported in Lee and Hadgu (2014), Hadgu et al. (2015) and Hadgu and Appel (2016). The TSPA computing hardware (CL2014) and storage system described in Hadgu et al. (2015) were used for the current analysis. One floating license of GoldSim with Versions 9.60.300, 10.5, 11.1 and 12.0 was installed on the cluster head node, and its distributed processing capability was mapped on the cluster processors. Other supporting software were tested and installed to support the TSPA- type analysis on the server cluster. The current tasks included preliminary upgrade of the TSPA-LA from Version 9.60.300 to the latest version 12.0 and address DLL-related issues observed in the FY16 work. The model upgrade task successfully converted the Nominal Modeling case to GoldSim Versions 11.1/12. Conversions of the rest of the TSPA models were also attempted but program and operational difficulties precluded this. Upgrade of the remaining of the modeling cases and distributed processing tasks is expected to continue. The 2014 server cluster and supporting software systems are fully operational to support TSPA-LA type analysis.

  5. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Theodore H.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Burton, Bethany L.; Wallin, Erin L.

    2009-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  6. Notification of Concurrence - K-25/K-27 D&D Project, ETTP - Change Number of EMWMF Waste Lots in the Waste Handling Plan for Demolition of the K-25 and K-27 Building Structures and Remaining Components Located at the ETTP, Oak Ridge, TN From Two to Three

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trice K.D.

    2009-02-11

    Section 5.1 of the approved Waste Handling Plan for Demolition ofthe K-25 and K-2 7 Building Structures and Remaining Components Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (WHP) includes two Environmental Management Waste Management (EMWMF) waste lots: (1) Asbestos-contaminated roofing/transite; and (2) Construction debris, such as nonasbestos roofing, structural steel/miscellaneous metal/equipment, nonradiological piping, wood, and miscellaneous small quantities of concrete. This concurrence form adds an additional EMWMF waste lot 6.47 for lavatory sink drains. Based on an analysis of the building structure characterization data, the only individual building structure with either an analytic carcinogenic or Hazard Index (HI) sum-of-fractions (SOF) greater than 1 is the lavatory sink drains (Table 1). The HI SOF for the lavatory sink drains is 1.34 (Table 2). When all media are combined with the material of construction calculations, the HI SOF is 1.22 (Table 3). However, when the lavatory sink drains are segregated from all other media, the HI SOF is only 0.256, which is well below the EMWMF waste acceptance criteria SOF limit of 1 (Table 4). Given the large volume (124, 625 cubic yards) of other building structure media with a small HI SOF of 0.256 and the small volume (one cubic yard) of lavatory sink drains with a large HI SOF of 1.34, a separate waste lot for lavatory sink drains is recommended. Lead is the primary contributor to the large HI SOF in the lavatory sink drains. Lead in the lavatory sink drains was shown using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test statistically to have higher concentrations than all other building structure media combined. Other analytes having statistically different median concentrations in the lavatory sink drains compared to all other media are antimony, arsenic, boron, cadmium, selenium, solver, vanadium, zinc, mercury, strontium, and Uranium-233/234 (Table 5). A separate waste lot for the lavatory sink drains

  7. Review of Microbial Responses to Abiotic Environmental Factors in the Context of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    2000-08-01

    A workshop on Microbial Activities at Yucca Mountain (May 1995, Lafayette, CA) was held with the intention to compile information on all pertinent aspects of microbial activity for application to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The findings of this workshop set off a number of efforts intended to eventually incorporate the impacts of microbial behavior into performance assessment models. One effort was to expand an existing modeling approach to include the distinctive characteristics of a repository at Yucca Mountain (e.g., unsaturated conditions and a significant thermal load). At the same time, a number of experimental studies were initiated as well as a compilation of relevant literature to more thoroughly study the physical, chemical and biological parameters that would affect microbial activity under Yucca Mountain-like conditions. This literature search (completed in 1996) is the subject of the present document. The collected literature can be divided into four categories: (1) abiotic factors, (2) community dynamics and in-situ considerations, (3) nutrient considerations and (4) transport of radionuclides. The complete bibliography represents a considerable resource, but is too large to be discussed in one document. Therefore, the present report focuses on the first category, abiotic factors, and a discussion of these factors in order to facilitate the development of a model for Yucca Mountain.

  8. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    1999-06-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the

  9. Numerical Simulation of Inter-basin Groundwater Flow into Northern Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Using the Death Valley Regional Flow System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmann Karl,Ye Ming

    2012-03-01

    Models of groundwater flow for the Yucca Flat area of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) are under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for corrective action investigations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). One important aspect of these models is the quantity of inter-basin groundwater flow from regional systems to the north. This component of flow, together with its uncertainty, must be properly accounted for in the CAU flow models to provide a defensible regional framework for calculations of radionuclide transport that will support determinations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine contaminant boundary. Because characterizing flow boundary conditions in northern Yucca Flat requires evaluation to a higher level of detail than the scale of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU model can efficiently provide, a study more focused on this aspect of the model was required.

  10. Productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immune functions, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens fed diets with different levels of Yucca schidigera extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; El-Kholy, Mohamed S

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera extract on productive performance, egg quality, blood metabolites, immune function, and antioxidant parameters in laying hens. A total of 96 36-week-old hens were allocated into four groups, the control diet or the diet supplemented with 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg of yucca extract, from 36 to 52 weeks of age. Hens were divided into four equal groups replicated six times with four hens per replicate. As a result of this study, there were no linearly or quadratically differences in body weight change (BWC), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg weight (EW) due to yucca treatments at different ages, except FCR and EW that were improved with yucca supplementation during 36-40 weeks of age. Supplemental dietary yucca up to 100 mg/kg diet led to significant improvement in egg number (EN) and egg mass (EM). Egg qualities were not linearly or quadratically affected by yucca treatments except shell thickness was quadratically (P albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Comparing to the control group, yucca addition to laying hen diets resulted in a significant linear (P < 0.001) and quadratic (P = 0. 010) decrease in blood ammonia-N and urea-N, respectively. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in serum were quadratically improved in yucca groups. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased with yucca addition in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, yucca supplemented up to 100 mg/kg diet can be used as effective feed additive to improve productive performance, blood profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in laying hens.

  11. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.

    1995-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group.

  12. A refined characterization of the alluvial geology of yucca flat and its effect on bulk hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.A.; Halford, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    In Yucca Flat, on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada, the migration of radionuclides from tests located in the alluvial deposits into the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through a thick, heterogeneous section of late Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial sediments. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of the alluvial sediments will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating groundwater flow in the Yucca Flat area. Previously published geologic models for the alluvial sediments within Yucca Flat are based on extensive examination and categorization of drill-hole data, combined with a simple, data-driven interpolation scheme. The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with Stanford University, is researching improvements to the modeling of the alluvial section, incorporating prior knowledge of geologic structure into the interpolation method and estimating the uncertainty of the modeled hydrogeologic units.

  13. Hydrologic and geologic characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site relevant to the performance of a potential repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levich, R.A.; Linden, R.M.; Patterson, R.L.; Stuckless, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located ~100 mi northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been designated by Congress as a site to be characterized for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This field trip will examine the regional geologic and hydrologic setting for Yucca Mountain, as well as specific results of the site characterization program. The first day focuses on the regional setting with emphasis on current and paleo hydrology, which are both of critical concern for predicting future performance of a potential repository. Morning stops will be southern Nevada and afternoon stops will be in Death Valley. The second day will be spent at Yucca Mountain. The field trip will visit the underground testing sites in the "Exploratory Studies Facility" and the "Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Field Test" plus several surface-based testing sites. Much of the work at the site has concentrated on studies of the unsaturated zone, an element of the hydrologic system that historically has received little attention. Discussions during the second day will compromise selected topics of Yucca Mountain geology, hydrology and geochemistry and will include the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis and the seismicity and seismic hazard in the Yucca Mountain area. Evening discussions will address modeling of regional groundwater flow, the results of recent hydrologic studies by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Program Office, and the relationship of the geology and hydrology of Yucca Mountain to the performance of a potential repository. Day 3 will examine the geologic framework and hydrology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Groundwater Basin and then will continue to Reno via Hawthorne, Nevada and the Walker Lake area.

  14. Completion Report for Well ER-3-3 Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, Jeffrey [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Rehfeldt, Ken [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Well ER-3-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada National Security Administration Nevada Field Office in support of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. The well was drilled and completed from February 21 to March 15, 2016, as part of the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97. The primary purpose of the well was to collect hydrogeologic data to assist in validating concepts of the flow system within the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU, and to test for potential radionuclides in groundwater from the WAGTAIL (U3an) underground test.

  15. Investigations of hydro-tectonic hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository. Annual report - Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, D.E. [ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document includes several reports describing scientific studies of the origin of near surface calcite/silica deposits at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The origin of these deposits is controversial and the authors have extended and strengthened the basis of their arguments for epigenetic, metasomatic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain. This report includes stratigraphic, mineralogical, and geochronological information along with geochemical data to support the conclusions described by Livingston and Szymanski. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Review of microbial responses to abiotic environmental factors in the context of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Stroes-Gascoyne, S

    2000-10-01

    A workshop on Microbial Activities at Yucca Mountain (May 1995, Lafayette, CA) was held with the intention to compile information on all pertinent aspects of microbial activity for application to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The findings of this workshop set off a number of efforts intended to eventually incorporate the impacts of microbial behaviour into performance assessment models. One effort was to expand an existing modelling approach to include the distinctive characteristics of a repository at Yucca Mountain (e.g., unsaturated conditions and a significant thermal load). At the same time, a number of experimental studies were initiated as well as a compilation of relevant literature to more thoroughly study the physical, chemical and biological parameters that would affect microbial activity under Yucca Mountain-like conditions. This literature search (completed in 1996) is the subject of the present document. The collected literature can be divided into four categories, 1) abiotic factors, 2) community dynamics and in-situ considerations, 3) nutrient considerations and 4) transport of radionuclides. The complete bibliography (included in Appendix A) represents a considerable resource, but is too large to be discussed in one document. Therefore, the present report focuses on the first category, abiotic factors, and a discussion of these factors in order to facilitate the development of a model for Yucca Mountain. The first part of the report (Chapters 1-3) is a review of general microbial states, phases and requirements for growth, conditions for 'normal growth' and other types of growth, survival strategies and cell death. It contains primarily well-established ideas in microbiology. Microbial capabilities for survival and adaptation to environmental changes are examined because a repository placed at Yucca Mountain would have two effects. First, the natural environment would be perturbed by the excavation and construction of the

  17. Conceptual, experimental and computational approaches to support performance assessment of hydrology and chemical transport at Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Wang, J.S.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The authors of this report have been participating in the Sandia National Laboratory`s hydrologic performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, since 1983. The scope of this work is restricted to the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and to technical questions about hydrology and chemical transport. The issues defined here are not to be confused with the elaborate hierarchy of issues that forms the framework of the US Department of Energy plans for characterizing the site (DOE, 1989). The overall task of hydrologic performance assessment involves issues related to hydrology, geochemistry, and energy transport in a highly heterogeneous natural geologic system which will be perturbed in a major way by the disposal activity. Therefore, a rational evaluation of the performance assessment issues must be based on an integrated appreciation of the aforesaid interacting processes. Accordingly, a hierarchical approach is taken in this report, proceeding from the statement of the broad features of the site that make it the site for intensive studies and the rationale for disposal strategy, through the statement of the fundamental questions that need to be answered, to the identification of the issues that need resolution. Having identified the questions and issues, the report then outlines the tasks to be undertaken to resolve the issues. The report consists essentially of two parts. The first part deals with the definition of issues summarized above. The second part summarizes the findings of the authors between 1983 and 1989 under the activities of the former Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) and the current YMP.

  18. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T&MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document.

  19. Comparative phylogeography of a coevolved community: concerted population expansions in Joshua trees and four yucca moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Irwin; Tank, Shantel; Godsoe, William; Levenick, Jim; Strand, Eva; Esque, Todd C.; Pellmyr, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Comparative phylogeographic studies have had mixed success in identifying common phylogeographic patterns among co-distributed organisms. Whereas some have found broadly similar patterns across a diverse array of taxa, others have found that the histories of different species are more idiosyncratic than congruent. The variation in the results of comparative phylogeographic studies could indicate that the extent to which sympatrically-distributed organisms share common biogeographic histories varies depending on the strength and specificity of ecological interactions between them. To test this hypothesis, we examined demographic and phylogeographic patterns in a highly specialized, coevolved community – Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) and their associated yucca moths. This tightly-integrated, mutually interdependent community is known to have experienced significant range changes at the end of the last glacial period, so there is a strong a priori expectation that these organisms will show common signatures of demographic and distributional changes over time. Using a database of >5000 GPS records for Joshua trees, and multi-locus DNA sequence data from the Joshua tree and four species of yucca moth, we combined paleaodistribution modeling with coalescent-based analyses of demographic and phylgeographic history. We extensively evaluated the power of our methods to infer past population size and distributional changes by evaluating the effect of different inference procedures on our results, comparing our palaeodistribution models to Pleistocene-aged packrat midden records, and simulating DNA sequence data under a variety of alternative demographic histories. Together the results indicate that these organisms have shared a common history of population expansion, and that these expansions were broadly coincident in time. However, contrary to our expectations, none of our analyses indicated significant range or population size reductions at the end of the last glacial

  20. Temporal damping effect of the Yucca Mountain fractured unsaturated rock on transient infiltration pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua

    2006-07-01

    SummaryPerformance assessment of the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ) as the site for an underground repository of high-level radioactive waste relies on the crucial assumption that water percolation processes in the unsaturated zone can be approximated as a steady-state condition. Justification of such an assumption is based on temporal damping effects of several geological units within the unsaturated tuff formation. In particular, the nonwelded tuff of the Painbrush Group (PTn unit) at Yucca Mountain, because of its highly porous physical properties, has been conceptualized to have a significant capacity for temporally damping transient percolation fluxes. The objective of this study is to investigate these damping effects, using a three-dimensional (3-D) mountain-scale model as well as several one-dimensional (1-D) models. The 3-D model incorporates a wide variety of the updated field data for the highly heterogeneous unsaturated formation at Yucca Mountain. The model is first run to steady state and calibrated using field-measured data and then transient pulse infiltrations are applied to the model top boundary. Subsequent changes in percolation fluxes at the bottom of and within the PTn unit are examined under episodic infiltration boundary conditions. The 1-D model is used to examine the long-term response of the flow system to higher infiltration pulses, while the damping effect is also investigated through modeling tracer transport in the UZ under episodic infiltration condition. Simulation results show the existence of damping effects within the PTn unit and also indicate that the assumption of steady-state flow conditions below the PTn unit is reasonable. However, the study also finds that some fast flow paths along faults exist, causing vertical-flux quick responses at the PTn bottom to the episodic infiltration at the top boundary.

  1. The Sorption/Desorption Behavior of Uranium in Transport Studies Using Yucca Mountain Alluvium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scism, Cynthia D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the proposed site of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. In the event repository engineered barriers fail, the saturated alluvium located south of Yucca Mountain is expected to serve as a natural barrier to the migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. The purpose of this study is to improve the characterization of uranium retardation in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain to support refinement of an assessment model. The distribution of uranium desorption rates from alluvium obtained from Nye County bore holes EWDP-19IM1, EWDP-10SA, EWDP-22SA were studied to address inconsistencies between results from batch sorption and column transport experiments. The alluvium and groundwater were characterized to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the observed behavior. Desorption rate constants were obtained using an activity based mass balance equation and column desorption experiments were analyzed using a mathematical model utilizing multiple sorption sites with different first-order forward and reverse reaction rates. The uranium desorption rate constants decreased over time, suggesting that the alluvium has multiple types of active sorption sites with different affinities for uranium. While a significant fraction of the initially sorbed uranium desorbed from the alluvium quite rapidly, a roughly equivalent amount remained sorbed after several months of testing. The information obtained through this research suggests that uranium may experience greater effective retardation in the alluvium than simple batch sorption experiments would suggest. Electron Probe Microanalysis shows that uranium is associated with both clay minerals and iron oxides after sorption to alluvial material. These results provide further evidence that the alluvium contains multiple sorption sites for uranium.

  2. Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Perry, F.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA). Dept. of Geology

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth`s surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. Studies of subsurface effects are just beginning, and are currently focused on field studies of intrusion properties and contact metamorphism at deeply eroded analog sites. General processes of magmatism are important for providing a physical basis for predictions of future volcanic activity. Initial studies have focused on modeling basaltic magma chambers in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical studies. An example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. We are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and, in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii.

  3. Existing Evidence for the Fate of Neptunium in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Judah I.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Buck, Edgar C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); McNamara, Bruce K.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hanson, Brady D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Marschman, Steven C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-06-18

    Neptunium, because of its long half life, is an element of long-term interest to the Yucca Mountain repository. The fate of neptunium under repository settings is unknown. This report provides a review and new interpretation of past tests on commercial spent nuclear fuel and experimental evidence on the fate of neptunium. Tests on commercial spent nuclear fuel preformed previously at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) used a bathtub setup by immersing spent fuel in either deionized water or a groundwater typical of those at Yucca Mountain. The main goal of the tests was to determine the different concentrations of radionuclides in solution with different types of cladding defects. Neptunium was not the focus of these tests, nor were the tests designed to study neptunium. Drip tests performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are unsaturated tests that drip water at different rates on spent fuel. Relatively new tests at ANL examine the corrosion of Np-doped U3O8 in humid air at various temperatures. This review concludes that all tests reported here have analytical problems (i.e., relatively high detection limits for Np) and have been configured such that they limit the ability to interpret the available neptunium data. Past tests on spent nuclear fuel do not unambiguously describe neptunium chemistry as there are multiple mechanisms that may explain the observed behavior in each test. One apparently major shortcoming of most tests is that the extent of fuel reaction was limited by the amount of oxygen present in the system. Further detailed studies under repository-relevant conditions, which include the assumption of a constant 20 percent oxygen atmosphere, are needed to provide the data necessary for the development and validation of models used to predict the long-term fate of neptunium and other radionuclides at Yucca Mountain.

  4. Effect of sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract on bone characteristics in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzio Iwona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract (0.2% and 0.3% on femur quality of growing pigs (n = 45. Material and Methods: At the age of 28, 35 and 56 d, five piglets from each group fed a different diet were euthanised and the femora were collected for further analyses. The bone characteristics were assessed based on weight, length, densitometric analysis of BMC and BMD, pQCT analysis (area, mineral content, volumetric density of trabecular and cortical part of metaphysis and diaphysis, respectively, ultimate strength, and geometrical parameters (cross-sectional area and second moment of inertia. Results: There were no significant differences in femur bone parameters among experimental groups on the 28th d of life. On the 35th d of life, piglets with 0.2% supplementation of sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract had significantly lower values of weight and second moment of inertia, and significantly higher trabecular BMD and BMC compared to other experimental groups. In 56-day-old pigs, the higher values were observed in both experimental groups regarding BMC, ultimate strength, geometrical parameters, cortical BMC, diaphyseal total area, and endosteal circumference (P < 0.05. Significant differences between experimental groups were observed only in bone weight and cortical thickness. Conclusion: This study proved that simultaneous supplementation with sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract positively influences bone quality in pigs in the post-weaning period. However, there were no differences in bone characteristics between the addition of 0.2% and 0.3% preparations.

  5. Status of volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.; Perry, F.; Murrell, M.; Poths, J.; Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wells, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Bowker, L.; Finnegan, K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Geissman, J.; McFadden, L.

    1995-02-01

    Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. The long time of activity and characteristic small volume of the Postcaldera basalt of the YMR result in one of the lowest eruptive rates in a volcanic field in the southwest United States. Chapter 5 summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 summarizes the history of volcanism studies (1979 through early 1994), including work for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and overview studies by the state of Nevada and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Chapter 7 summarizes probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment using a three-part conditional probability model. Chapter 8 describes remaining volcanism work judged to be needed to complete characterization studies for the YMR. Chapter 9 summarizes the conclusions of this volcanism status report.

  6. Multiple-point statistical prediction on fracture networks at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.Y; Zhang, C.Y.; Liu, Q.S.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2009-05-01

    In many underground nuclear waste repository systems, such as at Yucca Mountain, water flow rate and amount of water seepage into the waste emplacement drifts are mainly determined by hydrological properties of fracture network in the surrounding rock mass. Natural fracture network system is not easy to describe, especially with respect to its connectivity which is critically important for simulating the water flow field. In this paper, we introduced a new method for fracture network description and prediction, termed multi-point-statistics (MPS). The process of the MPS method is to record multiple-point statistics concerning the connectivity patterns of a fracture network from a known fracture map, and to reproduce multiple-scale training fracture patterns in a stochastic manner, implicitly and directly. It is applied to fracture data to study flow field behavior at the Yucca Mountain waste repository system. First, the MPS method is used to create a fracture network with an original fracture training image from Yucca Mountain dataset. After we adopt a harmonic and arithmetic average method to upscale the permeability to a coarse grid, THM simulation is carried out to study near-field water flow in the surrounding waste emplacement drifts. Our study shows that connectivity or patterns of fracture networks can be grasped and reconstructed by MPS methods. In theory, it will lead to better prediction of fracture system characteristics and flow behavior. Meanwhile, we can obtain variance from flow field, which gives us a way to quantify model uncertainty even in complicated coupled THM simulations. It indicates that MPS can potentially characterize and reconstruct natural fracture networks in a fractured rock mass with advantages of quantifying connectivity of fracture system and its simulation uncertainty simultaneously.

  7. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Newsom, J.C. [Newsom Industries, Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain.

  8. Radionuclide Transport in Tuff and Carbonate Fractures from Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M; Johnson, M R; Roberts, S K; Pletcher, R; Rose, T P; Kersting, A B; Eaton, G; Hu, Q; Ramon, E; Walensky, J; Zhao, P

    2006-02-01

    In the Yucca Flat basin of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), 747 shaft and tunnel nuclear detonations were conducted primarily within the tuff confining unit (TCU) or the overlying alluvium. The TCU in the Yucca Flat basin is hypothesized to reduce radionuclide migration to the regional carbonate aquifer (lower carbonate aquifer) due to its wide-spread aerial extent and chemical reactivity. However, shortcuts through the TCU by way of fractures may provide a migration path for radionuclides to the lower carbonate aquifer (LCA). It is, therefore, imperative to understand how radionuclides migrate or are retarded in TCU fractures. Furthermore, understanding the migration behavior of radionuclides once they reach the fractured LCA is important for predicting contaminant transport within the regional aquifer. The work presented in this report includes: (1) information on the radionuclide reactive transport through Yucca Flat TCU fractures (likely to be the primary conduit to the LCA), (2) information on the reactive transport of radionuclides through LCA fractures and (3) data needed to calibrate the fracture flow conceptualization of predictive models. The predictive models are used to define the extent of contamination for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. Because of the complex nature of reactive transport in fractures, a stepwise approach to identifying mechanisms controlling radionuclide transport was used. In the first set of TCU experiments, radionuclide transport through simple synthetic parallel-plate fractured tuff cores was examined. In the second, naturally fractured TCU cores were used. For the fractured LCA experiments, both parallel-plate and rough-walled fracture transport experiments were conducted to evaluate how fracture topography affects radionuclide transport. Tuff cores were prepared from archived UE-7az and UE-7ba core obtained from the USGS core library, Mercury, Nevada. Carbonate cores were prepared from archived ER-6-1 core, also obtained

  9. Cost-Effective Cementitious Material Compatible with Yucca Mountain Repository Geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, LR

    2004-12-17

    The current plans for the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository project (YMP) use steel structures to stabilize the disposal drifts and connecting tunnels that are collectively over 100 kilometers in length. The potential exist to reduce the underground construction cost by 100s of millions of dollars and improve the repository's performance. These economic and engineering goals can be achieved by using the appropriate cementitious materials to build out these tunnels. This report describes the required properties of YM compatible cements and reviews the literature that proves the efficacy of this approach. This report also describes a comprehensive program to develop and test materials for a suite of underground construction technologies.

  10. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  11. Yucca Mountain project total-system performance assessment preliminary analyses; Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory have produced a coordinated initial total-system performance assessment analysis for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Analyses included radionuclide transport via groundwater and gas flow, human intrusion, tectonism, and basaltic igneous intrusion. Both abstracted and detailed calculations were used for the analyses. Probabilistic release distributions were calculated for the individual components, and a combined distribution for the overall behavior of the system was constructed. Results from the analyses using abstracted models indicate that this method produces reasonable outcomes based on the authors` current understanding of the site.

  12. Yucca Mountain Project total-system performance assessment preliminary analyses: Overview; Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.

    1991-12-19

    Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory have produced a coordinated initial total-system performance assessment analysis for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Analyses included radionuclide transport via groundwater and gas flow, human intrusion, tectonism, and basaltic igneous intrusion. Both abstracted and detailed calculations were used for the analyses. Probabilistic release distributions were calculated for the individual components, and a combined distribution for the overall behavior of the system was constructed. Results from the analyses using abstracted models indicate that this method produces reasonable outcomes based on our current understanding of the site.

