WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste transportation safety

  1. Radioactive wastes transport. A safety logic; Le transport des dechets radioactifs. Une logique de surete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The safety principle which applies to transport operations of radioactive wastes obeys to a very strict regulation. For the conditioning of wastes in package, the organisation of shipments and the qualification of carriers, the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, has implemented a rigorous policy based on the respect of a quality procedure and on the mastery of delivery fluxes. This brochure presents in a simple, illustrated and detailed manner the different steps of these transports. (J.S.)

  2. Radiological safety assessment of transporting radioactive waste to the Gyeongju disposal facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon; Kang, Mun Ja; Ahn, Hong Joo; Hwang, Doo Seong; Hong, Dae Seok; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1) operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2) decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal) transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  3. Radiological Safety Assessment of Transporting Radioactive Wastes to the Gyeongju Disposal Facility in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongtae Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1 operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2 decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  4. Structural and Thermal Safety Analysis Report for the Type B Radioactive Waste Transport Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S

    2007-09-15

    We carried out structural safety evaluation for the type B radioactive waste transport package. Requirements for type B packages according to the related regulations such as IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1, Korea Most Act. 2001-23 and US 10 CFR Part 71 were evaluated. General requirements for packages such as those for a lifting attachment, a tie-down attachment and pressure condition were considered. For the type B radioactive waste transport package, the structural, thermal and containment analyses were carried out under the normal transport conditions. Also the safety analysis were conducted under the accidental transport conditions. The 9 m drop test, 1 m puncture test, fire test and water immersion test under the accidental transport conditions were consecutively done. The type B radioactive waste transport packages were maintained the structural and thermal integrities.

  5. Safety evaluation for packaging transportation of equipment for tank 241-C-106 waste sluicing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, D.B.

    1994-08-25

    A Waste Sluicing System (WSS) is scheduled for installation in nd waste storage tank 241-C-106 (106-C). The WSS will transfer high rating sludge from single shell tank 106-C to double shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (102-AY). Prior to installation of the WSS, a heel pump and a transfer pump will be removed from tank 106-C and an agitator pump will be removed from tank 102-AY. Special flexible receivers will be used to contain the pumps during removal from the tanks. After equipment removal, the flexible receivers will be placed in separate containers (packagings). The packaging and contents (packages) will be transferred from the Tank Farms to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage and then to T Plant for evaluation and processing for final disposition. Two sizes of packagings will be provided for transferring the equipment from the Tank Farms to the interim storage facility. The packagings will be designated as the WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings throughout the remainder of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP). The WSSP-1 packagings will transport the heel and transfer pumps from 106-C and the WSSP-2 packaging will transport the agitator pump from 102-AY. The WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings are similar except for the length.

  6. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Transportation safety training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Safety assessment for the transportation of NECSA's LILW to the Vaalputs waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maphoto, K.P.; Raubenheimer, E.; Swart, H. [Nuclear Liabilities Management, NECSA, P O Box 582, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    The transport safety assessment was carried out with a view to assess the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the radioactive materials. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with the envisaged transport scenarios for the road transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of LILW along the R563 route, N14 and eventually to the Vaalputs National Waste Disposal Facility. Various parameters are needed by the RADTRAN code in calculating the human health impact and risk. These include: numbers of population densities following the routes undertaken, number of stops made, and the speed at which the transport will be traversing at towards the final destination. The human health impact with regard to the dose to the public, LCF and risk associated with transportation of Necsa's LILW to the Vaalputs Waste Disposal Facility by road have been calculated using RADTRAN 5 code. The results for both accident and incident free scenarios have shown that the overall risks are insignificant and can be associated with any non-radiological transportation. (authors)

  9. Stakeholder Transportation Scorecard: Reviewing Nevada's Recommendations for Enhancing the Safety and Security of Nuclear Waste Shipments - 13518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred C. [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 80906 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As a primary stakeholder in the Yucca Mountain program, the state of Nevada has spent three decades examining and considering national policy regarding spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation. During this time, Nevada has identified 10 issues it believes are critical to ensuring the safety and security of any spent nuclear fuel transportation program, and achieving public acceptance. These recommendations are: 1) Ship the oldest fuel first; 2) Ship mostly by rail; 3) Use dual-purpose (transportable storage) casks; 4) Use dedicated trains for rail shipments; 5) Implement a full-scale cask testing program; 6) Utilize a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the selection of a new rail spur to the proposed repository site; 7) Implement the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) 'straw man' process for route selection; 8) Implement Section 180C assistance to affected States, Tribes and localities through rulemaking; 9) Adopt safety and security regulatory enhancements proposed states; and 10) Address stakeholder concerns about terrorism and sabotage. This paper describes Nevada's proposals in detail and examines their current status. The paper describes the various forums and methods by which Nevada has presented its arguments and sought to influence national policy. As of 2012, most of Nevada's recommendations have been adopted in one form or another, although not yet implemented. If implemented in a future nuclear waste program, the State of Nevada believes these recommendations would form the basis for a successful national transportation plan for shipments to a geologic repository and/or centralized interim storage facility. (authors)

  10. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  11. Common errors in transport of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Dellamano, Jos C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: ffsuzuki@ipen.br; mbmitake@ipen.br; jcdellam@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The transport of radioactive waste is a stage of the waste management and must fit the same protection and safety requirements of any radioactive material shipment. In Brazil, the radioactive waste shipments must comply with the national regulations for transport of dangerous goods and the specific regulation for the safe transport of radioactive material of the nuclear regulatory authority. In these regulations, the consignor is responsible for the safety during the transport, however, the unload operations are consignee's responsibility. The Radioactive Waste Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, receives institutional radioactive waste from several radioactive facilities in the country. During the unload operations, protection and safety items are verified, such as the data written into the transport documents and the maximum levels of radiation on packages. The records show that almost all shipments of radioactive waste presented irregularities that varied from mistakes in fulfilling transport documents, up to the total disregard to the regulations. The shipments that could result in radiological risk to the operators of IPEN-CNEN/SP gave origin to reports that had been sent to the nuclear regulatory authority to take steps to prevent new occurrences and to enforce consignors and carriers. The adoption of this procedure in any type of occurrence, as well as its institutionalization in all radioactive waste management facilities of the nuclear regulatory authority could be an improvement against the errors observed in this type of transport. (author)

  12. Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J. [and others

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

  13. Central waste complex interim operational safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixsen, R.B.; Ames, R.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-20

    This Interim Operational Safety Requirements document supports the authorization basis for interim operations and identifies restrictions on interim operations for the disposal and storage of solid waste in the Central Waste Complex. The Central Waste Complex Interim Operational Safety Requirements provide the necessary controls on operations in the Central Waste Complex to ensure the radiological and hazardous material exposure will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, 1327 the public and the environment.

  14. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  15. Transportation training: Focusing on movement of hazardous substances and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.; Moreland, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, are developing and implementing a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The IAEA radioactive waste safety standards programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellotte, James R.

    1995-12-31

    The IAEA is currently reviewing more than thirty publications in its Safety Series with a view toward consolidating and organizing information pertaining to radioactive waste. the effort is entitled Radioactive Waste Safety Standards programme (RADWASS). RADWASS is a significant undertaking and may have far reaching effects on radioactive waste management both in the international nuclear community and in individual nuclear States. This is because IAEA envisions the development of a consensus on the final document. In this circumstance, the product of RADWASS may ultimately be regarded as an international norm against which future actions of Member States may be measured. This program is organized in five subjects: planning, pre-disposal, disposal, uranium and thorium waste management and decommissioning, which has four levels: safety fundamentals, safety standards, safety guides and safety practices. (author).

  17. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  19. Safety in the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    In EU the transport sector has an incident rate of accidents at work at 40 pr 1000 employees. The Danish insurance company CODAN has insured a big part of this sector concerning transport of gods on shore. The purpose of the project is to document the safety problems in the sector and to develop......, unloading or work with transport equipment carried out at many different work places. The main safety problems are falls, heavy lifting, poor ergonomic working conditions, hits or collisions with gods, equipments or falling objects, the traffic risk situations, work with animals and finally the risk...... of violence and robbery. The transport branch is characterized by many small enterprises of which 97% of the enterprises in Denmark have less than 50 employees and 89% have less than 10 employees. The intervention in 5 small enterprises show a relevant focus on both the risk for occupational accidents...

  20. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1996-10-04

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  1. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  2. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin.

  3. WASTE CONTAINER AND WASTE PACKAGE PERFORMANCE MODELING TO SUPPORT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-06-30

    Prior to subsurface burial of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, a demonstration that disposal of the wastes can be accomplished while protecting the health and safety of the general population is required. The long-time frames over which public safety must be insured necessitates that this demonstration relies, in part, on computer simulations of events and processes that will occur in the future. This demonstration, known as a Safety Assessment, requires understanding the performance of the disposal facility, waste containers, waste forms, and contaminant transport to locations accessible to humans. The objective of the coordinated research program is to examine the state-of-the-art in testing and evaluation short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste packages (container and waste form) in near surface repository conditions. The link between data collection and long-term predictions is modeling. The objective of this study is to review state-of-the-art modeling approaches for waste package performance. This is accomplished by reviewing the fundamental concepts behind safety assessment and demonstrating how waste package models can be used to support safety assessment. Safety assessment for low- and intermediate-level wastes is a complicated process involving assumptions about the appropriate conceptual model to use and the data required to support these models. Typically due to the lack of long-term data and the uncertainties from lack of understanding and natural variability, the models used in safety assessment are simplistic. However, even though the models are simplistic, waste container and waste form performance are often central to the case for making a safety assessment. An overview of waste container and waste form performance and typical models used in a safety assessment is supplied. As illustrative examples of the role of waste container and waste package performance, three sample test cases are provided. An example of the impacts of

  4. Safety Aspects in Radioactive Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Brennecke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, within the framework of national as well as international programmes, notable advances and considerable experience have been reached, particularly in minimising of the production of radioactive wastes, conditioning and disposal of short-lived, low and intermediate level waste, vitrification of fission product solutions on an industrial scale and engineered storage of long-lived high level wastes, i.e. vitrified waste and spent nuclear fuel. Based on such results, near-surface repositories have successfully been operated in many countries. In contrast to that, the disposal of high level radioactive waste is still a scientific and technical challenge in many countries using the nuclear power for the electricity generation. Siting, planning and construction of repositories for the high level wastes in geological formations are gradually advancing. The site selection, the evaluation of feasible sites as well as the development of safety cases and performance of site-specific safety assessments are essential in preparing the realization of such a repository. In addition to the scientific-technical areas, issues regarding economical, environmental, ethical and political aspects have been considered increasingly during the last years. Taking differences in the national approaches, practices and the constraints into account, it is to be recognised that future developments and decisions will have to be extended in order to include further important aspects and, finally, to enhance the acceptance and confidence in the safety-related planning work as well as in the proposed radioactive waste management and disposal solutions.

  5. Manpower analysis in transportation safety. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.S.; Bowden, H.M.; Colford, C.A.; DeFilipps, P.J.; Dennis, J.D.; Ehlert, A.K.; Popkin, H.A.; Schrader, G.F.; Smith, Q.N.

    1977-05-01

    The project described provides a manpower review of national, state and local needs for safety skills, and projects future manning levels for transportation safety personnel in both the public and private sectors. Survey information revealed that there are currently approximately 121,000 persons employed directly in transportation safety occupations within the air carrier, highway and traffic safety, motor carrier, pipeline, rail carrier, and marine carrier transportation industry groups. The projected need for 1980 is over 145,000 of which over 80 percent will be in highway safety. An analysis of transportation tasks is included, and shows ten general categories about which the majority of safety activities are focused. A skills analysis shows a generally high level of educational background and several years of experience are required for most transportation safety jobs. An overall review of safety programs in the transportation industry is included, together with chapters on the individual transportation modes.

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, B.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability of the Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) to meet the packaging requirements of HNF-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of special form, highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile radioactive material. This SEP evaluates five shipments of DSWCs used for the transport and storage of Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel to the Plutonium Finishing Plant Protected Area.

  7. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, L.; Hakkarainen, V.; Kaija, J.; Kuivamaki, A.; Lindberg, A.; Paananen, M.; Paulamaki, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T., e-mail: lasse.ahonen@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  8. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of waste transport in selected rocks: 1977 annual report of LBL Contract No. 45901AK. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program: collection and generation of transport data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.; Benson, L.V.; Lucas, J.; Mathur, A.K.; Tsao, L.

    1977-09-01

    During fiscal year 1977, the following subtasks were performed. (1) Thermodynamic data were tabulated for those aqueous complexes and solid phases of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium likely to form in the environment. (2) Eh-pH diagrams were computed and drafted for plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium at 25/sup 0/C and one atmosphere. (3) The literature on distribution coefficients of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium was reviewed. (4) Preliminary considerations were determined for an experimental method of measuring radionuclide transport in water-saturated rocks. (5) The transport mechanisms of radionuclides in water-saturated rocks were reviewed. (6) A computer simulation was attempted of mass transfer involving actinides in water-saturated rocks. Progress in these tasks is reported. Subtasks 1, 2, 3, and 4 are complete. The progress made in subtask 5 is represented by an initial theoretical survey to define the conditions needed to characterize the transport of radionuclides in rocks. Subtask 6 has begun but is not complete.

  9. Radionuclide transport behavior in a generic geological radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  11. Component Cost of Fuel Oil of Waste Transportation Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhamtoro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of the transportation system can be measured based on four things, namely the efficiency of time, energy and fuel efficiency, environmental impact, and safety. Efficiency of energy and fuel is often stated as part of vehicle operating costs (VOC. So need to know the amount of the percentage of the fuel cost component of vehicle operating costs. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of the fuel cost component of the total cost of transportation. Research object is a dump truck or on the SCS transport system that serves the city of Malang. Stages of research begins with getting the data needed to analyze the cost of transporting waste. Furthermore, the analysis performed to determine the percentage of each component of transport costs. Results of the analysis showed that the greatest percentage of the cost of each component of the cost of transporting waste is a component of the fuel, while the smallest percentage of the cost of the mechanical components. For the percentage of fuel costs by 28.90% of the variable cost per kilometer, while the percentage of fuel costs by 27.45% of the total cost of transporting waste on his m3each.

  12. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Curt N. [Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  13. Safety evaluation for packaging for onsite transfer of B Plant organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-10-07

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the use of a 17,500-L (4,623-gal) tank manufactured by Brenner Tank, Incorporated, to transport up to 16,221 L (4,285 gal) of radioactive organic liquid waste. The waste will be transported from the organic loading pad to a storage pad. Both pads are within the B Plant complex, but approximately 4 mi apart.

  14. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  15. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  16. TRANSPORT LOCOMOTIVE AND WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER ITS STANDARDS IDENTIFICATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.D. Draper

    2005-03-31

    To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems and components (SSCs) based on identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Basis for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005). Further, SSCs credited with performing safe functions are classified as ITS. In turn, performance confirmation for these SSCs is sought through the use of consensus code and standards. The purpose of this study is to identify applicable codes and standards for the waste package (WP) transporter and transport locomotive ITS SSCs. Further, this study will form the basis for selection and the extent of applicability of each code and standard. This study is based on the design development completed for License Application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and that final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, throughout this study alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed. Further, the results of this study will be subject to evaluation as part of a follow-on gap analysis study. Based on the results of this study the gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied a ''gap'' is highlighted. Thereafter, the study will identify supplemental requirements to augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, the gap analysis will identify non-standard areas of the design that will be subject to a

  17. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  18. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-16

    This document contains the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Building 693 (B693) Yard Area of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at LLNL. The TSRs constitute requirements for safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analyses for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2011). The analysis presented therein concluded that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts of waste from other DOE facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities.

  19. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-04-26

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  20. Transportation considerations related to waste forms and canisters for Defense TRU wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Andrews, W.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rosenthal, L.J.; Odle, C.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report identifies and discusses the considerations imposed by transportation on waste forms and canisters for contact-handled, solid transuranic wastes from the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The report reviews (1) the existing raw waste forms and potential immobilized waste forms, (2) the existing and potential future DOE waste canisters and shipping containers, (3) regulations and regulatory trends for transporting commercial transuranic wastes on the ISA, (4) truck and rail carrier requirements and preferences for transporting the wastes, and (5) current and proposed Type B external packagings for transporting wastes.

  1. Contaminant transport at a waste residue deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Traberg, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Contaminant transport in an aquifer at an incinerator waste residue deposit in Denmark is simulated. A two-dimensional, geochemical transport code is developed for this purpose and tested by comparison to results from another code, The code is applied to a column experiment and to the field site...... along with the flow and nonreactive transport parameters obtained by the inverse modeling procedure described in the first paper [Sonnenborg et al., this issue] of this two-paper series. The simulation results of the site model are compared with several measured component breakthroughs at monitoring...

  2. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  3. Waste oil: Technology, economics, and environmental, health, and safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The current status of environmental information on the waste oil industry is reviewed. The sources, properties, and availability of waste oil are summarized. The topics of waste oil collection, utilization, and disposal, energy and economic considerations, and regulatory constraints are discussed, based upon the most recent data available at this time. The health and safety implications of the resource through end-use waste oil system are also presented.

  4. Hanford Site Wide Transportation Safety Document [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCALL, D L

    2002-06-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) to approve the Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document (TSD) for onsite Transportation and Packaging (T&P) at Hanford. Hanford contractors, on behalf of DOE-RL, prepared and submitted the Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document, DOE/RL-2001-0036, Revision 0, (DOE/RL 2001), dated October 4, 2001, which is referred to throughout this report as the TSD. In the context of the TSD, Hanford onsite shipments are the activities of moving hazardous materials, substances, and wastes between DOE facilities and over roadways where public access is controlled or restricted and includes intra-area and inter-area movements. The TSD sets forth requirements and standards for onsite shipment of radioactive and hazardous materials and wastes within the confines of the Hanford Site on roadways where public access is restricted by signs, barricades, fences, or other means including road closures and moving convoys controlled by Hanford Site security forces.

  5. Hydrogen generation in tru waste transportation packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B; Sheaffer, M K; Fischer, L E

    2000-03-27

    This document addresses hydrogen generation in TRU waste transportation packages. The potential sources of hydrogen generation are summarized with a special emphasis on radiolysis. After defining various TRU wastes according to groupings of material types, bounding radiolytic G-values are established for each waste type. Analytical methodologies are developed for prediction of hydrogen gas concentrations for various packaging configurations in which hydrogen generation is due to radiolysis. Representative examples are presented to illustrate how analytical procedures can be used to estimate the hydrogen concentration as a function of time. Methodologies and examples are also provided to show how the time to reach a flammable hydrogen concentration in the innermost confinement layer can be estimated. Finally, general guidelines for limiting the hydrogen generation in the payload and hydrogen accumulation in the innermost confinement layer are described.

  6. THE INTERNATIONAL MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT OF HAZARDOUS GOODS AND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Carosso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international multimodal transport of hazardous goods and waste is a sector of remarkable economic importance. This transport activity is connected to several productive sectors and it can have considerable repercussions on the environment and health as well as on the safety of the workers and third parties that study in the same field. A certain part of the transport of hazardous goods and waste is managed by organized criminals who can obtain enormous savings by neglecting the measures necessary to protect the environment and safety. The legitimate economy is thus damaged and, above all, the efforts the International Community has made since the fifties-sixties, concerning the regulation of the complex aspects of this activity, are undermined. Two distinct judicial models exist at an international level concerning hazardous waste and goods: “transboundary movement” and “international transport”. The purpose of these models is to regulate a phenomenon which, although very complex and articulated, requires a homogeneous view. The international multimodal transport judicial model is here examined in 3 subsequent stages: (1 the general aspects and the details along the entire chain, starting from the loading operations, then going on to the transport itself and ending up with the unloading at its final destination; (2 the controls on the respect of international legislation on this topic; (3 a study case is conducted pertaining to the extensive PCB category which, from a judicial point of view, in certain cases can be considered hazardous goods and in other cases hazardous waste. The aim of the study is to supply decision makers with indications that can be used to improve the efficacy and the effectiveness of the regulations at a UN level and of the cascading particular agreements for the various means of transport. The international multimodal transport judicial model suffers from the uncertainties that were already

  7. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D

    2008-06-16

    This documented safety analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements', and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  8. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities March 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05

    This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements,' and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  9. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  10. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  11. Discussions about safety criteria and guidelines for radioactive waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the clearance levels for uranium-bearing waste have been established by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). The criteria for uranium-bearing waste disposal are also necessary; however, the NSC has not concluded the discussion on this subject. Meanwhile, the General Administrative Group of the Radiation Council has concluded the revision of its former recommendation 'Regulatory exemption dose for radioactive solid waste disposal', the dose criteria after the institutional control period for a repository. The Standardization Committee on Radiation Protection in the Japan Health Physics Society (The Committee) also has developed the relevant safety criteria and guidelines for existing exposure situations, which are potentially applicable to uranium-bearing waste disposal. A new working group established by The Committee was initially aimed at developing criteria and guidelines specifically for uranium-bearing waste disposal; however, the aim has been shifted to broader criteria applicable to any radioactive wastes.

  12. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  13. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  14. Review of arrangements for the recent transportation of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codd, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    The terms of reference of this review were: to examine the adequacy of the arrangements made for the transport of contaminated material from Lucas Heights and St Marys to Woomera, in terms of compliance with the Australian Code for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances 1990; to report to the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology on the quality of the planning and preparation for the move; the safety and effectiveness of the move itself; the adequacy of response to any `incidents` involved in the move, and of contingency arrangements; whether planning and transport arrangements might be improved for the future. Thus, the Review was focussed on movements of material in two specific cases - material owned by the CSIRO and stored at Lucas Heights and material owned by the Department of Defence and stored at St Marys. The report concludes that the movements of wastes were carried out consistent with the Transport Code, without any risk to public safety. Additional relevant information in support of the review is contained in 8 appendixes.