  13. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1990--March 31, 1991; Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113 (b) (3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. This report is the fourth in a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program, and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, Study Plans, and performance assessment.

  14. Smoothwall blasting planned for the underground research facility at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, R.L.; McKenzie, J. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses whether or not the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) at yucca Mountain, Nevada will be completely mechanically excavated, completely developed by drilling and blasting or whether both methods will be utilized on different parts of the ESF. Where drilling and blasting may be used, smoothwall blasting techniques will be used and strict controls will be placed on drill hole placement and alignment, and the correct use of limiting damage explosive, so that minimum amount of fracturing will occur beyond the perimeter of the openings. The authors discuss why this is necessary and how it is achievable.

  15. Tectonic and neotectonic framwork of the Yucca Mountain region, Task 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1993-09-30

    Research continued on the tectonic and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. Highlights from projects include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Funeral Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; development of structural models for pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; Paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain; sampling of pegmatites in Bullfrog Hills and Funeral Mountains for U-Pb isotopic analysis; and review and analysis of Mesozoic structure between eastern sierra and Nevada test Site.

  16. Nutrient limitation and microbially mediated chemistry: Studies using tuff inoculum obtained from the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A.; Chen, C.I.; Chuu, Y.J.; Sawvel, A.; Ringelberg, D.

    1999-07-01

    Flow-through bioreactors are used to investigate the relationship between the supply (and limitation) of major nutrients required by microorganisms (C, N, P, S) and effluent chemistry to obtain data that can be useful to develop models of microbially mediated aqueous chemistry. The bioreactors were inoculated with crushed tuff from Yucca Mountain. Six of the 14 bioreactor experiments currently in operation have shown growth, which occurred in as few as 5 days and as much as a few months after initiation of the experiment. The value of combining detailed chemical and microbial community analyses, long-duration experiments, and abiotic chemical models to distinguish chemical patterns is evident. Although all of the bioreactors contain the same initial microorganisms and mineral constituents, PLFA analysis demonstrates that both input chemistry and temperature determine the character of the long-term population of microorganisms. Where microbial growth occurs, that community can have a significant impact on the water chemistry. These principles are well known, but the authors note their relevance to modeling microbially mediated chemistry. The authors recognize, in addition to microbial growth, three categories of chemical effects, each of which will require a different approach and constitutive equation(s): (1) unidirectional bacterial modification of the chemistry (i.e., pH) that is directly related to the dominance of particular species, (2) secondary impact of direct microbial modifications (i.e., increased dissolution of solids as a result of reduced pH), and (3) cyclical effects that may be attributed to internal regulation (e.g., osmoregulation or internal pH regulation) or evolution of the microbial community.

  17. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  18. Scenarios constructed for nominal flow in the presence of a repository at Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, G.E.; Hunter, R.L.; Dunn, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Scenario development for the system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project defines a scenario as a well-posed problem connecting an initiating event with radionuclide release to the accessible environment by a logical and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes. Drawing on the advice and assistance of the Project`s principal investigators (PIs), a collection of release scenarios initiated by the nominal ground-water flow occurring in the vicinity of the potential Yucca Mountain high-level-waste repository is developed and described in pictorial form. This collection of scenarios is intended to provide a framework to assist PIs in recognizing essential field and calculational analyses, to assist performance assessment in providing guidance to site characterization, and to continue the effort to exhaustively identify all features, events, and processes important to releases. It represents a step in the iterative process of identifying what details of the potential site are important for safe disposal. 67 refs.

  19. Atmospheric Dispersal and Dispostion of Tephra From a Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Keating; W.Statham

    2004-02-12

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (ASHPLUME) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. The ASHPLUME conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The ASHPLUME mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report will improve and clarify the previous documentation of the ASHPLUME mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model.

  20. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (US); Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Inc., Denver, CO (US)

    1998-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections o f the southwestern Great Basin.

  1. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Spectra Research, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel.

  2. Marked Antigiardial Activity of Yucca baccata Extracts: A Potential Natural Alternative for Treating Protozoan Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; León-Trujillo, Rocio; Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Robles, María del Refugio; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E.; Canett, Rafael; Sánchez-Escalante, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Human Giardiosis is a public health problem in Mexico, where the national prevalence was estimated to be up to 68%. Misuse of antiprotozoal drugs may result in low effectiveness and undesirable side effects. Research on natural products is a good strategy for discovering more effective antiparasitic compounds. This study evaluated the antigiardial activity of extracts of Yucca baccata, which is native to northwestern Mexico. Forty-two gerbils (females) were weighed and orally inoculated with 5 × 106 Giardia trophozoites. Two gerbils were selected at random to confirm infection. Forty living gerbils were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (8 per group). Gerbils were randomly assigned to be treated with 24.4 mg/mL, 12.2 mg/mL, and 6.1 mg/mL of extracts, metronidazole (2 mg/mL) or PBS, which were intragastrically administered once per day for 3 days. Nine gerbils died during the study course. On day 10 postinfection, gerbils were euthanized and trophozoites were quantified. Yucca extracts reduced, albeit not significantly, the trophozoite counts in the duodenum segment. Only the high-extract concentration significantly reduced the trophozoite counts in the proximal segment and it was similar to that of metronidazole. Extracts of Y. baccata may represent an effective and natural therapeutic alternative for human giardiosis. PMID:25250335

  3. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This report is the tenth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are descriptions of activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies. The Executive Summary is intended to provide a summary of major decisions, activities, accomplishments, and issues of interest during the reporting period. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides background information to assist the reader in understanding the current status of the program. Chapter 2 provides specific detailed discussions of activities conducted during the current reporting period and has two major divisions. Section 2.1, Preparatory Activities, provides information on select preparatory activities necessary to conduct site characterization and design activities. Sections 2.2 through 2.8 provide specific details on studies and activities conducted during the reporting period and follow the original structure of the Department`s 1988 Site Characterization Plan. Chapter 3 contains the current summary schedule, while Chapter 4 provides a description of the program outreach, including activities during the reporting period, in both the international program and public outreach. Chapter 5 presents an epilogue of significant events that occurred after the end of the reporting period.

  4. Site environmental report for calendar year 1997, Yucca Mountain Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This document is the seventh annual Site Environmental Report (SER) submitted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office (YMSCO) to describe the environmental program implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Yucca Mountain. As prescribed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA, 1982), this program ensures that site characterization activities are conducted in a manner that minimizes any significant adverse impacts to the environment and complies with all applicable laws and regulations. The most recent guidelines for the preparation of the SER place major emphasis on liquid and gaseous emissions of radionuclides, pollutants or hazardous substances; human exposure to radionuclides; and trends observed by comparing data collected over a period of years. To date, the YMP has not been the source of any radioactive emissions or been responsible for any human exposure to radionuclides. Minuscule amounts of radioactivity detected at the site are derived from natural sources or from dust previously contaminated by nuclear tests conducted in the past at the NTS. Because data for only a few years exist for the site, identification of long-term trends is not yet possible. Despite the lack of the aforementioned categories of information requested for the SER, the YMP has collected considerable material relevant to this report. An extensive environmental monitoring and mitigation program is currently in place and is described herein. Also, as requested by the SER guidelines, an account of YMP compliance with appropriate environmental legislation is provided.

  5. Diet of desert tortoises at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and implications for habitat reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, D.L.; Holt, E.A.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.

    1995-12-01

    The diet of desert tortoises at Yucca Mountain was assessed during 1992 to 1995 using a combination of feeding observations and scat analysis. Feeding observation data (1993 through 1995) showed that tortoises fed on a wide variety of items. The most frequently eaten items were forbs and annual grasses. These two forage groups comprised more than 90% of all bites taken. Analysis of scat (1992 and 1993) also showed that grasses and forbs were the most common groups, making up more than 80% of the composition of scat. Yearly differences between proportions of species in the diet were observed and were most likely attributable to differences in plant productivity, which is linked to rainfall patterns. Non-native species were an important component of the diet in all years, accounting for 13 to 50% of all bites observed and 6 to 24% of scat contents. A list of all items encountered in the diet is provided. To facilitate reclamation of desert tortoise habitat disturbed by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, native forage species that should be included in reclamation seed mixes, when feasible, were identified. Although shrubs make up only a small proportion of the diet, they should also be included in reclamation efforts because they provide habitat structure. Tortoise cover sites, and microhabitats amenable to seed germination and seedling establishment. In addition, non-native species should not be planted on reclaimed sites and, if necessary, sites should be recontoured and soil compaction reduced prior to planting.

  6. Numerical simulation of gas flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.A. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center

    1990-01-01

    Numerical analysis is used to identify the physical phenomena associated with barometrically driven gas (air and water vapor) flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Results from simple finite difference simulations indicate that for a fractured rock scenario, the maximum velocity of air out of an uncased 10 cm borehole is 0.002 m s{sub {minus}1}. An equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was incorporated into a multiphase, multicomponent simulator to test more complex conceptual models. Results indicate that for a typical June day, a diurnal pressure wave propagates about 160 m into the surrounding Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit. Dry air that enters the formation evaporates water around the borehole which reduces capillary pressure. Multiphase countercurrent flow develops in the vicinity of the hole; the gas phase flows into the formation while the liquid phase flows toward the borehole. The effect occurs within 0.5 m of the borehole. The amount of water vapor leaving the formation during 1 day is 900 cm{sup 3}. This is less than 0.1% of the total recharge into the formation, suggesting that the barometric effect may be insignificant in drying the unsaturated zone. However, gas phase velocities out of the borehole (3 m s{sup {minus}1}), indicating that observed flow rates from wells along the east flank of Yucca Mountain were able to be simulated with a barometric model.

  7. Exploratory Shaft Seismic Design Basis Working Group report; Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, C.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); King, J.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Perkins, D.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA); Mudd, R.W. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (USA); Richardson, A.M. [Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA); Calovini, J.C. [Holmes and Narver, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Van Eeckhout, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Emerson, D.O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

    1990-08-01

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), which is managed by the US Department of Energy. The participants in the YMP are investigating the suitability of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will be constructed to permit site characterization. The major components of the ESF are two shafts that will be used to provide access to the underground test areas for men, utilities, and ventilation. If a repository is constructed at the site, the exploratory shafts will be converted for use as intake ventilation shafts. In the context of both underground nuclear explosions (conducted at the nearby Nevada Test Site) and earthquakes, the report contains discussions of faulting potential at the site, control motions at depth, material properties of the different rock layers relevant to seismic design, the strain tensor for each of the waveforms along the shaft liners, and the method for combining the different strain components along the shaft liners. The report also describes analytic methods, assumptions used to ensure conservatism, and uncertainties in the data. The analyses show that none of the shafts` structures, systems, or components are important to public radiological safety; therefore, the shafts need only be designed to ensure worker safety, and the report recommends seismic design parameters appropriate for this purpose. 31 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Modeling studies of gas movement and moisture migration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Modeling studies on moisture redistribution processes that are mediated by gas phase flow and diffusion have been carried out. The problem addressed is the effect of a lowered humidity of the soil gas at the land surface on moisture removal from Yucca Mountain, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. At the land surface, humid formation gas contacts much drier atmospheric air. Near this contact, the humidity of the soil gas may be considerably lower than at greater depth, where the authors expect equilibrium with the liquid phase and close to 100% humidity. The lower relative humidity of the soil gas may be modeled by imposing, at the land surface, an additional negative capillary suction corresponding to vapor pressure lowering according to Kelvin`s Equation, thus providing a driving force for the upward movement of moisture in both the vapor and liquid phases. Sensitivity studies show that moisture removal from Yucca Mountain arising from the lowered-relative-humidity boundary condition is controlled by vapor diffusion. There is much experimental evidence in the soil literature that diffusion of vapor is enhanced due to pore-level phase change effects by a few orders of magnitude. Modeling results presented here will account for this enhancement in vapor diffusion.

  9. Mechanical defradation of Emplacement Drifts at Yucca Mountain- A Modeling Case Study. Part I: Nonlithophysal Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Lin; D. Kicker; B. Damjanac; M. Board; M. Karakouzian

    2006-07-05

    This paper outlines rock mechanics investigations associated with mechanical degradation of planned emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, which is the designated site for the proposed U.S. high-level nuclear waste repository. The factors leading to drift degradation include stresses from the overburden, stresses induced by the heat released from the emplaced waste, stresses due to seismically related ground motions, and time-dependent strength degradation. The welded tuff emplacement horizon consists of two groups of rock with distinct engineering properties: nonlithophysal units and lithophysal units, based on the relative proportion of lithophysal cavities. The term 'lithophysal' refers to hollow, bubble like cavities in volcanic rock that are surrounded by a porous rim formed by fine-grained alkali feldspar, quartz, and other minerals. Lithophysae are typically a few centimeters to a few decimeters in diameter. Part I of the paper concentrates on the generally hard, strong, and fractured nonlithophysal rock. The degradation behavior of the tunnels in the nonlithophysal rock is controlled by the occurrence of keyblocks. A statistically equivalent fracture model was generated based on extensive underground fracture mapping data from the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain. Three-dimensional distinct block analyses, generated with the fracture patterns randomly selected from the fracture model, were developed with the consideration of in situ, thermal, and seismic loads. In this study, field data, laboratory data, and numerical analyses are well integrated to provide a solution for the unique problem of modeling drift degradation.

  10. Yucca Mountain program summary of research and technical review activities, July 1988--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI), through its Water Resources Center (WRC), since 1984 has supported the State of Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office`s activities related to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This effort is directed at providing the State Office with an unbiased evaluation of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) investigations performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The overall objective is to determine independently whether or not the site meets the performance criteria defined by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and amendments for isolating and containing the wastes during emplacement and the proposed life of the repository. A particularly important area of concern with the proposed repository is the site`s hydrology. The faculty of the DRI have long been involved with research throughout the State and have particular expertise in groundwater studies related to radionuclide migration and hydrologic safety of underground nuclear testing by DOE and predecessor agencies. In addition, we utilize laboratory personnel for chemical and isotopic analyses in both of the DRI-WMC water chemistry laboratories.

  11. A Fruit of Yucca Mountain: The Remote Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Skinner; Greg Housley; Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2011-11-01

    Was the death of the Yucca Mountain repository the fate of a technical lemon or a political lemon? Without caution, this debate could lure us away from capitalizing on the fruits of the project. In March 2009, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully demonstrated the Waste Package Closure System, a full-scale prototype system for closing waste packages that were to be entombed in the now abandoned Yucca Mountain repository. This article describes the system, which INL designed and built, to weld the closure lids on the waste packages, nondestructively examine the welds using four different techniques, repair the welds if necessary, mitigate crack initiating stresses in the surfaces of the welds, evacuate and backfill the packages with an inert gas, and perform all of these tasks remotely. As a nation, we now have a proven method for securely sealing nuclear waste packages for long term storage—regardless of whether or not the future destination for these packages will be an underground repository. Additionally, many of the system’s features and concepts may benefit other remote nuclear applications.

  12. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Number 15, April 1--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    During the second half of fiscal year 1996, activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) supported the objectives of the revised Program Plan released this period by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy (Department). Outlined in the revised plan is a focused, integrated program of site characterization, design, engineering, environmental, and performance assessment activities that will achieve key Program and statutory objectives. The plan will result in the development of a license application for repository construction at Yucca Mountain, if the site is found suitable. Activities this period focused on two of the three near-term objectives of the revised plan: updating in 1997 the regulatory framework for determining the suitability of the site for the proposed repository concept and providing information for a 1998 viability assessment of continuing toward the licensing of a repository. The Project has also developed a new design approach that uses the advanced conceptual design published during the last reporting period as a base for developing a design that will support the viability assessment. The initial construction phase of the Thermal Testing Facility was completed and the first phase of the in situ heater tests began on schedule. In addition, phase-one construction was completed for the first of two alcoves that will provide access to the Ghost Dance fault.

  13. Marked Antigiardial Activity of Yucca baccata Extracts: A Potential Natural Alternative for Treating Protozoan Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Quihui-Cota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Giardiosis is a public health problem in Mexico, where the national prevalence was estimated to be up to 68%. Misuse of antiprotozoal drugs may result in low effectiveness and undesirable side effects. Research on natural products is a good strategy for discovering more effective antiparasitic compounds. This study evaluated the antigiardial activity of extracts of Yucca baccata, which is native to northwestern Mexico. Forty-two gerbils (females were weighed and orally inoculated with 5×106 Giardia trophozoites. Two gerbils were selected at random to confirm infection. Forty living gerbils were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (8 per group. Gerbils were randomly assigned to be treated with 24.4 mg/mL, 12.2 mg/mL, and 6.1 mg/mL of extracts, metronidazole (2 mg/mL or PBS, which were intragastrically administered once per day for 3 days. Nine gerbils died during the study course. On day 10 postinfection, gerbils were euthanized and trophozoites were quantified. Yucca extracts reduced, albeit not significantly, the trophozoite counts in the duodenum segment. Only the high-extract concentration significantly reduced the trophozoite counts in the proximal segment and it was similar to that of metronidazole. Extracts of Y. baccata may represent an effective and natural therapeutic alternative for human giardiosis.

  14. Task 3: Evaluation of mineral resource potential, caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic framework at and near Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the work of Task 3 that was initially discussed in our monthly reports for the period October 1, 1993 through September 30, 1994, and is contained in our various papers and abstracts, both published and in press or currently in review. Our efforts during this period have involved the continuation of studies begun prior to October, 1993, focussed mainly on aspects of the caldera geology, magmatic activity, hydrothermal mineralization and extensional tectonics of the western and central parts of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF), studies of the subsurface rocks of Yucca Mountain utilizing drill-hole sampled obtained in 1991 and 1992, and studies of veins and siliceous ledges cropping out in northwestern Yucca Mountain. These veins and ledges provide evidence for near-surface hydrothermal activity in northwestern Yucca Mountain during the Crater Flat Tuff period of volcanism. During the period of this report we have concentrated our efforts on the production and publication of documents summarizing many of the data, interpretations and conclusions of Task 3 studies pertaining to hydrothermal activity and mineralization in the Yucca Mountain region and their relations to volcanism and tectonic activity. The resulting two manuscripts for journal publication and a compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data are appended to this report.

  15. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  16. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Wernicke, B.P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  17. Bibliography of Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) publications at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, September 1977 through March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This bibliography contains 685 citations published from September, 1977 through March, 1998, describing site characterization activities and research projects related to the radioactive waste disposal facilities being planned for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An additional 35 citations are listed for reports in progress.

  18. Modelling magma-drift interaction at the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woods, Andrew W.; Sparks, Steve; Bokhove, Onno; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Britain E.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the possible ascent of alkali basalt magma containing 2 wt percent water through a dike and into a horizontal subsurface drift as part of a risk assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. On intersection of the dike with the

  19. Preliminary description of quaternary and late pliocene surficial deposits at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D.L.

    1989-11-01

    The Yucca Mountain area, in the south-central part of the Great Basin, is in the drainage basin of the Amargosa River. The mountain consists of several fault blocks of volcanic rocks that are typical of the Basin and Range province. Yucca Mountain is dissected by steep-sided valleys of consequent drainage systems that are tributary on the east side to Fortymile Wash and on the west side to an unnamed wash that drains Crater Flat. Most of the major washes near Yucca Mountain are not integrated with the Amargosa River, but have distributary channels on the piedmont above the river. Landforms in the Yucca Mountain area include rock pediments, ballenas, alluvial pediments, alluvial fans, stream terraces, and playas. Early Holocene and older alluvial fan deposits have been smoothed by pedimentation. The semiconical shape of alluvial fans is apparent at the junction of tributaries with major washes and where washes cross fault and terrace scarps. Playas are present in the eastern and southern ends of the Amargosa Desert. 39 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

  1. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository, B00000000-01717-2200-00099, Rev. 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A. [INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during the site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. A parallel effort was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and is reported in Wilson et al. (1994, in press).

  2. 234U/238U evidence for local recharge and patterns of groundwater flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, J.B.; Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Neymark, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U ratios in saturated-zone and perched ground water were used to investigate hydrologic flow and downgradient dilution and dispersion in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, a potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site. The U data were obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry on more than 280 samples from the Death Valley regional flow system. Large variations in both U concentrations (commonly 0.6-10 ??g 1-1) and 234U/238U activity ratios (commonly 1.5-6) are present on both local and regional scales; however, ground water with 234U/238U activity ratios from 7 up to 8.06 is restricted largely to samples from Yucca Mountain. Data from ground water in the Tertiary volcanic and Quaternary alluvial aquifers at and adjacent to Yucca Mountain plot in 3 distinct fields of reciprocal U concentration versus 234U/238U activity ratio correlated to different geographic areas. Ground water to the west of Yucca Mountain has large U concentrations and moderate 234U/238U whereas ground water to the east in the Fortymile flow system has similar 234U/238U, but distinctly smaller U concentrations. Ground water beneath the central part of Yucca Mountain has intermediate U concentrations but distinctive 234U/238U activity ratios of about 7-8. Perched water from the lower part of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain has similarly large values of 234U/238U. These U data imply that the Tertiary volcanic aquifer beneath the central part of Yucca Mountain is isolated from north-south regional flow. The similarity of 234U/238U in both saturated- and unsaturated-zone ground water at Yucca Mountain further indicates that saturated-zone ground water beneath Yucca Mountain is dominated by local recharge rather than regional flow. The distinctive 234U/238U signatures also provide a natural tracer of downgradient flow. Elevated 234U/238U in ground water from two water-supply wells east of Yucca Mountain are interpreted as the result of induced

  3. Geology of the USW SD-7 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The USW SD-7 drill hole is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the Systematic Drilling Program, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Yucca Mountain site has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-7 drill hole is located near the southern end of the potential repository area and immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility. The hole is not far from the junction of the Main Test Level drift and the proposed South Ramp decline. Drill hole USW SD-7 is 2675.1 ft (815.3 m) deep, and the core recovered nearly complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. Core was recovered from much of the underlying Calico Hills Formation, and core was virtually continuous in the Prow Pass Tuff and the Bullfrog Tuff. The SD-7 drill hole penetrated the top several tens of feet into the Tram Tuff, which underlies the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Tuffs. These latter three units are all formations of the Crater Flat Group, The drill hole was collared in welded materials assigned to the crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone of the Tiva Canyon Tuff; approximately 280 ft (85 m) of this ash-flow sheet was penetrated by the hole. The Yucca Mountain Tuff appears to be missing from the section at the USW SD-7 location, and the Pah Canyon Tuff is only 14.5 ft thick. The Pah Canyon Tuff was not recovered in core because of drilling difficulties, suggesting that the unit is entirely nonwelded. The presence of this unit is inferred through interpretation of down-hole geophysical logs.

  4. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION OF TEPHRA FROM A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Harrington

    2004-10-25

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (Ashplume) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. These aspects of volcanism-related dose calculation are described in the context of the entire igneous disruptive events conceptual model in ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169989], Section 6.1.1). The Ashplume conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The Ashplume mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report update the previous documentation of the Ashplume mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model. In this report, ''Ashplume'' is used when referring to the atmospheric dispersal model and ''ASHPLUME'' is used when referencing the code of that model. Two analysis and model reports provide direct inputs to this model report, namely ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and Number of Waste Packages Hit

  5. Structure in continuously cored, deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, with notes on calcite occurrence; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, W.J. [Carr (Wilfred J.), Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    1992-12-01

    A study of more than 22,000 feet of core from five deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provided data on the attitude and vertical distribution of faults and fractures, the sense of fault displacement, and the occurrence of calcite. The study was done mainly to look for evidence of fault flattening at depth, but no consistent downward decrease in dip of faults was found, and no increase in strata rotation was evident with increasing depth. In the two drill holes located near prominent faults that dip toward the holes (USW G-3 and G-2), an apparent increase in the frequency of faults occurs below the tuffs and lavas of Calico Hills. Some of this increase occurs in brittle lavas and flow breccias in the lower part of the volcanic section. In the two holes presumed to be relatively removed from the influence of important faults at depth, the vertical distribution of faults is relatively uniform. Calcite occurs mainly in two general zones, voids in welded portions of the Paintbrush Tuff, and in a deeper zone, mostly below 3,500 feet. Calcite is least abundant in USW G-4, which may reflect the fewer faults and fractures encountered in that drill hole.

  6. Extension of in-situ stress test analysis to rapid hole evacuation at Yucca Mountain due to a network of open conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is underlain by tuffaceous rocks that are highly fractured and jointed. During drilling of bore-holes at Yucca Mountain there were numerous occurrences of lost circulation when whole mud was taken by the formation. This evidence suggests that parts of Yucca Mountain are controlled hydrologicaly by a network of open conduits along the existing joints and fractures. Also at Yucca Mountain, stress tests have been performed in-situ by charging a small section along the boreholes with an excess pressure head of water. For many of these tests, the initial drop in water head was so rapid that within seconds up to hundreds of meters of fall had occurred. The opening of fractures as the excess head increases has previously been proposed as an important factor in explaining the shape of the stress test curves at lower pressures. We propose that such induced hydraulic fractures, under increasing water heads, can grow to a length sufficient to intersect the existing network of open joints and fractures. We extend our previous model to incorporate flow out along these open conduits and examine the initial rapid drop in terms of these extended models. We show that this rapid evacuation model fits the observed data from many slug tests in wells in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. This result is confirmation of the drilling evidence that a network of open conduits exists at various depths below the water table and over a large geographic region around Yucca Mountain.