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.75 - Transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation safety. 50... Transportation Safety § 50-204.75 Transportation safety. Any requirements of the U.S. Department of Transportation under 49 CFR Parts 171-179 and Parts 390-397 and 14 CFR Part 103 shall be applied...

  16. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  17. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2009). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas, consisting

  18. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2008-06-16

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the 'Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities' (DSA) (LLNL 2008). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas

  19. A multimodal transportation system routing implemented in waste collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste collection is an important municipal service that charges large expenditures to waste management (WM system. In this study, a hierarchical structure is proposed in order to minimize total cost of waste collection routing problem. Moreover, in second stage destructive environmental effects of waste transportation are minimized concurrently through taking advantage of a road/rail transportation system. In the proposed multimodal transportation system, waste packs are transferred to final destination while travel time and risk of environmental threatening is minimized. The discussed problem is formulated mathematically in two stages. In the first stage, a household waste collection routing problem is formulated while, in second stage a multimodal transportation system is routed to transfer waste packs to final destination through roads and railroads. In order to solve the proposed NP hard models, an improved genetic algorithm is developed. Comparison of the obtained results with those of GAMS for small-size samples validates the proposed models.

  20. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  1. Approach for tank safety characterization of Hanford site waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meacham, J.E.; Babad, H.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Eberlein, S.J.; Hamilton, D.W.; Johnson, G.D.; Osborne, J.W.; Payne, M.A.; Sherwood, D.J. [and others

    1995-03-01

    The overall approach and associated technical basis for characterizing Hanford Site waste to help identify and resolve Waste Tank Safety Program safety issues has been summarized. The safety issues include flammable gas, noxious vapors, organic solvents, condensed-phase exothermic reactions (ferrocyanide and organic complexants), criticality, high heat, and safety screening. For the safety issues involving chemical reactions (i.e., flammable gas, organic solvents, ferrocyanide, and organic complexants), the approach to safety characterization is based on the fact that rapid exothermic reactions cannot occur if either fuel, oxidizer, or temperature (initiators) is not sufficient or controlled. The approach to characterization has been influenced by the progress made since mid-1993: (1) completion of safety analyses on ferrocyanide, criticality, organic solvent in tank 241-C-103, and sludge dryout. (2) successful mitigation of tank 241-SY-101; (3) demonstration of waste aging in laboratory experiments and from waste sampling, and (4) increased understanding of the information that can be obtained from headspace sampling. Headspace vapor sampling is being used to confirm that flammable gas does not accumulate in the single-shell tanks, and to determine whether organic solvents are present. The headspaces of tanks that may contain significant quantities of flammable gas will be monitored continuously using standard hydrogen monitors. For the noxious vapors safety issue, characterization will consist of headspace vapor sampling of most of the Hanford Site waste tanks. Sampling specifically for criticality is not required to confirm interim safe storage; however, analyses for fissile material will be conducted as waste samples are obtained for other reasons. High-heat tanks will be identified through temperature monitoring coupled with thermal analyses.

  2. Safety Analysis Report for the KRI-ASM Transport Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, D. H.; Seo, K. S

    2006-10-15

    Safety evaluation for the KRI-ASM transport package to transport safely I-131, which is produced at HANARO research reactor in KAERI, was carried out. In the safety analyses results for the KRI-ASM transport package, all the maximum stresses as well as the maximum temperature of the surface are lower than their allowable limits. The safety tests to verify the safety analyses results will be performed by using the test model of the KRI-BGM transport package.

  3. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  4. The transport safety of radioactive matters; La surete des transports des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landier, D.; Louet, Ch.A.; Robert, Ch. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Binet, J. [Commission europeenne, DG Energie et transports, Bruxelles (Belgium); Malesys, P. [TN International, 75 - Paris (France); Pourade, C. [Societe Dangexpress, 78 - St Remy l' Honore (France); Le Meur, A.; Robert, M. [Societe Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.Y.; Hello, E. [CIS bio, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Laumond, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Regnault, Ph.; Gourlay, M. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Bruhl, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. de la Protection et de la Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Malvache, P.; Dumesnil, J. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cohen, B. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Sert, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Pain, M. [Ministere de l' Interieur, et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, Dir. de la Defense et la Securite Civiles, 75 - Paris (France); Green, L.; Hartenstein, M. [World Nuclear Transport Institute, London (United Kingdom); Stewart, J. [Ministere des Transport, Royaume Uni (United Kingdom); Cottens, E.; Liebens, M. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire (Belgium); Marignac, Y. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-02-15

    Since the control of transport of radioactive materials was given to A.S.N. 10 years ago, A.S.N. has strengthened the radioactive material transport inspections, in particular of the designers, manufacturers, carriers and consignors. A.S.N. has implemented INES scale for incidents during transport. It has participated as much as possible to IAEA working groups in order to improve the international regulatory framework. And, supported by I.R.S.N., A.S.N. has performed a periodic safety review of existing package models and has approved new models incorporating innovative design features. Finally, A.S.N. has tested its emergency responses to procedures to an accident involving the transport of radioactive materials. All these actions taken together have led to improvement in and reinforcement of the safety culture among the transport operators; this has been acknowledged by a recent audit T.R.A.N.S.A.S. performed by IAEA. In spite of all these actions, there are not approved by the competent authority. As A.S.N. is in charge of every field in radioprotection, this should help to intensify the control. In addition, the different kinds of transport are also tackled as rail transport with S.N.C.F. radiological risk training, air transport through nuclear medicine. Some experience feedback are given such radioactive waste transport to the storage facilities in the Aube or how to protect the population after a nuclear transport incident with the O.R.S.E.C.-T.M.S. plans. (N.C.)

  5. Safety in the final disposal of radioactive waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K.; Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [and others

    1997-12-01

    During 1994-1997 a project on the disposal of radioactive waste was carried out as part of the NKS program. The objective of the project was to give authorities and waste producers in the Nordic countries background material for determinations about the management and disposal of radioactive waste. The project NKS/AFA-1 was divided into three sub-projects: AFA-1.1, AFA-1.2 and AFA-1.3. AFA-1.1 dealt with waste characterisation, AFA-1.2 dealt with performance assessment for repositories and AFA-1.3 dealt with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The studies mainly focused on the management of long-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste from research, hospitals and industry. The AFA-1.1 study included an overview on waste categories in the Nordic countries and methods to determine or estimate the waste content. The results from the AFA-1.2 study include a short overview of different waste management systems existing and planned in the Nordic countries. However, the main emphasis of the study was a general discussion of methodologies developed and employed for performance assessments of waste repositories. Some of the phenomena and interactions relevant for generic types of repository were discussed as well. Among the different approaches for the development of scenarios for safety and performance assessments one particular method, the Rock Engineering System (RES), was chosen to be tested by demonstration. The possible interactions and their safety significance were discussed, employing a simplified and generic Nordic repository system as the reference system. New regulations for the inventory of a repository may demand new assessments of old radioactive waste packages. The existing documentation of a waste package is then the primary information source although additional measurements may be necessary. (EG) 33 refs.

  6. 78 FR 53790 - Public Forum-Safety Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Culture; Organizational Leadership Perspectives on Safety Culture; Safety Culture Management and Oversight... effective safety cultures within their industries. There will also be a review of some recent organizational... SAFETY BOARD Public Forum--Safety Culture: Enhancing Transportation Safety On Tuesday and...

  7. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lab-wide training. This course addresses the requirements of the DOT that are unique to hazardous waste shipments. Appendix B provides the Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reference material needed for this course.

  8. Coastal Waste Transport in Catbalogan City, Philippines and Nearby Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Orale

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available More than half of Catbalogan barangays (villages are situated along the Maqueda Bay, the primary source of food for Samariños (people of Samar. Sixty percent of these coastal barangays have no direct access to waste disposal facilities such as garbage trucks and landfill. Almost 50% of domestic waste from these barangays is thrown directly to the sea, while 22% partly dispose their waste into Maqueda bay or a total of 7201 kg of waste daily. An improvised 3-dimensional micro-model shows how wastes are transported from one barangay to the other. The waste transport goes beyond barangay boundaries for many of waste travel to the coast of other municipalities and probably to other provinces. Approximately about 33% of fresh wastes float and are transported to other places, most of the remaining waste rot onsite making the site dark, dirty and has foul smell. Waste disposal practices of coastal towns/cities affects each other, therefore proper waste disposal practices must be widely practiced.

  9. Defense Transuranic Waste Program. Transuranic waste transportation assessment and guidance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    The Transportation Assessment and Guidance Report (TAGR) is designed to provide DOE-managed defense sites with guidance and citable analyses addressing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for qualifying and transporting transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico.

  10. Concept of Operation for Waste Transport, Emplacement, and Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman T. Raczka

    2001-07-02

    The preparation of this technical report has two objectives. The first objective is to discuss the base case concepts of waste transport, emplacement, and retrieval operations and evaluate these operations relative to a lower-temperature repository design. Aspects of the operations involved in waste transport, emplacement and retrieval may be affected by the lower-temperature operating schemes. This report evaluates the effects the lower-temperature alternatives may have on the operational concepts involved in emplacing and retrieving waste. The second objective is to provide backup material for the design description, in a traceable and defensible format, for Section 2 of the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document.

  11. Packaging design criteria (onsite) project W-520 immobilized low-activity waste transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2001-10-16

    A plan is currently in place to process the high-level radioactive wastes that resulted from uranium and plutonium recovery operations from Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Currently, millions of gallons of high-level radioactive waste in the form of liquids, sludges, and saltcake are stored in many large underground tanks onsite. This waste will be processed and separated into high-level and low-activity fractions. Both fractions will then be vitrified (i.e., blended with molten borosilicate glass) in order to encapsulate the toxic radionuclides. The immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass will be poured into LAW canisters, allowed to cool and harden to solid form, sealed by welding, and then transported to a double-lined trench in the 200 East Area for permanent disposal. This document presents the packaging design criteria (PDC) for an onsite LAW transportation system, which includes the ILAW canister, ILAW package, and transport vehicle and defines normal and accident conditions. This PDC provides the basis for the ILAW onsite transportation system design and fabrication and establishes the transportation safety criteria that the design will be evaluated against in the Package Specific Safety Document (PSSD). It provides the criteria for the ILAW canister, cask and transport vehicles and defines normal and accident conditions. The LAW transportation system is designed to transport stabilized waste from the vitrification facility to the ILAW disposal facility developed by Project W-520. All ILAW transport will take place within the 200 East Area (all within the Hanford Site).

  12. Decree no. 2001-1199 of the 10 december 2001 publishing the resolution MSC. 88 (71) notifying adoption of the international compilation of safety rules for the spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport in casks on ships (compilation INF) (annexes), adopted at London the 27 may 1999; Decret no. 2001-1199 du 10 decembre 2001 portant publication de la resolution MSC.88 (71) portant adoption du recueil international de regles de securite pour le transport de combustible nucleaire irradie, de plutonium et de dechets hautement radioactifs en colis a bord de navires (recueil INF) (ensemble une annexe), adoptee a Londres le 27 mai 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This legislative text concerns the safety rules of spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport, in casks on ships. Rules, fire prevention, temperature control of casks, electric supply, radioprotection, management and emergency plans are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  13. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  14. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.

  15. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  16. Factors Of Environmental Safety And Environmentally Efficient Technologies Transportation Facilities Gas Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Bogdan U.

    2017-01-01

    The stable development of the European countries depends on a reliable and efficient operation of the gas transportation system (GTS). With high reliability of GTS it is necessary to ensure its industrial and environmental safety. In this article the major factors influencing on an industrial and ecological safety of GTS are analyzed, sources of GTS safety decreasing is revealed, measures for providing safety are proposed. The article shows that use of gas-turbine engines of gas-compressor units (GCU) results in the following phenomena: emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere; pollution by toxic waste; harmful noise and vibration; thermal impact on environment; decrease in energy efficiency. It is shown that for the radical problem resolution of an industrial and ecological safety of gas-transmission system it is reasonable to use gas-compressor units driven by electric motors. Their advantages are shown. Perspective technologies of these units and experience of their use in Europe and the USA are given in this article.

  17. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE CONTAINERS COATED WITH POLYUREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    2007-03-30

    This technical report is to evaluate and establish that the transportation of waste containers (e.g. drums, wooden boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood (FRP) or metal boxes, tanks, casks, or other containers) that have an external application of polyurea coating between facilities on the Hanford Site can be achieved with a level of onsite safety equivalent to that achieved offsite. Utilizing the parameters, requirements, limitations, and controls described in the DOE/RL-2001-36, ''Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document'' (TSD) and the Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) approved package specific authorizations (e.g. Package Specific Safety Documents (PSSDs), One-Time Requests for Shipment (OTRSs), and Special Packaging Authorizations (SPAS)), this evaluation concludes that polyurea coatings on packages does not impose an undue hazard for normal and accident conditions. The transportation of all packages on the Hanford Site must comply with the transportation safety basis documents for that packaging system. Compliance with the requirements, limitations, or controls described in the safety basis for a package system will not be relaxed or modified because of the application of polyurea. The inspection criteria described in facility/projects procedures and work packages that ensure compliance with Container Management Programs and transportation safety basis documentation dictate the need to overpack a package without consideration for polyurea. This technical report reviews the transportation of waste packages coated with polyurea and does not credit the polyurea with enhancing the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, criticality, or gas generating posture of a package. Facilities/Projects Container Management Programs must determine if a container requires an overpack prior to the polyurea application recognizing that circumstances newly discovered surface contamination or loss of integrity may require a previously

  18. Safety indices and their application to nuclear waste management safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, J.W.

    1979-04-01

    Thirteen indices have been examined to determine their potential applicability to operational waste management safety assessment. Two waste streams are presented on a normalized basis. These are the packaged spent fuel from the once-through fuel cycle and solidified high-level waste from a coprocessed UO/sub 2/--PuO/sub 2/ fuel cycle. Seven of the indices are then calculated for a hypothetical surface storage scenario of the two wastes. The indices are examined on a consistent basis to identify any biases built into them, and to determine the sensitivities of each to various waste situations. The two waste streams are then compared on the basis of the indices to extend the understanding of the analysis techniques. The results of the analysis fall into two categories, index evaluation and fuel cycle waste comparison. Only five of the indices are determined to be applicable to operational waste management safety assessment. The remainder are rejected either because they require very detailed input data; they are specifically designed for geologic isolation; they are extremely controversial in their application; or because they are particularly sensitive to a few specific radionuclides. The waste stream comparison yields three results: (1) the solidified high-level waste from the coprocessed UO/sub 2/--PuO/sub 2/ fuel cycle may be potentially less hazardous than the packaged spent fuel from the once-through fuel cycle; (2) the removal of actinides, and especially plutonium, from spent fuel may reduce the potent hazard associated with the waste; and (3) after one million years of decay, the packaged spent fuel and solidified high-level waste are nearly the same on a hazard potential basis.

  19. Nuclear energy waste-space transportation and removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    A method for utilizing the decay heat of actinide wastes to power an electric thrust vehicle is proposed. The vehicle, launched by shuttle to earth orbit and to earth escape by a tug, obtains electrical power from the actinide waste heat by thermionic converters. The heavy gamma ray and neutron shielding which is necessary as a safety feature is removed in orbit and returned to earth for reuse. The problems associated with safety are dealt with in depth. A method for eliminating fission wastes via chemical propulsion is briefly discussed.

  20. The study on safety facility criteria for radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Choi, M. H.; Han, S. H. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    The radioactive waste repository are necessary to install the engineered safety systems to secure the safety for operation of the repository in the event of fire and earthquake. Since the development of safety facility criteria requires a thorough understanding about the characteristics of the engineered safety systems, we should investigate by means of literature survey and visit SKB. In particular, definition, composition of the systems, functional requirement of the systems, engineered safety systems of foreign countries, system design, operation and maintenance requirement should be investigated : fire protection system, ventilation system, drainage system, I and C system, electric system, radiation monitoring system. This proposed criteria consist of purpose, scope of application, ventilation system, fire protection system, drainage system, electric system and this proposed criteria can be applied as a basic reference for the final criteria.

  1. Safety Case for Disposal of Radioactive Waste:Some Implications from IAEA and OECD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jin-feng; ZHANG; Yan-qi; LI; Jing-jing; LIAO; Hai-tao; WEN; Bao-yin; JIN; Xiao; JIANG; Zi-ying; LIU; Sen-lin

    2015-01-01

    "The Safety Case and Safety Assessment for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste(SSG-23)"was published by IAEA in 2012,which provides guidance to assess and validate the safety of all kinds of disposal facilities of radioactive waste.OECD/NEA set up agroup involved with 17countries to move on the research on the safety case of radioactive

  2. Transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pojkarová, Kateřina; Hruška, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste. On the basis of waste statistics and transport statistics is researched the greatness of the relation between the transport volume and the production of waste in regions of the Czech Republic. The relation is illustrated graphically too. We have many kinds of waste which we can monitor. The most important kinds of waste are municipal waste, industrial waste, construction ...

  3. Biosphere models for safety assesment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Olyslaegers, G.; Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium); Kanyar, B. [University of Veszprem (Hungary). Dept. of Radiochemistry; Pinedo, P.; Simon, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Bergstroem, U.; Hallberg, B. [Studsvik Ecosafe, Nykoeping (Sweden); Mobbs, S.; Chen, Q.; Kowe, R. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the BioMoSA project has been to contribute in the confidence building of biosphere models, for application in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal. The detailed objectives of this project are: development and test of practical biosphere models for application in long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal to different European locations, identification of features, events and processes that need to be modelled on a site-specific rather than on a generic base, comparison of the results and quantification of the variability of site-specific models developed according to the reference biosphere methodology, development of a generic biosphere tool for application in long term safety studies, comparison of results from site-specific models to those from generic one, Identification of possibilities and limitations for the application of the generic biosphere model. (orig.)

  4. Safety assessment driving radioactive waste management solutions (SADRWMS Methodology) implemented in a software tool (SAFRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinker, M., E-mail: M.Kinker@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Avila, R.; Hofman, D., E-mail: rodolfo@facilia.se [FACILIA AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Jova Sed, L., E-mail: jovaluis@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba); Ledroit, F., E-mail: frederic.ledroit@irsn.fr [IRSN PSN-EXP/SSRD/BTE, (France)

    2013-07-01

    In 2004, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) to examine international approaches to safety assessment for predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts which could be used to improve the mechanisms for applying safety assessment methodologies to predisposal management of radioactive waste. These flowcharts have since been incorporated into DS284 (General Safety Guide on the Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste), and were also considered during the early development stages of the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) Tool. In 2009 the IAEA presented DS284 to the IAEA Waste Safety Standards Committee, during which it was proposed that the graded approach to safety case and safety assessment be illustrated through the development of Safety Reports for representative predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities. To oversee the development of these reports, it was agreed to establish the International Project on Complementary Safety Reports: Development and Application to Waste Management Facilities (CRAFT). The goal of the CRAFT project is to develop complementary reports by 2014, which the IAEA could then publish as IAEA Safety Reports. The present work describes how the DS284 methodology and SAFRAN Tool can be applied in the development and review of the safety case and safety assessment to a range of predisposal waste management facilities or activities within the Region. (author)

  5. Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

  6. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  7. Safer Transportation and Disposal of Remote Handled Transuranic Waste - 12033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Vicente; Timm, Christopher M.; Fox, Jerry V. [PECOS Management Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since disposal of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) began in 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) has had difficulty meeting the plans and schedule for disposing this waste. PECOS Management Services, Inc. (PECOS) assessed the feasibility of proposed alternate RH-TRU mixed waste containerisation concepts that would enhance the transportation rate of RH-TRU waste to WIPP and increase the utilization of available WIPP space capacity for RH-TRU waste disposal by either replacing or augmenting current and proposed disposal methods. In addition engineering and operational analyses were conducted that addressed concerns regarding criticality, heat release, and worker exposure to radiation. The results of the analyses showed that the concept, development, and use of a concrete pipe based design for an RH-TRU waste shipping and disposal container could be potentially advantageous for disposing a substantial quantity of RHTRU waste at WIPP in the same manner as contact-handled RH waste. Additionally, this new disposal method would eliminate the hazard associated with repackaging this waste in other containers without the requirement for NRC approval for a new shipping container. (authors)

  8. Safety analysis report vitrified high level waste type B shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Safety Analysis Report describes the design, analyses, and principle features of the Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) Cask. In preparing this report a detailed evaluation of the design has been performed to ensure that all safety, licensing, and operational goals for the cask and its associated Department of Energy program can be met. The functions of this report are: (1) to fully document that all functional and regulatory requirements of 10CFR71 can be met by the package; and (2) to document the design and analyses of the cask for review by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The VHLW Cask is the reusable shipping package designed by GNSI under Department of Energy contract DE-AC04-89AL53-689 for transportation of Vitrified High Level Waste, and to meet the requirements for certification under 10CFR71 for a Type B(U) package. The VHLW cask has been designed as packaging for transport of canisters of Vitrified High Level Waste solidified at Department of Energy facilities.

  9. Confidence improvement of disosal safety bydevelopement of a safety case for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Ko, Nak Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Many countries have developed a safety case suitable to their own countries in order to improve the confidence of disposal safety in deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste as well as to develop a disposal program and obtain its license. This study introduces and summarizes the meaning, necessity, and development process of the safety case for radioactive waste disposal. The disposal safety is also discussed in various aspects of the safety case. In addition, the status of safety case development in the foreign countries is briefly introduced for Switzerland, Japan, the United States of America, Sweden, and Finland. The strategy for the safety case development that is being developed by KAERI is also briefly introduced. Based on the safety case, we analyze the efforts necessary to improve confidence in disposal safety for high-level radioactive waste. Considering domestic situations, we propose and discuss some implementing methods for the improvement of disposal safety, such as construction of a reliable information database, understanding of processes related to safety, reduction of uncertainties in safety assessment, communication with stakeholders, and ensuring justice and transparency. This study will contribute to the understanding of the safety case for deep geological disposal and to improving confidence in disposal safety through the development of the safety case in Korea for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

  10. Safety analysis report for packaging, onsite, long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-05-09

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks.

  11. Radiological impact associated with road transport of high level radioactive waste in Spain; Impacto radiologico asociado al transporte por carretera de residuos radiactivos de alta actividad en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja Rubio, J. A.; Gutierrez Martin, F.; Colon Hernandez, C.

    2010-07-01

    Issues related to the transport of high level radioactive waste, on, to provide a centralized warehouse provided under renewed relevance, mobility expected of these materials in the near future, by the growing commitment of these activities with the environment, safety and security of the people and by the current legal framework.

  12. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  13. Addendum to the Safety Analysis Report for the Steel Waste Packaging. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, S R

    1996-02-15

    The Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Steel Waste Package requires additional analyses to support the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste and special-case waste from the 324 building hot cells to PUREX for interim storage. This addendum provides the analyses required to show that this waste can be safely shipped onsite in the configuration shown.

  14. Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

    2006-12-01

    mitigation measures are not conducted. The effects of long-term climate change are considered. The potential for seismically induced geological changes is considered, but is not being actively evaluated during this iteration of the safety assessment. Drilling intrusion and post-intrusion resident scenarios are included. Conceptual models to represent the behavior of the repository under these scenarios have been implemented. A characteristic feature of the Vaalputs repository is its extreme aridity. Observations at the site suggest that recharge at the site is extremely low, and that the predominant moisture movement is upwards in the first few meters below the ground surface, following infrequent episodic precipitation. This means that waste packages in the upper few meters experience different release and transport mechanisms than deeper waste packages. The paper describes the Vaalputs repository, and approaches taken for the safety assessment. The paper also presents results of the safety assessment, and describes the implications of those results on waste management activities at Vaalputs. References IAEA, Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities, Results of a Coordinated Research Project, Volume 1: Review and Enhancement of Safety Assessment Approaches and Tools, IAEA- ISAM, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2004.

  15. Upgrading of waste oils into transportation fuels using hydrotreating technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as well as the competitive role of those catalysts in hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes.

  16. Radioactive waste management in France: safety demonstration fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, G; Voinis, S; Boissier, F

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge in development of the safety case for deep geological disposal is associated with the long periods of time over which high- and intermediate-level long-lived wastes remain hazardous. A wide range of events and processes may occur over hundreds of thousands of years. These events and processes are characterised by specific timescales. For example, the timescale for heat generation is much shorter than any geological timescale. Therefore, to reach a high level of reliability in the safety case, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the sequence of events and processes likely to occur over the lifetime of the repository. It then becomes possible to assess the capability of the repository to fulfil its safety functions. However, due to the long periods of time and the complexity of the events and processes likely to occur, uncertainties related to all processes, data, and models need to be understood and addressed. Assessment is required over the lifetime of the radionuclides contained in the radioactive waste. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk.

  18. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  19. Radiation doses from the transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark. A model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    The radiation doses modelled for transport of radioactive waste to a future repository in Denmark, demonstrates that the risk associated with road and sea transport should not limit the future selection of a location of the repository. From a safety perspective both road and sea transport seem to be feasible modes of transport. Although the modelling in most cases is performed conservatively, the modelled doses suggest that both transport methods can be carried out well within the national dose limits. Additionally, the dose levels associated with the modelled accident scenarios are low and the scenarios are thus found to be acceptable taken the related probabilities into account. (LN)

  20. Summary of Federal Aviation Administration Responses to National Transportation Safety Board Safety Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    investigation) Ji:) National Transportation Safety Board "ty bo ’* 1.a ,’ ", lon.DC 20594 Office of the Chairman May 27, 1980 Honorable Langhorne Bond...Charles E. Weithoner Acting Administrator Enclosure A National Transportation Safety Board 1 1 Bo Washmglton.D C 20594 Office of the Chairman October 21...KING, Chairman, MADAMS , ROGUE, and DRIVER, Members, concurred in the above recoumendations. , B g DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION

  1. SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF TRANSPORT SERVICES ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Sadlovska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the provisions to improve procedure of licensing of passenger and freight transportation, technical specifications for services related to the passenger and freight transportations.

  2. Radionuclide transport report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document compiles radionuclide transport calculations of a KBS-3 repository for the safety assessment SR-Site. The SR-Site assessment supports the licence application for a final repository at Forsmark, Sweden

  3. DOE/DOE Tight Oil Flammability & Transportation Spill Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes crude oils, their phase behavior, the SPR vapor pressure program, and presents data comparisons from various analytical techniques. The overall objective is to describe physical properties of crude oil relevant to flammability and transport safety

  4. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  5. 76 FR 20070 - Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria... received, a safety approval for the ability of its Space Training System: Model 400 (STS-400) to replicate....19 (a)(4). NASTAR's ] STS-400 suborbital space flight simulator (a multi-axis centrifuge) is...

  6. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

  7. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  8. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, Frank; Paulsen, Jette Lundtang

    2005-01-01

    of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of otherexisting or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need......This report describes the safety study performed as part of the EU supported project “Ammonia Cracking for Clean Electric Power Technology” The study addresses the following activities: safety of operation of the ammonia-powered vehicle under normal andaccident (collision) conditions, safety...... to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle -Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system. - Road...

  9. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46{degree}C, far below the 250 to 380{degree}C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  10. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  11. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  12. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  13. Active Transportation Safety Features around Schools in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Pinkerton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers. Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  14. Active transportation safety features around schools in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Bryn; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers). Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  15. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F.; Lundtang paulsen, Jette

    2005-02-01

    This report describes the safety study performed as part of the EU supported project 'Ammonia Cracking for Clean Electric Power Technology' The study addresses the following activities: safety of operation of the ammonia-powered vehicle under normal and accident (collision) conditions, safety of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of other existing or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle - Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system - Road transport of ammonia to refuelling stations in refrigerated form - Sufficient safety zones between refuelling stations and residential or otherwise public areas. When these measures are applied, the use of ammonia as a transport fuel wouldnt cause more risks than currently used fuels (using current practice). (au)

  16. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  17. 25 CFR 170.903 - Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste... INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.903 Who notifies tribes of the transport of radioactive waste? The Department of Energy (DOE) has...

  18. 76 FR 35861 - Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION... Treatment and Immobilization Plant located at the Hanford site in the state of Washington. DATES: Comments... Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Pursuant to 42 U.S.C. Sec....

  19. Lessons learned in demonstration projects regarding operational safety during final disposal of vitrified waste and spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbert, Wolfgang; Herold, Philipp [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The paper summarizes the lessons learned in demonstration projects regarding operational safety during the final disposal of vitrified waste and spent fuel. The three demonstration projects for the direct disposal of vitrified waste and spent fuel are described. The first two demonstration projects concern the shaft transport of heavy payloads of up to 85 t and the emplacement operations in the mine. The third demonstration project concerns the borehole emplacement operation. Finally, open issues for the next steps up to licensing of the emplacement and disposal systems are summarized.

  20. A studies on characteristics of groundwater system in discontinuous rockmass for evaluation of safety on disposal site of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Kim, Kyu Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Lee, Chee Hyeong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    This study contains the development of numerical model of groundwater system and its application for the evaluation of safety in disposal site of radioactive waste. Through the identification of hydraulic properties, characteristics of discontinuity and selection of discontinuity model around LPG underground storage facility, the application of continuum model and discrete fracture network model was evaluated for the analysis of groundwater flow and solute transport.

  1. Cytotoxic Drug Dispersal, Cytotoxic Safety, and Cytotoxic Waste Management: Practices and Proposed India-specific Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoor, Malini R; Bhowmik, Kumar Tapas

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with practices related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management and attempts at India-specific guidelines for their dispersal and disposal. The articles related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management were reviewed from PubMed and their applicability in Indian health-care facilities (HCFs) was also reviewed. All HCFs dealing with cytotoxic drugs should consider cytotoxic policy, patient safety and health-care worker safety, and environmental monitoring program as per the available international guidelines customized as per Indian conditions. Utmost care in handling cytotoxic waste is quintessential. The formation of India-specific cytotoxic guidelines requires the inputs from all stakeholders. Cytotoxic waste, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management should be the subject of a national strategy with an infrastructure, cradle-to-grave legislation, competent regulatory authority, and trained personnel.

  2. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  3. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Many developments are taking place in the area of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for traffic purposes. Many of the current ITS applications are mainly aimed at increasing comfort while driving and at improving accessibility. In addition, systems like the alcolock and the seatbelt lock are being

  4. 76 FR 53999 - Safety Notice: Transportation of DOT Special Permit Packages in Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Safety Notice: Transportation of DOT Special Permit Packages in Commerce AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT....

  5. Safety analysis report for medical radioisotope transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, K. S.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, J. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    KAERI has been producing radioisotopes for medical and industrial use and supplying them to radioisotope-using hospitals and industries. RI transport cask of A type package has been developed to transport medical radioisotopes from the HANARO to the hospitals. The safety analyses were performed under normal transport conditions in accordance with standards of transport regulations. As a results, it should be verified that the cask maintains the shielding and structural integrities under prescribed condition by the regulations. 8 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  6. ‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  7. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  8. Optimization of Nonlinear Transport-Production Task of Medical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlowicz, Edward

    2012-09-01

    The paper reflects on optimization of transportation - production tasks for the processing of medical waste. For the existing network of collection points and processing plants, according to its algorithm, the optimal allocation of tasks to the cost of transport to the respective plants has to be determined. It was assumed that the functions determining the processing costs are polynomials of the second degree. To solve the problem, a program written in MatLab environment equalization algorithm based on a marginal cost JCC was used.

  9. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  10. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

  11. Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Preliminary safety review of the transrapid maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorer, R. M.; Hathaway, W. T.

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration. Safety issues are addressed related to a specific maglev technology. The Transrapid maglev system was under development by the German Government over the last 10 to 15 years and was evolved into the current system with the TR-07 vehicle. A technically based safety review was under way over the last year by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The initial results of the review are presented to identify and assess potential maglev safety issues.

  12. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  13. Safety And Reduce In Pollution Issues For Inland Waterway Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Huong Dong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Transport inland water transport is one of the five modes of transport in our country play a very important role. Inland waterway transport not only plays a major role in transporting large volumes of goods and passengers but also creates millions of jobs contributing to ensuring social security and national defense and security. However there are still many inadequacies in waterway transportation such as unequal waterway traffic The phenomenon of exploitation of river resources as planned or Process technology is not as planned exploitation of sand gravel etc. are common in most rivers and canals in the country. The signaling system is not synchronized between the signal of the inland waterway management unit and the signal of the owner The handling of domestic goods transportation and inland port management is inadequate The force of the means of development is fast uneven but concentrated in some urban areas and industrial parks. Therefore the Ministry of Transport has proposed a scheme to facilitate the development of a synchronized inland waterway infrastructure linking with other modes of transport To improve the capacity of the crew and the inland waterway transport crews. To create favorable conditions for inland waterway transportation business with reasonable transportation costs Improve the quality of water transport services Ensure safety and environmental friendliness Make a distinct advantage over other modes of transport. Specifically will develop promulgate mechanisms The policy is to facilitate the development of inland waterway infrastructure Build and promulgate mechanism The policy of supporting the development of the fleet has a reasonable structure with a fleet of about 30 self-propelled ships accounting for about 70 of the total number of inland waterway vessels To prioritize the development of the container fleet Inland waterway transportation and training retraining of human resources for

  14. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Soupir, Michelle L.; Ikenberry, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water.

  15. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  16. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous...

  17. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  18. Healthcare waste management practices and safety indicators in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Oyekale, Tolulope Olayemi

    2017-09-25

    risky/safe medical waste disposal (p management. It was recommended that possession of HCW management guidelines, staff training on HCW disposal and provision of requisite equipment for proper treatment of HCW would promote environmental safety in HCW disposal.

  19. 77 FR 69899 - Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety The National Transportation Safety Board will hold a public conference on the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in transportation safety on December 4-5, 2012. GIS is a rapidly expanding group...

  20. The safety of radioactive materials transport; La surete des transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The rule of the radioactive materials transport contains two different objectives: the safety, or physical protection, consists in preventing the losses, the disappearances, the thefts and the diversions of the nuclear materials (useful materials for weapons); the high civil servant of defence near the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry is the responsible authority; the safety consists in mastering the risks of irradiation, contamination and criticality presented by the radioactive and fissile materials transport, in order that man and environment do not undergo the nuisances. The control of the safety is within the competence of the Asn. (N.C.)

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyacke, M.; Schmitt, R.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively.

  2. Impact of Vehicular Communications Security on Transportation Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitratos, Panos; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Lioy, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Transportation safety, one of the main driving forces of the development of vehicular communication (VC) systems, relies on high-rate safety messaging (beaconing). At the same time, there is consensus among authorities, industry, and academia on the need to secure VC systems. With specific proposals in the literature, a critical question must be answered: can secure VC systems be practical and satisfy the requirements of safety applications, in spite of the significant communication and processing overhead and other restrictions security and privacy-enhancing mechanisms impose? To answer this question, we investigate in this paper the following three dimensions for secure and privacy-enhancing VC schemes: the reliability of communication, the processing overhead at each node, and the impact on a safety application. The results indicate that with the appropriate system design, including sufficiently high processing power, applications enabled by secure VC can be in practice as effective as those enabled by uns...

  3. Proposal for the award of a contract for the collection and transport of waste and the treatment of standard waste

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the collection of waste from the CERN site and its transport and treatment of the standard waste. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with SAUVIN SCHMIDT (CH), the lowest bidder, for the collection and transport of waste and the treatment of standard waste for a period of three years for a maximum estimated amount of 2 220 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 30 June 2009. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period.

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-10-18

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue.

  5. A contribution from fundamental and applied technetium chemistry to the nuclear waste disposal safety case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totskiy, Yury; Yalcintas, Ezgi; Huber, Florian; Gaona, Xavier; Schaefer, Thorsten; Altmaier, Marcus; Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal; Kalmykov, Stepan [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal in deep geological formations such as crystalline (granite), sedimentary (claystone) or rock salt, is the favored option of the international nuclear waste disposal community. For the long-term safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories, a reliable prediction of radionuclide migration behavior is required. A potentially relevant mobilization and migration mechanism is caused by water intrusion into the repository, leading to radionuclide release via transport pathways. In this case, detailed knowledge of key parameters controlling the retention and mobilization of radionuclides in solution, i.e. redox processes, solubility limits and sorption properties, is essential. Dedicated research is required in order to derive process understanding and develop accurate site-independent chemical and thermodynamic models, applicable for all considered host rock formations and scenarios. Technetium-99 is a β-emitting fission product highly relevant for the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories due to its significant content in radioactive waste (fission yield >6%), long half-life (t{sub 1/2} ∼ 2.1.10{sup 5} a) and redox sensitivity. The mobility of Tc in the environment strongly depends on its oxidation state. Tc(VII) exists as highly soluble and mobile TcO{sub 4-} pertechnetate anion under sub-oxic and oxidizing conditions, whereas Tc(IV) forms sparingly soluble hydrous oxide (TcO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O) solid phases under reducing conditions. In the first part of this study focusing on fundamental Tc chemistry, the redox behavior of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) was investigated in dilute to concentrated solutions. The results are systematized according to Pourbaix diagrams calculated with the NEA.TDB data selection for Tc to assess the effect of homogeneous and heterogeneous reducing systems and ionic strength on Tc redox behaviour. Investigations focusing on the solubility and speciation of TcO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O(s) were performed in dilute to

  6. Safety in the on shore transport sector for SME enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    In EU the transport sector has an incident rate of accidents at work at 40 per 1000 employees. The Danish insurance company CODAN has insured a big part of this sector concerning transport of goods on shore. The transport branch is characterized by many small enterprises of which 97 % of the ente......In EU the transport sector has an incident rate of accidents at work at 40 per 1000 employees. The Danish insurance company CODAN has insured a big part of this sector concerning transport of goods on shore. The transport branch is characterized by many small enterprises of which 97...... % of the enterprises in Denmark have less than 50 employees and 89 % have less than 10 employees. The purpose of the project is to document the safety problems in the sector and to develop a strategy for a preventive intervention in transport enterprises through making successes in 6 enterprises by an intervention...... or falling objects, the traffic risk situations, work with animals and finally the risk of violence and robbery. The intervention is carried out in 6 SME transport enterprises over a three year period, beginning spring 2011. The intervention is organized together with the employers and follows their plan...

  7. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-02-28

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified.

  8. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  9. Topical safety analysis report for the transportation of the NUHOMS{reg_sign} dry shielded canister. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    This Topical Safety Analysis Report (SAR) describes the design and the generic transportation licensing basis for utilizing the NUTECH HORIZONTAL MODULAR STORAGE (NUHOMS{reg_sign}) system dry shielded canister (DSC) containing twenty-four pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies (SFA) in conjunction with a conceptually designed Transportation Cask. This SAR documents the design qualification of the NUHOMS{reg_sign} DSC as an integral part of a 10CFR71 Fissile Material Class III, Type B(M) Transportation Package. The package consists of the canister and a conceptual transportation cask (NUHOMS{reg_sign} Transportation Cask) with impact limiters. Engineering analysis is performed for the canister to confirm that the existing canister design complies with 10CFR71 transportation requirements. Evaluations and/or analyses is performed for criticality safety, shielding, structural, and thermal performance. Detailed engineering analysis for the transportation cask will be submitted in a future SAR requesting 10CFR71 certification of the complete waste package. Transportation operational considerations describe various operational aspects of the canister/transportation cask system. operational sequences are developed for canister transfer from storage to the transportation cask and interfaces with the cask auxiliary equipment for on- and off-site transport.

  10. Safety and Health Perceptions in Work-related Transport Activities in Ghanaian Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Atombo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: OSH culture is not fully complied in industries transport activities. This study, therefore, supports the use of safety seminars and training sessions for industry workers responsible for transport operations for better integration of safety standards.

  11. Report of safety of the characterizing system of radioactive waste; Informe de seguridad del sistema caracterizador de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-09-15

    Report of safety of the system of radioactive waste of the ININ: Installation, participant personnel, selection of the place, description of the installation, equipment. Proposed activities: operations with radioactive material, calibration in energy, calibration in efficiency, types of waste. Maintenance: handling of radioactive waste, physical safety. Organization: radiological protection, armor-plating, personal dosemeter, risks and emergency plan, environmental impact, medical exams. (Author)

  12. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  13. Evaluation of a self-guided transport vehicle for remote transportation of transuranic and other hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.M.; Moody, S.J.; Peterson, R. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic ft of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic ft of waste is up to 10 million cubic ft of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate a technology for transporting exhumed transuranic wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at other hazardous or radioactive waste sites through the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conducted at the INEEL Robotics Center in the summer of 1995, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for remote transport of exhumed buried waste. The technology consisted of a Self-Guided Transport Vehicle designed to remotely convey retrieved waste from the retrieval digface and transport it to a receiving/processing area with minimal human intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate performance parameters such as precision and accuracy of navigation and transportation rates.

  14. 78 FR 61251 - The National Public Transportation Safety Plan, the Public Transportation Agency Safety Plan, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... use quantitative measures to measure and evaluate safety performance. Types of data that some agencies... electronic comments and other data to http://www.regulations.gov . U.S. Mail: Send comments to Docket... definition of state of good repair developed through the implementation of the National TAM System; (3) a...

  15. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear...

  16. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  17. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition

  18. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies.

  20. FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY ASSURANCE IN TERMS OF LOSS AND WASTE LIMITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Śmiechowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of 21st century is satisfying the food needs of the fast growing population of the world. Food must fulfill quality and safety standards.  The access to safe and appropriate food is not the same everywhere.  Food excess and, in consequence, food waste is present in many regions of the world. This study is meant to explain the causes of food waste on the basis of the author’s own research and study results of other scientists. The lack of authenticity and falsification belong to the new factors endangering food safety and food waste related thereto. This analysis proves that the authenticity of food improves its safety through the implementation of quality management systems, the appropriate system of food labelling and food identification by means of applicable law regulations, supervision and control systems. Main aim of this study is to address why, even though there are so many quality standards and systems, a significant problem with food loss and waste constantly occurs. Waste-causing factors have been determined on the example of bread and the handling of unconsumed bread has been attempted in this study. Waste limiting actions are necessary as food production is significantly overburdening the natural environment and generating increasing amount of waste, hazardous to the clean air. 

  1. Proceedings of the Task 4 Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program second contractor information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Volume 1 contains the following papers: Solution Species of {sup 239}Pu in Oxidizing Environments; Solution Species of {sup 239}Pu in the Environment; Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Waste Transport in Selected Rocks; Studies of Radionuclide Availability and Migration at the Nevada Test Site Relevant to Radioactive Waste Disposal; Systematic Study of Metal Ion Sorption on Selected Geologic Media; Chromatographic K/sub d/ values of Radionuclides; Effects of Redox Potentials on Sorption of Radionuclides by Geologic Media; and Transport Properties of Nuclear Waste in Geologic Media. Individual papers were processed.