  7. Inclusion of Yucca schidigera extract and zeolite in the diet and its relationship to the apparent digestibility of nutrients and urinary pH in adult dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Fernandes Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of Yucca schidigera extract and zeolite (Clinoptilolite added to the diets for dogs and its effect on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of diet components (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid hydrolyzed fat, and energy and urinary pH. Twenty-one adult Beagles, males and females, body weight mean of 12.5±1.5kg and four and a half years old, distributed in a completely randomized design with seven replicates per treatment within three experimental treatments: control (no addition of Yucca schidigera and zeolite, Yucca schidigera (375ppm and zeolite (1%, administered in the encapsulated form of the supplement. The ADC of diet components and urinary pH were not affected by the inclusion of additives (P>0.05, except the ADC acid hydrolyzed fat showed reduction with Yucca schidigera supplementation compared to the other treatments (P<0.05. The addition of 375ppm of Yucca schidigera extract reduced the digestibility of dietary fat by dogs and both Yucca schidigera extract and zeolite did not affect the urinary pH of dogs.

  8. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ``dry-out``, and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Natural Analoges as a Check of Predicted Drift Stability at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Stuckless

    2006-03-10

    Calculations made by the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project as part of the licensing of a proposed geologic repository (in southwestern Nevada) for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, predict that emplacement tunnels will remain open with little collapse long after ground support has disintegrated. This conclusion includes the effects of anticipated seismic events. Natural analogues cannot provide a quantitative test of this conclusion, but they can provide a reasonableness test by examining the natural and anthropogenic examples of stability of subterranean openings. Available data from a variety of sources, combined with limited observations by the author, show that natural underground openings tend to resist collapse for millions of years and that anthropogenic subterranean openings have remained open from before recorded history through today. This stability is true even in seismically active areas. In fact, the archaeological record is heavily skewed toward preservation of underground structures relative to those found at the surface.

  10. Carbon isotopic data from test hole USW UZ-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In C.; Peters, C.A.; Thorstenson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Rock-CO2-gas analyses in test hole USW UZ-1 at Yucca Mountain indicate that gas movement in the unsaturated zone is likely through a dry-fracture system with little porewater or caliche-calcite interaction. This is because near-surface ??13C values are of biogenic origin and have changed little throughout the total depth. Post-bomb 14C activity is observed to the depth of about 12 m. An abrupt change in plotted 14C/depth slope is seen at 61 m. The less steep upper segment corresponds to the zone with greater porosity and moisture content, and consequently more tortuosity, with an estimated traveltime of 1.27 cm/yr; the steeper sloped zone corresponding to the lower segment has smaller porosity and moisture content but larger fracture density for gas transport, with an estimated traveltime of 3.26 cm/yr.

  11. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 1, Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    In this study, rail and highway routes which may be used for shipments of high-level nuclear waste to a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are characterized. This characterization facilitates three types of impact analysis: comparative study, limited worst-case assessment, and more sophisticated probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Data for relative and absolute impact measures are provided to support comparisons of routes based on selected characteristics. A worst-case scenario assessment is included to determine potentially critical and most likely places for accidents or incidents to occur. The assessment facilitated by the data in this study is limited because impact measures are restricted to the identification of potential areas or persons affected. No attempt is made to quantify the magnitude of these impacts. Most likely locations for accidents to occur are determined relative to other locations within the scope of this study. Independent factors and historical trends used to identify these likely locations are only proxies for accident probability.

  12. A floristic survey of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, W.E.; Leary, P.J.; Holland, J.S.; Landau, F.H.

    1995-12-01

    A survey of the vascular flora of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada, was conducted from March to June 1994, and from March to October 1995. An annotated checklist of recorded taxa was compiled. Voucher plant specimens were collected and accessioned into the Herbarium at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Collection data accompanying these specimens were entered into that herbarium`s electronic data base. Combined results from this survey and the works of other investigators reveal the presence of a total of 375 specific and intraspecific taxa within the area these allocated to 179 genera and 54 families. No taxon currently listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act was encountered during this study. Several candidate species for listing under this Act were present, and distributional data for these were recorded. No change in the status of these candidate species is recommended as the result of this study.

  13. Coupled In-Rock and In-Drift Hydrothermal Model Stuudy For Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Danko; J. Birkholzer; D. Bahrami

    2006-12-18

    A thermal-hydrologic-natural-ventilation model is configured for simulating temperature, humidity, and condensate distributions in the coupled domains of the in-drift airspace and the near-field rockmass in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. The multi-physics problem is solved with MULTIFLUX in which a lumped-parameter computational fluid dynamics model is iterated with TOUGH2. The solution includes natural convection, conduction, and radiation for heat as well as moisture convection and diffusion for moisture transport with half waste package scale details in the drift, and mountain-scale heat and moisture transport in the porous and fractured rock-mass. The method provides fast convergence on a personal computer computational platform. Numerical examples and comparison with a TOUGH2 based, integrated model are presented.

  14. An example postclosure risk assessment using the potential Yucca Mountain Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, P.G.; Eslinger, P.W.; Elwood, D.M.; Engel, D.W.; Freshley, M.D.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Reimus, P.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1992-05-01

    The risk analysis described in this document was performed for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) over a 2-year time period ending in June 1988. The objective of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) task was to demonstrate an integrated, though preliminary, modeling approach for estimating the postclosure risk associated with a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The modeling study used published characterization data for the proposed candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, along with existing models and computer codes available at that time. Some of the site data and conceptual models reported in the Site Characterization Plan published in December 1988, however, were not yet available at the time that PNL conducted the modeling studies.

  15. Petrophysical properties, mineralogy, fractures, and flow tests in 25 deep boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Kibler, Joyce E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a site investigation for the disposal of radioactive waste, numerous boreholes were drilled into a sequence of Miocene pyroclastic flows and related deposits at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report contains displays of data from 25 boreholes drilled during 1979–1984, relatively early in the site investigation program. Geophysical logs and hydrological tests were conducted in the boreholes; core and cuttings analyses yielded data on mineralogy, fractures, and physical properties; and geologic descriptions provided lithology boundaries and the degree of welding of the rock units. Porosity and water content were computed from the geophysical logs, and porosity results were combined with mineralogy from x-ray diffraction to provide whole-rock volume fractions. These data were composited on plates and used by project personnel during the 1990s. Improvements in scanning and computer technology now make it possible to publish these displays.

  16. A preliminary total-system performance assessment for the potential repository site Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Dockerey, H.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    We present a preliminary performance assessment of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A., as a potential site for a radioactive-waste repository. Models and results are discussed for four basic categories of processes and events: groundwater flow and aqueous transport, gas flow and gaseous transport, human intrusion, and basaltic volcanism. Calculated releases of radioactivity to the accessible environment are compared with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requirements. The preliminary results show releases from human intrusion and volcanisms to fall well below the regulatory limits, though not all aspects of those categories have yet been considered. Calculated releases for nominal gaseous transport (of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}) are closest to the limits, indicating that models and data relating to gaseous releases may need to receive higher priority. (author) 15 figs., 33 refs.

  17. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  18. Comparison of the Microbial Community Composition at Yucca Mountain and Laboratory Test Nuclear Repository Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J; Carrillo, C; Dias, V

    2002-10-09

    The microbiological community structure within a proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV was determined. Microbial growth from collected rock was detected using simulated ground water as a growth medium, with or without amendment of a carbon source. Grown isolates were identified by 16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis. A more complete compositional analysis of the microbial community located at the proposed nuclear waste repository site was performed using environmental DNA isolation and subsequent identification of amplified 16s rDNA genes. Concurrently, a series of corrosion testing tanks that simulate the evolution of anticipated environmental conditions within the proposed repository have been subjected to the same type of analyses.

  19. Debate heats up over potential Interim Nuclear Waste Repository, as studies of Yucca Mountain continue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With spent nuclear fuel piling up at power plants around the United States, and with a potential permanent nuclear waste repository at Nevada's Yucca Mountain not scheduled to accept waste until 11 years from now in the year 2010, the nuclear energy industry and many members of Congress have renewed their push to establish an interim repository at the adjacent Nevada Test Site of nuclear bombs.At a sometimes contentious March 12 hearing to consider the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1999 (House Resolution 45) that would require an interim facility to begin accepting waste in 2003, bill cosponsor Rep. Jim Barton (R-Tex.) told Energy Secretary Bill Richardson that he preferred that Congress and the Clinton Administration negotiate rather than fight over the measure.

  20. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. October 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The report is the sixteenth in a series issued approximately every six months to report progress and results of site characterization activities being conducted to evaluate Yucca Mountain as a possible geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report highlights work started, in progress, and completed during the reporting period. In addition, this report documents and discusses changes to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Site Characterization Program (Program) resulting from the ongoing collection and evaluation of site information, systems analyses, development of repository and waste package designs, and results of performance assessment activities. Details on the activities summarized can be found in the numerous technical reports cited throughout the progress report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) activities this period focused on implementing the near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan issued last period. Near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan include updating the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) repository siting guidelines to be consistent with a more focused performance-driven program; supporting an assessment in 1998 of the viability of continuing with actions leading to the licensing of a repository; and if the site is suitable, submittal of a Secretarial site recommendation to the President in 2001 and license application the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2002. During this reporting period, the Project developed and baselined its long-range plan in December 1996. That revision reflected the detailed fiscal year (FY) 1997 work scope and funding plan previously baselined at the end of FY 1996. Site characterization activities have been focused to answer the major open technical issues and to support the viability assessment.

  1. Uncertainty and variability of infiltration at Yucca Mountain: Part 1. Numerical model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothoff, Stuart A.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission investigated climate and infiltration at Yucca Mountain to (i) understand important controls and uncertainties influencing percolation through the unsaturated zone on multimillennial time scales and (ii) provide flux boundary conditions for up to 1 million years in performance assessment models of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. This first part of a two-part series describes a procedure for abstracting the results from detailed numerical simulations of local-scale infiltration into a site-scale model considering uncertainty and variability in distributed net infiltration. Part 2 describes site-scale model results and corroboration. A detailed one-dimensional numerical model was used to estimate bare-soil net infiltration at the scales of hours and meters for 442 soil, bedrock, and climate combinations. The set of results are abstracted into three parametric response functions for decadal-average bare-soil infiltration given hydraulic and climatic parameters. The three abstractions describe deep soil, shallow soil over a coarser layer, and shallow soil over a finer layer. The site-scale model considers spatial variability and uncertainty of the input parameters on a 30 m grid, using the abstractions independently in each cell. Two additional abstractions account for overland flow and vegetation. The model uses Monte Carlo simulation, with all input parameters uncertain and spatially variable, to calculate the mean and standard deviation of net infiltration in each grid cell for selected climate states. Using abstractions rather than detailed simulations speeds calculation of infiltration realizations by many orders of magnitude relative to a detailed simulation.

  2. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives set forward by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. As additional site and design information is generated, performance assessment analyses can be revised to become more representative of the expected conditions and remove some of the conservative assumptions necessitated by the incompleteness of site and design data. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993. These analyses have been documented in Barnard, Eslinger, Wilson and Andrews.

  3. The road to Yucca Mountain—Evolution of nuclear waste disposal in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of electricity by nuclear power and the manufacturing of atomic weapons have created a large amount of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. There is a world-wide consensus that the best way to protect mankind and the environment is to dispose of this waste in a deep geologic repository. Initial efforts focused on salt as the best medium for disposal, but the heat generated by the radioactive waste led many earth scientists to examine other rock types. In 1976, the director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) wrote to the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), suggesting that there were several favorable environments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and that the USGS already had extensive background information on the NTS. Later, in a series of communications and one publication, the USGS espoused the favorability of the thick unsaturated zone. After the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982), the DOE compiled a list of nine favorable sites and settled on three to be characterized. In 1987, as the costs of characterizing three sites ballooned, Congress amended the Nuclear Waste Policy Act directing the DOE to focus only on Yucca Mountain in Nevada, with the proviso that if anything unfavorable was discovered, work would stop immediately. The U.S. DOE, the U.S. DOE national laboratories, and the USGS developed more than 100 detailed plans to study various earth-science aspects of Yucca Mountain and the surrounding area, as well as materials studies and engineering projects needed for a mined geologic repository. The work, which cost more than 10 billion dollars and required hundreds of man-years of work, culminated in a license application submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2008.

  4. Design and implementation of the site and engineering properties database; Yucca Mountain Site Characterzation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs-Jespersen, M.L.

    1992-02-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is conducting studies to determine whether the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada will meet regulatory criteria for a potential mined geologic disposal system for high-level radioactive waste. Data gathered as part of these studies must be compiled and tabulated in a controlled manner for use in design and performance analyses. An integrated data management system has been developed to facilitate this process; this system relies on YMP participants to share in the development of the database and to ensure the integrity of the data. The site and Engineering Properties Database (SEPDB) is unique in that, unlike most databases where one data set is stored for use by one defined user, the SEPDB stores different sets of data which must be structured so that a variety of users can be given access to the information. All individuals responsible for activities supporting the license application should, to the extent possible,work with the same data and the same assumptions. For this reason, it is important that these data sets are readily accessible, comprehensive, and current. The SEPDB contains scientific and engineering data for use in performance assessment and design activities. These data sets currently consist of geologic, hydrologic, and rock properties information from drill holes and field measurements. The users of the SEPDB include engineers and scientists from several government research laboratories (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories), the US Geological Survey, and several government contractors. This manuscript describes the detailed requirements, contents, design, and status of the SEPDB, the procedures for submitting data to and/or requesting data from the SEPDB, and a SEPDB data dictionary (Appendix A) for defining the present contents.

  5. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-11

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

  6. Paleohydrologic investigations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain: Late Quaternary paleobotanical and polynological records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, W.G.

    1994-10-05

    The primary objective of this research in the vicinity of the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository is the detection of episodes of increased runoff and groundwater discharge in this presently arid area. Ancient, inactive spring deposits in nearby valley bottoms (Haynes, 1967; Quade, 1986; Quade and Pratt, 1989), evidence for perennial water in presently dry canyons (Spaulding, 1992), and recent claims for extraordinary increases in precipitation during the last glacial age (Forester, 1994), provide good reason to further investigate both lowland spring-discharge habitats, and upland drainages. The ultimate purpose is to assess the long-term variability of the hydrologic system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain in response to naturally occurring climatic changes. The data generated in the course of this study are derived from radiocarbon dated packrat (Neotoma) middens. This report presents the results of an initial assessment of the hydrologic stability of the candidate area based on a limited suite of middens from localities that, on geomorphic and hydrologic grounds, could have been close to ancient stream-side or spring environments. Paleoclimatic reconstructions are another means of studying the long-term climatic hydrologic stability of the Candidate Area include, and are also generated from packrat midden data. A different flora characterized the Candidate Area during the last glacial age in response to a cooler and wetter climate, and the plant species that comprised this flora can be used to reconstruct specific components of past climatic regimes. Thus, a secondary objective of this study is to compare the plant macrofossil data generated in this study to other records from the Candidate Area (Spaulding, 1985; Wigand, 1990) to determine if these new data are consistent with prior reconstructions. 66 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Transcriptional feedback regulation of YUCCA genes in response to auxin levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masashi; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Mitsui, Marie; Kakei, Yusuke; Mitani, Yuka; Nakamura, Ayako; Ishii, Takahiro; Soeno, Kazuo; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2015-08-01

    The IPyA pathway, the major auxin biosynthesis pathway, is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels. The phytohormone auxin plays an important role in plant growth and development, and levels of active free auxin are determined by biosynthesis, conjugation, and polar transport. Unlike conjugation and polar transport, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanism of auxin biosynthesis. We discovered that expression of genes encoding indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway enzymes is regulated by elevated or reduced active auxin levels. Expression levels of TAR2, YUC1, YUC2, YUC4, and YUC6 were downregulated in response to synthetic auxins [1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] exogenously applied to Arabidopsis thaliana L. seedlings. Concomitantly, reduced levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were observed. Alternatively, expression of these YUCCA genes was upregulated by the auxin biosynthetic inhibitor kynurenine in Arabidopsis seedlings, accompanied by reduced IAA levels. These results indicate that expression of YUCCA genes is regulated by active auxin levels. Similar results were also observed in auxin-overproduction and auxin-deficient mutants. Exogenous application of IPyA to Arabidopsis seedlings preincubated with kynurenine increased endogenous IAA levels, while preincubation with 2,4-D reduced endogenous IAA levels compared to seedlings exposed only to IPyA. These results suggest that in vivo conversion of IPyA to IAA was enhanced under reduced auxin levels, while IPyA to IAA conversion was depressed in the presence of excess auxin. Based on these results, we propose that the IPyA pathway is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels.

  8. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  9. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  10. Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006.

  11. Value of information analysis for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation Las Vegas

    1999-11-19

    The value-of-information analysis evaluated data collection options for characterizing groundwater transport of contamination associated with the Yucca Flat and Climax Mine Corrective Action Units. Experts provided inputs for the evaluation of 48 characterization options, which included 27 component activities, 12 combinations of activities (subgroups), and 9 combinations of subgroups (groups). The options range from an individual study using existing data and intended to address a relatively narrow uncertainty to a 52-million dollar group of activities designed to collect and analyze new information to broadly address multiple uncertainties. A modified version of the contaminant transport component of the regional model was used to simulate contaminant transport and to estimate the maximum extent of the contaminant boundary, defined as that distance beyond which the committed effective dose equivalent from the residual radionuclides in groundwater will not exceed 4 millirem per year within 1,000 years. These simulations identified the model parameters most responsible for uncertainty over the contaminant boundary and determined weights indicating the relative importance of these parameters. Key inputs were identified through sensitivity analysis; the five selected parameters were flux for flow into Yucca Flat from the north, hydrologic source term, effective porosity and diffusion parameter for the Lower Carbonate Aquifer, and path length from the Volcanic Confining Unit to the Lower Carbonate Aquifer. Four measures were used to quantify uncertainty reduction. Using Bayesian analysis, the options were compared and ranked based on their costs and estimates of their effectiveness at reducing the key uncertainties relevant to predicting the maximum contaminant boundary.

  12. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E.; Lee, J.H.; Lingineni, S.; Mishra, S; McNeish, J.A.; Sassani, D.C.; Sevougian, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives of the US NRC and the US EPA. The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). Total system performance assessments require the explicit quantification of the relevant processes and process interactions. In addition assessments are useful to help define the most significant processes, the information gaps and uncertainties and therefore the additional information required for more robust and defensible assessment of the overall performance. The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993.

  13. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  14. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  15. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  16. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of minderal resource potential, Caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic framework at and near Yucca Mountain, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1993-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of Task 3 work that was initially discussed in our monthly reports for the period October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993, and contained in our various papers and abstracts, both published and currently in press or in review. Our work during this period was involved (a) the continuation of studies begun prior to October, 1992, focussed mainly on aspects of the caldera geology, volcanic stratigraphy, magmatic activity, hydrothermal mineralization and extensional tectonics of the western and northwestern parts of the southwestern and Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF), studies of the subsurface rocks of Yucca Mountain utilizing drill hole samples obtained in 1991 and 1992, and (b) new studies of veins and siliceous rocks cropping out in northwestern Yucca Mountain that provide evidence for previously unrecognized hydrothermal activity during the Crater Flat Tuff period of volcanism.

  18. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-15

    This report consists of Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies. It is the appendix to a report that summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  20. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  1. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  2. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl, D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  3. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S.Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  4. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  5. Yucca mountain project getter program results(year 1):I-129 and other anions of concern.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Chwirka, J. Benjamin

    2006-07-01

    Although high level nuclear wastes (HLW) contain a daunting array of radioisotopes, only a restricted number are long-lived enough to be problematic, and of these many are either effectively insoluble or are likely to be scavenged from solution by minerals indigenous to all aquifers. Those few constituents likely to travel significant distances through aquifers either form colloids (and travel as particulates) or anions--which are not sorbed onto the predominantly negatively charged mineral surfaces. Iodine ({sup 129}I) is one such constituent and may travel as either iodide (I{sup -}) or iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) depending on whether conditions are mildly reducing or oxidizing. Conventionally, {sup 99}Tc (traveling as TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) is regarded as being of greater concern since it is both more abundant and has a shorter half life (e.g., has a higher specific activity). However, it is unclear whether TcO{sub 4}{sup -} will ever actually form in the mildly reducing environments thought likely within degrading HLW canisters. Instead, technetium may remain reduced as highly insoluble Tc(IV), in which case {sup 129}I might become a significant risk driver in performance assessment (PA) calculations. In the 2004-2005 time frame the US Department of Energy (DOE)--Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRUM), Office of Science and Technology International (S&T) funded a program to identify ''getters'' for possible placement in the invert beneath HLW packages in the repository being planned by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). This document reports on progress made during the first (and only) year of this activity. The problem is not a new one and the project did not proceed in a complete vacuum of information. Potential leads came from past studies directed at developing anion getters for a near surface low-level waste facility at Hanford, which suggested that both copper-containing compounds and hydrotalcite-group minerals might be

  6. Nutrient limitation and microbially mediated chemistry: studies using tuff inoculum obtained from the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. I.; Chuu, Y. J.; Meike, A.; Ringelberg, D.; Sawvel, A.

    1998-10-30

    Flow-through bioreactors are used to investigate the relationship between the supply (and limitation) of major nutrients required by microorganisms (C, N, P, S) and effluent chemistry to obtain data that can be useful to develop models of microbially mediated aqueous chemistry. The bioreactors were inoculated with crushed tuff from Yucca Mountain. Six of the 14 bioreactor experiments currently in operation have shown growth, which occurred in as few as 5 days and as much as a few months after initiation of the experiment. All of the bioreactors exhibiting growth contained glucose as a carbon source, but other nutritional components varied. Chemical signatures of each bioreactor were compared to each other and selected results were compared to computer simulations of the equivalent abiotic chemical reactions. At 21 C, the richest medium formulation produced a microbial community that lowered the effluent pH from 6.4 to as low as 3.9. The same medium formulation at 50 C produced no significant change in pH but caused a significant increase in Cl after a period of 200 days. Variations in concentrations of other elements, some of which appear to be periodic (Ca, Mg, etc.) also occur. Bioreactors fed with low C, N, P, S media showed growth, but had stabilized at lower cell densities. The room temperature bioreactor in this group exhibited a phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) signature of sulfur- or iron-reducing bacteria, which produced a significant chemical signature in the effluent from that bioreactor. Growth had not been observed yet in the alkaline bioreactors, even in those containing glucose. The value of combining detailed chemical and community (e.g., ester-linked PLFA) analyses, long-duration experiments, and abiotic chemical models to distinguish chemical patterns is evident. Although all of the bioreactors contain the same initial microorganisms and mineral constituents, PLFA analysis demonstrates that both input chemistry and temperature determine the

  7. Data Qualification Report: Calculated Porosity and Porosity-Derived Values for Lithostratigraphic Units for use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2001-05-30

    The qualification is being completed in accordance with the Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000006, Rev. 00 (CRWMS M&O 2001). The purpose of this data qualification activity is to evaluate for qualification the unqualified developed input and porosity output included in Data Tracking Number (DTN) M09910POROCALC.000. The main output of the analyses documented in DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is the calculated total porosity and effective porosity for 40 Yucca Mountain Project boreholes. The porosity data are used as input to Analysis Model Report (AMR) 10040, ''Rock Properties Model'' (MDL-NBS-GS-000004, Rev. 00), Interim Change Notice [ICN] 02 (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The output from the rock properties model is used as input to numerical physical-process modeling within the context of a relationship developed in the AMR between hydraulic conductivity, bound water and zeolitic zones for use in the unsaturated zone model. In accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q, the porosity output is not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for post-closure safety or disruptive events. The original source for DTN M09910POROCALC.000 is a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) report, ''Combined Porosity from Geophysical Logs'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a and hereafter referred to as Rael 1999). That report recalculated porosity results for both the historical boreholes covered in Nelson (1996), and the modern boreholes reported in CRWMS M&O (1996a,b). The porosity computations in Rael (1999) are based on density-porosity mathematical relationships requiring various input parameters, including bulk density, matrix density and air and/or fluid density and volumetric water content. The main output is computed total porosity and effective porosity reported on a foot-by-foot basis for each borehole, although volumetric water content is derived from neutron data as an interim output. This qualification

  8. Management Plan for the Development of the License Application for a High Level Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocoum, Stephan J.

    1997-01-10

    If the Yucca Mountain Site is recommended and approved for development as a repository, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to file a License Application (LA) with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pursuant to 10 CFR 60, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories. The NRC, in accordance with 10 CFR 60, will evaluate DOE's application and adopt, to the extent practicable, the accompanying Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), in connection with the issuance of an authorization to construct the proposed geologic repository. The NRC can issue a license to DOE under 10 CFR 60 only after construction of the geologic repository operations area is substantially complete and the initial LA has been updated in accordance with 10 CFR 60.24. In accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the NRC is, by rule, to modify its technical requirements and criteria as necessary to be consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's new site-specific standards. The NRC staff has proposed to achieve this by drafting a new, separate, site-specific part of the Code of Federal Regulations to be promulgated as 10 CFR 63. While adopting the definitions, administrative, preclosure, retrievability, and quality assurance portions of 10 CFR 60, the NRC staff's proposal for this new part would focus on total-system performance and place no quantitative requirements on the performance of individual subsystems or their components. When the NRC issues a final rule, the DOE will modify its licensing strategy and LA development efforts to conform to the new requirements. Until that time, the applicable repository licensing requirements are those in 10 CFR 60, and the DOE will continue to plan to these requirements. DOE management will, as deemed appropriate, undertake activities to prepare for the eventual issuance of new regulations. The first draft of the LA may be developed to show compliance with the draft regulations prepared

  9. Illustration of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of expected dose in performance assessments for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .)

    2007-04-01

    A deep geologic repository for high level radioactive waste is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. As mandated in the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated public health and safety standards (i.e., 40 CFR Part 197) for the YM repository, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has promulgated licensing standards (i.e., 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc.) consistent with 40 CFR Part 197 that the DOE must establish are met in order for the YM repository to be licensed for operation. Important requirements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. relate to the determination of expected (i.e., mean) dose to a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) and the incorporation of uncertainty into this determination. This presentation describes and illustrates how general and typically nonquantitive statements in 40 CFR Part 197 and 10 CFR Parts 2, 19, 20, etc. can be given a formal mathematical structure that facilitates both the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI and the appropriate separation in this calculation of aleatory uncertainty (i.e., randomness in the properties of future occurrences such as igneous and seismic events) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., lack of knowledge about quantities that are poorly known but assumed to have constant values in the calculation of expected dose to the RMEI).

  10. Analysis of slot cutting methods for the Yucca Mountain heated block test using a compliant-joint model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, E.P.; Costin, L.S.

    1991-12-31

    Pretest analysis of a heated block test, proposed for the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was conducted in this investigation. Specifically, the study focuses on the evaluation of the various designs to drill holes and cut slots for the block. The thermal/mechanical analysis was based on the finite element method and a compliant-joint rock-mass constitutive model. Based on the calculated results, relative merits of the various test designs are discussed.

  11. A preliminary assessment of earthquake ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and implications to the Las Vegas region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, I.G.; Green, R.K.; Sun, J.I. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Pezzopane, S.K. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Abrahamson, N.A. [Abrahamson (Norm A.), Piedmont, CA (United States); Quittmeyer, R.C. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    As part of early design studies for the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the authors have performed a preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of ground shaking. A total of 88 Quaternary faults within 100 km of the site were considered in the hazard analysis. They were characterized in terms of their probability o being seismogenic, and their geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, recurrence model, and slip rate. Individual faults were characterized by maximum earthquakes that ranged from moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 5.1 to 7.6. Fault slip rates ranged from a very low 0.00001 mm/yr to as much as 4 mm/yr. An areal source zone representing background earthquakes up to M{sub w} 6 1/4 = 1/4 was also included in the analysis. Recurrence for these background events was based on the 1904--1994 historical record, which contains events up to M{sub w} 5.6. Based on this analysis, the peak horizontal rock accelerations are 0.16, 0.21, 0.28, and 0.50 g for return periods of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 10,000 years, respectively. In general, the dominant contributor to the ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain are background earthquakes because of the low slip rates of the Basin and Range faults. A significant effect on the probabilistic ground motions is due to the inclusion of a new attenuation relation developed specifically for earthquakes in extensional tectonic regimes. This relation gives significantly lower peak accelerations than five other predominantly California-based relations used in the analysis, possibly due to the lower stress drops of extensional earthquakes compared to California events. Because Las Vegas is located within the same tectonic regime as Yucca Mountain, the seismic sources and path and site factors affecting the seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain also have implications to Las Vegas. These implications are discussed in this paper.

  12. Dual-porosity analysis of conservative tracer testing in saturated volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    A radially convergent conservative tracer injection test was conducted between boreholes UE-25 #2 and UE-25 c #3 of the C-hole complex at Yucca Mountain to determine effective porosity and longitudinal dispersivity. Approximately 47% of the tracer mass was recovered and a dual-porosity analytical model replicates the breakthrough curve. Fractured-rock analyses focus on the fracture-porosity and geometry as the controlling factors in transport.

  13. Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for tertiary silicic volcanic rocks in drill hole USW G-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, F.A.; Warren, R.G.; Broxton, D.E.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains detailed petrographic descriptions of 74 thin sections from drill hole USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These descriptions are keyed to the distinctions between devitrified, vitrophyre, vitric, and zeolitized intervals below the Topopah Spring Member repository horizon. The petrographic features of the zeolitized intervals down through the Crater Flat tuff, as well as the sorption properties determined from these intervals, suggest that these zeolite occurrences may each have comparable sorptive capability.

  14. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization project: Quality Assurance Project Plan, Revision 1; Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetzenbach, K.J.

    1993-12-13

    The purpose of this work is to identify and characterize candidate conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for experiments to be conducted at the Yucca Mountain C-well complex. During this quarter the main effort was directed towards rewriting the quality assurance program in preparation for a review and audit by the USGS. However, due to budget constraints the review and audit were not carried out. The tracer QA plan and standard operating procedures (SOPs) were revised and copies are included in the report. Instrumental problems were encountered and corrected with the addition of new integration and sample control software. In the sampling, there was an unexplained peak in the chromatograms of the tracers being tested in the light tuff. This was not correctable and these experiments will be repeated in the next quarter.

  15. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water years 1993--94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Yucca Mountain area is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy for its suitability to store high-level nuclear waste in a mined, underground repository. Hydrologic data are being collected by the US Geological Survey throughout a 150 Km{sup 2} study area about 15- Km northwest of Las Vegas in southern Nevada for site characterization studies. Ongoing hydrologic studies are investigating atmospheric precipitation, stream-flow, movement of water through the unsaturated zone, movement of water through the saturated zone, and paleohydrology. This study at Fortymile Wash involves some components of each of these studies. Fortymile Wash is an ephemeral stream near Yucca Mountain with tributaries draining the east side of Yucca Mountain and then forming a distributary system in the Amargosa Desert. An objective of the study is to determine the amount of recharge from Fortymile Wash to the ground-water flow system that has been proposed. Understanding the ground-water flow system is important because it is a possible mechanism for radionuclide migration from the repository to the accessible environment. An adequate understanding of the ground-water flow system is necessary for an evaluation of the safety issues involved in siting the potential repository.

  16. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  17. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inyo County

    2006-07-26

    Inyo County has participated in oversight activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository since 1987. The overall goal of these studies are the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, or radionuclides into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. In addition to the potential of radionuclide transport through the LCA, Czarnecki (1997), with the US Geological Survey, research indicate potential radionuclide transport through the shallower Tertiary-age aquifer materials with ultimate discharge into the Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County. The specific purpose of this Cooperative Agreement drilling program was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: (1) establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin; (2) characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and (3) Evaluation the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA.

  18. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 4: License Application Plan and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a

  19. Use of Irrigation to Extend the Seeding Window for Final Reclamation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRW Environmental Safety

    2000-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to investigate the feasibility of various techniques for reclaiming lands disturbed during site characterization at Yucca Mountain. As part of this program, two studies were conducted in 1997 to assess the effects of combinations of seeding date (date that seeds are planted) and supplemental irrigation on densities of native plant species at Yucca Mountain. Study objectives were to (1) determine whether the traditional seeding window (October-December) could be extended through combinations of seeding date and irrigation date, (2) determine which combination of seeding date and irrigation was most successful, and (3) assess the effects of irrigation versus natural precipitation on seedling establishment. In the first study, a multi-species seed mix of 16 native species was sown into plots on four dates (12/96, 2/97, 3/97, and 4/97). Irrigation treatments were control (no irrigation) or addition of 80 mm of supplemental water applied over a one month period. Plant densities were sampled in August and again in October, 1997. In the second study, Larrea tridentata and Lycium andersonii, two species that are common at Yucca Mountain, but difficult to establish from seed, were sown together into plots in January and August, 1997. Half the plots were irrigated with approximately 250 mm of water between August 18 and September 11, while the remaining plots received no irrigation (control). Plant densities were sampled in October, 1997. The August census for the multi-species mix study showed irrigated plots that were sown in February, March and April had higher plant densities and more species than plots that were not irrigated. Irrigation had no effect on plant densities on plots that were seeded in December. Plots were used again in October following 18 mm of precipitation in September. Densities of three species, Ambrosia dumosa, Hymenoclea salsola, and L. tridentata, (warm-season species) were lower on irrigated

  20. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  1. Use of yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract in layer hens’ diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Oznurlu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls (YCW and Yucca schidigera extract (YE on performance, egg weight, specific gravity, body weight, and intestinal tissue hist­ology in layer hens. White, 48-week-old, Hy-line hybrid hens (n=320 were divided into four main groups, each comprising eight groups of 10 hens: (1 control, (2 500 mg/kg YCW added, (3 500 mg/kg YE added and (4 250 mg/kg YE plus 2500 mg/kg YCW added. While the egg production and feed intake of the hens was significantly affected, overall feed efficiency, damaged-egg ratio, dirty-egg ratio, egg weight and specific gravity did not differ between the control group and the YCW, YE or YCW+YE groups. Final body weight was higher in the YCW, YE and YCW+YE groups than in the control group. There were differences in the width, muscle layer thickness and height/crypt depth ratio of the duodenal villus and the width of the ileal villus among the four groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YCW+YE supplementation for layer hens are beneficial for egg production.

  2. Criteria for design of the Yucca Mountain structures, systems and components for fault displacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepp, C. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Austin, TX (United States); Hossain, Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nesbit, S. [M and O/Duke Engineering, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Pezzopane, S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Hardy, M. [A.F.T. Agapito and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The DOE intends to design the Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) for fault displacements to provide reasonable assurance that they will meet the preclosure safety performance objectives established by 10 CFR Part 60. To the extent achievable, fault displacement design of the facility will follow guidance provided in the NRC Staff Technical Position. Fault avoidance will be the primary design criterion, especially for spatially compact or clustered SSCs. When fault avoidance is not reasonably achievable, expected to be the case for most spatially extended SSCs, engineering design procedures and criteria or repair and rehabilitation actions, depending on the SSC`s importance to safety, are provided. SSCs that have radiological safety importance will be designed for fault displacements that correspond to the hazard exceedance frequency equal to their established seismic safety performance goals. Fault displacement loads are generally localized and may cause local inelastic response of SSCs. For this reason, the DOE intends to use strain-based design acceptance criteria similar to the strain-based criteria used to design nuclear plant SSCs for impact and impulsive loads.

  3. Increasing levels of zeolite and Yucca schidigera in diets for adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Charleaux Roque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the additives Yucca schidigera (YSC and zeolite (clinoptilolite on digestibility, fecal texture and odor, blood parameters and urine pH of domesticated felines was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with twenty-one cats, in two periods, distributed in seven treatments: moist commercial feed (control; control + 125, 250 and 375 ppm YSC; and control + 0.5; 0.75 and 1.0 % zeolite. No differences were observed between the diets regarding apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrient, energy, urine pH or blood parameters. However, levels of 0.5 and 0.75% zeolite were effective both in reducing odor (R² = 96.39 and for fecal texture (R² = 99.63, showing a quadratic pattern for these variables. Levels of 125 and 375 ppm YSC were also efficient in reducing fecal odor; however they did not adjust to regression. Levels of 0.5% and 0.75% zeolite significantly reduce odor of feces and increase fecal texture when added to commercial feed for cats.

  4. Technical data base quarterly report, April--June 1992; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    The acquisition and development of technical data are activities that provide the information base from which the Yucca mountain Site will be characterized and may P-ventually be licensed as a high-level waste repository. The Project Technical Data Base (TDB) is the repository for the regional and site-specific technical data required in intermediate and license application analyses and models. The TDB Quarterly Report provides the mechanism for identifying technical data currently available from the Project TDB. Due to the variety of scientific information generated by YMP activities, the Project TDB consists of three components, each designed to store specific types of data. The Site and Engineering Properties Data Base (SEPDB) maintains technical data best stored in a tabular format. The Geographic Nodal Information Study and Evaluation System (GENISES), which is the Geographic Information System (GIS) component of the Project TDB, maintains spatial or map-like data. The Geologic and Engineering Materials Bibliography of Chemical Species (GEMBOCHS) data base maintains thermodynamic/geochemical data needed to support geochemical reaction models involving the waste package and repository geochemical environment. Each of these data bases are addressed independently within the TDB Quarterly Report.

  5. Conceptual evaluation of the potential role of fractures in unsaturated processes at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, Jennifer J.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Nieder-Westermann, Gerald H.

    2002-04-04

    A wide array of field observations, in situ testing, and rock and water sampling (and subsequent analyses) within the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain demonstrate the importance of fractures to flow and transport in the welded tuffs. The abundance of fractures and the spatial variability in their hydraulic properties, along with the heterogeneity within lithologic formations, make evaluation of unsaturated processes occurring within the potential repository horizon complex. Fracture mapping and field testing show that fractures are well connected, yet considerable variation is seen within and between units comprising the potential repository horizon with regard to fracture trace length, spacing, permeability, and capillarity. These variations have important implications for the distribution and movement of water and solutes through the unsaturated zone. Numerical models designed to assess such phenomena as unsaturated flow, transport, and coupled thermal-hydrological processes each require their own conceptual model for fracture networks, in order to identify the subset of all fractures that is relevant to the particular study. We evaluate several process-dependent conceptual models for fractures and identify the relevant fracture subsets related to these processes.

  6. A floristic survey of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, W.E.; Leary, P.J.; Holland, J.S.; Landau, F.H.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of the vascular flora of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada, was conducted from March to June 1994. An annotated checklist of recorded taxa was compiled. Voucher plant specimens were collected and accessioned into the Herbarium at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Collection data accompanying these specimens were entered into that herbarium`s electronic data base. Combined results from this survey and the works of other investigators reveal the presence of a total of 325 specific and intraspecific taxa within the area, these allocated to 162 genera and 53 families. Owing to drought conditions prevalent throughout the area, the annual floristic component was largely absent during the period of study, and it is likely much under-represented in the tabulation of results. No taxon currently listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act was encountered during this study. Several candidate species for listing under this Act were present, and distributional data for these were recorded. No change in the status of these candidate species is recommended as the result of this survey.

  7. Fluid inclusion studies of calcite veins from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Tuffs: Environment of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedder, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Whelan, J.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Calcite vein and vug fillings at four depths (130-314m), all above the present water table in USW G-1 bore hole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain primary fluid inclusions with variable vapor/liquid raitos: Most of these inclusions are either full of liquid or full of vapor. The liquid-filled inclusions show that most of the host calcite crystallized from fluids at <100{degrees}C. The vapor-filled inclusions provide evidence that a separate vapor phase was present in the fluid during crystallization. Studies of these vapor-filled inclusions on the microscope crushing stage were interpreted in an earlier paper as indicating trapping of an air-water-CO{sub 2} vapor phase at ``<100{degrees}C``. Our new studies reveal the additional presence of major methane in the vapor-filled inclusion, indicating even lower temperatures of trapping, perhaps at near-surface temperatures. They also show that the host calcite crystals grew from a flowing film of water on the walls of fractures open to the atmosphere, the vapor-filled inclusions representing bubbles that exsolved from this film onto the crystal surface.

  8. Analyses of releases due to drilling at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1994-04-01

    Radionuclide releases due to drilling into the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear-waste repository have been evaluated as part of a recent total-system performance assessment. The probability that a drilling event intersects a waste package is a function of the sizes of the drill bit and the waste package, and the density of placement of the containers in the repository. The magnitude of the releases is modeled as a random function that also depends on the amount of decay the radionuclides have undergone. Four cases have been analyzed, representing the combinations of two waste-package designs (small-capacity, thin-wall, vertically emplaced; and large-capacity, thick-wall, horizontally emplaced) and two repository layouts (lower thermal power dissipation, low waste-package placement density; and higher thermal power dissipation, high waste-package placement density). The results show a fairly pronounced dependence on waste-package design and slight dependence on repository layout. Given the assumptions in the model, releases from the larger containers are 4--5 times greater than from the smaller packages.

  9. Analyses of releases due to drilling at the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Radionuclide releases due to drilling into the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear-waste repository have been evaluated as part of a recent total-system performance assessment. The probability that a drilling event intersects a waste package is a function of the sizes of the drill bit and the waste package, and the density of placement of the containers in the repository. The magnitude of the release is modeled as a random function that also depends on the amount of decay the radionuclides have undergone. Four cases have been analyzed, representing the combinations of two waste-package designs (small-capacity, thin-wall, vertically emplaced; and large-capacity, thick-wall, horizontally emplaced) and two repository layouts (lower thermal power dissipation, low waste-package placement density; and higher thermal power dissipation, high waste-package placement density). The results show a fairly pronounced dependence on waste-package design and slight dependence on repository layout. Given the assumptions in the model, releases from the larger containers are 4-5 times greater than from the smaller packages.

  10. The impact of thermal loading on repository performance at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1992-01-15

    In the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, liquid flow along preferential fracture pathways is the only credible mechanism capable of bringing water to waste packages and transporting radionuclide to the water table. Three categories of features or mechanisms will mitigate the impact of flow along preferential fracture pathways: (1) discontinuity in fracture pathways, (2) liquid-phase dispersion in fracture networks, and (3) fracture-matrix interaction. For repository areal power densities (APDs) that are too low to result in significant boiling or rock dry-out effects, the primary mode of fracture-matrix interaction is matrix imbibition. For high APDs, boiling and enhanced matrix imbibition due to rock dry-out significantly add to the capacity of the unsaturated zone to retard fracture-dominated flow. With the use of V-TOUGH code, hydrothermal flow calculations are made for a range of APDs and spent fuel ages. For APD > 20 kW/acre, repository-heat-generated flow of vapor and liquid in fractures is found to dominate the ambient hydrological system. For high APDs, boiling conditions can persist for 10,000 yr or longer and rock-dry benefits for at least 100,000 yr.

  11. Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.

  12. Uranium-Series Constraints on Subrepository Water Flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Neymark; J.B. Paces; S.J. Chipera; D.T. Vaniman

    2006-03-10

    Mineral abundances and whole-rock chemical and uranium-series isotopic compositions were measured in unfractured and rubble core samples from borehole USWSD-9 in the same layers of variably zeolitized tuffs that underlie the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions also were measured in pore water from core samples from the same rock units and rock leachates representing loosely bound U adsorbed on mineral surfaces or contained in readily soluble secondary minerals. The chemical and isotopic data were used to evaluate differences in water-rock interaction between fractured and unfractured rock and between fracture surfaces and rock matrix. Samples of unfractured and rubble fragments (about 1 centimeter) core and material from fracture surfaces show similar amounts of uranium-series disequilibrium, recording a complex history of sorption and loss of uranium over the past 1 million years. The data indicate that fractures in zeolitized tuffs may not have had greater amounts of water-rock interaction than the rock matrix. The data also show that rock matrix from subrepository units is capable of scavenging uranium with elevated uranium-234/uranium-238 from percolating water and that retardation of radionuclides and dose reduction may be greater than currently credited to this aspect of the natural barrier. Uranium concentrations of pore water and the rock leachates are used to estimate long-term in situ uranium partition coefficient values greater than 7 milliliters per gram.

  13. Methods for pore water extraction from unsaturated zone tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires an understanding of the chemistry of the water that moves through the host rock. The uniaxial compression method used to extract pore water from samples of tuffaceous borehole core was successful only for nonwelded tuff. An ultracentrifugation method was adopted to extract pore water from samples of the densely welded tuff of the proposed repository horizon. Tests were performed using both methods to determine the efficiency of pore water extraction and the potential effects on pore water chemistry. Test results indicate that uniaxial compression is most efficient for extracting pore water from nonwelded tuff, while ultracentrifugation is more successful in extracting pore water from densely welded tuff. Pore water splits collected from a single nonwelded tuff core during uniaxial compression tests have shown changes in pore water chemistry with increasing pressure for calcium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. Pore water samples collected from the intermediate pressure ranges should prevent the influence of re-dissolved, evaporative salts and the addition of ion-deficient water from clays and zeolites. Chemistry of pore water splits from welded and nonwelded tuffs using ultracentrifugation indicates that there is no substantial fractionation of solutes.

  14. Simulation of flow in the unsaturated zone beneath Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamir, F.; Kwicklis, E.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Hampson, D. [Foothills Engineering Consultants Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Anderton, S. [ROCKTECH, West Jordan, UT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A one-dimensional numerical model was created simulate water movement beneath Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Model stratigraphy and properties were on data obtained from boreholes UE-25 UZ {number_sign}4 UE-25 UZ {number_sign}5, which were drilled in the alluvial channel and bedrock sideslope of Pagany Wash. Although unable to account for multidimensional or preferential flowpaths beneath the wash, the model proved a useful conceptual tool with which to develop hypotheses and, in some cases, provide bounding calculations. The model indicated that liquid flux decreases with depth in the upper 120 m beneath the wash, with fluxes of several tens mm/yr in the nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and fluxes on the order of a tenth mm/yr in the upper Topopah Spring Member. Capillary barrier effects were indicated by the model to significantly delay the entry of large fluxes into the potential repository horizon during periods of increasing net infiltration, and to inhibit rapid drainage of water from the nonwelded and bedded intervals into the potential repository horizon during periods of moisture redistribution. Lateral moisture redistribution can be expected to be promoted by these effects.

  15. Basis for in-situ geomechanical testing at the Yucca Mountain site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Board, M.

    1989-07-01

    This report presents an analysis of the in-situ geomechanical testing needs for the Exploratory Shaft (ES) test facility at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The testing needs are derived from 10CFR60 regulations and simple thermomechanical canister- and room-scale numerical studies. The testing approach suggested is based on an ``iterative`` procedure of full-scale testing combined with numerical and empirical modeling. The testing suggested is based heavily on demonstration of excavation and thermal loading of full-scale repository excavations. Numerical and/or empirical models are compared to the full-scale response, allowing for adjustment of the model and evaluation of confidence in their predictive ability. Additional testing may be specified if confidence in prediction of the rock mass response is low. It is suggested that extensive drifting be conducted within the proposed repository area, including exploration of the bounding Drill Hole Wash and Imbricate fault structures, as well as the Ghost Dance fault. This approach is opposed to an a priori statistical specification of a number of ``point`` tests which attempt to measure a given property at a specific location. 40 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Geostatistical and Stochastic Study of Flow and Transport in the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Ming; Pan, Feng; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Jianting

    2007-08-14

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s long-term, permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste. The potential repository would be located in Yucca Mountain’s unsaturated zone (UZ), which acts as a critical natural barrier delaying arrival of radionuclides to the water table. Since radionuclide transport in groundwater can pose serious threats to human health and the environment, it is important to understand how much and how fast water and radionuclides travel through the UZ to groundwater. The UZ system consists of multiple hydrogeologic units whose hydraulic and geochemical properties exhibit systematic and random spatial variation, or heterogeneity, at multiple scales. Predictions of radionuclide transport under such complicated conditions are uncertain, and the uncertainty complicates decision making and risk analysis. This project aims at using geostatistical and stochastic methods to assess uncertainty of unsaturated flow and radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. Focus of this study is parameter uncertainty of hydraulic and transport properties of the UZ. The parametric uncertainty arises since limited parameter measurements are unable to deterministically describe spatial variability of the parameters. In this project, matrix porosity, permeability and sorption coefficient of the reactive tracer (neptunium) of the UZ are treated as random variables. Corresponding propagation of parametric uncertainty is quantitatively measured using mean, variance, 5th and 95th percentiles of simulated state variables (e.g., saturation, capillary pressure, percolation flux, and travel time). These statistics are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method, in which a three-dimensional flow and transport model implemented using the TOUGH2 code is executed with multiple parameter realizations of the random model parameters. The project specifically studies uncertainty of unsaturated

  17. Uranium-series constraints on subrepository water flow at yucca mountain, nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, L.A.; Chipera, S.J.; Paces, J.B.; Vaniman, D.T.

    2006-01-01

    Mineral abundances and whole-rock chemical and uranium-series isotopic compositions were measured in unfractured and rubble core samples from borehole USW SD-9 in the same layers of variably zeolitized tuffs that underlie the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions also were measured in pore water from core samples from the same rock units and rock leachates representing loosely bound U adsorbed on mineral surfaces or contained in readily soluble secondary minerals. The chemical and isotopic data were used to evaluate differences in water-rock interaction between fractured and unfractured rock and between fracture surfaces and rock matrix. Samples of unfractured and rubble (fragments about 1 centimeter) core and material from fracture surfaces show similar amounts of uranium-series disequilibrium, recording a complex history of sorption and loss of uranium over the past 1 million years. The data indicate that fractures in zeolitized tuffs may not have had greater amounts of water-rock interaction than the rock matrix. The data also show that rock matrix from subrepository units is capable of scavenging uranium with elevated uranium-234/uranium-238 from percolating water and that retardation of radionuclides and dose reduction may be greater than currently credited to this aspect of the natural barrier. Uranium concentrations of pore water and the rock leachates are used to estimate long-term in situ uranium partition coefficient values greater than 7 milliliters per gram.