  2. Safety and radiation protection in waste management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Lipponen, M.; Vuori, S. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Ruokola, E. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Palsson, S.E. [Geslavarnir (Iceland); Sekse, T. [NRPA, Oesteraas (Norway); Ramsoey, T. [IFE, Kjeller (Norway)

    2001-12-01

    During 1998-2001, a project on the management of radioactive waste was carried out as part of the NKS programme. The project was called NKS/SOS-3 and was divided into three sub-projects: SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment; EIA), SOS-3.2 (Intermediate storage) and SOS-3.3 (Contamination levels in metals). SOS-3.1 included four EIA seminars on the use of EIA in the Nordic countries. The seminars were held in Norway in 1998, Denmark in 1999, Iceland in 2000 and Finland in 2001. (The last seminar was performed in co-operation with the NKS project SOS-1.) The seminars focused on experiences from EIA procedures for the disposal of radioactive waste, and other experiences from EIA processes. SOS-3.2 included a study on intermediate storage of radioactive waste packages in the Nordic countries. An overview of experiences was compiled and recommendations were made regarding different intermediate storage options as well as control and supervision. SOS-3.3 included investigation of contamination levels in steel, aluminium and magnesium samples from smelting facilities and an overview of current practice for clearance in the Nordic countries. Clearance, clearance levels, naturally occurring radioactive materials, radioactive waste, radioactive material, intermediate storage, waste disposal, environmental impact assessment, gamma spectrometric measurements, beta measurements, neutron activation analyses. (au)

  3. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education safety guide

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the > fulfilment of the safety requirements established in Safety Standards > Series No. WS-R-2, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, > Including Decommissioning. It covers the roles and responsibilities of > different bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive > waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It > is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive > waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis for and the > regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.  > Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the > environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety > considerations; 5. Predisposal management of radioactive waste; 6. > Acceptance of radioactive waste in disposal facilities; 7. Record > keeping and reporting; 8. Management systems; Appendix I: Fault > schedule for safety assessment and environmental impact assessment; > Ap...

  4. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  5. Climate Considerations in Long-Term Safety Assessments for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Claesson Liljedahl, Lillemor [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: jens-ove.naslund@skb.se

    2013-05-15

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  6. Natural analogue studies for the safety case development of radioactive waste disposal in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung-Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 305-338 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Min-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The natural analogue study is an analogy approach to investigate natural occurrences of materials, conditions and processes that are similar to those known or predicted to occur in some part of a radioactive waste disposal system. Countries considering the disposal of radioactive waste have been working on their domestic natural analogue studies for developing the safety case and improving the disposal safety. Natural analogue study can effectively be applied to the understanding of a long-term behavior of the post-closure repository, the provision of quantitative data required for the safety assessment models, and the supplementary safety indicator to prove the safety of deep geological disposal. Therefore the natural analogue studies play an important role in the safety case which requires a multiple lines of evidence including the safety assessment for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. In this study, current status of foreign natural analogue studies was investigated by summarizing their results related with repository materials, radionuclide migration and retardation. Main results, issues, and their applicability of the foreign natural analogue studies were also analyzed. The results of natural analogue studies in Korea were categorized and summarized according to the studies on the uranium ore bodies, rocks, groundwater, and archeological artifacts. Although so many studies on the natural analogue have been carried out during last several decades in Korea, their results have not been actively applied to the safety assessment and safety case development for radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, applicable methods of natural analogues were summarized and a methodology for improving their applicability was examined. Additionally, in order to improve the application of these results from natural analogue studies, build-up of a natural analogue information database was in progress and its status will be presented. (authors)

  7. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries.

  8. Construction safety and waste management an economic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents an analysis of construction safety problems and on-site safety measures from an economist’s point of view. The book includes examples from both emerging countries, e.g. China and India, and developed countries, e.g. Australia and Hong Kong. Moreover, the author covers an analysis on construction safety knowledge sharing by means of updatable mobile technology such as apps in Androids and iOS platform mobile devices. The target audience comprises primarily researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Interim safety equipment list for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1996-01-25

    The purpose of this supporting document is to provide safety classifications for systems, structures, and components of the Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) and to document the methodology used to develop these safety classifications. The WRSS requires two transfer lines, one to carry sluiced waste slurry to tank 241-AY-102 and the other to return supernatant to tank 241-C-106; pumps in each tank; sluicers to direct the supernatant stream inside tank 241-C-106; a slurry distributor in tank 241-AY-102; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for tank 241-C-106; and instrumentation and control devices.

  10. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  11. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E. [and others

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work.

  12. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  13. Waste collection in developing countries--tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleck, Daniela; Wettberg, Wieland

    2012-11-01

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  14. Waste collection in developing countries - Tackling occupational safety and health hazards at their source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleck, Daniela, E-mail: bleck.daniela@baua.bund.de [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany); Wettberg, Wieland, E-mail: wettberg.wieland@baua.bund.de [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany (BAuA), Friedrich Henkel Weg 1-25, 44149 Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Waste management procedures in developing countries are associated with occupational safety and health risks. Gastro-intestinal infections, respiratory and skin diseases as well as muscular-skeletal problems and cutting injuries are commonly found among waste workers around the globe. In order to find efficient, sustainable solutions to reduce occupational risks of waste workers, a methodological risk assessment has to be performed and counteractive measures have to be developed according to an internationally acknowledged hierarchy. From a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia suggestions for the transferral of collected household waste into roadside containers are given. With construction of ramps to dump collected household waste straight into roadside containers and an adaptation of pushcarts and collection procedures, the risk is tackled at the source.

  15. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

  16. 49 CFR 209.501 - Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... route analysis. 209.501 Section 209.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....820 § 209.501 Review of rail transportation safety and security route analysis. (a) Review of route analysis. If the Associate Administrator for Safety determines that a railroad carrier's route selection...

  17. 28 CFR 97.20 - Standards to ensure the safety of violent prisoners during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prisoners during transport. 97.20 Section 97.20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... safety of violent prisoners during transport. Companies covered under this section must comply with applicable State and federal laws that govern the safety of violent prisoners during transport. In...

  18. Safety Education. A Guide To Help Prevent Accidents Associated with the Home, Student Transportation, Disasters, Pedestrians, Passengers, Fires, Consumerism, Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This teacher's guide presents 10 instructional units for one portion of the Texas-approved course in driver and safety education. The units cover the following topics: what is safety?; accident causation and prevention; home safety; student transportation safety; disasters; pedestrian safety; passenger safety; fire safety; consumer safety; and…

  19. Logistics of Transport and Handling with the Waste in the Upper Gemer region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Spišák

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In the future, not any society (even the most advanced society can exists without waste formed by production processes or by any human activity. Increasing of the waste volume as well as its structure influences the living space of the mankind in a negative way. Therefore, the production, disposal or the exploitation of the waste is not only ecological but also the economical problem for the whole society. New methods of handling and disposal of the waste are preferred. This contribution is oriented on the application of micrologistics proceedings in order to reach a more effective system of transporting and handling with the waste.

  20. Research on treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. Progress in Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, JAERI, has been carrying out research on safe and rational disposal systems of radioactive wastes arising from medical activities and research institutes (RI and Research Institute Waste). The research area includes a study on molten solidified waste form, a geological survey on Japan, a proposal on integrated disposal systems, data acquisition for safety evaluation, and a safety analysis of disposal systems. This report introduces progress and future works for the treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. (author)

  1. Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

    1976-04-01

    This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

  2. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W. J.; Lee, B. S.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  3. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W. J.; Lee, B. S.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  4. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

  5. 32 CFR 861.4 - DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 861.4 DOD air transportation quality and safety requirements. (a) General. The DOD, as a customer of... number one company priority, and safety is never sacrificed to satisfy passenger concern, convenience,...

  6. Assessment of occupational safety risks in Floridian solid waste systems using Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Mehrad; Celik, Nurcin

    2015-10-01

    Safety risks embedded within solid waste management systems continue to be a significant issue and are prevalent at every step in the solid waste management process. To recognise and address these occupational hazards, it is necessary to discover the potential safety concerns that cause them, as well as their direct and/or indirect impacts on the different types of solid waste workers. In this research, our goal is to statistically assess occupational safety risks to solid waste workers in the state of Florida. Here, we first review the related standard industrial codes to major solid waste management methods including recycling, incineration, landfilling, and composting. Then, a quantitative assessment of major risks is conducted based on the data collected using a Bayesian data analysis and predictive methods. The risks estimated in this study for the period of 2005-2012 are then compared with historical statistics (1993-1997) from previous assessment studies. The results have shown that the injury rates among refuse collectors in both musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have decreased from 88 and 15 to 16 and three injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. However, a contrasting trend is observed for the injury rates among recycling workers, for whom musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have increased from 13 and four injuries to 14 and six injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. Lastly, a linear regression model has been proposed to identify major elements of the high number of musculoskeletal and dermal injuries.

  7. Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute food security/safety problems. Food production and waste generation directly affect resource (i.e., energy and water) consumption and often contaminate the environment. More pressure on food production has inculcated the use of pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics and chemical fertilizers which add to current global pollution. At least half of food grown is discarded before and after it reaches consumers. It is estimated that one third to half of landfill waste comes from the food sector. This landfill releases green house gases (GHG) as well as leachate which worsen soil and water quality and safety. Pharmaceutical and chemical contaminations from residential, industrial and agricultural sources make their way into nearby water and soil and can eventually affect our food systems. Phthalates, PFOA, BPA, commonly used in plastics and personal care products, are found in unacceptable concentrations in Taiwanese waters. They, too, contribute to food contamination and long-term health risk. Existing waste management strategies warrant more stringent norms for waste reduction at source. Awareness through education could reduce food waste and its consequences. This review encompasses impacts of food production systems on the environment, pollution which results from food waste, costs and economic advantages in food waste management, and health consequences of waste.

  8. Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

  9. Safety assessment of waste rock dump built on existing tailings ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全明; 袁会娜; 钟茂华

    2015-01-01

    The construction of waste rock dumps on existing tailing ponds has been put into practice in China to save precious land resources. This work focuses on the safety assessment of the Daheishan molybdenum mine waste rock dump under construction on two adjoining tailings ponds. The consolidation of the tailings foundation and the filling quality of the waste rock are investigated by the transient electromagnetic method through detecting water-rich areas and loose packing areas, from which, the depth of phreatic line is also estimated. With such information and the material parameters, the numerical method based on shear strength reduction is applied to analyzing the overall stability of the waste rock dump and the tailings ponds over a number of typical cross sections under both current and designed conditions, where the complex geological profiles exposed by site investigation are considered. Through numerical experiments, the influence of soft lenses in the tailings and possible loose packing areas in the waste rock is examined. Although large displacements may develop due to the soft tailings foundation, the results show that the waste rock dump satisfies the safety requirements under both present and designed conditions.

  10. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO(2)-equivalent (kg CO(2)-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, and travel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways.

  11. Review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety control in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. T.; Smith, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Basic elements in the review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety in transportation are the magnitudes of reactivity changes that may occur to a shipment of packages and those inherent in the regulatory procedure of assessment. The generic representation of criticality of reflected arrays of uncontained fissionable materials is used as a basis for comparison of packaged fissionable materials. The reactivities associated with array changes and perturbations representative of credible conditions that may occur in storage or transportation are summarized for air-spaced units of fissionable materials. Calculations of packaged fissionable material determined reactivities associated with similar changes to arrays of packages. Typical thermal insulating materials being studied are Celotex, wood, Foamglas, and a bonded vermiculite. The effect on the array neutron multiplication of these, with and without steel as an inner and outer container material, is examined. The present stage of the study has produced results illustrating the variable margin of subcriticality manifested by the criteria. Depending upon the packaging, mass loading and array reflector condition, the margin of subcriticality can be of the order of 1% in k/sub eff/.

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  13. Thermal testing of packages for transport of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be shown capable of surviving tests specified by regulations such as Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (called 10CFR71 in this paper) within the United States. Equivalent regulations hold for other countries such as Safety Series 6 issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The containers must be shown to be capable of surviving, in order, drop tests, puncture tests, and thermal tests. Immersion testing in water is also required, but must be demonstrated for undamaged packages. The thermal test is intended to simulate a 30 minute exposure to a fully engulfing pool fire that could occur if a transport accident involved the spill of large quantities of hydrocarbon fuels. Various qualification methods ranging from pure analysis to actual pool fire tests have been used to prove regulatory compliance. The purpose of this paper is to consider the alternatives for thermal testing, point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and to provide the designer with the information necessary to make informed decisions on the proper test program for the particular shipping container under consideration. While thermal analysis is an alternative to physical testing, actual testing is often emphasized by regulators, and this report concentrates on these testing alternatives.

  14. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  15. 75 FR 75641 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...'s designee, of certain shipments of irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste passing... notification to Native American Tribes of transportation of certain types of nuclear waste (64 FR...

  16. Study on assessment safety of geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Department of Environmental Safety Research of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has conducted the study on safety of geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. The long-term safety of the geological disposal is proposed to be secured by the multi barrier system which consists of engineered and natural barriers. Thus, in order to clarify the performance of the engineered barrier, we have studied on the long-term behaviors of waste forms, canister, overpack, back fill materials. We have developed a new waste form, i.e. ceramic waste form. And in order to clarify the performance of the natural barrier, we have studied on the hydrology, rock properties, geochemistry of actinides, sorption and fixation of radionuclides on and to rocks and/or minerals, alteration of minerals, dispersion behavior of radionuclides. Natural analogue studies and in-situ experiments have also been conducted. According to the methodology for the assessment established, the assessment model has been developed. (J.P.N.).

  17. Safety equipment list for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, Project W-320: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-11-15

    The goals of the C-106 sluicing operation are: (1) to stabilize the tank by reducing the heat load in the tank to less than 42 MJ/hr (40,000 Btu/hour), and (2) to initiate demonstration of single-shell tank (SST) retrieval technology. The purpose of this supporting document (SD) is as follows: (1) to provide safety classifications for items (systems, structures, equipment, components, or parts) for the waste retrieval sluicing system (WRSS), and (2) to document and methodology used to develop safety classifications. Appropriate references are made with regard to use of existing systems, structures, equipments, components, and parts for C-106 single-shell transfer tank located in the C Tank Farm, and 241-AY-102 (AY-102) double shell receiver tanks (DST) located in the Aging Waste Facility (AWF). The Waste Retrieval Sluicing System consists of two transfer lines that would connect the two tanks, one to carry the sluiced waste slurry to AY-102, and the other to return the supernatant liquid to C-106. The supernatant, or alternate fluid, will be used to mobilize waste in C-106 for the sluicing process. The equipment necessary for the WRSS include pumps in each tank, sluicers to direct the supernatant stream in C-106, a slurry distributor in AY-102, HVAC for C-106, instrumentation and control devices, and other existing components as required.

  18. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the sediment transport modeling task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, V.L.; Baron, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    This site-specific Work Plan/Health and Safety Checklist (WP/HSC) is a supplement to the general health and safety plan (HASP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 remedial investigation and site investigation (WAG 2 RI&SI) activities [Health and Safety Plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ORNL/ER-169)] and provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 RI&SI Sediment Transport Modeling Task. This WP/HSC identifies specific site operations, site hazards, and any recommendations by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) health and safety organizations [i.e., Industrial Hygiene (IH), Health Physics (HP), and/or Industrial Safety] that would contribute to the safe completion of the WAG 2 RI&SI. Together, the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI&SI (ORNL/ER-169) and the completed site-specific WP/HSC meet the health and safety planning requirements specified by 29 CFR 1910.120 and the ORNL Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) Program Manual. In addition to the health and safety information provided in the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI&SI, details concerning the site-specific task are elaborated in this site-specific WP/HSC, and both documents, as well as all pertinent procedures referenced therein, will be reviewed by all field personnel prior to beginning operations.

  19. Case study radiological incidents and impact of a possible loss in road transport in Spain of high level radioactive waste; Estudio de caso incidencias radiolgicas y de impacto, ante un posible siniestro en el trasportes por carretera en Espana deresiduos radiactivos de alta actividad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja Rubio, J. A.; Gutierrez Martin, F.; Colon Hernandez, C.

    2011-07-01

    Issues related to the transport of high level radioactive waste to the future centralized temporary storage are current, the transfer itself is expected in the near future, the commitment of these activities to the environment, safety people and its regulations.

  20. Maritime Transportation System Safety – Modeling and Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Dziula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is showing a concept of critical infrastructure systems’ safety states model. Model construction is basing on: popular technical systems’ safety states models, and notions specified in acts of law and other studies concerning crisis management. Paper is including some concept of proposed model usage possibilities - methods and procedures for estimating unknown basic parameters of safety states transitions process: identifying the distributions of its conditional lifetime at safety states, estimating probabilities of its staying at safety states at the initial moment, probabilities of its transitions between safety states and parameters of the distribution for the description of its conditional lifetimes at safety states.

  1. Calculation of combustible waste fraction (CWF) estimates used in organics safety issue screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, P.G.; Gao, F.; Toth, J.J.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes how in-tank measurements of moisture (H{sub 2}O) and total organic carbon (TOC) are used to calculate combustible waste fractions (CWF) for 138 of the 149 Hanford single shell tanks. The combustible waste fraction of a tank is defined as that proportion of waste that is capable of burning when exposed to an ignition source. These CWF estimates are used to screen tanks for the organics complexant safety issue. Tanks with a suitably low fraction of combustible waste are classified as safe. The calculations in this report determine the combustible waste fractions in tanks under two different moisture conditions: under current moisture conditions, and after complete dry out. The first fraction is called the wet combustible waste fraction (wet CWF) and the second is called the dry combustible waste fraction (dry CWF). These two fractions are used to screen tanks into three categories: if the wet CWF is too high (above 5%), the tank is categorized as unsafe; if the wet CWF is low but the dry CWF is too high (again, above 5%), the tank is categorized as conditionally safe; finally, if both the wet and dry CWF are low, the tank is categorized as safe. Section 2 describes the data that was required for these calculations. Sections 3 and 4 describe the statistical model and resulting fit for dry combustible waste fractions. Sections 5 and 6 present the statistical model used to estimate wet CWF and the resulting fit. Section 7 describes two tests that were performed on the dry combustible waste fraction ANOVA model to validate it. Finally, Section 8 presents concluding remarks. Two Appendices present results on a tank-by-tank basis.

  2. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hun; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    In the study, GSIS os developed for the maximizing effectiveness of the database system. For this purpose, the spatial relation of data from various fields that are constructed in the database which was developed for the site selection and management of repository for radioactive waste disposal. By constructing the integration system that can link attribute and spatial data, it is possible to evaluate the safety of repository effectively and economically. The suitability of integrating database and GSIS is examined by constructing the database in the test district where the site characteristics are similar to that of repository for radioactive waste disposal.

  3. Organic Cultivation of Tomato in India with Recycled Slaughterhouse Wastes: Evaluation of Fertilizer and Fruit Safety

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and health safety of recycled slaughterhouse wastes-derived fertilizer and the produce obtained through its application is not well understood. Waste bovine blood and rumen digesta were mixed, cooked and sun-dried to obtain bovine-blood-and-rumen-digesta-mixture (BBRDM, NPK 30.36:1:5.75). 1.26 ± 0.18 log CFU mL−1 fecal coliforms were recovered in BBRDM. E. coli O157:H7, Mycobacteria, Clostridium sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp. and Brucella sp. were absent. No re-growth of p...

  4. FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY ASSURANCE IN TERMS OF LOSS AND WASTE LIMITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Śmiechowska; Filip Kłobukowski

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges of 21st century is satisfying the food needs of the fast growing population of the world. Food must fulfill quality and safety standards.  The access to safe and appropriate food is not the same everywhere.  Food excess and, in consequence, food waste is present in many regions of the world. This study is meant to explain the causes of food waste on the basis of the author’s own research and study results of other scientists. The lack of au...

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  6. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  7. [Systemic approach to ecologic safety at objects with radiation jeopardy, involved into localization of low and medium radioactive waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, E I

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with specifying systemic approach to ecologic safety of objects with radiation jeopardy. The authors presented stages of work and algorithm of decisions on preserving reliability of storage for radiation jeopardy waste. Findings are that providing ecologic safety can cover 3 approaches: complete exemption of radiation jeopardy waste, removal of more dangerous waste from present buildings and increasing reliability of prolonged localization of radiation jeopardy waste at the initial place. The systemic approach presented could be realized at various radiation jeopardy objects.

  8. Proposing An Effective Route For Transporting Solid Waste Using Gis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Samsu, Ku Nor Syazana Ku; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2016-11-01

    Transportation is one of the important elements in solid waste management. Effective transportation by selecting the shortest route can save time and cost in handling the waste. Thus, this paper presents a case study on deciding shortest waste transportation route from residential area to sanitary landfill in Kluang district handled by Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Corporation (SWCorp). The shortest transportation distance was determined using ArcGIS software on the basis of coordinate tracking, data collection for network analysis and fuel consumption estimation. The case study focuses on municipal solid waste collection routes from residential area in Kluang district to Ladang CEP 1 sanitary landfill and Seelong sanitary landfill. The study found that SWCorp could save up to 18% and 7.3% of fuel consumption per day by following the effective routes for transporting solid waste to Ladang CEP 1 sanitary landfill and to Seelong Sanitary landfill respectively. The findings could assist SWCorp saving management cost and also keep environment cleaner.