  18. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation.

  19. Geology of the USW SD-12 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Drill hole USW SD-12 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the {open_quotes}Systematic Drilling Program,{close_quotes} as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-12 drill hole is located in the central part of the potential repository area, immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility and slightly south of midway between the North Ramp and planned South Ramp declines. Drill hole USW SD-12 is 2166.3 ft (660.26 m) deep, and the core recovered essentially complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. A virtually complete section of the Calico Hills Formation was also recovered, as was core from the entire Prow Pass Tuff formation of the Crater Flat Group.

  20. Sources of Fe in eolian and soil detritus at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaniman, D.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D.

    1997-12-31

    Eolian deposits and adjacent soil horizons at Exile Hill near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provide a desert environment where the origins of exotic eolian materials can be discerned. Petrographic, chemical, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe data allow an assessment of Fe mineral sources. Fe-rich minerals in local rhyolitic tuff bedrock consist of distinctive biotite and amphibole phenocrysts and groundmass Mn-hematites. Although the local tuffs contain only 1% FeO, detrital components of eolian and soil deposits have {approximately}3% FeO. Exotic minerals from distant sources provide most of the excess Fe in the surficial deposits. The exotic Fe sources are principally smectite, low-Mn hematite, low-F biotite, and high-Fe amphibole not found in local tuffs. Iron contents and the exotic Fe fraction increase with decreasing grain size, such that the clay fractions have {approximately}5--6% FeO, almost all of which is in exotic smectites. The distant origin of these smectites is evident in their high Fe content and distinct Sc/FeO enrichment trends, which differ from the strong local Sc/FeO control defined by coarser soil detritus. Approximate crustal average lanthanide composition in soil and eolian smectites rule out any significant contribution of local smectite derived from tuff alteration. The eolian and soil smectites instead inherit their high Fe content from eolian biotite.

  1. Pre-construction geologic section along the cross drift through the potential high-level radioactive waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, C.J.; Day, W.C.; Sweetkind, D.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Juan, C.S.; Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Site Characterization effort for the US Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project, tunnels excavated by tunnel boring machines provide access to the volume of rock that is under consideration for possible underground storage of high-level nuclear waste beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Exploratory Studies Facility, a 7.8-km-long, 7.6-m-diameter tunnel, has been excavated, and a 2.8-km-long, 5-m-diameter Cross Drift will be excavated in 1998 as part of the geologic, hydrologic and geotechnical evaluation of the potential repository. The southwest-trending Cross Drift branches off of the north ramp of the horseshoe-shaped Exploratory Studies Facility. This report summarizes an interpretive geologic section that was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project as a tool for use in the design and construction of the Cross Drift.

  2. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  3. Comparative studies on the effects of a yucca extract and acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) on inhibition of Venturia inaequalis in apple leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Marianne Vibeke; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an extract of Yucca schidigera on the control and infection process of the apple scab pathogen, Venturia inaequalis, was examined and compared with the chemical resistance inducer, acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM). In seedling assays, both materials significantly reduced apple scab symptoms...... and pathogen sporulation on leaves and both showed similar control efficacies as the reference treatment, sulphur. Whereas yucca extract and sulphur gave significant inhibition of conidial germination in vitro, ASM did not inhibit germination. Histopathological studies of the infection process of V. inaequalis...... in apple leaves showed that the yucca extract primarily acted by inhibiting pre-penetration events and penetration itself. In contrast, the ASM treatment significantly inhibited more stages of the infection process (pre-penetration, penetration and post-penetration events). These observations suggest...

  4. Results of InSAR and GPS Measurement of Tectonic Deformation of the Eastern California Shear Zone and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Li, Z.; Plag, H.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2006-12-01

    Across the Eastern California Shear Zone, southern Walker Lane Belt and Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the geodetically measured deformation rate decreases eastward from the Sierra Nevada Mountains toward the central Basin and Range. In the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, the horizontal crustal deformation rate (~20 nanostrains/yr) and vertical velocity variations (Frenchman Flat earthquake (Mw 4.8), groundwater pumping, and what may be atmosphere variations in Death Valley. We are developing an improved time series approach for analyzing the 11-years of ERS data that uses realistic errors in the interferograms. We will evaluate the results for their ability to improve constraint on the pattern of tectonic deformation in the rapidly deforming Eastern California Shear zone and southern Walker Lane belt, and to constrain the less rapid tectonic deformation in the vicinity of the Yucca Mountain.

  5. Geologyy of the Yucca Mountain Site Area, Southwestern Nevada, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.R. Keefer; J.W. Whitney; D.C. Buesch

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada is a prominent, irregularly shaped upland formed by a thick apron of Miocene pyroclastic-flow and fallout tephra deposits, with minor lava flows, that was segmented by through-going, large-displacement normal faults into a series of north-trending, eastwardly tilted structural blocks. The principal volcanic-rock units are the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, which consist of volumetrically large eruptive sequences derived from compositionally distinct magma bodies in the nearby southwestern Nevada volcanic field, and are classic examples of a magmatic zonation characterized by an upper crystal-rich (> 10% crystal fragments) member, a more voluminous lower crystal-poor (< 5% crystal fragments) member, and an intervening thin transition zone. Rocks within the crystal-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff, lying some 280 m below the crest of Yucca Mountain, constitute the proposed host rock to be excavated for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Separation of the tuffaceous rock formations into subunits that allow for detailed mapping and structural interpretations is based on macroscopic features, most importantly the relative abundance of lithophysae and the degree of welding. The latter feature, varying from nonwelded through partly and moderately welded to densely welded, exerts a strong control on matrix porosities and other rock properties that provide essential criteria for distinguishing hydrogeologic and thermal-mechanical units, which are of major interest in evaluating the suitability of Yucca Mountain to host a safe and permanent geologic repository for waste storage. A thick and varied sequence of surficial deposits mantle large parts of the Yucca Mountain site area. Mapping of these deposits and associated soils in exposures and in the walls of trenches excavated across buried faults provides evidence for multiple surface-rupturing events along all of the major faults during

  6. Bibliography of publications related to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project prepared by U.S. Geological Survey personnel through April 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1991-11-01

    Personnel of the US Geological Survey have participated in nuclear-waste management studies in the State of Nevada since the mid-1970`s. A bibliography of publications prepared principally for the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (formerly Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations) through April 1991 contains 475 entries in alphabetical order. The listing includes publications prepared prior to the inception of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project in April 1977 and selected publications of interest to the Yucca Mountain region. 480 refs.

  7. Summary of the mineralogy-petrology of tuffs of Yucca Mountain and the secondary-phase thermal stability in tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bish, D.L.; Vaniman, D.T.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Broxton, D.E.

    1982-11-01

    Yucca Mountain is composed of a thick sequence of silicic tuffs that are quite variable in degree of welding, alteration, and zeolitization. Tuff units above the water table are commonly devitrified or still vitric, with the exception of the zeolitized Pah Canyon Member in USW-G2. The devitrified tuffs above the water table commonly contain alkali feldspar, quartz, tridymite, and cristobalite, with minor smectite. The vitric tuffs are partly to wholly altered to sodium-calcium-saturated smectite. Below the water table are generally densely welded nonzeolitized tuffs and less densely welded zeolite-containing tuffs. The specific mineral assemblage present in Yucca Mountain tuffs has important implications in choosing a repository. The secondary phases clinoptilolite, mordenite, and smectite are very important because of their large cation sorption capacities. However, whereas densely welded tuffs containing no zeolite or glass are resistant to heating and do not dehydrate significantly, zeolitized, vitric, and smectite-containing horizons are very sensitive to minor increases in temperature. Smectites are particularly sensitive to changes in water vapor pressure and temperature, and temperature increases can lead to water evolution and large volume reductions. Similarly, clinoptilolite and mordenite begin to dehydrate below 100{sup 0}C, resulting in volume decreases. The exact effect of temperature on vitric tuffs is unclear. Under hydrothermal conditions the smectites gradually transform to nonexpanding, low sorption capacity illites, and there is evidence that this reaction has occurred in the deeper portions of USW-G2. Clinoptilolite transforms under hydrothermal conditions to analcime plus quartz with a concomitant volume decrease and water evolution. Again, there is evidence of this reaction occurring in Yucca Mountain tuffs at 80 to 100{sup 0}C.

  8. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L J; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-02-14

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  9. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L H; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-03-09

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  10. Alternate source term models for Yucca Mountain performance assessment based on natural analog data and secondary mineral solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, W.M.; Codell, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    Performance assessment calculations for the proposed high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were conducted using the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Total-System Performance Assessment (TPA 3.2) code to test conceptual models and parameter values for the source term based on data from the Pena Blanca, Mexico, natural analog site and based on a model for coprecipitation and solubility of secondary schoepite. In previous studies the value for the maximum constant oxidative alteration rate of uraninite at the Nopal I uranium body at Pena Blanca was estimated. Scaling this rate to the mass of uranium for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository yields an oxidative alteration rate of 22 kg/y, which was assumed to be an upper limit on the release rate from the proposed repository. A second model was developed assuming releases of radionuclides are based on the solubility of secondary schoepite as a function of temperature and solution chemistry. Releases of uranium are given by the product of uranium concentrations at equilibrium with schoepite and the flow of water through the waste packages. For both models, radionuclides other than uranium and those in the cladding and gap fraction were modeled to be released at a rate proportional to the uranium release rate, with additional elemental solubility limits applied. Performance assessment results using the Pena Blanca oxidation rate and schoepite solubility models for Yucca Mountain were compared to the TPA 3.2 base case model, in which release was based on laboratory studies of spent fuel dissolution, cladding and gap release, and solubility limits. Doses calculated using the release rate based on natural analog data and the schoepite solubility models were smaller than doses generated using the base case model. These results provide a degree of confidence in safety predictions using the base case model and an indication of how conservatism in the base case model may be reduced in future analyses.

  11. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  12. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; P. Pasupathi; N. Brown; K. Mon

    2005-09-19

    The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced

  13. Exploratory shaft facility: It`s role in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for a potential nuclear repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalia, H.N.; Merson, T.J.

    1990-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is characterizing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to assess its suitability as a potential site for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and defense related activities. The assessment activities include surface investigations, drill holes from the surface, and an underground facility for in situ characterization tests. This underground exploratory shaft facility is being designed to meet the criteria for characterizing the mountain as described in the Site Characterization Plan. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Groundwater Flow and Thermal Modeling to Support a Preferred Conceptual Model for the Large Hydraulic Gradient North of Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, D.; Oberlander, P.

    2007-12-18

    The purpose of this study is to report on the results of a preliminary modeling framework to investigate the causes of the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. This study builds on the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (referenced herein as the Site-scale model (Zyvoloski, 2004a), which is a three-dimensional saturated zone model of the Yucca Mountain area. Groundwater flow was simulated under natural conditions. The model framework and grid design describe the geologic layering and the calibration parameters describe the hydrogeology. The Site-scale model is calibrated to hydraulic heads, fluid temperature, and groundwater flowpaths. One area of interest in the Site-scale model represents the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. Nearby water levels suggest over 200 meters of hydraulic head difference in less than 1,000 meters horizontal distance. Given the geologic conceptual models defined by various hydrogeologic reports (Faunt, 2000, 2001; Zyvoloski, 2004b), no definitive explanation has been found for the cause of the large hydraulic gradient. Luckey et al. (1996) presents several possible explanations for the large hydraulic gradient as provided below: The gradient is simply the result of flow through the upper volcanic confining unit, which is nearly 300 meters thick near the large gradient. The gradient represents a semi-perched system in which flow in the upper and lower aquifers is predominantly horizontal, whereas flow in the upper confining unit would be predominantly vertical. The gradient represents a drain down a buried fault from the volcanic aquifers to the lower Carbonate Aquifer. The gradient represents a spillway in which a fault marks the effective northern limit of the lower volcanic aquifer. The large gradient results from the presence at depth of the Eleana Formation, a part of the Paleozoic upper confining unit, which overlies the lower Carbonate Aquifer in much of the Death Valley region. The

  15. Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Mercury, NV (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  16. Thermal history of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, J.F.; Neymark, L.A.; Moscati, R.J.; Marshall, B.D.; Roedder, E.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary calcite, silica and minor amounts of fluorite deposited in fractures and cavities record the chemistry, temperatures, and timing of past fluid movement in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The distribution and geochemistry of these deposits are consistent with low-temperature precipitation from meteoric waters that infiltrated at the surface and percolated down through the unsaturated zone. However, the discovery of fluid inclusions in calcite with homogenization temperatures (Th) up to ???80 ??C was construed by some scientists as strong evidence for hydrothermal deposition. This paper reports the results of investigations to test the hypothesis of hydrothermal deposition and to determine the temperature and timing of secondary mineral deposition. Mineral precipitation temperatures in the unsaturated zone are estimated from calcite- and fluorite-hosted fluid inclusions and calcite ??18O values, and depositional timing is constrained by the 207Pb/235U ages of chalcedony or opal in the deposits. Fluid inclusion Th from 50 samples of calcite and four samples of fluorite range from ???35 to ???90 ??C. Calcite ??18O values range from ???0 to ???22??? (SMOW) but most fall between 12 and 20???. The highest Th and the lowest ??18O values are found in the older calcite. Calcite Th and ??18O values indicate that most calcite precipitated from water with ??18O values between -13 and -7???, similar to modern meteoric waters. Twenty-two 207Pb/235U ages of chalcedony or opal that generally postdate elevated depositional temperatures range from ???9.5 to 1.9 Ma. New and published 207Pb/235U and 230Th/Uages coupled with the Th values and estimates of temperature from calcite ??18O values indicate that maximum unsaturated zone temperatures probably predate ???10 Ma and that the unsaturated zone had cooled to near-present-day temperatures (24-26 ??C at a depth of 250 m) by 2-4 Ma. The evidence

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project 1992 quality program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Burningham, A.; Chavez, P. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This status report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s quality assurance program for calendar year 1992. The report includes major sections on Program Activities and Trend Analysis. Program Activities are discussed periodically at quality meetings. The most significant issue addressed in 1992 has been the timely revision of quality administrative procedures. The procedure revision process was streamlined from 55 steps to 7. The number of forms in procedures was reduced by 38%, and the text reduced by 29%. This allowed revision in 1992 of almost half of all implementing procedures. The time necessary to complete the revision process (for a procedure) was reduced from 11 months to 3 months. Other accomplishments include the relaxation of unnecessarily strict training requirements, requiring quality assurance reviews only from affected organizations, and in general simplifying work processes. All members of the YMP received training to the new Orientation class Eleven other training classed were held. Investigators submitted 971 records to the Project and only 37 were rejected. The software program has 115 programs approved for quality-affecting work. The Project Office conducted 3 audits and 1 survey of Los Alamos activities. We conducted 14 audits and 4 surveys. Eight corrective action reports were closed, leaving only one open. Internally, 22 deficiencies were recognized. This is a decrease from 65 in 1991. Since each deficiency requires about 2 man weeks to resolve, the savings are significant. Problems with writing acceptable deficiency reports have essentially disappeared. Trend reports for 1992 were examined and are summarized herein. Three adverse trends have been closed; one remaining adverse trend will be closed when the affected procedures are revised. The number of deficiencies issued to Los Alamos compared to other participants is minimal.

  18. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  19. a New Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model for Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddebbarh, A.; James, S. C.; Doherty, J.; Zyvoloski, G.; Arnold, B. W.

    2007-12-01

    A saturated zone site scale flow model was developed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to incorporate new data and analyses including new stratigraphic and water level data from Nye County wells, single and multiple well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. New analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500 to 250 m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three dimensional, finite element heat and mass transfer computer code, FEHM V2.24. The SZ site scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to evaluate the impact of alternative models on flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (1) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system representation and response. Null space

  20. Small-molecule auxin inhibitors that target YUCCA are powerful tools for studying auxin function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakei, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Suzuki, Masashi; Nakamura, Ayako; Sato, Akiko; Ishida, Yosuke; Kikuchi, Rie; Higashi, Shouichi; Kokudo, Yumiko; Ishii, Takahiro; Soeno, Kazuo; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2015-11-01

    Auxin is essential for plant growth and development, this makes it difficult to study the biological function of auxin using auxin-deficient mutants. Chemical genetics have the potential to overcome this difficulty by temporally reducing the auxin function using inhibitors. Recently, the indole-3-pyruvate (IPyA) pathway was suggested to be a major biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana L. for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most common member of the auxin family. In this pathway, YUCCA, a flavin-containing monooxygenase (YUC), catalyzes the last step of conversion from IPyA to IAA. In this study, we screened effective inhibitors, 4-biphenylboronic acid (BBo) and 4-phenoxyphenylboronic acid (PPBo), which target YUC. These compounds inhibited the activity of recombinant YUC in vitro, reduced endogenous IAA content, and inhibited primary root elongation and lateral root formation in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings. Co-treatment with IAA reduced the inhibitory effects. Kinetic studies of BBo and PPBo showed that they are competitive inhibitors of the substrate IPyA. Inhibition constants (Ki ) of BBo and PPBo were 67 and 56 nm, respectively. In addition, PPBo did not interfere with the auxin response of auxin-marker genes when it was co-treated with IAA, suggesting that PPBo is not an inhibitor of auxin sensing or signaling. We propose that these compounds are a class of auxin biosynthesis inhibitors that target YUC. These small molecules are powerful tools for the chemical genetic analysis of auxin function. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Hydraulic characterization of overpressured tuffs in central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2005-01-01

    A sequence of buried, bedded, air-fall tuffs has been used extensively as a host medium for underground nuclear tests detonated in the central part of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Water levels within these bedded tuffs have been elevated hundreds of meters in areas where underground nuclear tests were detonated below the water table. Changes in the ground-water levels within these tuffs and changes in the rate and distribution of land-surface subsidence above these tuffs indicate that pore-fluid pressures have been slowly depressurizing since the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992. Declines in ground-water levels concurrent with regional land subsidence are explained by poroelastic deformation accompanying ground-water flow as fluids pressurized by underground nuclear detonations drain from the host tuffs into the overlying water table and underlying regional carbonate aquifer. A hydraulic conductivity of about 3 x 10-6 m/d and a specific storage of 9 x 10-6 m-1 are estimated using ground-water flow models. Cross-sectional and three-dimensional ground-water flow models were calibrated to measured water levels and to land-subsidence rates measured using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar. Model results are consistent and indicate that about 2 million m3 of ground water flowed from the tuffs to the carbonate rock as a result of pressurization caused by underground nuclear testing. The annual rate of inflow into the carbonate rock averaged about 0.008 m/yr between 1962 and 2005, and declined from 0.005 m/yr in 2005 to 0.0005 m/yr by 2300.

  2. Using Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate the Source Term at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Chen

    2001-12-19

    The conventional approach of source-term evaluation for performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories uses speciation-solubility modeling tools and assumes pure phases of radioelements control their solubility. This assumption may not reflect reality, as most radioelements (except for U) may not form their own pure phases. As a result, solubility limits predicted using the conventional approach are several orders of magnitude higher then the concentrations of radioelements measured in spent fuel dissolution experiments. This paper presents the author's attempt of using a non-conventional approach to evaluate source term of radionuclide release for Yucca Mountain. Based on the general reactive-transport code AREST-CT, a model for spent fuel dissolution and secondary phase precipitation has been constructed. The model accounts for both equilibrium and kinetic reactions. Its predictions have been compared against laboratory experiments and natural analogues. It is found that without calibrations, the simulated results match laboratory and field observations very well in many aspects. More important is the fact that no contradictions between them have been found. This provides confidence in the predictive power of the model. Based on the concept of Np incorporated into uranyl minerals, the model not only predicts a lower Np source-term than that given by conventional Np solubility models, but also produces results which are consistent with laboratory measurements and observations. Moreover, two hypotheses, whether Np enters tertiary uranyl minerals or not, have been tested by comparing model predictions against laboratory observations, the results favor the former. It is concluded that this non-conventional approach of source term evaluation not only eliminates over-conservatism in conventional solubility approach to some extent, but also gives a realistic representation of the system of interest, which is a prerequisite for truly understanding the long

  3. GEOCHEMISTRY OF ROCK UNITS AT THE POTENTIAL REPOSITORY LEVEL, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z.E. Peterman; P.L. Cloke

    2000-12-13

    The compositional variability of the phenocryst-poor member of the 12.8-million-year Topopah Spring Tuff at the potential repository level was assessed by duplicate analysis of 20 core samples from the cross drift at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Previous analyses of outcrop and core samples of the Topopah Spring Tuff showed that the phenocryst-poor rhyolite, which includes both lithophysal and nonlithophysal zones, is relatively uniform in composition. Analyses of rock samples from the cross drift, the first from the actual potential repository block, also indicate the chemical homogeneity of this unit excluding localized deposits of vapor-phase minerals and low-temperature calcite and opal in fractures, cavities, and faults, The possible influence of vapor-phase minerals and calcite and opal coatings on rock composition at a scale sufficiently large to incorporate these heterogeneously distributed deposits was evaluated and is considered to be relatively minor. Therefore, the composition of the phenocryst-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff is considered to be adequately represented by the analyses of samples from the cross drift. The mean composition as represented by the 10 most abundant oxides in weight percent or grams per hundred grams is: SiO{sub 2}, 76.29; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 12.55; FeO, 0.14; Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.97; MgO, 0.13; CaO, 0.50; Na{sub 2}O, 3.52; K{sub 2}O, 4.83; TiO{sub 2}, 0.11; and MnO, 0.07.

  4. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  5. A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddebbarh, Al Aziz [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system

  6. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Zhu; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; C. Russell; R.W.H. Carroll; D. Shafer

    2009-09-10

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effectiveporosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in

  7. Blue Ribbon Commission, Yucca Mountain Closure, Court Actions - Future of Decommissioned Reactors, Operating Reactors and Nuclear Power - 13249

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, Jas S. [Nuclear Power Technologies, Sargent and Lundy LLC1, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Issues related to back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle continue to be difficult for the commercial nuclear power industry and for the decision makers at the national and international level. In the US, the 1982 NWPA required DOE to develop geological repositories for SNF and HLW but in spite of extensive site characterization efforts and over ten billion dollars spent, a repository opening is nowhere in sight. There has been constant litigation against the DOE by the nuclear utilities for breach of the 'standard contract' they signed with the DOE under the NWPA. The SNF inventory continues to rise both in the US and globally and the nuclear industry has turned to dry storage facilities at reactor locations. In US, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future issued its report in January 2012 and among other items, it recommends a new, consent-based approach to siting of facilities, prompt efforts to develop one or more geologic disposal facilities, and prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. In addition, the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident had a severe impact on the future growth of nuclear power. The nuclear industry is focusing on mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events and in the US, the industry is in the process of implementing the recommendations from NRC's Near Term Task Force. (authors)

  8. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  9. Criteria for the recognition of pedogenic/supergene and nonpedogenic/hypogene deposits and their relationship to the origin of calcite/opal deposits at Yucca Mountain. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C.A.; Schluter, C.M.; Monger, H.C.

    1993-10-01

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed assessment of the geology and geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. The purpose of this report is to try and establish criteria for the recognition of pedogenic/supergene deposits of calcite/opal versus non-pedogenic/hypogene deposits of calcite/opal. Far from being of esoteric concern, this subject is of paramount importance to the pedogenic-hypogene debate which rages around the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a high-level radioactive waste repository site.

  10. Compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data, Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas of southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    This document is a compilation of available radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data for volcanic rocks and episodes of hydrothermal activity in Yucca Mountain and the surrounding region of southwestern Nevada. Only the age determinations considered to be geologically reasonable (consistent with stratigraphic relations) are listed below. A number of the potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages of volcanic rocks given by Kistler, Marvin et al., Noble et al., Weiss et al., and Noble et al. are not included as these ages have been shown to be incorrect or disturbed by hydrothermal alteration based on subsequent stratigraphic and/or petrographic data and the recognition of errors in K-Ar age determinations related to incomplete extraction of argon. In cases where absolute ages are tightly constrained by high precision {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages and unequivocal stratigraphic relations, we have omitted the less precise K-Ar age data. Similarly, the more precise single-crystal laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age determinations of certain units are reported and less precise ages by multi-grain bulk-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are not included. This compilation does not include age data for basaltic rocks of Pliocene and Quaternary age in the Yucca Mountain region.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area.

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  13. Meet the Maximally Exposed Member of the Public: The Service Station Attendant for Spent Nuclear Fuel Going to Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, H. E.; Gathers, R.; Halstead, R. J.

    2002-02-28

    According to the 1999 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site, members of the public along transportation routes by which spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is shipped will receive annual radiation doses less than 100 mrem/yr, the international (ICRP) and national (Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission) radiation limit for members of the public. For the ''Mostly Truck'' national transportation scenario, the DEIS specifically concludes that the maximally exposed member of the public, a service station attendant along the primary shipping route will receive no more than 100 mrem/yr, or 2.4 rem over 24 years. Based on the assumptions in the DEIS scenarios, however, it is highly likely that service station attendants along shipping routes will be called upon to fuel and service the rigs carrying SNF and HLW to Yucca Mountain. After reevaluating the DEIS, and making realistic alternative assumptions where necessary, the authors conclude that these attendants are likely to receive substantially more than 100 mrem/yr external dose, and perhaps several times that dose (up to 500 mrem/yr), unless mitigating measures are adopted. This is particularly true in Western states where refueling opportunities are limited, and the distances between fuel sources in rural areas may be up to 100 miles.

  14. Stochastic hydrogeologic units and hydrogeologic properties development for total-system performance assessments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, A.R.; Guerin, D.C. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rautman, C.A.; Barnard, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A stochastic representation of the lithologic units and associated hydrogeologic parameters of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository are developed for use in performance-assessment calculations, including the Total-System Performance Assessment for Yucca Mountain-SNL Second Iteration (TSPA-1993). A simplified lithologic model has been developed based on the physical characteristics of the welded and nonwelded units at Yucca Mountain. Ten hydrogeologic units are developed from site-specific data (lithologic and geophysical logs and core photographs) obtained from the unsaturated and saturated zones. The three-dimensional geostatistical model of the ten hydrogeologic units is based on indicator-coding techniques and improves on the two-dimensional model developed for TSPA91. The hydrogeologic properties (statistics and probability distribution functions) are developed from the results of laboratory tests and in-situ aquifer tests or are derived through fundamental relationships. Hydrogeologic properties for matrix properties, bulk conductivities, and fractures are developed from existing site specific data. Extensive data are available for matrix porosity, bulk density, and matrix saturated conductivity. For other hydrogeologic properties, the data are minimal or nonexistent. Parameters for the properties are developed as beta probability distribution functions. For the model units without enough data for analysis, parameters are developed as analogs to existing units. A relational, analytic approach coupled with bulk conductivity parameters is used to develop fracture parameters based on the smooth-wall-parallel-plate theory. An analytic method is introduced for scaling small-core matrix properties to the hydrogeologic unit scales.

  15. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring.

  16. The spatial distribution and chemical heterogeneity of clinoptilolite at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada: Evidence for polygenetic hypogene alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, D.E.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    This part of TRAC`s Annual Report for 1993 summarizes the finding of previous reports on the major element geochemistry of zeolitic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain and updates the status of work. In this report we examine the spatial distribution of zeolites by stratigraphic units and boreholes and the various types of chemical alteration of clinoptilolite indicated by the data reported in Broxton et al. and Bish and Chipera. The purpose is to evaluate the extent of the metasomatic alteration and to test the hypogene hypothesis of Szymanski. In this regard, it is of prime importance to evaluate whether the metasomatic alteration at Yucca Mountain is due to supergene or hypogene processes. In this report, the term {open_quotes}supergene{close_quotes} denotes alteration and mineralization produced by fluids derived directly from atmospheric precipitation and infiltration through the vadose zone, and the term {open_quotes}hypogene{close_quotes} denotes alteration and mineralization produced by fluids from the phreatic zone regardless of their former location or residence time in the Earth`s crust. This report begins with a review of previous work on the genesis of zeolites of the Nevada Test Site.

  17. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, B.A. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Walck, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes.

  19. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Wong

    2004-11-05

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

  20. Tourism Impacts of Three Mile Island and Other Adverse Events: Implications for Lincoln County and Other Rural Counties Bisected by Radioactive Wastes Intended for Yucca Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes key research implications of Three Mile Island and other major hazard events as related to tourism. Examines how the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will impact tourism in southern Nevada and other visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors. (AIM)

  1. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,

  2. Controlling fungal foliar pathogen e.g. Venturia inaequalis, Blumeriella jaapi, in plants involves treating plants with a composition comprising an extract from Yucca as an antifungal agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to control of fungal foliar diseases in plants, preferaby Rosaceae, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), pear scab (Venturia pirina), brown spot (Stemphylium vesicarium) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) by treatment of plant with an extract of Yucca species...

  3. Is Yucca Mountain a long-term solution for disposing of US spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, M C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 January 2012, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future released a report addressing, amongst other matters, options for the managing and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel. The Blue Ribbon Commission was not chartered as a siting commission. Accordingly, it did not evaluate Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage or disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Nevertheless, if the Commission's recommendations are followed, it is clear that any future proposals to develop a repository at Yucca Mountain would require an extended period of consultation with local communities, tribes and the State of Nevada. Furthermore, there would be a need to develop generally applicable regulations for disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, so that the Yucca Mountain site could be properly compared with alternative sites that would be expected to be identified in the initial phase of the site-selection process. Based on what is now known of the conditions existing at Yucca Mountain and the large number of safety, environmental and legal issues that have been raised in relation to the DOE Licence Application, it is suggested that it would be imprudent to include Yucca Mountain in a list of candidate sites for future evaluation in a consent-based process for site selection. Even if there were a desire at the local, tribal and state levels to act as hosts for such a repository, there would be enormous difficulties in attempting to develop an adequate post-closure safety case for such a facility, and in showing why this unsaturated environment should be preferred over other geological contexts that exist in the USA and that are more akin to those being studied and developed in other countries.

  4. A preliminary investigation of the structure of southern Yucca Flat, Massachusetts Mountain, and CP basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on geophysical modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Phelps; Leigh Justet; Barry C. Moring, and Carter W. Roberts

    2006-03-17

    New gravity and magnetic data collected in the vicinity of Massachusetts Mountain and CP basin (Nevada Test Site, NV) provides a more complex view of the structural relationships present in the vicinity of CP basin than previous geologic models, helps define the position and extent of structures in southern Yucca Flat and CP basin, and better constrains the configuration of the basement structure separating CP basin and Frenchman Flat. The density and gravity modeling indicates that CP basin is a shallow, oval-shaped basin which trends north-northeast and contains ~800 m of basin-filling rocks and sediment at its deepest point in the northeast. CP basin is separated from the deeper Frenchman Flat basin by a subsurface ridge that may represent a Tertiary erosion surface at the top of the Paleozoic strata. The magnetic modeling indicates that the Cane Spring fault appears to merge with faults in northwest Massachusetts Mountain, rather than cut through to Yucca Flat basin and that the basin is downed-dropped relative to Massachusetts Mountain. The magnetic modeling indicates volcanic units within Yucca Flat basin are down-dropped on the west and supports the interpretations of Phelps and KcKee (1999). The magnetic data indicate that the only faults that appear to be through-going from Yucca Flat into either Frenchman Flat or CP basin are the faults that bound the CP hogback. In general, the north-trending faults present along the length of Yucca Flat bend, merge, and disappear before reaching CP hogback and Massachusetts Mountain or French Peak.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of The Structure of Southern Yucca Flat, Massachusetts Mountain, and CP Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Based on Geophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Justet, Leigh; Moring, Barry C.; Roberts, Carter W.

    2006-01-01

    New gravity and magnetic data collected in the vicinity of Massachusetts Mountain and CP basin (Nevada Test Site, NV) provides a more complex view of the structural relationships present in the vicinity of CP basin than previous geologic models, helps define the position and extent of structures in southern Yucca Flat and CP basin, and better constrains the configuration of the basement structure separating CP basin and Frenchman Flat. The density and gravity modeling indicates that CP basin is a shallow, oval-shaped basin which trends north-northeast and contains ~800 m of basin-filling rocks and sediment at its deepest point in the northeast. CP basin is separated from the deeper Frenchman Flat basin by a subsurface ridge that may represent a Tertiary erosion surface at the top of the Paleozoic strata. The magnetic modeling indicates that the Cane Spring fault appears to merge with faults in northwest Massachusetts Mountain, rather than cut through to Yucca Flat basin and that the basin is downed-dropped relative to Massachusetts Mountain. The magnetic modeling indicates volcanic units within Yucca Flat basin are down-dropped on the west and supports the interpretations of Phelps and KcKee (1999). The magnetic data indicate that the only faults that appear to be through-going from Yucca Flat into either Frenchman Flat or CP basin are the faults that bound the CP hogback. In general, the north-trending faults present along the length of Yucca Flat bend, merge, and disappear before reaching CP hogback and Massachusetts Mountain or French Peak.

  6. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  7. Gravity and magnetic data across the Ghost Dance Fault in WT-2 Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data were obtained in September 1993 along a 4,650 ft-long profile across the Ghost Dance Fault system in WT-2 Wash. Gravity stations were established every 150 feet along the profile. Total-field magnetic measurements made initially every 50 ft along the profile, then remade every 20 ft through the fault zone. These new data are part of a geologic and geophysical study of the Ghost Dance Fault (GDF) which includes detailed geologic mapping, seismic reflection, and some drilling including geologic and geophysical logging. The Ghost Dance Fault is the only through-going fault that has been identified within the potential repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Preliminary gravity results show a distinct decrease of 0.1 to 0.2 mGal over a 600-ft-wide zone to the east of and including the mapped fault. The gravity decrease probably marks a zone of brecciation. Another fault-offset located about 2,000 ft to the east of the GDF was detected by seismic reflection data and is also marked by a distinct gravity low. The ground magnetic data show a 200-ft-wide magnetic low of about 400 nT centered about 100 ft east of the Ghost Dance Fault. The magnetic low probably marks a zone of brecciation within the normally polarized Topopah Spring Tuff, the top of which is about 170 ft below the surface, and which is known from drilling to extend to a depth of about 1,700 ft. Three-component magnetometer logging in drill hole WT-2 located about 2,700 ft east of the Ghost Dance Fault shows that the Topopah Spring Tuff is strongly polarized magnetically in this area, so that fault brecciation of a vertical zone within the Tuff could provide an average negative magnetic contrast of the 4 Am{sup {minus}1} needed to produce the 400 nT low observed at the surface.

  8. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative

  9. Yucca Mountain project : FY 2006 annual report for waste form testingactivities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L.; Fortner, J. A.; Guelis, A. V.; Cunnane, J. C.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes the experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) during fiscal year (FY 2006) under the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) Memorandum Purchase Order (MPO) contract number B004210CM3X. Because this experimental work is focused on the dissolution and precipitation behavior of neptunium, the report also includes, or incorporates by reference, earlier results that are relevant to presenting a more complete understanding of the likely behavior of neptunium under experimental conditions relevant to the Yucca Mountain repository. Important results relevant to the technical bases, validations, and conservatisms in current source term models are summarized. The CSNF samples were observed to corrode following the general contour of the surface rather than via (for instance) grain boundary attack. This supports the current approach of estimating the effective surface area of corroding CSNF based on the geometric surface area of fuel pellet fragments. It was observed that the neptunium and plutonium concentrations in corroded CSNF samples were somewhat higher at and near the corrosion front (i.e., at the interface between the alteration product ''rind'' layer and the underlying fuel) than in the bulk fuel. The neptunium and plutonium at the corrosion front and in the uranyl alteration layer were found to be in the quadravalent (4+) oxidation state. The uranyl phases that constitute most of the alteration rind were depleted in neptunium relative to the bulk fuel: neptunium concentrations in the uranyl alteration rind were less than 20% of that in the parent fuel. Homogeneous precipitation tests have shown that solids precipitate from a 1 x 10{sup -4} M Np(V) solution over the temperature range of 200-280 C, but no evidence was found that any solids precipitated from the same solution at 150 C through 289 days. The solids formed in the homogeneous precipitation tests were predominantly a Np(IV)-bearing phase

  10. Absolute Paleointensity Study of Miocene Tiva Canyon Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiman, A.; Bowles, J.

    2014-12-01

    Unoriented samples from the ~12.7 Ma Tiva Canyon (TC) tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada are studied in terms of magnetic properties and geomagnetic paleointensity. The magnetic mineralogy and magnetic properties of the TC tuff have previously been well documented, and the remanence-carrier in ~15-m thick zones at the top and bottom of the unit is dominantly is single domain (SD) to superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite, which may be considered ideal for absolute paleointensity studies. Among one of the several episodic volcanic eruptions of the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field (SWNVF), the welded TC tuff belongs to the Paintbrush Group. Here we present magnetic properties from two previously unreported sections of the TC tuff, as well as Thellier-type absolute paleointensity estimates. Samples were collected from the lower ~7 m at the base of the flow. Magnetic properties studied include hysteresis, bulk magnetic susceptibility, frequency-dependent susceptibility, and anhysteretic remanent magnetization acquisition. Magnetic property results are consistent with earlier work, showing that the main magnetic mineral is magnetite. SP samples are dominant from the lower ~1 m to ~3.6 m basal unit while the middle unit of ~3.7 m to 7.0 m mainly consists of SD samples. The paleointensity results are closely tied to the stratigraphic height and magnetic properties linked to domain state. The SD samples have consistent absolute paleointensity values 32.40±0.22 uT, VADM 5.74*1022 A.m2 and behaved ideally during paleointensity experiments. The SP samples have consistently higher paleointensity and less ideal behavior, but would likely pass many traditional quality-control tests. Since the magnetite has been interpreted to form by precipitation out of the glass post-emplacement, but at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature, we tentatively interpret the SD remanence to be a primary thermal remanent magnetization and the paleointensity result to be a valid estimate of

  11. Data Qualification Report: Pore Water Data for Use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller; R. Monks; C. Warren; W. Wowak

    2000-06-09

    Pore water data associated with Data Tracking Number (DTN) No.LL990702804244.100 are referenced in the Analysis and Model Reports (AMRs) prepared to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository for high-level nuclear waste. It has been determined, in accordance with procedure AP-3.15Q Rev. 1, ICN 1, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs'', Attachment 6 , that the DTN-referenced data are used in AMRs that provide a direct calculation of ''Principal Factors'' for the Post-closure Safety Case or Potentially Disruptive Processes or Events. Therefore, in accordance with the requirements of procedure AP-SIII.2Q, Rev 0, ICN 2, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data'', Section 5.3.1 .a, a Data Qualification Report has been prepared for submittal to the Assistant Manager, Office of Project Execution for concurrence. This report summarizes the findings of the Data Qualification Team assembled to evaluate unqualified ''pore water data'' represented by DTN No. LL990702804244.100. This DTN is currently used in the following AMRs: Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and THC Seepage) Models (CRWMS M&O 2000a), Environment of the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier (CRWMS M&O 2000b), and Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model (CRWMS M&O 2000c). Mineral composition of pore water submitted to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS) using the subject DTN were acquired data from the analysis pore water samples sent to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) by UFA Ventures, Inc. and analyzed by LLNL's Analytical Sciences/Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ASD). The purpose and scope of the AMRs that reference the subject DTN and the potential application of pore water data is described below. These AMRs use only that

  12. Phase I Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John McCord

    2007-09-01

    This report documents transport data and data analyses for Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97. The purpose of the data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support parameterization of the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU transport model. Specific task objectives were as follows: • Identify and compile currently available transport parameter data and supporting information that may be relevant to the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU. • Assess the level of quality of the data and associated documentation. • Analyze the data to derive expected values and estimates of the associated uncertainty and variability. The scope of this document includes the compilation and assessment of data and information relevant to transport parameters for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU subsurface within the context of unclassified source-term contamination. Data types of interest include mineralogy, aqueous chemistry, matrix and effective porosity, dispersivity, matrix diffusion, matrix and fracture sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport parameters.

  13. Review of the expected behaviour of alpha titanium alloys under Yucca Mountain conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W

    2000-03-01

    The use of titanium alloys in two different waste package designs has been reviewed under the, conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In the first design. they are considered as one of three barrier materials incorporated into the waste package design and potentially in galvanic contact with the other two waste package materials, 316L stainless steel and Alloy-22. In the second design the Ti alloy is considered as a drip shield placed over, and not in contact with, a dual wall waste package fabricated from the other two materials. The possible failure processes, crevice corrosion, pitting and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) have been reviewed for the candidate titanium alloys (Ti-12, Ti-16 and Ti-7). Both pitting and crevice corrosion are very remote possibilities under these conditions. For Ti-12, a limited amount of crevice corrosion is possible but repassivation will occur before substantial damage is sustained. When Ti is considered as part of the triple wall waste package, hydrogen absorption leading to HIC, within an acidified but passive crevice, is the most likely failure mechanism. When the Ti alloy is utilized in the form of a drip shield then hydrogen absorption under potentially alkaline conditions is the major fear. Both Ti-12 and Ti-16 have been shown capable of tolerating substantial amounts of hydrogen ({approx}400 {mu} g{center_dot}g{sup -1} for Ti-12, and > 1000 {mu}g.g{sup -1} for Ti-16) before any effect on the materials fracture toughness is observed. The rate of absorption to a hydrogen content which exceeds these values will be the key feature determining if, or when, the material becomes susceptible to cracking. Once this condition is achieved, whether or not failure occurs will depend on the strength and location of stresses within the structure. For Ti to absorb hydrogen it is inevitably necessary to subject the material to cathodic polarization, either by coupling to a more active material or by the

  14. Hydrologic and geologic characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site relevant to the performance of a potential repository: Day 1, Las Vegas, Nevada to Pahrump, Nevada: Stop 6A. Keane Wonder Spring and regional groundwater flow in the Death Valley region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkampf, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located ~100 mi northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been designated by Congress as a site to be characterized for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This field trip will examine the regional geologic and hydrologic setting for Yucca Mountain, as well as specific results of the site characterization program, The first day focuses on the regional seeing with emphasis on current and paleo hydrology, which are both of critical concern for predicting future performance of a potential repository. Morning stops will be in southern Nevada and afternoon stops will be in Death Valley. The second day will be spent at Yucca Mountain. The filed trip will visit the underground testing sites in the "Exploratory Studies Facility" and the "Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Field Test" plus several surface-based testing sites. Much of the work at the site has concentrated on studies of the unsaturated zone, and element of the hydrologic system that historically has received little attention. Discussions during the second day will comprise selected topics of Yucca Mountain geology, mic hazard in the Yucca Mountain area. Evening discussions will address modeling of regional groundwater flow, the geology and hydrology of Yucca Mountain to the performance of a potential repository. Day 3 will examine the geologic framework and hydrology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Groundwater Basin and then will continue to Reno via Hawthorne, Nevada and the Walker Lake area.

  15. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  16. Unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog, Chihuahua, Mexico -- Implications for radionuclide mobility at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Chemical and U-Th isotopic data on unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog reveal effects of water-rock interaction and help constrain models of radionuclide release and transport at the site and, by analogy, at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geochemical reaction-path modeling indicates that, under oxidizing conditions, dissolution of uraninite (spent fuel analog) by these waters will lead to eventual schoepite precipitation regardless of initial silica concentration provided that groundwater is not continuously replenished. Thus, less soluble uranyl silicates may not dominate the initial alteration assemblage and keep dissolved U concentrations low. Uranium-series activity ratios are consistent with models of U transport at the site and display varying degrees of leaching versus recoil mobilization. Thorium concentrations may reflect the importance of colloidal transport of low-solubility radionuclides in the unsaturated zone.

  17. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Doremus, L.A.; Engel, D.W.; Miley, T.B.; Murphy, M.T.; Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Langford, D.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in mined repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models.

  18. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-15

    This report summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  19. Evaluation of mineral resource potential, caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic framework at and near Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    This report summarizes the result of Task 3 work initially discussed in our monthly reports for the period October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992, and contained in our various papers and abstracts, both published and currently in press or review. Our work during this period has involved (a) the continuation of studies begun prior to October, 1991, focussed mainly on aspects of the caldera geology, volcanic stratigraphy, magmatic activity, hydrothermal mineralization and extensional tectonics of the western and northwestern parts of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF), and (b) new studies of the alteration and trace-metal geochemistry of subsurface rocks at Yucca Mountain utilizing drill hole samples obtained in late 1991 and early 1992.

  20. Unclassified Sources Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Martian

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or more tests is known as the radiologic source term (RST). The RST is comprised of radionuclides in water, glass, or other phases or mineralogic forms. The hydrologic source term (HST) of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total RST that is released into the groundwater over time following the test. In this report, the HST represents radionuclide release some time after the explosion and does not include the rapidly evolving mechanical, thermal, and chemical processes during the explosion. The CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine has many more detonations and a wider variety of settings to consider compared to other CAUs. For instance, the source term analysis and evaluation performed for CAUs 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa and CAU 98: Frenchman Flat did not consider vadose zone attenuation because many detonations were located near or below the water table. However, the large number of Yucca Flat/Climax Mine tests and the location of many tests above the water table warrant a more robust analysis of the unsaturated zone. The purpose of this report is to develop and document conceptual models of the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine HST for use in implementing source terms for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine models. This document presents future plans to incorporate the radionuclide attenuation mechanisms due to unsaturated/multiphase flow and transport within the Yucca Flat CAU scale modeling. The important processes that influence radionuclide migration for the unsaturated and saturated tests in alluvial, volcanic, and carbonate settings are identified. Many different flow and transport models developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including original

  1. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Mark I; DeFalco, Lesley A

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Analogues to features and processes of a high-level radioactive waste repository proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Stuckless, John S.; with a Foreword by Abraham Van Luik, U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-01-01

    Natural analogues are defined for this report as naturally occurring or anthropogenic systems in which processes similar to those expected to occur in a nuclear waste repository are thought to have taken place over time periods of decades to millennia and on spatial scales as much as tens of kilometers. Analogues provide an important temporal and spatial dimension that cannot be tested by laboratory or field-scale experiments. Analogues provide one of the multiple lines of evidence intended to increase confidence in the safe geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Although the work in this report was completed specifically for Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste under the U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the applicability of the science, analyses, and interpretations is not limited to a specific site. Natural and anthropogenic analogues have provided and can continue to provide value in understanding features and processes of importance across a wide variety of topics in addressing the challenges of geologic isolation of radioactive waste and also as a contribution to scientific investigations unrelated to waste disposal. Isolation of radioactive waste at a mined geologic repository would be through a combination of natural features and engineered barriers. In this report we examine analogues to many of the various components of the Yucca Mountain system, including the preservation of materials in unsaturated environments, flow of water through unsaturated volcanic tuff, seepage into repository drifts, repository drift stability, stability and alteration of waste forms and components of the engineered barrier system, and transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated rock zones.

  3. Evidence of prehistoric flooding and the potential for future extreme flooding at Coyote Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glancy, P.A.

    1994-09-01

    Coyote Wash, an approximately 0.3-square-mile drainage on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, is the potential location for an exploratory shaft to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain for construction of an underground repository for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. An ongoing investigation is addressing the potential for hazards to the site and surrounding areas from flooding and related fluvial-debris movement. Unconsolidated sediments in and adjacent to the channel of North Fork Coyote Wash were examined for evidence of past floods. Trenches excavated across and along the valley bottom exposed multiple flood deposits, including debris-flow deposits containing boulders as large as 2 to 3 feet in diameter. Most of the alluvial deposition probably occurred during the late Quaternary. Deposits at the base of the deepest trench overlie bedrock and underlie stream terraces adjacent to the channel; these sediments are moderately indurated and probably were deposited during the late Pleistocene. Overlying nonindurated deposits clearly are younger and may be of Holocene age. This evidence of intense flooding during the past indicates that severe flooding and debris movement are possible in the future. Empirical estimates of large floods of the past range from 900 to 2,600 cubic feet per second from the 0.094-square-mile drainage area of North Fork Coyote Wash drainage at two proposed shaft sites. Current knowledge indicates that mixtures of water and debris are likely to flow from North Fork Coyote Wash at rates up to 2,500 cubic feet per second. South Fork Coyote Wash, which has similar basin area and hydraulic characteristics, probably will have concurrent floods of similar magnitudes. The peak flow of the two tributaries probably would combine near the potential sites for the exploratory shaft to produce future flow of water and accompanying debris potentially as large as 5,000 cubic feet per second.

  4. Coupling Seepage and Radionuclide Transport in and Around Emplacement Drifts at Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Spycher, N.; Sonnenthal, E.; Steefel, C.

    2007-12-01

    The proposed nuclear waste repository of the United States is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Waste packages will be placed in deep (~350 m) underground drifts in volcanic tuff. Seepage may potentially occur at the repository drifts when the drifts get rewetted after a dryout period. The potential seepage water will be quickly evaporated or boiled to near dryness as long as it falls on the top of the hot waste package leading to formation of brine, precipitation of salts and volatilization of gases. These processes may potentially impact the long-term safety of waste packages in the drift. The objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a quantitative model of coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes potentially leading to brine formation, salt precipitation and gas volatilization on top of waste packages and/or a drip shield and (2) dynamically integrate such a model into the larger-scale models of processes within and around waste emplacement drifts, as well as into the smaller-scale waste-package corrosion models. Process models were implemented into an existing reactive transport numerical simulator, TOUGHREACT, to allow modeling of (1) evaporative concentration to very high ionic strength (up to 40 molal), (2) boiling point elevation due to dissolved salts, (3) boiling/evaporation to dryness, and (4) salt deliquescence. An integrated near-field and in-drift THC simulation was run using a vertical 2-D grid extending from near the ground surface to the groundwater table, and covering a width equal to half the design drift spacing of 81 m. The integrated model was then used to simulate a discrete dripping event within the drift. The model considered the release of radionuclides into seepage water as this water contacts the waste package and flows through the invert. The precipitation of uranophane and Np-uranophane was also considered. These minerals form in the invert from the neutralization of mildly acidic seepage water by clay minerals

  5. Evidence of Rapid Localized Groundwater Transport in Volcanic Tuffs Beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, B.; Walker, J.; Doughty, C.; Kryder, L.; Gilmore, K.; Finsterle, S.; Sampson, J.