  9. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazono, Atsushi, E-mail: terazono@nies.go.jp [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Iino, Shigenori [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Mogi, Satoshi [Bureau of Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2-8-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8001 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  10. Organic tanks safety program FY95 waste aging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Lenihan, B.D.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report gives the second year`s findings of a study of how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds in the underground tanks at Hanford. Efforts were focused on the global reaction kinetics in a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} rays and the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion. The gas production is predominantly radiolytic. Decarboxylation of carboxylates is probably an aging pathway. TBP was totaly consumed in almost every run. Radiation clearly accelerated consumption of the other compounds. EDTA is more reactive than citrate. Oximes and possibly organic nitro compounds are key intermediates in the radiolytic redox reactions of organic compounds with nitrate/nitrite. Observations are consistent with organic compounds being progressively degraded to compounds with greater numbers of C-O bonds and fewer C-H and C-C bonds, resulting in an overall lower energy content. If the radwaste tanks are adequately ventilated and continually dosed by radioactivity, their total energy content should have declined. Level of risk depends on how rapidly carboxylate salts of moderate energy content (including EDTA fragments) degrade to low energy oxalate and formate.

  11. Practical management of chemicals and hazardous wastes: An environmental and safety professional`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhre, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    This book was written to help the environmental and safety student learn about the field and to help the working professional manage hazardous material and waste issues. For example, one issue that will impact virtually all of these people mentioned is the upcoming environmental standardization movement. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is in the process of adding comprehensive environmental and hazardous waste management systems to their future certification requirements. Most industries worldwide will be working hard to achieve this new level of environmental management. This book presents many of the systems needed to receive certification. In order to properly manage hazardous waste, it is important to consider the entire life cycle, including when the waste was a useful chemical or hazardous material. Waste minimization is built upon this concept. Understanding the entire life cycle is also important in terms of liability, since many regulations hold generators responsible from cradle to grave. This book takes the life-cycle concept even further, in order to provide additional insight. The discussion starts with the conception of the chemical and traces its evolution into a waste and even past disposal. At this point the story continues into the afterlife, where responsibility still remains.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763—Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste For the...

  13. Application of ISO system to safety test for radioactive material transport package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Safety tests for radioactive material transportation package are described in MOST notice 2001-23, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1 and US 10 CFR Part 71. Safety test facilities and equipments were provided to be capable of performing various tests prescribed in those regulations. Test methods and procedures appropriate in International Standard ISO were established and this laboratory of radioactive material transportation package is accredited by Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme(KOLAS)

  14. WASTES-II: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation--Release 24: User's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    WASTES models each reactor pool and an at-reactor, out-of-pool (ex-pool) storage facility for each reactor site. Spent fuel transfers between pools can be simulated under various constraints controlled by user input. In addition to simulating each pool and ex-pool facility, WASTES can accommodate up to ten other storage facilities of four different types: federal interim storage (FIS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS), auxiliary plants, and repositories. Considerable flexibility is allowed for the user to specify system configuration and priorities for fuel receipts. In addition, the WASTES computer code simulates very detailed (assembly-specific) movements of spent fuel throughout the waste management system. Spent fuel characteristics that are tracked by WASTES for each movement are: discharge year and month, number of assemblies, weight of uranium (MTU), exposure, original enrichment, and heat generation rate (calculated from the preceding characteristics). Data for the WASTES model is based upon the DOE reactor-specific spent fuel data base, which is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). In addition to the spent fuel characteristics, this data includes reactor location, type, transportation access, and historical and projected discharge data on the number of fuel assemblies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1976-06-01

    The environmental and safety aspects of processing municipal solid wastes to recover energy and materials are reviewed in some detail. The state of the art in energy recovery, energy potential for the near and long-term, and constraints to commercialization are discussed. Under the environmental and safety aspects the state of the art, need for research and development, and need for coordination among federal agencies and private industry are considered. Eleven principal types of refuse-to-energy processes are described and a projected energy balance is derived for each process. (JSR)

  16. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  17. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the use of nuclear energy about 17.000 t (27.000 m{sup 3}) of high level waste and about 300.000 m{sup 3} of low and intermediated level waste will have accumulated in Germany until 2022. Research in the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Division focuses on fundamental and applied aspects of the safe management of nuclear waste - in particular the nuclear aspects. In principle, our research in Forschungszentrum Juelich is looking at the material science/solid state aspects of nuclear waste management. It is organized in several research areas: The long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal is a key issue when it comes to the final disposal of high level nuclear waste in a deep geological formation. We are contributing to the scientific basis for the safety case of a nuclear waste repository in Germany. In Juelich we are focusing on a fundamental understanding of near field processes within a waste repository system. The main research topics are spent fuel corrosion and the retention of radionuclides by secondary phases. In addition, innovative waste management strategies are investigated to facilitate a qualified decision on the best strategy for Germany. New ceramic waste forms for disposal in a deep geological formation are studied as well as the partitioning of long-lived actinides. These research areas are supported by our structure research group, which is using experimental and computational approaches to examine actinide containing compounds. Complementary to these basic science oriented activities, IEK-6 also works on rather applied aspects. The development of non-destructive methods for the characterisation of nuclear waste packages has a long tradition in Juelich. Current activities focus on improving the segmented gamma scanning technique and the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis. Furthermore, the waste treatment group is developing concepts for the safe management of nuclear

  18. Seismic behavior of tire waste-sand mixtures for transportation infrastructure in cold regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aye Edinliler; Ozgur Yildiz

    2015-01-01

    Tire wastes have many properties that are valuable from a geotechnical engineering perspective, such as low density, high strength, thermal insulation, energy absorption capacity, permeability, durability, compressibility, resilience, and high frictional strength. Thus, tire wastes offer good thermal characteristics in resisting frost penetration and have good drainage characteristics, being as permeable as coarse granular soil for fill materials. The many advantages of tire wastes make the material suitable for transportation infrastructure construction in cold regions. Also, tire wastes with high damping prop-erty make them a preferable admixture with sand for transportation infrastructures in seismic regions. This study aimed to determine the seismic performance of certain tire waste-sand mixtures in cold regions. A 70% sand-30% tire crumb mixture by weight (TC30) with a very high damping property was selected for analysis as an engineering material for transportation infrastructure. Small-scale shake-table tests were conducted on this material as well as on a sand-only sample under two different temperatures, 0 °C and 20 °C, to simulate cold-region and moderate-temperature performance, respectively. The 1999İzmit Earthquake Excitation (EW) (Mw=7.4) was taken as the input motion. Test results showed that the tire waste-sand mixture at 0 °C showed better seismic performance than that at room temperature, suggesting that a tire waste-sand mixture in cold regions may reduce seismic hazards to infrastructure.

  19. New application notion of pipeline transport--integrated in industry solid waste innocuous and efficient disposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; ZHAO Xue-yi; WANG Xing; PAN Yue; ZHANG Na; WU Yu-jing; WU Miao

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve transport problems of industry solid, firstly, a new application notion of pipeline transport was presented, that is to say, combining pretreatment and transport with disposal techniques of industry solid waste. Secondly, the integrated disposal and transport system for industry solid waste was introduced, in particular, the operating principles, equipment set-up, key technology and technical parameters. Next, this paper illustrated the application of this integrated system. Such as it can transport coal sludge with sufficiently high solids content ( about 72%~77%) and high apparent viscosity Generally, the transport distance is about 1 000 m. This system has been successfully used in innocuous disposition and efficient utilization of other industrial byproducts or solid wastes, such as city sludge and paper making waste. The integrated system causes no pollution to the environment for its complete seal and realizes protecting the environment,conserving the energy, promoting the development of cycling economic. Finally, the paper discussed the research works that were needed for studying such pipeline transport system and narrates the relevant condition and application status.

  20. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  1. A spatial analysis of hierarchical waste transport structures under growing demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, Audrey; Glaus, Mathias; Laforest, Valérie; Villot, Jonathan; Hausler, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The design of waste management systems rarely accounts for the spatio-temporal evolution of the demand. However, recent studies suggest that this evolution affects the planning of waste management activities like the choice and location of treatment facilities. As a result, the transport structure could also be affected by these changes. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of the spatio-temporal evolution of the demand on the strategic planning of a waste transport structure. More particularly this study aims at evaluating the effect of varying spatial parameters on the economic performance of hierarchical structures (with one transfer station). To this end, three consecutive generations of three different spatial distributions were tested for hierarchical and non-hierarchical transport structures based on costs minimization. Results showed that a hierarchical structure is economically viable for large and clustered spatial distributions. The distance parameter was decisive but the loading ratio of trucks and the formation of clusters of sources also impacted the attractiveness of the transfer station. Thus the territories' morphology should influence strategies as regards to the installation of transfer stations. The use of spatial-explicit tools such as the transport model presented in this work that take into account the territory's evolution are needed to help waste managers in the strategic planning of waste transport structures.

  2. Factors Influencing Attitude, Safety Behavior, and Knowledge regarding Household Waste Management in Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Mamady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste indiscriminate disposal is recognized as an important cause of environmental pollution and is associated with health problems. Safe management and disposal of household waste are an important problem to the capital city of Guinea (Conakry. The objective of this study was to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with practice, knowledge, and safety behavior of family members regarding household waste management and to produce a remedial action plan. I found that no education background, income, and female individuals were independently associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. Unplanned residential area was an additional factor associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. I also found that the community residents had poor knowledge and unsafe behavior in relation to waste management. The promotion of environmental information and public education and implementation of community action programs on disease prevention and health promotion will enhance environmental friendliness and safety of the community.

  3. The Interface of Safety and Security in Transport: A Regional Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Tim [ORNL; Duhamel, David A [ORNL; Nandakumar, A. N. [Mumbai, India; ParamiPhD, Vangeline K. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; Bajwa, Christopher [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Shannon, Michael [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    2016-01-01

    Security of nuclear and other radioactive material in transport continues to be a challenge for States that are working on strengthening their nuclear security regime. One reason for this is that State regulatory agencies and other organizations lack the resources and trained personnel to dedicate to this field. For over 50 years safety has been a major focus in the use, storage and transport of radioactive material. Only recently, since the late 1990s, has dedicated focus been given to the field of security. One way to assist States to advance nuclear security is to reach out to safety workers (regulators, inspectors, and safety compliance personnel) and showcase the need to better integrate safety and security practices. A recent IAEA regional workshop in Bangkok, Thailand (June 2015) yielded profound results when subject matter experts lectured on both the safety and the security of radioactive material in transport. These experts presented and discussed experiences and best practices for: 1) developing and implementing safety requirements and security recommendations for radioactive material in transport; 2) national and international cooperation; and 3) preventing shipment delays/denials of radioactive material. The workshop participants, who were predominantly from safety organizations, shared that they received the following from this event: 1. A clear understanding of the objectives of the IAEA safety requirements and security recommendations for radioactive material in transport. 2. A general understanding of and appreciation for the similarities and differences between safety requirements and security recommendations for radioactive material in transport. 3. A greater appreciation of the interface between transport safety and security and potential impacts of this interface on the efforts to strengthen the compliance assurance regime for the safe transport of radioactive material. 4. A general understanding of assessing the transport security scenarios

  4. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety.

  5. Knowledge and practices about hospital waste disposal and universal safety precautions in class IV employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megha, Khobragade; Daksha, Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Norms and guidelines are formed for safe disposal of hospital waste but question is whether these guidelines are being followed and if so, to what extent. Hence, this study was conducted with objective to study the knowledge and practices about hospital waste disposal and universal safety precautions in class IV employee and to study its relationship with education, occupation and training. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Mumbai using semi-structured questionnaire in which Class IV employee were included. Questionnaire was filled by face to face interview. Data were analyzed using SPSS. 48.7% Class IV employee were not trained. More than 40% were following correct practices about disinfection of infectious waste. None of the respondents were using protective footwear while handling hospital waste. Only 25.5% were vaccinated for hepatitis B. 16% had done HIV testing due to contact with blood, body fluid, needle stick injury. Knowledge and practices about hospital waste disposal and universal precaution were statistically significant in trained respondents. Training of employees should be given top priority; those already in service should be given on the job training at the earliest.

  6. Model for improving safety in transporting dangerous goods for the Serbian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Kostadinović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Design and improvement of the safety of transport of dangerous goods is a multidimensional and dynamic process which can be implemented using several different methods and techniques. In defining the model of improving the safety of transport of dangerous goods for the purposes of the Serbian Army, the Deming's approach to quality management system has been used. The analysis of the existing organization of transport of dangerous goods in the Army of Serbia has established the basic causes that affect the reduction in security as well as specific measures to be taken to improve the safety of transport of dangerous goods in the Serbian Army. The benchmark concept, widely used in the world, especially among organizations dealing with the same kind of logistic services, has been applied to indentify measures to improve the safety of transport of dangerous goods in the Serbian Army.

  7. Accelerated safety analyses - structural analyses Phase I - structural sensitivity evaluation of single- and double-shell waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerated Safety Analyses - Phase I (ASA-Phase I) have been conducted to assess the appropriateness of existing tank farm operational controls and/or limits as now stipulated in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Operating Specification Documents, and to establish a technical basis for the waste tank operating safety envelope. Structural sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the response of the different waste tank configurations to variations in loading conditions, uncertainties in loading parameters, and uncertainties in material characteristics. Extensive documentation of the sensitivity analyses conducted and results obtained are provided in the detailed ASA-Phase I report, Structural Sensitivity Evaluation of Single- and Double-Shell Waste Tanks for Accelerated Safety Analysis - Phase I. This document provides a summary of the accelerated safety analyses sensitivity evaluations and the resulting findings.

  8. Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

    2003-02-25

    Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years.

  9. The possibility of GIS application for the needs of planning transport of hazardous waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panić Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous waste management system as a separate segment includes the transportation of hazardous waste, which specifically includes transportation from the place of its origin to the place of storage, treatment or final disposal. This function includes all forms of transport, but experience has shown that the most used one is a road traffic, which also carries an extremely high risk of possible occurrence of accident and endangering the local community, material resources and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to establish control over transport option, and the risk too, which is achieved by conducting risk assessments and then selecting the optimal transport routes. In each of these phases GIS has found its major application, enabling operation with different types of data, a simplified procedure of multi-criteria analysis and a clear visual representation of the received results. .

  10. Statement of work for the immobilized high-level waste transportation system, Project W-464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouette, P.

    1998-06-24

    The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). This transportation system which includes the truck, the trailer, and a shielded cask will be used for on-site transportation of the IHLW canisters from the private vendor vitrification facility to the Hanford Site interim storage facility, i.e., vaults 2 and 3 of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This Statement of Work asks Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations, to provide Project W-464 with a Design Criteria Document, plus a life-cycle schedule and cost estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system (shielded cask, truck, trailer) for IHLW on-site transportation.

  11. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2009-02-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada” (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at Area 5 and Area 3. No shipments were disposed of at Area 3 in fiscal year (FY) 2008. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to or from the NTS during FY 2008. No transuranic (TRU) waste shipments were made from or to the NTS during FY 2008.

  12. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summary of Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-06-07

    Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  13. Quantifying capital goods for collection and transport of waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    and the capacity of the goods were also assessed. Environmental impact assessment of the production of the capital goods revealed that, per tonne of waste handled, the truck had the largest contribution followed by the steel container. Large high density polyethylene (HDPE) containers had the lowest impact per...

  14. POTENTIAL FOR GULLS TO TRANSPORT BACTERIA FROM HUMAN WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed as a first step in assessing whether gulls visiting human waste sites can acquire human microorganisms and distribute them across the coastal landscape. Beaches, landfills, and a lagoon of treated wastewater located in a coastal Lake Michigan county were t...

  15. TRANSPORT PLANNING MODEL FOR WIDE AREA RECYCLING SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE PLASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hisashi; Koizumi, Akira; Mogi, Satoshi

    To date, the majority of industrial waste plastic generated in an urban city has been processed into landfill. However, it is now necessary to actively utilize that plastic as a useful resource to create a recycling society with a low environment influence. In order to construct a reasonable recycling system, it is necessary to address the "transportation problem," which means determining how much industrial waste plastic is to be transported to what location. With the goal of eliminating landfill processing, this study considers a transport planning model for industrial waste plastic applying linear programming. The results of running optimized calculations under given scenarios clarified not only the possibilities for recycle processing in the Metropolitan area, but also the validity of wide area recycling system.

  16. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  17. Evaluation of transport properties of nanofiltration membranes exposed to radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Bastos, Edna T.R., E-mail: eemo@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeira, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Julio C., E-mail: Julio@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    The application of membrane separation processes (PSM) for treatment of radioactive waste requires the selection of a suitable membrane for the treatment of waste, as the membrane will be directly exposed to the radioactive liquid waste, and also exposed to ionizing radiation. The nanofiltration membrane is most suitable for treatment of radioactive waste, since it has high rejection of multivalent ions. Usually the membranes are made of polymers and depending on the composition of the waste, type and dose of radiation absorbed may be changes in the structure of the membrane, resulting in loss of its transport properties. We tested two commercial nanofiltration membranes: NF and SW Dow/Filmtec. The waste liquid used was obtained in the process of conversion of uranium hexafluoride gas to solid uranium dioxide, known as 'carbonated water'. The membranes were characterized as their transport properties (hydraulic permeability, permeate flux and salt rejection) before and after their immersion in the waste for 24 hours. The surface of the membranes was also evaluated by SEM and FTIR. It was observed that in both the porosity of the membrane selective layer was altered, but not the membrane surface charge, which is responsible for the selectivity of the membrane. The NF membranes and SW showed uranium ion rejection of 64% and 55% respectively. (author)

  18. Waste isolation safety assessment program. Task 4. Third contractor information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Contractor Information Meeting (October 14 to 17, 1979) was part of the FY-1979 effort of Task 4 of the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP): Sorption/Desorption Analysis. The objectives of this task are to: evaluate sorption/desorption measurement methods and develop a standardized measurement procedure; produce a generic data bank of nuclide-geologic interactions using a wide variety of geologic media and groundwaters; perform statistical analysis and synthesis of these data; perform validation studies to compare short-term laboratory studies to long-term in situ behavior; develop a fundamental understanding of sorption/desorption processes; produce x-ray and gamma-emitting isotopes suitable for the study of actinides at tracer concentrations; disseminate resulting information to the international technical community; and provide input data support for repository safety assessment. Conference participants included those subcontracted to WISAP Task 4, representatives and independent subcontractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, representatives from other waste disposal programs, and experts in the area of waste/geologic media interaction. Since the meeting, WISAP has been divided into two programs: Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) (modeling efforts) and Waste/Rock Interactions Technology (WRIT) (experimental work). The WRIT program encompasses the work conducted under Task 4. This report contains the information presented at the Task 4, Third Contractor Information Meeting. Technical Reports from the subcontractors, as well as Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), are provided along with transcripts of the question-and-answer sessions. The agenda and abstracts of the presentations are also included. Appendix A is a list of the participants. Appendix B gives an overview of the WRIT program and details the WRIT work breakdown structure for 1980.

  19. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  20. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-02-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  1. Integration of safety in management tasks in onshore transport SME´s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In EU, the transport sector has an incident rate of accidents at work of 40 per 1000 employees. The transport sector is characterized by many small enterprises of which 97% of the enterprises in Denmark have less than 50 employees and 89% have less than 10 employees. The safety problems...... for the employees are the activities carried out when loading, unloading or work with transport equipment carried out at many different work places. The main safety problems are falls, heavy lifting, poor ergonomic working conditions, hits or collisions with goods, falling objects, the traffic risk situations, work...... in the enterprise to have an understanding of safety and feel obligated to take responsibility for safety in all work at all times. Accident research shows that safety must be integrated in the whole enterprise and function on all levels of management, while it must also involve all employees in their daily work...

  2. Assessing the safety effects of cooperative intelligent transport systems: A bowtie analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ute Christine; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen; McCormack, Edward; Khan, Faisal; Ehlers, Sören

    2017-02-01

    The safety effects of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are mostly unknown and associated with uncertainties, because these systems represent emerging technology. This study proposes a bowtie analysis as a conceptual framework for evaluating the safety effect of cooperative intelligent transport systems. These seek to prevent road traffic accidents or mitigate their consequences. Under the assumption of the potential occurrence of a particular single vehicle accident, three case studies demonstrate the application of the bowtie analysis approach in road traffic safety. The approach utilizes exemplary expert estimates and knowledge from literature on the probability of the occurrence of accident risk factors and of the success of safety measures. Fuzzy set theory is applied to handle uncertainty in expert knowledge. Based on this approach, a useful tool is developed to estimate the effects of safety-related cooperative intelligent transport systems in terms of the expected change in accident occurrence and consequence probability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Licensing procedures for a dedicated ship for carrying spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Report from workshop held at GOSAOMNADZOR, Moscow 2 -3 July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Margorzata K.; Bergman, Curt; Markarov, Valentin

    2001-07-01

    The report describes information exchange and discussion about the licensing principles and procedures for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste transportation at sea. Russian health, environment and safety requirements for transportation of waste by ships. (Author)

  4. EVALUATION OF CHRONOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW SYSTEM IN URMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalilzadeh, Y. Rahimi and A. Parvaresh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW is a serious environmental hazard and social problem in Iran. Currently a high volume of solid waste is generated every day in the district towns of Iran and unfortunately solid waste management is being deteriorated due to the limited resources to handle the increasing rate of generated waste. Due to this fact that more than 60% of solid waste management cost is usually alocated for purpose collection and transportation of generated solid waste in the city. Analysis of this section and understanding of its effect on the management system could have a great role in reduction the costs and solving many of exist problems. This study illustrate the effectiveness of timing managing an MSW economy and that has been carried out as a case study in Urmia. Results of this research illustrsate that 58.3% in Neisan, 68.7% in Khavar, 61.5% in Benz, 81.3% in Compactor and 59.3% in FAUN 0f each cycle time is pickup time.. Mean of traveling speed for Van, Mini-truck, Truck, FAUN and Compactor was 35,46,41,38 and 42 kilometer per hour respectively. Total spent time for collection and transportation of solid waste were 1:21 hour with Van, 1:23 hour with Mini-truck, 1:29 hour with Truck, 17 minutes with FAUN and 57 minutes with Compactor. Result of this study illustrated Van is the most economic vehicle for solid waste collection system in Urmia city. Generally, priority to usage of solid waste collection vehicles illustrate in below: Truck < Mini-truck < Compactor < Van < FAUN

  5. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described.