    2006-12-01

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed location for a national high-level nuclear waste repository radionuclides, if released from breached waste storage canisters, could make their way down through the unsaturated zone (where the repository would be located) into the underlying groundwater and eventually back to the biosphere (i.e., where they could adversely affect human health). The compliance boundary, 18 km south of the proposed repository, is defined as the location where a human being using groundwater would be maximally exposed to radionuclides outside of an exclusion zone set around the repository. It is thus important to predict how these radionuclides would be transported by the groundwater flow, and to predict both the concentration of and the rate at which any leaked radionuclides would arrive at the compliance boundary. We recently conducted a study of groundwater flux in the saturated zone through the Crater Flat Group, in a wellbore 15 km south of the proposed repository. The Crater Flat Group, a sequence of ash-flow tuff formations, is laterally extensive beneath the footprint of the proposed repository. Because of its intense fracturing and high permeabilities, the Bullfrog tuff is the primary unit within the Crater Flat Group through which radionuclides would be transported, as indicated by groundwater models. In a new wellbore, NC-EWDP- 24PB, we conducted flowing electrical conductivity logging (FEC), an open-wellbore logging technique, to identify flowing fractures prior to wellbore completion. While the FEC logs have identified transmissive zones, quantitative interpretation of the FEC results was difficult because differences in hydraulic heads in different flowing intervals created significant intraborehole fluid flow. The well was subsequently backfilled and completed with a distributed thermal perturbation sensor (DTPS), which introduces a thermal pulse to the wellbore and uses the thermal transient to estimate groundwater flux

  6. Operation HARDTACK 2, 1958.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-03

    station at Yucca Flat and six observation stations at Tonopah, China Lake, Beatty, and Alamo, Nevada; St. George , Utah; and Shoshone, California (28...established manned microbarograph stations at the Control Point, Las Vegas, and Boulder City, Nevada; Bishop and Inyokern, California; and St. George ...ATTN: Ofr of Libraries ATTN: Documents Dept Glassboro State College Hollins College ATTN: Librarian ATTN: Librarian Gleeson Library Hoover Institution

  7. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 2, Part A: Chapters 3, 4, and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs.

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 4, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.0 through 8.3.1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area Nevada Nuclear Waste site investigation (NNWSI). Progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing Tasks. This report summarizes the geologic and seismotectonic studies conducted at Yucca Mountain during the contract period including Quaternary tectonics, an evaluation of mineral resource potential of the area, caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic activity at and near the site. A report of basinal studies conducted during the contract period is also included. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Progress report on the scientific investigation program for the Nevada Yucca Mountain Site, October 1, 1991--March 31, 1992, Number 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    In accordance with the requirements of section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992. This report is the sixth in a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not officially part of site characterization. Information on these activities is provided in order to fully integrate all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  11. Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid: Some prototype studies conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornack, M.P. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (USA); French, C.A. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)

    1989-12-31

    Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid has been conducted in the G Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site. This work is part of the prototype investigations of hydrogeology for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work is being conducted to develop methods and procedures that will be used at the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site, a candidate site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository, during the site characterization phase of the investigations. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting this prototype testing under the guidance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and in conjunction with Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Company (REECo), the drilling contractor. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Milestones for Selection, Characterization, and Analysis of the Performance of a Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report presents a concise history in tabular form of events leading up to site identification in 1978, site selection in 1987, subsequent characterization, and ongoing analysis through 2009 of the performance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high - level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. The tabulated events generally occurred in five periods: (1) commitment to mined geologic disposal and identification of sites; (2) site selection and analysis, based on regional geologic characterization through literature and analogous data; (3) feasibility analysis demonstrating calculation procedures and importance of system components, based on rough measures of performance using surface exploration, waste process knowledge, and general laboratory experiments; (4) suitability analysis demonstrating viability of disposal system, based on environment - specific laboratory experiments, in - situ experiments, and underground disposal system characterization; and (5) compliance analysis, based on completed site - specific characterization . The current sixth period beyond 2010 represents a new effort to set waste management policy in the United States. Because the relationship is important to understanding the evolution of the Yucca Mountain Project , the tabulation also shows the interaction between the policy realm and technical realm using four broad categories of events : (a) Regulatory requirements and related federal policy in laws and court decisions, (c) Presidential and agency directives, (c) technical milestones of implementing institutions, and (d) critiques of the Yucca Mountain Project and pertinent national and world events related to nuclear energy and radioactive waste. Preface The historical progression of technical milestones for the Yucca Mountain Project was originally developed for 10 journal articles in a special issue of Reliability Engineering System Safety on the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain license

  13. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  14. Yucca Mountain Project Getter Program Results (Year 1) I-I29 and Other Anions of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Krumhansl; J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; K.C. Holt

    2006-07-17

    Although high level nuclear wastes (HLW) contain a daunting array of radioisotopes, only a restricted number are long-lived enough to be problematic, and of these many are either effectively insoluble or are likely to be scavenged from solution by minerals indigenous to all aquifers. Those few constituents likely to travel significant distances through aquifers either form colloids (and travel as particulates) or anions--which are not sorbed onto the predominantly negatively charged mineral surfaces. Iodine ({sup 129}I) is one such constituent and may travel as either iodide (I{sup -}) or iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) depending on whether conditions are mildly reducing or oxidizing. Conventionally, {sup 99}Tc (traveling as TcO{sub 4}{sup 0}) is regarded as being of greater concern since it is both more abundant and has a shorter half life (e.g., has a higher specific activity). However, it is unclear whether TcO{sub 4}{sup -} will ever actually form in the mildly reducing environments thought likely within degrading HLW canisters. Instead, technetium may remain reduced as highly insoluble Tc(lV), in which case {sup 129}I might become a significant risk driver in performance assessment (PA) calculations. In the 2004-2005 time frame the US Department of Energy (DOE)--Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRUM), Office of Science and Technology International (S&T) funded a program to identify ''getters'' for possible placement in the invert beneath HLW packages in the repository being planned by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). This document reports on progress made during the first (and only) year of this activity. The problem is not a new one and the project did not proceed in a complete vacuum of information. Potential leads came from past studies directed at developing anion getters for a near surface low-level waste facility at Hanford, which suggested that both copper-containing compounds and hydrotalcite-group minerals might be

  15. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J. C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L. A.; Wolf, S. F.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.

    1998-09-18

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO{sub 2}. With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO

  16. Briefing package for the Yucca Flat pre-emptive review, including overview, UZ model, SZ volcanics model and summary and conclusions sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keating, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-02

    Much progress has been made in the last several years in modeling radionuclide transport from tests conducted both in the unsaturated zone and saturated volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat, Nevada. The presentations to the DOE NNSA pre-emptive review panel contained herein document the progress to date, and discuss preliminary conclusions regarding the present and future extents of contamination resulting from past nuclear tests. The presentations also discuss possible strategies for addressing uncertainty in the model results.

  17. Dialogs by Jerry Szymanski regarding the Yucca Mountain controversy from December, 1990 to March, 1991: Volume 2. Special report number 9, Contract number 92/94.0004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    This report is a compilation of materials used as part of the Penrose Conference of Bodega Bay, California and the NRC/NAS panel field trip (April 23--25, 1991). The document contains extensive graphs on the hydrologic and geologic systems of the Yucca Mountain region. It outlines and diagrams hydrologic issues relative to geothermal gradients, geochemical pathways, hydraulic gradients, ground water chemistry, and ground water flow models. Specific anomalies in regards to geology or hydrology are addressed as separate issues.

  18. Bibliography of publications related to Nevada-sponsored research of the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository site through 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.

    1994-12-01

    Since 1985, the State of Nevada has sponsored academic/private sector research into various health, safety, and environmental issues identified with the Yucca Mountain site. This research has been documented in scientific peer-reviewed literature, conferences, and workshops, as well as numerous state-sponsored University thesis and dissertation programs. This document is a bibliography of the scientific articles, manuscripts, theses, dissertations, conference symposium abstracts, and meeting presentations produced as a result of state-sponsored research.

  19. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Martian

    2009-05-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or more tests is known as the radiologic source term (RST). The RST is comprised of radionuclides in water, glass, or other phases or mineralogic forms. The hydrologic source term (HST) of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total RST that is released into the groundwater over time following the test. In this report, the HST represents radionuclide release some time after the explosion and does not include the rapidly evolving mechanical, thermal, and chemical processes during the explosion. The CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine has many more detonations and a wider variety of settings to consider compared to other CAUs. For instance, the source term analysis and evaluation performed for CAUs 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa and CAU 98: Frenchman Flat did not consider vadose zone attenuation because many detonations were located near or below the water table. However, the large number of Yucca Flat/Climax Mine tests and the location of many tests above the water table warrant a more robust analysis of the unsaturated zone.

  20. Milestones for Selection, Characterization, and Analysis of the Performance of a Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P.

    2014-02-01

    This report presents a concise history in tabular form of events leading up to site identification in 1978, site selection in 1987, subsequent characterization, and ongoing analysis through 2008 of the performance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. The tabulated events generally occurred in five periods: (1) commitment to mined geologic disposal and identification of sites; (2) site selection and analysis, based on regional geologic characterization through literature and analogous data; (3) feasibility analysis demonstrating calculation procedures and importance of system components, based on rough measures of performance using surface exploration, waste process knowledge, and general laboratory experiments; (4) suitability analysis demonstrating viability of disposal system, based on environment-specific laboratory experiments, in-situ experiments, and underground disposal system characterization; and (5) compliance analysis, based on completed site-specific characterization. Because the relationship is important to understanding the evolution of the Yucca Mountain Project, the tabulation also shows the interaction between four broad categories of political bodies and government agencies/institutions: (a) technical milestones of the implementing institutions, (b) development of the regulatory requirements and related federal policy in laws and court decisions, (c) Presidential and agency directives and decisions, and (d) critiques of the Yucca Mountain Project and pertinent national and world events related to nuclear energy and radioactive waste.

  1. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  2. Radioactive waste handling and disposal at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lobriguito, Aida M; Al Anazi, Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC) is the largest specialized medical center in Saudi Arabia. It performs highly specialized diagnostic imaging procedures with the use of various radionuclides required by sophisticated dual imaging systems. As a leading institution in cancer research, KFSHRC uses both long-lived and short-lived radionuclides. KFSHRC established the first cyclotron facility in the Middle East, which solved the in-house high demand for radionuclides and the difficulty in importing them. As both user and producer of high standard radiopharmaceuticals, KFSHRC generates large volumes of low and high level radioactive wastes. An old and small radioactive facility that was used for storage of radioactive waste was replaced with a bigger warehouse provided with facilities that will reduce radiation exposure of the staff, members of the public, and of the environment in the framework of "as low as reasonably achievable." The experiences and the effectiveness of the radiation protection program on handling and storage of radioactive wastes are presented.

  3. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  4. Waste handling and REACH : Recycling of materials containing SVHCs: daily practice challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen MPM; van Broekhuizen FA; MSP; M&V

    2017-01-01

    To achieve a circular economy it is essential to recycle substances, materials and products created by that economy. Recycling, however, becomes more difficult when said materials and products contain substances that are so hazardous that their use is restricted. This is the case with any substance

  5. Assessment of work-related accidents associated with waste handling in Belo Horizonte (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Marcos Pg; Pereira, Amanda F; Greco, Dirceu B; Cairncross, Sandy; Heller, Leo

    2017-10-01

    As more urban solid waste is generated, managing it becomes ever more challenging and the potential impacts on the environment and human health also become greater. Handling waste - including collection, treatment and final disposal - entails risks of work accidents. This article assesses the perception of waste management workers regarding work-related accidents in domestic and health service contexts in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. These perceptions are compared with national data from the Ministry of Social Security on accidents involving workers in solid waste management. A high proportion of accidents involves cuts and puncture injuries; 53.9% among workers exposed to domestic waste and 75% among those exposed to health service waste. Muscular lesions and fractures accounted for 25.7% and 12.5% of accidents, respectively. Data from the Ministry of Social Security diverge from the local survey results, presumably owing to under-reporting, which is frequent in this sector. Greater commitment is needed from managers and supervisory entities to ensure that effective measures are taken to protect workers' health and quality of life. Moreover, workers should defend their right to demand an accurate registry of accidents to complement monitoring performed by health professionals trained in risk identification. This would contribute to the improved recovery of injured workers and would require managers in waste management to prepare effective preventive action.

  6. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  7. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of

  8. Completion Report for the Well ER-6-2 Site Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat - Climax Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-03-01

    Well ER-6-2 and its satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1, were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Well ER-6-2 was drilled in two stages in 1993 and 1994; the satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled nearby in 1993 but was abandoned. The wells were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit Number 97, in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. The wells are located in Yucca Flat, within Area 6 of the Nevada Test Site. The wells provided information regarding the radiological and hydrogeological environment in a potentially down-gradient position from tests conducted in northern and central Yucca Flat. Construction of Well ER-6-2 began with a 1.2-meter-diameter surface conductor hole, which was drilled and cased off to a depth of 30.8 meters below the surface. A 50.8-centimeter diameter surface hole was then rotary drilled to the depth of 578.5 meters and cased off to the depth of 530.4 meters. The hole diameter was then reduced to 27.0 centimeters, and the borehole was advanced to a temporary depth of 611.4 meters. The borehole was conventionally cored to a total depth of 1,045 meters with a diameter of 14.0 centimeters. Borehole sloughing required cementing and re-drilling of several zones. The open-hole completion accesses the lower carbonate aquifer, the CP thrust fault, and the upper clastic confining unit. A fluid level depth of 543.2 meters was most recently measured in the open borehole in September 2007. No radionuclides were encountered during drilling. The satellite hole Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled approximately 15.2 meters north of Well ER-6-2 on the same drill pad. This was planned to be used as an observation well during future hydrologic testing at Well ER-6-2; however, the satellite hole was abandoned at

  9. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-11-17

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  10. PACE-90 water and solute transport calculations for 0.01, 0.1, and 0. 5 mm/yr infiltration into Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykhuizen, R.C.; Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.; Martinez, M.J.

    1991-12-01

    Numerical results are presented for the Performance Assessment Calculational Exercise (PACE-90). One- and two-dimensional water and solute transport are presented for steady infiltration into Yucca Mountain. Evenly distributed infiltration rates of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mm/yr were considered. The calculations of solute transport show that significant amounts of radionuclides can reach the water table over 100,000 yr at the 0.5 mm/yr rate. For time periods less than 10,000 yr or infiltrations less than 0.1 mm/yr very little solute reaches the water table. The numerical simulations clearly demonstrate that multi-dimensional effects can result in significant decreases in the travel time of solute through the modeled domain. Dual continuum effects are shown to be negligible for the low steady state fluxes considered. However, material heterogeneities may cause local amplification of the flux level in multi-dimensional flows. These higher flux levels may then require modeling of a dual continuum porous medium.

  11. Initial field testing definition of subsurface sealing and backfilling tests in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Tyburski, J.R. [I. T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains an initial definition of the field tests proposed for the Yucca Mountain Project repository sealing program. The tests are intended to resolve various performance and emplacement concerns. Examples of concerns to be addressed include achieving selected hydrologic and structural requirements for seals, removing portions of the shaft liner, excavating keyways, emplacing cementitious and earthen seals, reducing the impact of fines on the hydraulic conductivity of fractures, efficient grouting of fracture zones, sealing of exploratory boreholes, and controlling the flow of water by using engineered designs. Ten discrete tests are proposed to address these and other concerns. These tests are divided into two groups: Seal component tests and performance confirmation tests. The seal component tests are thorough small-scale in situ tests, the intermediate-scale borehole seal tests, the fracture grouting tests, the surface backfill tests, and the grouted rock mass tests. The seal system tests are the seepage control tests, the backfill tests, the bulkhead test in the Calico Hills unit, the large-scale shaft seal and shaft fill tests, and the remote borehole sealing tests. The tests are proposed to be performed in six discrete areas, including welded and non-welded environments, primarily located outside the potential repository area. The final selection of sealing tests will depend on the nature of the geologic and hydrologic conditions encountered during the development of the Exploratory Studies Facility and detailed numerical analyses. Tests are likely to be performed both before and after License Application.

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  14. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  15. YUCCA-mediated auxin biogenesis is required for cell fate transition occurring during de novo root organogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lyuqin; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Ruan, Ying; Liu, Jingchun; Zeng, Minhuan; Huang, Hai; Wang, Jia-Wei; Xu, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Many plant organs have the ability to regenerate a new plant after detachment or wounding via de novo organogenesis. During de novo root organogenesis from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants, endogenic auxin is essential for the fate transition of regeneration-competent cells to become root founder cells via activation of WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 11 (WOX11). However, the molecular events from leaf explant detachment to auxin-mediated cell fate transition are poorly understood. In this study, we used an assay to determine the concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to provide direct evidence that auxin is produced after leaf explant detachment, a process that involves YUCCA (YUC)-mediated auxin biogenesis. Inhibition of YUC prevents expression of WOX11 and fate transition of competent cells, resulting in the blocking of rooting. Further analysis showed that YUC1 and YUC4 act quickly (within 4 hours) in response to wounding after detachment in both light and dark conditions and promote auxin biogenesis in both mesophyll and competent cells, whereas YUC5, YUC8, and YUC9 primarily respond in dark conditions. In addition, YUC2 and YUC6 contribute to rooting by providing a basal auxin level in the leaf. Overall, our study indicates that YUC genes exhibit a division of labour during de novo root organogenesis from leaf explants in response to multiple signals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Preliminary development of the LBL/USGS three-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittwer, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France). Dept. Geothermie et Hydroenergie; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chornack, M.; Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Spengler, R. [US Geologic Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center

    1995-06-01

    A 3-D model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed at LBL in cooperation with USGS. This site-scale model covers an area of about 34 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the north, east, and west. The relatively coarse-grid model includes about 300 horizontal grid-blocks and 17 layers. Contour maps and isopach maps are presented defining different types of infiltration zones, and the spatial distribution of Tiva Canyon, Paintbrush, and Topopah Spring hydrogeological units. Matrix flow is approximated using the van Genuchten model, and the equivalent continuum approximation is used to account for fracture flow in the welded units. One-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations are conducted using the TOUGH2 computer program. Steady-state simulations are performed with various uniform and nonuniform infiltration rates; results are interpreted in terms of effect of fault characteristics on moisture flow distribution, and on the location and formation of preferential pathways.

  17. Annual report on paleoclimate studies for the Yucca Mountain project site characterization conducted by the Desert Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The prospect that Yucca Mountain may become a repository for high-level radionuclides with especially long half-lives means that the intended waste containment area must be well beyond the reach of the hydrologic system for at least ten millennia. Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive at definite conclusions regarding rates of change, and extremes and stabilities of past climate regimes. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate, and the durations and frequencies of recharge periods. The paper gives summaries of the following studies: Late Quaternary and Holocene climate derived from vegetation history and plant cellulose stable isotope records from the Great basin of western North America; Accomplishments of paleofaunal studies, 1993--1994; Geomorphology studies in the Great Basin; Alluvial fan response to climatic change, Buena Vista Valley, central Nevada; Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and chronology of lacustrine deposition in the Fernley Basin, west-central Nevada; Tree-rings, lake chronologies, alluvial sequences and climate--Implications for Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies; Stable isotopic validation studies--Fossil snails; and Late Pleistocene and Holocene eolian activity in the Mojave Desert.

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  19. Short seed longevity, variable germination conditions, and infrequent establishment events provide a narrow window for Yucca brevifolia (Agavaceae) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M.; Reynolds, J.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The future of long-lived stand-forming desert plants such as Yucca brevifolia (Joshua tree) has come into question in light of climate variation and landscape-scale disturbances such as wildfire. Understanding plant establishment dynamics is important for mitigating the impacts of disturbances and promoting revegetation. • METHODS: We placed Y. brevifolia seeds in shallow caches and manipulated granivore access, nurse shrub effects, and the season of cache placement to determine conditions for seed germination and seedling establishment. • KEY RESULTS: Greatest seedling emergence occurred during spring and summer, when increased soil moisture was accompanied by warm soil temperatures. Late winter-spring emergence for cached seeds was enhanced beneath shrub canopies, but seedling survival declined beneath shrubs as temperatures increased in spring. Germinability of seed remaining in the soil was reduced from 50-68% after 12 mo residence time in soil and declined to plants, seeds are either removed by granivores or lose germinability, imposing substantial losses of potential germinants. • CONCLUSIONS: Specific germination and establishment requirements impose stringent limits on recruitment rates for Y. brevifolia. Coupled with infrequent seed availability, the return rates to prefire densities and demographic structure may require decades to centuries, especially in light of potential changes to regional desert climate in combination with the potential for fire recurrence. Demographic patterns are predicted to vary spatially in response to environmental variability that limits recruitment and may already be apparent among extant populations.

  20. Method development and strategy for the characterization of complexly faulted and fractured rhyolitic tuffs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Galloway, D. [Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The planned high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would exist in unsaturated, fractured welded tuff. One possible contaminant pathway to the accessible environment is transport by groundwater infiltrating to the water table and flowing through the saturated zone. Therefore, an effort to characterize the hydrology of the saturated zone is being undertaken in parallel with that of the unsaturated zone. As a part of the saturated zone investigation, there wells-UE-25c{number_sign}1, UE-25c{number_sign}2, and UE-25c{number_sign}3 (hereafter called the c-holes)-were drilled to study hydraulic and transport properties of rock formations underlying the planned waste repository. The location of the c-holes is such that the formations penetrated in the unsaturated zone occur at similar depths and with similar thicknesses as at the planned repository site. In characterizing a highly heterogeneous flow system, several issues emerge. (1) The characterization strategy should allow for the virtual impossibility to enumerate and characterize all heterogeneities. (2) The methodology to characterize the heterogeneous flow system at the scale of the well tests needs to be established. (3) Tools need to be developed for scaling up the information obtained at the well-test scale to the larger scale of the site. In the present paper, the characterization strategy and the methods under development are discussed with the focus on the design and analysis of the field experiments at the c-holes.

  1. Finite-element simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada-California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Waddell, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    A finite-element model of the groundwater flow system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site was developed using parameter estimation techniques. The model simulated steady-state ground-water flow occurring in tuffaceous, volcanic , and carbonate rocks, and alluvial aquifers. Hydraulic gradients in the modeled area range from 0.00001 for carbonate aquifers to 0.19 for barriers in tuffaceous rocks. Three model parameters were used in estimating transmissivity in six zones. Simulated hydraulic-head values range from about 1,200 m near Timber Mountain to about 300 m near Furnace Creek Ranch. Model residuals for simulated versus measured hydraulic heads range from -28.6 to 21.4 m; most are less than +/-7 m, indicating an acceptable representation of the hydrologic system by the model. Sensitivity analyses of the model 's flux boundary condition variables were performed to assess the effect of varying boundary fluxes on the calculation of estimated model transmissivities. Varying the flux variables representing discharge at Franklin Lake and Furnace Creek Ranch has greater effect than varying other flux variables. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data.

  3. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Progress report number 17, April 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), created with the enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), is tasked to accept and dispose of the nation`s high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a deep geologic repository (high-level radioactive waste program). The report summarizes significant site characterization activities during the period from April 1, 1997 through September 30, 1997, in the evaluation of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. The progress report also cites technical reports and research products that provide the detailed information on these activities. Chapter 2 outlines technical and regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Project and planned work toward achieving future objectives concerning the viability assessment, the environmental impact statement, the site recommendation, and the license application. Chapter 3 describes technical progress in preclosure radiological safety analysis, postclosure performance assessment, and performance confirmation activities. Chapter 4 describes various aspects of repository and waste package design and construction. It also discusses the Exploration Studies Facility cross drift. Chapter 5 describes site characterization activities, and Chapter 6 contains a complete list of references.