  6. Radiological safety studies on ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Environmental simulation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadachi, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Takebe, Shinichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Washio, Masakazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki. Tokai Research Establishment)

    1982-03-01

    As the method of disposing low level radioactive wastes on land, the underground disposal method disposing the wastes in the structures constructed underground near the ground surface has been investigated as a feasible method. In order to contribute to the environmental safety assessment for this underground disposal method, environmental simulation test is planned at present, in which earth is sampled in the undisturbed state, and the behavior of radioactive nuclides is examined. The testing facilities are to be constructed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute from fiscal 1981. First, the research made so far concerning the movement of radioactive nuclides in airing layer and aquifer which compose natural barrier is outlined. As for the environmental simulation test, the necessity and method of the test, earth sampling, the underground simulation facility and the contribution to environmental safety assessment are explained. By examining the movement of radioactive nuclides through natural barrier and making the effective mddel for the underground movement of radioactive nuclides, the environmental safety assessment for the disposal can be performed to obtain the national consensus.

  7. Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-10-19

    This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

  8. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, N.C. Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-04-21

    The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) policy is to provide a safe and healthy workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The implementation of this policy requires that operations of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF), located one-half mile west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex, be guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues. The BJC governing document for worker safety and health, BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', describes the key elements of the BJC Safety and Industrial Hygiene (IH) programs, which includes the requirement for development and implementation of a site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) where required by regulation (refer also to BJC-EH-1012, 'Development and Approval of Safety and Health Plans'). BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', implements the requirements for worker protection contained in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 851. The EMWMF site-specific HASP requirements identifies safe operating procedures, work controls, personal protective equipment, roles and responsibilities, potential site hazards and control measures, site access requirements, frequency and types of monitoring, site work areas, decontamination procedures, and outlines emergency response actions. This HASP will be available on site for use by all workers, management and supervisors, oversight personnel and visitors. All EMWMF assigned personnel will be briefed on the contents of this HASP and will be required to follow the procedures and protocols as specified. The policies and procedures referenced in this HASP apply to all EMWMF operations activities. In addition the HASP establishes ES&H criteria for the day-to-day activities to prevent or minimize any adverse effect on the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable

  9. Design considerations to enhance the safety of patient compartments in ambulance transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byran, Eyal; Gilad, Issachar

    2012-01-01

    The safety of the interior of ambulances is dubious and, in the event of sudden impact during emergency transport, potentially perilous to patients they carry. The workplace ergonomics of the interior of the passenger cabin is lacking. This article discusses an improved ergonomic interior design based on study findings, observations and subjective perception. It suggests design aspects and safety concepts aimed at increasing the safety of patients and paramedic staff inside the ambulance as a mobile workstation.

  10. Development of Waste Acceptance Criteria at 221-U Building: Initial Flow and Transport Scoping Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Chen, Yousu

    2007-05-30

    This report documents numerical flow and transport simulations performed that establish initial waste acceptance criteria for the potential waste streams that may be safely sequestered in the 221-U Building and similar canyon structures. Specifically, simulations were executed to identify the maximum loading of contaminant mass (without respect to volume) that can be emplaced within the 221-U Building with no more than 1 pCi/m2 of contaminant migrating outside the structure within a 1,000 year time period. The initial scoping simulations were executed in one dimension to assess important processes, and then two dimensions to establish waste acceptance criteria. Two monolithic conditions were assessed: (1) a grouted canyon monolith; and (2) a canyon monolith filled with sand, both assuming no cracks or fissures were present to cause preferential transport. A three-staged approach was taken to account for different processes that may impact the amount of contaminant that can be safely sequestered in canyon structure. In the first stage, flow and transport simulations established waste acceptance criteria based on a linear (Kd) isotherm approach. In the second stage, impacts on thermal loading were examined and the differences in waste acceptance criteria quantified. In the third stage of modeling, precipitation/dissolution reactions were considered on the release and transport of the contaminants, and the subsequent impact on the maximum contaminant loading. The reactive transport modeling is considered a demonstration of the reactive transport capability, and shows the importance of its use for future performance predictions once site-specific data have been obtained.

  11. ECOLOGICAL SAFETY: UNDERGROUND NON-ENVELOPED TANKS IN PERMAFROST FOR WASTE DISPOSAL DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of ecological issues was realized about 50 years ago. The highlight of the ecological movement to protect the environment has been, in our estimation, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992, which adopted the concept of sustainable development. After 1992 the interest in ecology of broad masses was decreased slightly, although the environmental problems are not only remained, but appeared to a greater extent. However, now there is a legal basis for their decisions. Particularly, enterprises must have a certified environmental management system; otherwise they will be unable to compete in international markets. Awareness by humanity of need for environmental protection has led, in particular, to the deployment of scientific research in the field of ecological safety studies. Therefore, we have found that it is necessary and useful to report about the research of our team on this subject. Ecological security issues are highly relevant to the energy sector, in particular for gas enterprises. As an example of the new scientific results we discuss the innovative approach to the disposal of drilling waste. The basic idea - the use of underground non-enveloped tanks in permafrost soil for disposal of drilling waste. Permafrost is typically a negative impact on economic development, but in this situation it is the determining factor for a positive role, enabling lower costs to ensure ecological safety and, consequently, improve the competitiveness of domestic enterprises in the global gas market. This article is devoted to methods of dumping drilling waste and the problems that arise in their burial place. We discuss various methods of waste disposal, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the impact on the environment

  12. Geochemical factors affecting radionuclide transport through near and far fields at a Low-Level Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Piepkho, M.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The concentration of low-level waste (LLW) contaminants in groundwater is determined by the amount of contaminant present in the solid waste, rate of release from the waste and surrounding barriers, and a number of geochemical processes including adsorption, desorption, diffusion, precipitation, and dissolution. To accurately predict radionuclide transport through the subsurface, it is essential that the important geochemical processes affecting radionuclide transport be identified and, perhaps more importantly, accurately quantified and described in a mathematically defensible manner.

  13. Generation, collection and transportation, disposal and recycling of kitchen waste: a case study in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ying; Li, Guangming; Wu, Wenqing; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi; Zhu, Haochen

    2014-03-01

    With respect to waste sorting, Shanghai sets an example for other Chinese cities on the standardized treatment of kitchen waste (KW) in China. According to the results of investigation, about 560 kilo tons of KW from different sources in Shanghai were produced in 2011. Of this, 45.6% (255.6 kilo tons) was collected and transported properly by a comprehensive and formal collection and transportation system. Landfilling and incineration, which are the traditional treatment technologies used, show downward trends because of increasing environmental awareness and land restrictions. Feed production, composting and biodiesel refining play increasingly important roles in the recycling of KW. Safe disposal, reduced KW quantity, public education, and technological innovation are still problematic issues and need to be considered in future waste management in Shanghai.

  14. [Radiological and hygienic approaches to solving the problem of environmental safety of radioactive waste storages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart'ianov, V V; Korenkov, I P

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents general approaches to solving the problems associated with the radioecological safety of radioactive waste (RAW) storages. It considers the influence of climatic factors on the possible release of radionuclides into the environment. The authors have made as follows: analysis of the significance of main scenarios for radionuclide release into the environment and the natural and climatic conditions of the existing areas of near-surface RAW storages in the Russian Federation; conditional zoning of the Russian Federation according to the balance of atmospheric precipitation. The zoning of RAW storage locations is of importance for choosing the likely scenarios of radionuclide migrations.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the low level radioactive waste disposal facility trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahook, S.D.

    1994-04-01

    Results of the analyses performed to evaluate the possibility of nuclear criticality in the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) trenches are documented in this report. The studies presented in this document are limited to assessment of the possibility of criticality due to existing conditions in the LLRWDF. This document does not propose nor set limits for enriched uranium (EU) burial in the LLRWDF and is not a nuclear criticality safety evaluation nor analysis. The calculations presented in the report are Level 2 calculations as defined by the E7 Procedure 2.31, Engineering Calculations.

  16. Simulation of soluble waste transport and buildup in surface waters using tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    Soluble tracers can be used to simulate the transport and dispersion of soluble wastes that might have been introduced or are planned for introduction into surface waters. Measured tracer-response curves produced from the injection of a known quantity of soluble tracer can be used in conjunction with the superposition principle to simulate potential waste buildup in streams, lakes, and estuaries. Such information is particularly valuable to environmental and water-resource planners in determining the effects of proposed waste discharges. The theory, techniques, analysis, and presentation of results of tracer-waste simulation tests in rivers, lakes, and estuaries are described. This manual builds on other manuals dealing with dye tracing by emphasizing the expanded use of data from time-of-travel studies.

  17. Establishment and application of performance evaluation model for collection and transportation system of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭绪亚; 林晓东; 贾传兴; 王渝昆; 黄媛媛

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the typical waste collection and transportation mode,the evaluation index system for performance of the waste collection and transportation system was proposed with three grades,which related to six factors,such as economic evaluation,high efficient evaluation,environmental impact assessment,resource evaluation,evaluation of security and emergency,evaluation of management and society. With the performance evaluation theory,the performance evaluation model of waste collection and transportation system was constructed,which quantified the grading standard of index and determined the index weight in analytic hierarchy process (AHP). After evaluating the waste collection and transportation system of the main districts of Chongqing city,the results show that the it has an excellent performance evaluation grade with very high performance level of three indices involving evaluation of management and society,environmental impact assessment,evaluation of security and emergency and quite low performance level of two indices that include high efficient evaluation and economic evaluation.

  18. Integrating Water, Waste, Energy, Transport and ICT Aspects into the Smart City Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strzelecka, Anna; Ulanicki, Bogumil; Koop, Stef; Koetsier, Laurence; Van Leeuwen, Kees; Elelman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the partial results of the EU BlueSCities project [1]. The project is developing the methodology for the integration of the water and waste sectors within the 'Smart Cities and Communities' concept to compliment other priority areas such as energy, transport and Information and

  19. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    ) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection...

  20. Streamtube Fate and Transport Modeling of the Source Term for the Old Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, K.

    2000-11-16

    The modeling described in this report is an extension of previous fate and transport modeling for the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study. The purpose of this and the previous modeling is to provide quantitative input to the screening of remedial alternatives for the CMS/FS for this site.

  1. Statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste transportation system -- Project W-465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouette, P.

    1998-06-19

    The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW).

  2. Microbiological Safety of Animal Wastes Processed by Physical Heat Treatment: An Alternative To Eliminate Human Pathogens in Biological Soil Amendments as Recommended by the Food Safety Modernization Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2017-03-01

    Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure. Physical heat treatments can be considered an effective method to inactivate pathogens in animal wastes. However, microbial inactivation in animal wastes can be affected by many factors, such as composition of animal wastes, type and physiological stage of the tested microorganism, and heat source. Following some current processing guidelines for physical heat treatments may not be adequate for completely eliminating pathogens from animal wastes. Therefore, this article primarily reviews the microbiological safety and economic value of physically heat-treated animal wastes as biological soil amendments.

  3. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  4. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL loop transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.H.; Chipley, K.K.; Nelms, H.A.; Crowley, W.K.; Just, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    An evaluation of the ORNL loop transport cask demonstrating its compliance with the regulations governing the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials is presented. A previous review of the cask is updated to demonstrate compliance with current regulations, to present current procedures, and to reflect the more recent technology.

  6. Transport Accident Costs and the Value of Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koornstra, Matthijs; Evans, Andrew; Glansdorp, Cees;

    The publication descibes a study of costs of passenger transport accident by road, rail, air and sea. It is argued that "willingness to pay" theory should be preferred to "human capital" theory in valuations of life and limb. The total costs of passenger transport accidents in the EU is estimated...

  7. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  9. Aspects of the state safety regulation dealing with management of radioactive wastes from nuclear vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markarov, Valentin G

    1999-07-01

    According to this presentation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation states that nuclear power engineering and fissile materials are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. But there is no federal law with detailed directions for radioactive waste (RW) management, which thus comes under the Federal law ''On Use of Atomic Energy''. This law defines the legal basis and principles of regulating the relations occurring during RW management and sets some general requirements. RW management safety is regulated by the federal norms and rules (1) Radiation Safety Norms (NRB-96), Basic Sanitary Rules (OSP-72, 87) and (3) Sanitary Rules for RW Management (SPORO-85), etc. A number of normative documents on RW management will be put in force in 1999. For work in the field of RW management, licence must in general be obtained from Gozatomnazdor of Russia. The conditions for receiving a license for the management of RW from vessels are presented.

  10. Environmental restoration and waste management department independent safety review committee program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Program Management Plan (PMP) describes and governs the Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) established within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department (ER WMD). The ISRC performs independent safety reviews for the ER WMD as required and specified by the governing documents mentioned above. This PMP defines the ISRC organization, work plan, and scope of work. The PMP is organized consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System. For the purpose of readability, this document shall use the term program'' to include not only the chartered activities of the ISRC, but also the related activities conducted by the chairman and staff. This PMP is subordinate to the ER WMD Implementing Program Management Plan, EGG-WM-10220.

  11. Environmental restoration and waste management department independent safety review committee program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Program Management Plan (PMP) describes and governs the Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) established within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department (ER&WMD). The ISRC performs independent safety reviews for the ER&WMD as required and specified by the governing documents mentioned above. This PMP defines the ISRC organization, work plan, and scope of work. The PMP is organized consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System. For the purpose of readability, this document shall use the term ``program`` to include not only the chartered activities of the ISRC, but also the related activities conducted by the chairman and staff. This PMP is subordinate to the ER&WMD Implementing Program Management Plan, EGG-WM-10220.

  12. Cost avoidance realized through transportation and disposal of Fernald mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R. [Fluor Daniel Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Fernald, OH (United States); Rast, D.M. [USDOE Fernald Field Office, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO`s proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO`s cleanup mission. FERMCO`s goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo.

  13. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  14. PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-09-01

    This report presents a probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive doses as consequences from accident scenarios to complement the deterministic assessment presented in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The International Council of Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends both assessments be conducted to ensure that ''an adequate level of safety has been achieved and that no major contributors to risk are overlooked'' (ICRP 1993). To that end, the probabilistic assessment for the WIPP accident scenarios addresses the wide range of assumptions, e.g. the range of values representing the radioactive source of an accident, that could possibly have been overlooked by the SAR. Routine releases of radionuclides from the WIPP repository to the environment during the waste emplacement operations are expected to be essentially zero. In contrast, potential accidental releases from postulated accident scenarios during waste handling and emplacement could be substantial, which necessitates the need for radiological air monitoring and confinement barriers (DOE 1999). The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) calculated doses from accidental releases to the on-site (at 100 m from the source) and off-site (at the Exclusive Use Boundary and Site Boundary) public by a deterministic approach. This approach, as demonstrated in the SAR, uses single-point values of key parameters to assess the 50-year, whole-body committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The basic assumptions used in the SAR to formulate the CEDE are retained for this report's probabilistic assessment. However, for the probabilistic assessment, single-point parameter values were replaced with probability density functions (PDF) and were sampled over an expected range. Monte Carlo simulations were run, in which 10,000 iterations were performed by randomly selecting one value for each parameter and calculating the dose. Statistical information was then derived

  15. Potential role of biotic transport models in low-level-waste management. [Shallow land burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.; Cadwell, L.L.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1982-06-15

    This paper is a summary of the initial results of a study being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to determine the relevance of biotic pathways to the regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Biotic transport is defined as the actions of plants and animals that result in the transport of radioactive materials from a LLW burial ground to a location where they can enter exposure pathways to man. A critical review of the role of modeling in evaluating biotic transport is given. Both current applications and the need for future modeling development are discussed.

  16. Transportable Waste-to-Energy System (TWES) Energy Recovery From Bare Base Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    removed and/or partially burned. Instead the furnace, coupled with a shredder , will completely burn the waste and provide heat for water or other...Photos from Ali Al Salem, AF bare base Nov 1998, FOUO-for official use only 8 8 TWES Fuel Processing Bulk Trash Shredder Shredded Fuel TWES Furnace...Program (FEMP) to initiate the conversion. • Will install and test electricity production at Tyndall AFB 15 15 TWES Process Diagram Shredders Useful

  17. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  18. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  19. Regional aviation safety organisations : enhancing air transport safety through regional cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratajczyk, Mikołaj Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety is of global concern. Yet 43% of countries worldwide lack the expertise and administrative capacity to ensure effective safety oversight of the aviation activities for which they are responsible under international law. With air traffic predicted to double in the next 15 years and

  20. Economic evaluation of safety measures for transport companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Rienstra, Sytze A.

    1998-01-01

    Measures to reduce material damage within companies may both increase the business economic performance of the company and traffic safety in general. In this paper the notion of whether such measures are economically feasible is investigated. Results are presented of a series of interviews amongtran

  1. Finite element analysis of ion transport in solid state nuclear waste form materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.

    2017-09-01

    Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.

  2. Influence of Malfunctions of Selected Bus Subsystems on Bus Transportation Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojar Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces division of transport systems into land transport systems (road and rail as well as land and water transport systems (inland and sea, depending on the type of environment in which these systems carry out their tasks. Such systems comprise the class of social engineering systems of the Man – Technological Object – Environment (M – TO – E type. Such systems are influenced by forcing factors, leading to changes in their condition. Such factors may be divided into operational, external and anthropotechnical and they cause the degradation of the system on various levels, including a decrease of the degree of its safety. The article attempts to evaluate the safety of the operation of transport systems on the basis of the evaluation of the safety of the transport process carried out over a defined time interval Δt. The evaluation of the safety of the implemented transport process was prepared on the basis of a set of calculated index values determined depending on the type of transport.

  3. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG&G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured.

  4. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document was written to provide guidance to managers and site operators on how ground-water transport codes should be selected for assessing burial site performance. There is a need for a formal approach to selecting appropriate codes from the multitude of potentially useful ground-water transport codes that are currently available. Code selection is a problem that requires more than merely considering mathematical equation-solving methods. These guidelines are very general and flexible and are also meant for developing systems simulation models to be used to assess the environmental safety of low-level waste burial facilities. Code selection is only a single aspect of the overall objective of developing a systems simulation model for a burial site. The guidance given here is mainly directed toward applications-oriented users, but managers and site operators need to be familiar with this information to direct the development of scientifically credible and defensible transport assessment models. Some specific advice for managers and site operators on how to direct a modeling exercise is based on the following five steps: identify specific questions and study objectives; establish costs and schedules for achieving answers; enlist the aid of professional model applications group; decide on approach with applications group and guide code selection; and facilitate the availability of site-specific data. These five steps for managers/site operators are discussed in detail following an explanation of the nine systems model development steps, which are presented first to clarify what code selection entails.

  5. Summary of Federal Aviation Administration Responses to National Transportation Safety Board Safety Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    main gear assembly disclosed that the safety pin in the apex bolt of the main gear torque link had sheared and the nut on the apex bolt had been forced...Douglas performed a failure analysis of the recovered apex bolt which indicated that the safety pin failed or fell out and that the apex attachment nut...Operators Letter (AOL) 9-1261 on April 24, 1981, to change the method of securing the apex bolt attachment nut by replacing the safety pin , washer and cotter

  6. Electromagnetic Processing as a Way of Increasing Microbiological Safety of Animal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, O. M.; Kolosova, M. M.; Filipovich, L. A.; Aksenov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The article shows the possibility of using the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (EMF UHF) for drying and disinfecting of such animal waste as pig manure and poultry droppings. The studied modes included the following options: processing exposure of 60, 90, 120 sec, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. The method of UHF processing of manure and poultry droppings is environmentally safe and effective in neutralizing the pathogenic microflora, as well as larvae and eggs of worms. The following processing mode of animal waste in the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency was recognized as optimal: exposure of 90 seconds, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. This option leads to the complete destruction of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the eggs and larvae of worms. As a result of this processing, a high level of microbiological safety of pig manure and poultry droppings is achieved that allows using them as organic fertilizers. The peculiarities of some species of pathogenic fungi developing on the surface of the wheat grain are shown. Pre-processed animal waste (pig manure and and poultry droppings) were applied in experimental variants. Used organic fertilizers underwent electromagnetic processing of ultra-high frequency. The qualitative composition of the microflora on the surface of the grain depends on the type of animal waste (manure or droppings) and used dose. The safest part of the microflora of grain was marked with the application of the UHF-processed pig manure and poultry droppings in doses of 10 t/ha.

  7. NASA Space Transportation: Safety, Cost and Performance Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogacki, John Row

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA's Space Transportation. A space launch initiative is developed to provide a safe, reliable and affordable access to space. The topics include: 1) NASA's Integrated Architectural Approach; and 2) Safe, Reliable, and Affordable... Building a Highway to Space.

  8. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  9. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Ishiguro, K. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Nuclear Energy System Incorporated, Tokyo (Japan); Naito, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Geological Isolation Research Project, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, T. [Japan Gas Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Little, R. [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. Considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, some specific reference biospheres' are developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. The models represent the components of the surface environment using compartments between which fluxes of materials (solid/water) and radionuclides are defined by transfer factors. A range of exposure pathways via which such radionuclides enter the food-chain, along with uptake and concentration factors, are also defined. The response to a step function of unit flux from the geosphere is determined for each model. The results show that it is reasonable to use steady-state biosphere responses to a unit-input flux to define nuclide-dependent factors for converting fluxes from the geosphere to doses. This simplifies safety assessment calculations, which then require only look-up tables for such flux to dose conversion rather than fully coupled biosphere models. (author)

  10. EFFICIENCY IN ORGANIZING TRANSPORT ROUTES AS PART OF THE CITY WASTE MANAGEMENT: PROPOSAL FOR INNOVATIVE WAY OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Novarlić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research presented in this paper is primarily focused on the theoretical model of transportation routes' optimization, by means of using an innovative approach, projected to countries in transition. This paper presents part of the research, whose main parameters are directly related to basic research hypothesis, and are result of author's stay in vocational training in the Japanese city of Osaka, in the period 12.01. - 07.03.2015. Based on the transport routes' calculations, we came to an answer set in the research problem of this paper, as well as to the optimization of costs and avoiding a "downtime" during the collection of waste conducted by utility companies, who will be the beneficiaries of this model. The primary goal of the work is to, on the base of knowledge and experience acquired in Japan, create an Optimization Model of Transport Routes adjusted to countries in transition (Bosnia and Herzegovina and others, which will, in the long run, be of benefit to these countries, in terms of a sustainable waste management.

  11. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  12. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A.

    1979-11-01

    Research is reported on: decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues, monitoring of effluents from waste solidification, TRU waste mobilization, Kr solidification, /sup 14/C and /sup 129/I fixation, waste management system and safety studies, waste isolation safety assessment, logging systems for shallow land burial, unsaturated zone transport, mobile organic complexes of fission products, electropolishing for surface decontamination of metals, and decontamination and decommissioning of Hanford facilities. (DLC)

  13. Safety of Oversize Cargo in Ports and in the Sea Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Chmielinski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Author of the paper analyzes problems related to the safety of the oversize cargo in ports and in the sea transport. Various modes of transport are used to carry oversized units that often include maritime transport. Transport of oversized cargo includes non-standard large and heavy pieces of cargo, such as electric transformers, reactor vessels, wind turbines, airplane fuselage or nuclear power plant components. The above paper is based on results of research oversized cargo in the Elpo Service Company and Pol-Mare Ltd. forwarding consulting agency.

  14. Nuclear waste transportation: case studies of identifying stakeholder risk information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Christina H; Grace, Deirdre A; Silbernagel, Susan M; Hemmings, Erin S; Smith, Alan; Griffith, William C; Takaro, Timothy K; Faustman, Elaine M

    2003-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of our nation's nuclear legacy, involving complex decisions about how and where to dispose of nuclear waste and how to transport it to its ultimate disposal site. It is widely recognized that a broad range of stakeholders and tribes should be involved in this kind of decision. All too frequently, however, stakeholders and tribes are only invited to participate by commenting on processes and activities that are near completion; they are not included in the problem formulation stages. Moreover, it is often assumed that high levels of complexity and uncertainty prevent meaningful participation by these groups. Considering the types of information that stakeholders and tribes need to be able to participate in the full life cycle of decision making is critical for improving participation and transparency of decision making. Toward this objective, the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) participated in three public processes relating to nuclear waste transportation and disposal in 1997-1998. First, CRESP organized focus groups to identify concerns about nuclear waste transportation. Second, CRESP conducted exit surveys at regional public workshops held by DOE to get input from stakeholders on intersite waste transfer issues. Third, CRESP developed visual tools to synthesize technical information and allow stakeholders and tribes with varying levels of knowledge about nuclear waste to participate in meaningful discussion. In this article we share the results of the CRESP findings, discuss common themes arising from these interactions, and comment on special considerations needed to facilitate stakeholder and tribal participation in similar decision-making processes.

  15. RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER GENERATED BY CAR WASHES AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-12-01

    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.

  16. Contaminant transport at a waste residue deposit: 1. Inverse flow and non-reactive transport modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1996-01-01

    and transport simulation model is combined with nonlinear least squares multiple regression. The U.S. Geological Survey method of characteristics model is used to simulate flow and transport, and the optimization part is solved using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The sensitivity of the optimization approach...

  17. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed......, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some...

  18. Occurrence Classifications, Severity Weighting, and Normalization for the DOE Packaging and Transportation Safety Metrics Indicator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, L.S.; Pope, R.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Harrison, I.G.; Hermann, B.; Lester, P.B.

    1999-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) is an interactive computer system designed to support DOE-owned or -operated facilities in reporting and processing information concerning occurrences related to facility operations. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been charged by the DOE National Transportation Program Albuquerque (NTPA) with the responsibility of retrieving reports and information pertaining to packaging and transportation (P and T) incidents from the centralized ORPS database. These selected reports are analyzed for trends, impact on P and T operations and safety concerns, and ''lessons learned'' in P and T safety.

  19. Evaluating Transport and Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone for Aqueous Waste Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An approach was developed for evaluating vadose zone transport and attenuation of aqueous wastes containing inorganic (non-volatile) contaminants that were disposed of at the land surface (i.e., directly to the ground in cribs, trenches, tile fields, etc.) and their effect on the underlying groundwater. The approach provides a structured method for estimating transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the resulting temporal profile of groundwater contaminant concentrations. The intent of the approach is also to provide a means for presenting and explaining the results of the transport analysis in the context of the site-specific waste disposal conditions and site properties, including heterogeneities and other complexities. The document includes considerations related to identifying appropriate monitoring to verify the estimated contaminant transport and associated predictions of groundwater contaminant concentrations. While primarily intended for evaluating contaminant transport under natural attenuation conditions, the approach can also be applied to identify types of, and targets for, mitigation approaches in the vadose zone that would reduce the temporal profile of contaminant concentrations in groundwater, if needed.

  20. Study on Shielding Requirements for Radioactive Waste Transportation in a Mo-99 Production Plant - 13382

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Rego, Maria Eugenia de; Kazumi Sakata, Solange; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil is currently planning to produce {sup 99}Mo from fission of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The planned end of irradiation activity of {sup 99}Mo is about 185 TBq (5 kCi) per week to meet the present domestic demand of {sup 99m}Tc generators. The radioactive wastes from the production plant will be transferred to a waste treatment facility at the same site. The total activity of the actinides, fission and activation products present in the wastes can be predicted based on the yields of fission and activation data for the irradiation conditions, such as composition and mass of uranium targets, irradiation time, neutron flux, production schedule, etc., which were in principle already established by the project management. The transportation of the wastes from the production plant to the treatment facility will be done by means of special shielded packages. An assessment of the shielding required for the packages has been done and the results are presented here, aiming at contributing to the design of the waste management facility for the {sup 99}Mo production plant. (authors)

  1. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tudor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind – ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  2. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I remedial investigation: Sediment and Cesium-137 transport modeling report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, R.B.; Bao, Y.S.; Moore, T.D.; Brenkert, A.L.; Purucker, S.T.; Reece, D.K.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow-up information to the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that may present immediate risk to public health at the Clinch River and ecological risk within WAG 2 at ORNL. A sixth report, on groundwater, in the series documenting WAG 2 RI Phase I results were part of project activities conducted in FY 1996. The five reports that complete activities conducted as part of Phase I of the Remedial Investigation (RI) for WAG 2 are as follows: (1) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Seep Data Assessment, (2) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Tributaries Data Assessment, (3) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Ecological Risk Assessment, (4) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Human Health Risk Assessment, (5) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Sediment and {sup 137}Cs Transport Modeling In December 1990, the Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was issued (ORNL 1990). The WAG 2 RI Plan was structured with a short-term component to be conducted while upgradient WAGs are investigated and remediated, and a long-term component that will complete the RI process for WAG 2 following remediation of upgradient WAGs. RI activities for the short-term component were initiated with the approval of the Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). This report presents the results of an investigation of the risk associated with possible future releases of {sup 137}Cs due to an extreme flood. The results are based on field measurements made during storms and computer model simulations.

  3. Study Regarding the Provision of Security and Safety in the International Maritime Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana POPA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The security in transport has become a crucial issue internationally, especially after the terrorist attacks of September 2001 and even more recently. Maritime, along with aviation, is considered a sensitive and of high-risk transport sector, in terms of security. Moreover, topics related to safety in maritime transport have become very important over the past decades mostly because of the numerous maritime accidents putting in danger both human lives and the environment. Taking into account the global dimension of maritime transport along with the fact that the participation of Asia in the world trade during the past decade has been substantial, the current maritime safety and security practices apply for all areas. This can only be achieved through the application of high standards and regulations setting the prerequisites for safe and secure navigation. In this direction, a significant number of Directives, Regulations and Initiatives on maritime safety and security have been introduced by international and European organizations, such as the International Maritime Organization, (I.M.O., the International Labour Organization (I.L.O. and the European Union (EU. In the framework of this analysis, the levels of compliance of European and Asian countries, regarding the international legislation, is examined while special emphasis is given on the problems and difficulties encountered during the implementation processes. Furthermore, a number of recommendations aiming to enhance the existing levels of safety and security in maritime transport in both examined area is provided.

  4. Radioactive Solid Waste Storage and Disposal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Description and Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, L.D.

    2001-01-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a principle Department of Energy (DOE) Research Institution operated by the Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) under direction of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). The Laboratory was established in east Tennessee, near what is now the city of Oak Ridge, in the mid 1940s as a part of the World War II effort to develop a nuclear weapon. Since its inception, disposal of radioactively contaminated materials, both solid and liquid, has been an integral part of Laboratory operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the ORNL Solid Waste Storage Areas, to describe the practice and procedure of their operation, and to address the health and safety impacts and concerns of that operation.

  5. Waste tank safety program annual status report for FY 1993, Task 5: Toxicology and epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.

    1993-09-01

    A toxicology team independently reviewed analytical data and provided advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents at the Hanford site. Most of the emphasis was directed toward Tank 241-C-103, but a preliminary assessment was also made of the toxicologic implication of the cyanide levels in the headspace of Tank 241-C-108. The objectives of this program are to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from various tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by waste-tank workers, (3) evaluate the toxicologic implications of those constituents by comparison to established toxicologic data bases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by the project manager and the cognizant Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issues Safety Resolution Manager.

  6. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  7. Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability. OECD Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Special Issue of Bioresource Technology is dedicated to selected contributions presented at the international Workshop: “Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability,” held 2-4 April, 2008, in Florence, South Carolina (US...

  8. Safety : the challenge of today for transportation safety in the future. General report on theme -V "Safety" at the 14th International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Strasbourg, September 7-10, 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transportation (un)safety is the result of a complex process in the transportation system. A large number of variables (characteristics of the system elements) with many interactions, produce a complex network of relationships expressed in "system behaviour". In this network of relationships, man as

  9. Safety impact of piled municipal solid waste dumps in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The safety of water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir(TGR)is very important.Protections and remediation of environment safety are very crucial for guaranteeing TGR environmental quality.When piled municipal solid waste(MSW) dumps are submerged without treatment,pollutants in the MSW will leach into the water and threaten the water safety of the reservoir.Based on the surveys of the amount,distribution and characteristics of piled MSW in the TGR area,this study focusing on the MSW dumps at the water leve...

  10. Aviation safety research and transportation/hazard avoidance and elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, C. M.; Dimarzio, C.; Clippinger, D.; Toomey, D.

    1976-01-01

    Data collected by the Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimeter System (SLDVS) was analyzed to determine the feasibility of the SLDVS for monitoring aircraft wake vortices in an airport environment. Data were collected on atmospheric vortices and analyzed. Over 1600 landings were monitored at Kennedy International Airport and by the end of the test period 95 percent of the runs with large aircraft were producing usable results in real time. The transport was determined in real time and post analysis using algorithms which performed centroids on the highest amplitude in the thresholded spectrum. Making use of other parameters of the spectrum, vortex flow fields were studied along with the time histories of peak velocities and amplitudes. The post analysis of the data was accomplished with a CDC-6700 computer using several programs developed for LDV data analysis.

  11. Intelligent transportation systems dependable vehicular communications for improved road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Joaquim; Fonseca, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge work on the most challenging research issues concerning intelligent transportation systems (ITS), introducing selected, highly relevant advanced research on scheduling and real-time communication for vehicular networks, as well as fault tolerance, test beds and simulations for ITS. The authors define new architectures that support cooperative sensing in ITS and offer guidance for the development of a reference end-to-end implementation. The presented results allow advanced traffic and travel management strategies to be formulated on the basis of reliable and real-time input data. The effectiveness of these new strategies, together with the proposed systems, is assessed in field trials and via simulations. The chapters in this book detail new research findings, algorithms, protocols, and the development of an implementation platform for ITS that merges and integrates heterogeneous data sources into a common system. In addition, they provide a set of advanced tools for the contro...

  12. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  13. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  14. User's manual for the Sandia Waste-Isolation Flow and Transport model (SWIFT).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Mark; Cranwell, Robert M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional finite-difference model (SWIFT) which is used to simulate flow and transport processes in geologic media. The model was developed for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the analysis of deep geologic nuclear waste-disposal facilities. This document, as indicated by the title, is a user's manual and is intended to facilitate the use of the SWIFT simulator. Mathematical equations, submodels, application notes, and a description of the program itself are given herein. In addition, a complete input data guide is given along with several appendices which are helpful in setting up a data-input deck. Computer code SWIFT (Sandia Waste Isolation, Flow and Transport Model) is a fully transient, three-dimensional model which solves the coupled equations for transport in geologic media. The processes considered are: (1) fluid flow; (2) heat transport; (3) dominant-species miscible displacement; and (4) trace-species miscible displacement. The first three processes are coupled via fluid density and viscosity. Together they provide the velocity field on which the fourth process depends.

  15. Safety assesment on radioactive waste from the partitioning and transmutation fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Kim, Sung Gi; Park, Won Suk

    2000-12-01

    A preliminary study on the quantitative effect of the partition and transmutation on the permanent disposal of HLW, which means the spent fuel in view of current Korean situation, was carried out. Two approaches in quantitative way are considered to be available for evaluating the deterministic influence of P and T strategy on the long-term disposal of this HLW are assessments of waste toxicity indices (TIs) and the repository performance assessments (PAs). TI is measures of the intrinsic radiotoxicity of the wastes and does not incorporate any detailed consideration of the feature, event and processes (FEPs) which might be lead to the release of the nuclides from the waste disposed of in the repository and the transport to and through the biosphere. Whereas, PA, which treated as main topic of present study, does include consideration of such FEPs even though it could not fully comprehensive at the current stage of R andD on geological disposal. Through the study, after reviewing the PA approaches which considered by some countries, relative advantages in case P and T will be performed before disposal over direct permanent disposal. Even though P and T could be an ideal solution to reduce the inventory which eventually decreases the release time as well as the peaks in the annual dose and even minimize the repository area through the proper handling of nuclides whose decay heat is significant and further produce the electricity, it should overcome the such major disadvantages as problems technically exposed during developing and improving the P and T system, economic point of view, and public acceptance in view of environment-friendly issues. In this regard some relevant issues are also discussed to show the direction for further studies.

  16. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses.

  17. 76 FR 4847 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids AGENCY... flammable liquids in unprotected external product piping on DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles. If... specification cargo tank motor vehicle (CTMV), unless the vehicle is equipped with bottom damage...

  18. 76 FR 14643 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting Flammable Liquids AGENCY... external product piping (wetlines) on a cargo tank motor vehicle (CTMV) unless the CTMV is equipped with... National Tank Truck Carriers, Inc., and the Tank Truck Manufacturers Association requesting an extension...

  19. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  20. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  1. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  2. Preliminary safety evaluation of an aircraft impact on a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.; Pugliese, G. [Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering (DICI), University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The aircraft impact accident has become very significant in the design of a nuclear facilities, particularly, after the tragic September 2001 event, that raised the public concern about the potential damaging effects that the impact of a large civilian airplane could bring in safety relevant structures. The aim of this study is therefore to preliminarily evaluate the global response and the structural effects induced by the impact of a military or commercial airplane (actually considered as a 'beyond design basis' event) into a near surface radioactive waste (RWs) disposal facility. The safety evaluation was carried out according to the International safety and design guidelines and in agreement with the stress tests requirements for the security track. To achieve the purpose, a lay out and a scheme of a possible near surface repository, like for example those of the El Cabril one, were taken into account. In order to preliminarily perform a reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and to determine the structural effects induced by such a types of impulsive loads, a realistic, but still operable, numerical model with suitable materials characteristics was implemented by means of FEM codes. In the carried out structural analyses, the RWs repository was considered a 'robust' target, due to its thicker walls and main constitutive materials (steel and reinforced concrete). In addition to adequately represent the dynamic response of repository under crashing, relevant physical phenomena (i.e. penetration, spalling, etc.) were simulated and analysed. The preliminary assessment of the effects induced by the dynamic/impulsive loads allowed generally to verify the residual strength capability of the repository considered. The obtained preliminary results highlighted a remarkable potential to withstand the impact of military/large commercial aircraft, even in presence of ongoing concrete progressive failure (some penetration and spalling of the

  3. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  4. Propagation of Isotopic Bias and Uncertainty to Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Burnup credit methodology is economically advantageous because significantly higher loading capacity may be achieved for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks based on this methodology as compared to the loading capacity based on a fresh fuel assumption. However, the criticality safety analysis for establishing the loading curve based on burnup credit becomes increasingly complex as more parameters accounting for spent fuel isotopic compositions are introduced to the safety analysis. The safety analysis requires validation of both depletion and criticality calculation methods. Validation of a neutronic-depletion code consists of quantifying the bias and the uncertainty associated with the bias in predicted SNF compositions caused by cross-section data uncertainty and by approximations in the calculational method. The validation is based on comparison between radiochemical assay (RCA) data and calculated isotopic concentrations for fuel samples representative of SNF inventory. The criticality analysis methodology for commercial SNF disposal allows burnup credit for 14 actinides and 15 fission product isotopes in SNF compositions. The neutronic-depletion method for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is the two-dimensional (2-D) depletion sequence TRITON (Transport Rigor Implemented with Time-dependent Operation for Neutronic depletion)/NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code) and the 44GROUPNDF5 crosssection library in the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE 5.1) code system. The SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 cross section library is based on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version V (ENDF/B-V) library. The criticality calculation code for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is General Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code. The purpose of this calculation report is to determine the bias on the calculated effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, due to the bias and bias uncertainty associated with

  5. A comparative study between transport and criticality safety indexes for fissile uranium nuclearly pure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes da Silva, T. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN (Brazil)]. e-mail: tmsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The international and national standards determine that during the transport of radioactive materials the package to be sent should be identified by labels of risks specifying content, activity and the transport index. The result of the monitoring of the package to 1 meter identifies the transport index, TI, which represents the dose rate to 1 meter of this. The transport index is, by definition, a number that represents a gamma radiation that crosses the superficial layer the radioactive material of the package to 1 meter of distance. For the fissile radioactive material that is the one in which a neutron causes the division of the atom, the international standards specify criticality safety index CSI, which is related with the safe mass of the fissile element. In this work it was determined the respective safe mass for each considered enrichment for the compounds of uranium oxides UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. In the study of CSI it was observed that the value 50 of the expression 50/N being N the number of packages be transported in subcriticality conditions it represents a fifth part of the safe mass of the element uranium or 9% of the smallest mass critical for a transport not under exclusive use. As conclusion of the accomplished study was observed that the transport index starting from 7% of enrichment doesn't present contribution and that criticality safety index is always greater than the transport index. Therefore what the standards demand to specify, the largest value between both indexes, was clearly identified in this study as being the criticality safety index. (Author)

  6. Shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis of spent fuel transportation cask in research reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Hassanzadeh, M; Gharib, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis were carried out for general material testing reactor (MTR) research reactors interim storage and relevant transportation cask. During these processes, three major terms were considered: source term, shielding, and criticality calculations. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 was used for shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis and ORIGEN2.1 code for source term calculation. According to the results obtained, a cylindrical cask with body, top, and bottom thicknesses of 18, 13, and 13 cm, respectively, was accepted as the dual-purpose cask. Furthermore, it is shown that the total dose rates are below the normal transport criteria that meet the standards specified.

  7. Growth of motorized mobility and strategies for road safety. Paper to be published in Transport Miesjki (Public Transport), 1993, No. 9 (Polish).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Free market economies have shown the dominating utility of motorized transport, both for passenger and goods transport. One negative side of motorization is the lack of road safety. Although it is shown that air, water and rail transport are much safer, the individual and company utility of motorize

  8. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) verification and validation plan. version 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Urbina, Angel; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Howard, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); McCornack, Marjorie Turner

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. To meet this objective, NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities will be applied to challenging spatial domains, temporal domains, multiphysics couplings, and multiscale couplings. A strategic verification and validation (V&V) goal is to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities. Because it is economically impractical to apply the maximum V&V rigor to each and every M&S capability, M&S capabilities will be ranked for their impact on the performance assessments of various components of the repository systems. Those M&S capabilities with greater impact will require a greater level of confidence and a correspondingly greater investment in V&V. This report includes five major components: (1) a background summary of the NEAMS Waste IPSC to emphasize M&S challenges; (2) the conceptual foundation for verification, validation, and confidence assessment of NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities; (3) specifications for the planned verification, validation, and confidence-assessment practices; (4) specifications for the planned evidence information management system; and (5) a path forward for the incremental implementation of this V&V plan.