  4. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  5. Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-29

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System provides supervisory control, monitoring, and selected remote control of primary and secondary repository operations. Primary repository operations consist of both surface and subsurface activities relating to high-level waste receipt, preparation, and emplacement. Secondary repository operations consist of support operations for waste handling and treatment, utilities, subsurface construction, and other selected ancillary activities. Remote control of the subsurface emplacement operations, as well as, repository performance confirmation operations are the direct responsibility of the system. In addition, the system monitors parameters such as radiological data, air quality data, fire detection status, meteorological conditions, unauthorized access, and abnormal operating conditions, to ensure a safe workplace for personnel. Parameters are displayed in a real-time manner to human operators regarding surface and subsurface conditions. The system performs supervisory monitoring and control for both important to safety and non-safety systems. The system provides repository operational information, alarm capability, and human operator response messages during emergency response situations. The system also includes logic control to place equipment, systems, and utilities in a safe operational mode or complete shutdown during emergency response situations. The system initiates alarms and provides operational data to enable appropriate actions at the local level in support of emergency response, radiological protection response, evacuation, and underground rescue. The system provides data communications, data processing, managerial reports, data storage, and data analysis. This system's primary surface and subsurface operator consoles, for both supervisory and remote control activities, will be located in a Central Control Center (CCC) inside one of the surface facility buildings. The system

  6. The Hydrogeologic Character of the Lower Tuff Confining Unit and the Oak Springs Butte Confining Unit in the Tuff Pile Area of Central Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drellack, Jr., Sigmund L.; Prothro, Lance B.; Gonzales, Jose L.; Mercadante, Jennifer M.

    2010-07-30

    The lower tuff confining unit (LTCU) in the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) consists of a monotonous sequence of pervasively zeolitized volcanic tuff (i.e., mostly bedded with lesser nonwelded to poorly welded tuff; not fractured) (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). The LTCU is an important confining unit beneath Yucca Flat because it separates the alluvial and volcanic aquifers, where many underground nuclear tests were conducted, from the regional lower carbonate aquifer. Recent sub-CAU-scale modeling by Los Alamos National Laboratory in the Tuff Pile area of Yucca Flat (Boryta, et al., in review) includes postulated low-porosity, high-permeability zones (i.e., fractured welded-tuff aquifers) within the LTCU. This scenario indicates that such postulated low-porosity, high-permeability zones could provide fast-path lateral conduits to faults, and eventually to the lower carbonate aquifer. A fractured and faulted lower carbonate aquifer is postulated to provide a flow path(s) for underground test-derived contaminants to potential offsite receptors. The ramifications of such a scenario are obvious for groundwater flow and contaminant migration beneath Yucca Flat. This paper describes the reasoning for not including postulated low-porosity, high-permeability zones within the LTCU in the Tuff Pile area or within the LTCU in the Yucca Flat CAU-scale model. Both observational and analytical data clearly indicate that the LTCU in the Tuff Pile area consists of pervasively zeolitic, nonwelded to poorly welded tuffs that are classified as tuff confining units (i.e., high-porosity, low-permeability). The position regarding the LTCU in the Tuff Pile area is summarized as follows: • The LTCU in the Tuff Pile area consists of a monotonous sequence of predominantly zeolitic nonwelded to poorly welded tuffs, and thus is accurately characterized hydrogeologically as a tuff confining unit (aquitard) in the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine hydrostratigraphic framework model (Bechtel Nevada

  7. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mtn. Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  8. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This corrective action decision document (CADD)/corrective action plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU is located in the northeastern portion of the NNSS and comprises 720 corrective action sites. A total of 747 underground nuclear detonations took place within this CAU between 1957 and 1992 and resulted in the release of radionuclides (RNs) in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. The CADD portion describes the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU data-collection and modeling activities completed during the corrective action investigation (CAI) stage, presents the corrective action objectives, and describes the actions recommended to meet the objectives. The CAP portion describes the corrective action implementation plan. The CAP presents CAU regulatory boundary objectives and initial use-restriction boundaries identified and negotiated by DOE and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The CAP also presents the model evaluation process designed to build confidence that the groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling results can be used for the regulatory decisions required for CAU closure. The UGTA strategy assumes that active remediation of subsurface RN contamination is not feasible with current technology. As a result, the corrective action is based on a combination of characterization and modeling studies, monitoring, and institutional controls. The strategy is implemented through a four-stage approach that comprises the following: (1) corrective action investigation plan (CAIP), (2) CAI, (3) CADD/CAP, and (4) closure report (CR) stages.

  10. Final Systems Development Report for the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-18

    The Systems Development Report represents the third major step in the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mound Nevada. The first of these steps was to forge a Research Design that would serve as a guide for the overall research process. The second step was the construction of the Base Case, the purpose of which was to describe existing conditions in Clark County in the specified analytic areas of Economic-Demographic/Fiscal, Emergency Planning and Management, Transportation and Sociocultural analysis. The base case description will serve as a basis for assessing changes in these topic areas that might result from the Yucca Mountain project. These changes will be assessed by analyzing conditions with and without repository development in the county. Prior to performing such assessments, however, the snapshot type of data found in the base case must be operationalized or systematized to allow for more dynamic data utilization. In other words, a data system that can be used to analyze the consequences of the introduction of different variables (or variable values) in the Clark County context must be constructed. Such a system must be capable of being updated through subsequent data collection and monitoring efforts to both provide a rolling base case and supply information necessary to construct trend analyses. For example, during the Impact Assessment phase of the study process, the without repository analysis is accomplished by analyzing growth for the county given existing conditions and likely trends. These data are then compared to the with Yucca Mountain project conditions anticipated for the county. Similarly, once the emergency planning management and response needs associated with the repository are described, these needs will be juxtaposed against existing (and various future) capacity(ies) in order to determine the nature and magnitude of impacts in this analytic area. Analogous tasks

  11. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs.

  12. Direct and indirect effects of environmental variability on growth and survivorship of pre-reproductive Joshua trees, Yucca brevifolia Engelm (Agavaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Todd C.; Medica, Phil A.; Shryock, Daniel F.; Defalco, Lesley A.; Webb, Robert H.; Hunter, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of study: Accurate demographic information about long-lived plant species is important for understanding responses to large-scale disturbances, including climate change. It is challenging to obtain these data from desert perennial plants because seedling establishment is exceptionally rare, and estimates of survival are lacking for their vulnerable early stages. Desert wildfires, urbanization, and climate change influence the persistence of the long-lived Yucca brevifolia. Quantitative demographic attributes are crucial for understanding how populations will respond to disturbances and where populations will recede or advance under future climate scenarios.

  13. A Hydrostratigraphic Model and Alternatives for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat-Climax Mine, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geotechnical Sciences Group Bechtel Nevada

    2006-01-01

    A new three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit was completed in 2005. The model area includes Yucca Flat and Climax Mine, former nuclear testing areas at the Nevada Test Site, and proximal areas. The model area is approximately 1,250 square kilometers in size and is geologically complex. Yucca Flat is a topographically closed basin typical of many valleys in the Basin and Range province. Faulted and tilted blocks of Tertiary-age volcanic rocks and underlying Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks form low ranges around the structural basin. During the Cretaceous Period a granitic intrusive was emplaced at the north end of Yucca Flat. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the basin. These were integrated using EarthVision? software to develop the 3-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Fifty-six stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 25 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the alluvial section into 3 hydrostratigraphic units including 2 aquifers and 1 confining unit. The volcanic units in the model area are organized into 13 hydrostratigraphic units that include 8 aquifers and 5 confining units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks are divided into 7 hydrostratigraphic units, including 3 aquifers and 4 confining units. Other units include 1 Tertiary-age sedimentary confining unit and 1 Mesozoic-age granitic confining unit. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units (''layers'' in the model) along with the major structural features (i.e., faults). The model incorporates 178 high-angle normal faults of Tertiary age and 2 low-angle thrust faults of Mesozoic age. The complexity of the model

  14. Characterization of materials for a reactive transport model validation experiment: Interim report on the caisson experiment. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.D.; Cheng, W.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1995-08-01

    Models used in performance assessment and site characterization activities related to nuclear waste disposal rely on simplified representations of solute/rock interactions, hydrologic flow field and the material properties of the rock layers surrounding the repository. A crucial element in the design of these models is the validity of these simplifying assumptions. An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out at the Experimental Engineered Test Facility at Los Alamos Laboratory by the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories to develop a strategy to validate key geochemical and hydrological assumptions in performance assessment models used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  15. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction.

  16. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The purpose of the CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  19. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; Baughman, Mike; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Yelena A.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportatin corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county's repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have beem revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings.

  20. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990, Number 3; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1 through September 30, 1990. This report is the third of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of new initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, study plans, and performance assessment. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Impacts of Stable Element Intake on C and I Dose Estimates - Implications for Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Moeller; M.T. Ryan; Lin-Shen C. Sun; R.N. Cherry Jr.

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the intake of stable isotopes of carbon and iodine on the committed doses due to the ingestion of {sup 14}C and {sup 129}I. This was accomplished through the application of two different computational approaches. The first was based on the assumption that ground (drinking) water was the only source of intake of both {sup 14}C and {sup 129}I and stable carbon and stable iodine. For purposes of the second approach, the intake of {sup 14}C and {sup 129}I was still assumed to be only that in the ground (drinking) water, but the intake of stable carbon and stable iodine was assumed to be that in the drinking water plus other components of the diet. The doses were estimated using either a conversion formula or the applicable dose coefficients in Federal Guidance Reports No. 11 and No. 13. Serving as input for the analyses was the estimated maximum concentration of {sup 14}C or {sup 129}I that would be present in the ground water due to potential releases from the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository during the first 10,000 years after closure. The estimated concentrations of stable carbon and iodine were based on analyses of ground water samples collected in the Amargosa Valley, NV. Based on the accompanying analyses, three conclusions were reached. First, no dose estimate, using a conversion formula in which the ratios of the stable to radioactive isotopes of an element serve as input, should ever be made without including the stable element intake contributions from all components of the diet. Second, the study suggests that the dose coefficients for {sup 129}I in Federal Guidance Reports No. 11 and No. 12 which, in turn, are based on publications of the ICRP, may not be appropriate for application in developed nations of the world, especially those in which relatively large amounts of seafood are consumed and the use of iodized salt is common. The estimated average daily intake of

  2. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Chemical Modeling of the Yucca Mountain Project Drift Scale Test. Task 2D Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Robin N. [Bechtel SAlC Company, Las Vegas (US)] (comp.)

    2005-02-15

    Task 2D concerns numerical simulation of the coupled THC modeling of the DST test at Yucca mountain, with given results for geologic, thermal, hydrologic, mineralogic and petrologic characterization, as-built configuration of the test block of DST, including locations of various sensors and measuring instruments and the plans for heating and cooling, including expected heater powers at various times, and compared with geochemical measurements performed on gas, water, and mineral samples collected from the DST. Two teams of DOE/LBNL (USA) and JNC (Japan) participated the task with different approaches. The LBNL model represented the fractures and rock matrix by a dual-continuum concept, with the mineral-water-gas reactions treated by primarily kinetic and a few equilibrium reactions. The JNC model represented the fractures and matrix as a single effective continuum, with equilibrium mineral-water reactions controlling the chemical evolution (as well as considering aqueous species transport). The JNC team performed the coupled THC simulation of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test by the coupled THM code 'THAMES', mass transport code 'Dtransu' and geochemical code 'PHREEQE' under coupling system code 'COUPLYS'. The LBNL team simulated the THC processes include coupling between heat, water, and vapor flow; aqueous and gaseous species transport; kinetic and equilibrium mineral-water reactions; and feedback of mineral precipitation/dissolution on porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure, with the FDM code TOUGHREACT V3.0. In general, both models capture the temperature evolution in the rock fairly well, although the JNC model yielded a closer match to the initial temperature rise in the rock, probably due to the better site-specific thermal data. Both models showed the contrasting solubility effects of increasing temperature on calcite and silica solubility; yet the dual continuum approach better represented the effects of

  3. Isolation and characterization of two YUCCA flavin monooxygenase genes from cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ying, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Ling; Gao, Qing-Hua; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Fang, Jing-Gui; Duan, Ke

    2012-08-01

    In strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.), auxin has been recognized as the main signal molecule coordinating the growth and initiation of ripening of fruits. The molecular mechanism regulating auxin biosynthesis in strawberry remains unknown. This project reports two YUCCA flavin monooxygenase genes FaYUC1-2 isolated from cultivated strawberry. FaYUC1 and FaYUC2 are most homologous to AtYUC6 and AtYUC4, respectively. Significant expression of FaYUC1-2 is found in vegetative meristems and reproductive organs, with overlapping but distinct patterns. During fruit development, both transcripts of FaYUC1 and FaYUC2 in achenes reach a peak around large green fruit (G2) stage, but the sudden rise in FaYUC2 transcript level is much steeper and begins earlier than that in FaYUC1. FaYUC2 is also obviously expressed in the receptacles from green fruits, hinting another auxin source for receptacle development, other than achenes. FaYUC1 over-expression Arabidopsis exhibits typical auxin hyper-accumulation phenotype in many aspects, such as the narrow and downward curled leaves, strong apical dominance, short and hairy root. It is also severely sterile, due to the disruption of floral meristems initiation and floral organs development. Transgenic analysis indicates that strawberry YUC gene may hold conserved role in auxin biosynthesis like their homologs in other plants. Integrated with the spatiotemporal expression features, these results led us to propose that FaYUC1-2 may involve in many developmental processes including flower and fruit development in strawberry. This paper is the first report of isolation and characterization of strawberry auxin biosynthesis genes. And their conserved functions in auxin biosynthesis were confirmed after ectopic expression.

  4. Effects of quillaja and yucca saponins on communities and select populations of rumen bacteria and archaea, and fermentation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A K; Stiverson, J; Yu, Z

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate quillaja (QSP) and yucca saponin (YSP) products with respect to their effects on diversity of rumen bacteria and archaea, abundance of selected microbes, and feed degradability and fermentation. Both QSP and YSP at doses 0-0.6 g l(-1) tended to increase degradability of feed substrate in in vitro rumen cultures, but to different extents. Neither one of the saponins affected the concentrations of ammonia, total volatile fatty acids, or molar proportion of acetate. However, QSP increased molar proportion of propionate and decreased that of butyrate, whereas YSP tended to decrease that of butyrate. As determined by qPCR, QSP and YSP did not affect the abundance of total bacteria or Ruminococcus albus. The QSP did not affect the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes or genus Prevotella, but tended to decrease that of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, whereas YSP significantly increased the abundance of R. flavefaciens and Prevotella, and numerically increased that of F. succinogenes. Both saponins increased archaeal abundance, although to small magnitudes (0.3-0.4 log). The protozoal populations were decreased significantly by QSP, but not by YSP. Based on DGGE and T-RFLP analysis, both saponins altered the bacterial community and species organization, but less so the archaeal community. This study demonstrated that saponins, although not effective in mitigating methane emission, may improve feed utilization at low doses, and modulate ruminal microbial communities in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study suggest that saponins at low doses may directly stimulate the growth of some rumen bacteria including cellulolytic bacteria, thus improving digestibility of feeds, independent of their defaunation activity. In contrast, saponins at high doses modulate rumen fermentation characteristically similar to defaunation. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Geochemical and Isotopic Evaluation of Groundwater Movement in Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene

    2006-02-01

    This report describes the results of a comprehensive geochemical evaluation of the groundwater flow system in the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). The main objectives of this study are to identify probable pathways for groundwater flow within the study area and to develop constraints on groundwater transit times between selected data collection sites. This work provides an independent means of testing and verifying predictive flow models being developed for this CAU using finite element methods. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU constitutes the largest of six underground test areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) specified for remedial action in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. A total of 747 underground nuclear detonations were conducted in this CAU. Approximately 23 percent of these detonations were conducted below or near the water table, resulting in groundwater contamination in the vicinity and possibly downgradient of these underground test locations. Therefore, a rigorous evaluation of the groundwater flow system in this CAU is necessary to assess potential long-term risks to the public water supply at downgradient locations.

  6. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No. 2, and UE-25c No. 3, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldon, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to characterize-the hydrogeology of saturated tuffaceous rocks penetrated by boreholes UE-25c {number_sign}1, UE-25c {number_sign}2, and UE-25c {number_sign}3. These boreholes are referred to collectively in this report as the C-holes. The C-holes were drilled to perform multiwell aquifer tests and tracer tests; they comprise the only complex of closely spaced boreholes completed in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results of lithologic and geophysical logging, fracture analyses, water-level monitoring, temperature and tracejector surveys aquifer tests, and hydrochemical sampling completed at the C-hole complex as of 1986 are assessed with respect to the regional geologic and hydrologic setting. A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Yucca Mountain area is presented to provide a context for quantitatively evaluating hydrologic tests performed at the C-hole complex as of 1985, for planning and interpreting additional hydrologic tests at the C-hole complex, and for possibly re-evaluating hydrologic tests in boreholes other than the C-holes.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 105 comprises the following five corrective action sites (CASs): -02-23-04 Atmospheric Test Site - Whitney Closure In Place -02-23-05 Atmospheric Test Site T-2A Closure In Place -02-23-06 Atmospheric Test Site T-2B Clean Closure -02-23-08 Atmospheric Test Site T-2 Closure In Place -02-23-09 Atmospheric Test Site - Turk Closure In Place The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  8. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995, Number 12. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    During the first half of fiscal year 1995, most activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project were directed at implementing the Program Plan developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Plan is designed to enable the Office to make measurable and significant progress toward key objectives over the next five years within the financial resources that can be realistically expected. Activities this period focused on the immediate goal of determining by 1998 whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is technically suitable as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work on the Project advanced in several critical areas, including programmatic activities such as issuing the Program Plan, completing the first technical basis report to support the assessment of three 10 CFR 960 guidelines, developing the Notice of Intent for the Environmental Impact Statement, submitting the License Application Annotated Outline, and beginning a rebaselining effort to conform with the goals of the Program Plan. Scientific investigation and analysis of the site and design and construction activities to support the evaluation of the technical suitability of the site also advanced. Specific details relating to all Project activities and reports generated are presented in this report.

  9. Conceptualization of the predevelopment groundwater flow system and transient water-level responses in Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Elliott, Peggy E.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2012-01-01

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a set of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within the two major aquifer systems underlying the area. Aquifers and confining units within these systems were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. Maps of the hydraulic-head distributions in the major aquifer systems were developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. The maps, in conjunction with regional and detailed hydrogeologic cross sections, were used to conceptualize flow within and between aquifer systems. Aquifers and confining units are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two aquifer systems: alluvial-volcanic or carbonate. The carbonate aquifers are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours, are indicated on the maps and sections and discussed for the alluvial-volcanic and regional carbonate aquifers. Flow in the alluvial-volcanic aquifer generally is constrained by the bounding volcanic confining unit, whereas flow in the regional carbonate aquifer is constrained by the siliceous confining unit. Hydraulic heads in the alluvial-volcanic aquifer typically range from 2,400 to 2,530 feet and commonly are elevated about 20-100 feet above heads in the underlying regional carbonate

  10. Completion Report for Well ER-2-2 Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, Jeffrey [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Rehfeldt, Ken [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Well ER-2-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada National Security Administration Nevada Field Office in support of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. The well was drilled from January 17 to February 8, 2016, as part of the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to collect hydrogeologic data to evaluate uncertainty in the flow and transport conceptual model and its contamination boundary forecasts, and to detect radionuclides in groundwater from the CALABASH (U2av) underground test. Well ER-2-2 was not completed as planned due to borehole stability problems. As completed, the well includes a piezometer (p1) to 582 meters (m) (1,909 feet [ft]) below ground surface (bgs) installed in the Timber Mountain lower vitric-tuff aquifer (TMLVTA) and a 12.25-inch (in.) diameter open borehole to 836 m (2,743 ft) bgs in the Lower tuff confining unit (LTCU). A 13.375-in. diameter carbon-steel casing is installed from the surface to a depth of 607 m (1,990 ft) bgs. Data collected during borehole construction include composite drill cutting samples collected every 3.0 m (10 ft), geophysical logs to a depth of 672.4 m (2,206 ft) bgs, water-quality measurements (including tritium), water-level measurements, and slug test data. The well penetrated 384.05 m (1,260 ft) of Quaternary alluvium, 541.93 m (1,778 ft) of Tertiary Volcanics (Tv) rocks, and 127.71 m (419 ft) of Paleozoic carbonates. The stratigraphy and lithology were generally as expected. However, several of the stratigraphic units were significantly thicker then predicted—principally, the Tunnel formation (Tn), which had been predicted to be 30 m (100 ft) thick; the actual thickness of this unit was 268.22 m (880 ft). Fluid depths were measured in the borehole during drilling as follows: (1) in the piezometer (p1) at 552.15 m (1,811.53 ft) bgs and (2) in the main casing (m1) at

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-27

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 104, Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 104 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. CAU 104 consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 7 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C · CAS 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 · CAS 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site · CAS 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a · CAS 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) · CAS 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) · CAS 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) · CAS 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) · CAS 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) · CAS 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth · CAS 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 · CAS 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b · CAS 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax Closure activities began in October 2012 and were completed in April 2013. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for CAU 104. The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste, mixed waste, and recyclable material. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite landfills. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office

  12. Zeólitas e Yucca schidigera em rações para cães: palatabilidade, digestibilidade e redução de odores fecais Zeolites and Yucca schidigera in commercial ration for dogs: palatability, digestibility and reduction of fecal odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Vaz Corrêa Maia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a interferência dos aditivos extrato de Yucca schidigera e zeólitas (Clinoptilolita na palatabilidade e digestibilidade de rações comerciais e avaliar sua capacidade de redução do odor das fezes e melhora da consistência fecal de cães. Utilizaram-se cães adultos da raça Beagle com peso médio de ±12,51 kg em três experimentos, todos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. No teste de palatabilidade, realizado nos dez dias iniciais, utilizaram-se 16 animais distribuídos em duas dietas (controle, com 1,00% de zeólita; e controle + 375 ppm de Yucca schidigera e, no teste de redução de odor das fezes, realizado nos seis dias posteriores, utilizaram-se 14 animais distribuídos em sete dietas (uma controle e outras seis, formuladas a partir da dieta controle, porém contendo Yucca schidigera (125, 250 ou 375 ppm ou zeólitas (0,50; 0,75; ou 1,00%. Essas dietas foram utilizadas também no teste de digestibilidade e escore fecal, realizado com 21 animais durante 20 dias. A inclusão desses aditivos na dieta não prejudica a palatabilidade nem a digestibilidade de matéria seca, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e energia bruta do alimento fornecido. Os níveis de 0,75% e 1,0% de zeólitas reduz significativamente o odor das fezes e aumenta a consistência fecal quando adicionados a rações comerciais para cães.The objective of this study was to determine the interference of extract additives of Yucca schidigera and zeolites (Clinoptilolita on the palatability and digestibility of commercial rations and to evaluate their capacity for reducing fecal odor and improving of fecal consistency of dogs. It was used Beagle breed adult dogs with average weight of ±12.51 kg in 3 experiments, all of them in a completely randomized design. In the palatability test, performed on the first ten days, it was used 16 animals distributed in two diets (control diet, with 1.00% zeolite and control diet + 375 ppm

  13. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  14. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  15. Completion Report for Well ER-4-1 Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, Jeffrey [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Rehfeldt, Ken [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Well ER-4-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada National Security Administration Nevada Field Office in support of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. The well was drilled and completed from March 23 to April 13, 2016, as part of the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97. The primary purpose of the well was to collect hydrogeologic data to assist in validating concepts of the groundwater flow system within the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU, and to test for potential radionuclides in groundwater from the STRAIT (U4a) underground test. The completed well includes one piezometer (p1), to a depth of 663.16 meters (m) (2,175.71 feet [ft]) below ground surface (bgs) and open from the Alluvial aquifer (AA3) to the Oak Spring Butte confining unit (OSBCU) hydrostratigraphic units; and a main completion (m1), which includes 6.625-inch (in.) casing with slotted interval (m1) installed to 906.80 m (2,975.05 ft) bgs in the Lower carbonate aquifer (LCA). A 13.375-in. diameter surface casing was installed from the surface to a depth of 809.00 m (2,654.21 ft) bgs. Well ER-4-1 experienced a number of technical issues during drilling, including borehole instability and sloughing conditions. An intermediate, 10.75-in./9.625-in. casing string was installed to 856.94 m (2,811.48 ft) bgs to control these issues. Borehole stability and erosion problems appear to be associated with the Tunnel Formation (Tn) and the Older tunnel beds (Ton). Overall efforts to stabilize the borehole were successful. Data collected during borehole construction include composite drill cutting samples collected every 3.0 m (10 ft), a partial suite of geophysical logs to a maximum depth of 766.57 m (2,515 ft) bgs, water-quality measurements (including tritium), water-level measurements, and two depth-discrete bailer samples collected at 538.89 m and 646.18 m (1,768 ft and 2,120 ft) bgs respectively. The well penetrated 187

  16. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1991--September 30, 1991, Number 5; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-01

    The Site Characterization Progress Report of Yucca Mountain (PR) presents brief summaries of the status of site characterization activities and cites the technical reports and research products that provide more detailed information on the activities. The report provides highlights of work started during the reporting period, work in progress, and work completed and documented during the reporting period. In addition, the report is the vehicle for the discussion of changes to the DOE`s site characterization program resulting from ongoing collection and evaluation of site information; the development of repository and waste-package designs; the results of performance assessments; and any changes that occur in response to external comments. Information covered includes geochemistry, hydrology, geology, climate, and radiation dose estimate calculations.

  17. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being construct