  9. Safety assessment on the human intrusion scenarios of near surface disposal facility for low and very low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Baek [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Ho [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The second-stage near surface disposal facility for low and very low level radioactive waste's permanent disposal is to be built. During the institutional control period, the inadvertent intrusion of the general public is limited. But after the institutional control period, the access to the general public is not restricted. Therefore human who has purpose of residence and resource exploration can intrude the disposal facility. In this case, radioactive effects to the intruder should be limited within regulatory dose limits. This study conducted the safety assessment of human intrusion on the second-stage surface disposal facility through drilling and post drilling scenario. Results of drilling and post drilling scenario were satisfied with regulatory dose limits. The result showed that post-drilling scenario was more significant than drilling scenario. According to the human intrusion time and behavior after the closure of the facility, dominant radionuclide contributing to the intruder was different. Sensitivity analyses on the parameters about the human behavior were also satisfied with regulatory dose limits. Especially, manual redistribution factor was the most sensitive parameter on exposure dose. A loading plan of spent filter waste and dry active waste was more effective than a loading plan of spent filter waste and other wastes for the radiological point of view. These results can be expected to provide both robustness and defense in depth for the development of safety case further.

  10. Risk assessment framework of fate and transport models applied to hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1993-06-01

    Risk assessment is an increasingly important part of the decision-making process in the cleanup of hazardous waste sites. Despite guidelines from regulatory agencies and considerable research efforts to reduce uncertainties in risk assessments, there are still many issues unanswered. This paper presents new research results pertaining to fate and transport models, which will be useful in estimating exposure concentrations and will help reduce uncertainties in risk assessment. These developments include an approach for (1) estimating the degree of emissions and concentration levels of volatile pollutants during the use of contaminated water, (2) absorption of organic chemicals in the soil matrix through the skin, and (3) steady state, near-field, contaminant concentrations in the aquifer within a waste boundary.

  11. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, John C. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Edwards, W. Scott [Areva Federal Services, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); West, Lori D. [Materials and Energy Corporation, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  12. Organic Cultivation of Tomato in India with Recycled Slaughterhouse Wastes: Evaluation of Fertilizer and Fruit Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malancha Roy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and health safety of recycled slaughterhouse wastes-derived fertilizer and the produce obtained through its application is not well understood. Waste bovine blood and rumen digesta were mixed, cooked and sun-dried to obtain bovine-blood-and-rumen-digesta-mixture (BBRDM, NPK 30.36:1:5.75. 1.26 ± 0.18 log CFU mL−1 fecal coliforms were recovered in BBRDM. E. coli O157:H7, Mycobacteria, Clostridium sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp. and Brucella sp. were absent. No re-growth of pathogens was observed after 60 days storage in sealed bags and in the open. However, prions and viruses were not evaluated. Heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Mn concentrations in BBRDM were within internationally permissible limits. BBRDM was applied for field cultivation of tomato during 2012–2013 and 2013–2014. Lycopene and nitrate contents of BBRDM-grown tomatoes were higher than Diammonium phosphate (DAP + potash-grown tomatoes because BBRDM supplied 2.5 times more the amount of nitrogen than DAP (NPK 18:46:0 + potash (NPK 0:0:44. Heavy metals and nitrate/nitrite concentrations in tomatoes were within internationally acceptable limits. BBRDM-grown tomatoes showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Sub-acute toxicity tests on Wistar rats fed with BBRDM-grown tomatoes did not show adverse clinical picture. Thus, no immediate environmental or health risks associated with BBRDM and the tomatoes produced were identified.

  13. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  14. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-10-12

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products.

  15. Instilling safety culture in the passenger rail transport industry within the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulumane (John Maluleke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has two major rail operators that constitute the rail transport industry. These are Transnet Freight Rail (TFR, which operates freight and the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA. Although the Railway Safety Regulator (2011:29 reported the year on year declining trend of collisions, the main concern is that the costs incurred for each year’s incidents is escalating. This article is concerned with the declining safety standards of these operators as evidenced by 742 collisions recorded during the 2011/2012 financial year for both operators. The focus is mainly on collisions during the movement of rolling stock within the PRASA environment. The analysis of the occurrences is narrowed down, with the emphasis on the province of Gauteng. In the analysis of the causes of these collisions, the problems that led to the root causes of these collisions is reported. Of critical importance is that every transport operator is faced with the challenges of how to effectively respond to the basic transport needs and requirements of the travelling public. The transport users’ need is to travel between the two geographical points. During the journey between these geographical points, the operator has safety and security requirements and must provide a reliable, accessible and affordable transport system. As the travelling public becomes more affluent, the transport needs become open ended and require much more rational public choices. The rail transport system remains a vital or indispensable business sector of the economy. By investing in new technology, rolling stock and infrastructure, we woud see an increase in innovation, competitiveness, and an elevated standard of living.

  16. Improvement and modification of the routing system for the health-care waste collection and transportation in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagöz, Aylin Zeren; Kocasoy, Günay

    2008-01-01

    Handling of health-care wastes is among the most important environmental problems in Turkey as it is in the whole world. Approximately 25-30tons of health-care wastes, in addition to the domestic and recyclable wastes, are generated from hospitals, clinics and other small health-care institutions daily on the European and the Asian sides of Istanbul [Kocasoy, G., Topkaya, B., Zeren, B.A., Kiliç, M., et al., 2004. Integrated Health-care Waste Management in Istanbul, Final Report of the LIFE00 TCY/TR/054 Project, Turkish National Committee on Solid Wastes, Istanbul, Turkey; Zeren, B.A., 2004. The Health-care Waste Management of the Hospitals in the European Side of Istanbul, M.S. Thesis, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey; Kiliç, M., 2004. Determination of the Health-care Waste Handling and Final Disposal of the Infected Waste of Hospital-Medical Centers in the Anatolian Side of Istanbul. M.S. Thesis, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey]. Unfortunately, these wastes are not handled, collected or temporarily stored at the institutions properly according to the published Turkish Medical Waste Control Regulation [Ministry of Environment and Forestry, 2005. Medical Waste Control Regulation. Official Gazette No. 25883, Ankara, Turkey]. Besides the inappropriate handling at the institutions, there is no systematic program for the transportation of the health-care wastes to the final disposal sites. The transportation of these wastes is realized by the vehicles of the municipalities in an uncontrolled, very primitive way. As a consequence, these improperly managed health-care wastes cause many risks to the public health and people who handle them. This study has been conducted to develop a health-care waste collection and transportation system for the city of Istanbul, Turkey. Within the scope of the study, the collection of health-care wastes from the temporary storage rooms of the health-care institutions, transportation of these wastes to the final disposal

  17. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Richard L.; Niemi, Belinda J.; Paik, Ingle K.; Buczek, Jeffrey A.; Lietzow, J.; McCoy, F.; Beranek, F.; Gupta, M.

    2013-11-07

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved.

  18. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals.

  19. TRANSPORTING CHILDREN IN CARS AND THE USE OF CHILD SAFETY RESTRAINT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARCÊS, ALLAN QUADROS; COIMBRA, IGOR BONIFACIO ANDRADE; SILVA, DIEGO SALVADOR MUNIZ DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the transport of children in automobiles and the use of child restraints systems (CRS). Methods: This is a transversal descriptive study which included 200 vehicle drivers who carried 0-10 year old children in the city of São Luis, MA, Brazil. The drivers' passengers' and children's features were properly identified. The children's transportation using CRS were analyzed according to the Resolution 277/8 of the Brazilian National Traffic Department. Results: The transportation of children was classified as inappropriate in 70.5% of the vehicles analyzed. The most common way for children transportation was free on the back seats (47%) or on the lap of passengers/drivers (17%). The main reasons to justify the improper transportation were either not understanding the importance of CRS use (64.5%) or not having financial resources to buy the devices. The child safety seat was the most used CRS (50.8 %) among vehicles with proper child transportation system. Conclusion: The transportation of children was inappropriate in most of the vehicles analyzed, reflecting the need for creating awareness among automobile drivers, including education, supervision and improvement of policies for health improvement and prevention of accidents involving children transportation. Level of Evidence III, Cross Sectional Study. PMID:28149196

  20. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  1. Safety as a management concept in the air transport sector: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campa-Planas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the present study is to conduct a literature review of the contribution made by safety in air transport, based on the existing international academic literature in the field of the social sciences. It primarily attempts to examine and verify the relationship between safety-related concepts (co-occurrence, the link between the different authors (co-authorship and the corresponding citations (co-citations. Methodology: To achieve the established objectives, a systematic literature review (SLR has been conducted using the Scopus database between the years 1990 and 2016, identifying international academic papers related to the research topic of the present study. Findings: It has been verified, on the one hand, that safety in the air transport sector is a field of growing interest, as the number of papers has increased considerably in recent years, thus demonstrating the importance that this topic has acquired over time. On the other hand, however, it must be mentioned that the total quantity of papers related to the topic is low in terms of absolute numbers. The results of the co-occurrence analysis show that the most important aspect of safety is safety management, while the strongest link is between safety management and aircraft accidents, a fact that is foreseeable a priori.  Originality/value: The approach used allows a better view of the academic contribution made in relation to safety; this serves as the link among the different elements of the concept studied, and it demonstrates the growing interest in this area.

  2. Internationalisation in Road Transport of Goods in Norway: Safety Outcomes, Risk Factors and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor-Olav Nævestad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU promotes a gradual lifting of restrictions on foreign hauliers involved in domestic road transport of goods (cabotage, and liberalization of the current road cabotage rules may further increase the proportion of foreign heavy goods vehicles (HGVs on Norwegian roads. The aims of the present study are to: (1 Examine the safety outcomes of increasing internationalisation in (Norwegian road transport of goods; and (2 Discuss the importance of potential risk factors related to increasing proportions of foreign HGVs on Norwegian roads. We use four data sources to shed light on the aims. Results show that foreign HGVs account for 6% of the average domestic transport in Norway, and 11% of the HGVs involved in personal injury accidents. Additionally, foreign HGVs have a three times higher risk of single vehicle accidents, and twice the risk of head-on collisions. Foreign HGV drivers also seem more likely to trigger fatal accidents. We conclude that two risk factors seem to be important: (1 experience with/competence on Norwegian roads and (2 winter driving. Thus, the safety challenge is not that the drivers are foreign, but that they to some extent lack experience with, and competence on, the Norwegian road networks and the challenges that these roads may pose (e.g., narrow roads with high gradients, many curves, snow and ice. Previous research from other countries has also found that lacking experience with national road networks is an important risk factor. Given our results on risk factors, we may hypothesize that if foreign HGV drivers get more experience and education on Norwegian driving conditions, then increased internationalization could perhaps be of less concern in road safety. When discussing the higher accident risk and lower experience of foreign HGV drivers in Norway, it is important to note that the reason for foreign HGV drivers, working for foreign hauliers, to drive in Norway is that there are customers of the

  3. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  4. POWER MANAGEMENT SAFETY IN EU AND THE ENERGY POLICY IN TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EU countries face a serious problem of being too much dependent on the crude oil import. Transportation sector is especially dependent on import of fuels. Therefore The White Paper of 2011 outlines the need for more effective energy supplies management as one of the main European transportation policy objectives. Technical innovations, featuring a wider use of alternative fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, liquefied natural gas (LNG and biofuels play a great role in the process of ensuring energy safety.

  5. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  6. FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY ASSURANCE IN TERMS OF LOSS AND WASTE LIMITATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Śmiechowska; Filip Kłobukowski

    2016-01-01

    .... Food excess and, in consequence, food waste is present in many regions of the world. This study is meant to explain the causes of food waste on the basis of the author's own research and study results of other scientists...

  7. Probabilistic Causal Analysis for System Safety Risk Assessments in Commercial Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, James T.

    2003-01-01

    Aviation is one of the critical modes of our national transportation system. As such, it is essential that new technologies be continually developed to ensure that a safe mode of transportation becomes even safer in the future. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is managing the development of new technologies and interventions aimed at reducing the fatal aviation accident rate by a factor of 5 by year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by year 2022. A portfolio assessment is currently being conducted to determine the projected impact that the new technologies and/or interventions may have on reducing aviation safety system risk. This paper reports on advanced risk analytics that combine the use of a human error taxonomy, probabilistic Bayesian Belief Networks, and case-based scenarios to assess a relative risk intensity metric. A sample case is used for illustrative purposes.

  8. Waste Preparation and Transport Chemistry: Results of the FY 2001 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.

    2002-03-25

    of researchers from AEA Technology, Florida International University (FIU), Fluor Hanford, Mississippi State University (MSU), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to evaluate various aspects of the waste preparation and transport chemistry. The majority of this effort was focused on saltcake dissolution and saltwell pumping. The results of the AEA Technology, FIU, and MSU studies of saltcake dissolution and slurry transfers for Hanford are discussed in detail in a companion report prepared by T. D. Welch in 2001 (ORNIJTM-2001097). Staff members at Fluor Hanford have continued to conduct saltcake dissolution tests on actual tank waste (documented in reports prepared by D. L. Herting in 2000 and 2001). It should be noted that full-scale saltcake dissolution at Hanford is scheduled to begin in FY 2002. While the Hanford effort is focused on the transfer of waste from one tank to another, the objective of the SRTC study is the formation of aluminosilicates at elevated temperatures, which are present in the waste evaporator.

  9. GEOSAF Part II. Demonstration of the operational and long-term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. IAEA international intercomparison and harmonization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Bruno, Gerard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Vienna International Centre; Tichauer, Michael [IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hedberg, Bengt [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    International intercomparison and harmonization projects are one of the mechanisms developed by the IAEA for examining the application and use of safety standards, with a view to ensuring their effectiveness and working towards harmonization of approaches to the safety of radioactive waste management. The IAEA has organized a number of international projects on the safety of radioactive waste management; in particular on the issues related to safety demonstration for radioactive waste management facilities. In 2008, GEOSAF, Demonstration of The Operational and Long-Term Safety of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste, project was initiated. This project was completed in 2011 by delivering a project report focusing on the safety case for geological disposal facilities, a concept that has gained in recent years considerable prominence in the waste management area and is addressed in several international safety standards. During the course of the project, it was recognized that little work was undertaken internationally to develop a common view on the safety approach related to the operational phase of a geological disposal although long-term safety of disposal facility has been discussed for several decades. Upon completion of the first part of the GEOSAF project, it was decided to commence a follow-up project aiming at harmonizing approaches on the safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste through the development of an integrated safety case covering both operational and long-term safety. The new project was named as GEOSAF Part II, which was initiated in 2012 initially as 2-year project, involving regulators and operators. GEOSAF Part II provides a forum to exchange ideas and experience on the development and review of an integrated operational and post-closure safety case for geological disposal facilities. It also aims at providing a platform for knowledge transfer. The project is of particular interest to regulatory

  10. Study on creation and destruction of transport barriers via effective safety factors for energetic particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shun; Leoncini, Xavier; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Garbet, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles with low kinetic energy move along magnetic field lines, but so do not energetic particles. We investigate the topological structure changes in the phase space of energetic particles with respect to the magnetic one. For this study cylindrical magnetic fields with non-monotonic safety factors that induce the magnetic internal transport barrier are considered. We show that the topological structure of the magnetic field line and of the particle trajectories can be quite diffe...

  11. Improving accuracy in road safety data exchange for navigation systems: European Union Location Framework Transportation Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    BORZACCHIELLO MARIA TERESA; BOGUSLAWSKI RAYMOND; Pignatelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the near future, the travel experience for drivers will radically change from what they were used to a decade ago: advanced safety systems will guide drivers and help reduce road accidents; built-in vehicle sensors will detect road and traffic conditions and adapt the behaviour of the vehicle; automatic control of the engine will enable the reduction of emissions and contribute to the objective of decarbonisation of transport. All this will be possible thanks to the application of Informat...

  12. Optimization of municipal solid waste transportation by integrating GIS analysis, equation-based, and agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Trong, Khanh; Nguyen-Thi-Ngoc, Anh; Nguyen-Ngoc, Doanh; Dinh-Thi-Hai, Van

    2017-01-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been increasing steadily over the last decade by reason of population rising and waste generation rate. In most of the urban areas, disposal sites are usually located outside of the urban areas due to the scarcity of land. There is no fixed route map for transportation. The current waste collection and transportation are already overloaded arising from the lack of facilities and insufficient resources. In this paper, a model for optimizing municipal solid waste collection will be proposed. Firstly, the optimized plan is developed in a static context, and then it is integrated into a dynamic context using multi-agent based modelling and simulation. A case study related to Hagiang City, Vietnam, is presented to show the efficiency of the proposed model. From the optimized results, it has been found that the cost of the MSW collection is reduced by 11.3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synopsis of hydrologic data collected by waste management for characterization of unsaturated transport at Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E.

    1998-03-01

    Data which have been collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory waste management for the hydrologic characterization of the subsurface at the low level radioactive waste disposal facility, Area G, are reported and discussed briefly. The data includes Unsaturated Flow Apparatus measurements of the unsaturated conductivity in samples from borehole G-5. Analysis compares these values to the predictions from van Genuchten estimates, and the implications for transport and data matching are discussed, especially at the location of the Vapor Phase Notch (VPN). There, evaporation drives a significant vapor flux and the liquid flux cannot be measured accurately by the UFA device. Data also include hydrologic characterization of samples from borehole G-5, Area G surface soils, Los Alamos (Cerros de Rio) basalt, Tsankawi and Cerro-Toledo layers, the Vapor Phase Notch (VPN), and additional new samples from the uppermost tuff layer at Area G. Hydraulic properties from these sample groups can be used to supplement the existing data base. The data in this report can be used to improve the accuracy and reduce the uncertainty in future computational modeling of the unsaturated transport at Area G. This report supports the maintenance plan for the Area G Performance Assessment.

  14. The application of fracture mechanics to the safety assessment of transport casks for radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencker, U.; Mueller, K.; Droste, B.; Roedel, R.; Voelzke, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    BAM is the German responsible authority for the mechanical and thermal design safety assessment of packages for the transport of radioactive materials. The assessment has to cover the brittle fracture safety proof of package components made of potentially brittle materials. This paper gives a survey of the regulatory and technical requirements for such an assessment according to BAM's new ''Guidelines for the Application of Ductile Cast Iron for Transport and Storage Casks for Radioactive Materials''. Based on these guidelines higher stresses than before can become permissible, but it is necessary to put more effort into the safety assessment procedure. The fundamentals of such a proof with the help of the methods of fracture mechanics are presented. The recommended procedure takes into account the guidelines of the IAEA Advisory Material which are based on the prevention of crack initiation. Examples of BAM's research and safety assessment practices are given. Recommendations for further developments towards package designs with higher acceptable stress levels will be concluded.

  15. Ergonomics, safety, and resilience in the helicopter offshore transportation system of Campos Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert J; Borges, Marcos R S; de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation of personnel to offshore oil platforms is one of the major hazards of this kind of endeavor. Pilot performance is a key factor in the safety of the transportation system. This study seeks to identify the ergonomic factors present in pilots' activities that may in some way compromise or enhance their performance, the constraints and affordances which they are subject to; and where possible to link these to their associated risk factors. Methodology adopted in this project studies work in its context. It is a merging of Activity Analysis (Guerin et al. 2001) of European tradition with Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA - www.ctaresource.com) articulated with the recent approaches to cognitive systems engineering developed by Professors David Woods and Erik Hollnagel. Fifty-five hours of field interviews provided the input for analysis. Sixteen ergonomic constraints were identified, some cognitive, some physical, all considered relevant by the research subjects and expert advisers. Although the safety record of the personnel transportation system studied is considered acceptable, there is low hanging fruit to be picked which can help improve the system's safety.

  16. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  17. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  18. Measurement and modelling of reactive transport in geological barriers for nuclear waste containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qingrong; Joseph, Claudia; Schmeide, Katja; Jivkov, Andrey P

    2015-11-11

    Compacted clays are considered as excellent candidates for barriers to radionuclide transport in future repositories for nuclear waste due to their very low hydraulic permeability. Diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, controlled by a nano-scale pore system. Assessment of the clays' long-term containment function requires adequate modelling of such pore systems and their evolution. Existing characterisation techniques do not provide complete pore space information for effective modelling, such as pore and throat size distributions and connectivity. Special network models for reactive transport are proposed here using the complimentary character of the pore space and the solid phase. This balances the insufficient characterisation information and provides the means for future mechanical-physical-chemical coupling. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of clays is represented using different length parameters and percentage of pores in different directions. Resulting networks are described as mathematical graphs with efficient discrete calculus formulation of transport. Opalinus Clay (OPA) is chosen as an example. Experimental data for the tritiated water (HTO) and U(vi) diffusion through OPA are presented. Calculated diffusion coefficients of HTO and uranium species are within the ranges of the experimentally determined data in different clay directions. This verifies the proposed pore network model and validates that uranium complexes are diffusing as neutral species in OPA. In the case of U(vi) diffusion the method is extended to account for sorption and convection. Rather than changing pore radii by coarse grained mathematical formula, physical sorption is simulated in each pore, which is more accurate and realistic.

  19. Criticality Safety Evaluation for TRU Waste In Storage at the RWMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. E. Shaw; J. B. Briggs; C. A. Atkinson; G. J. Briscoe

    1994-04-01

    Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude a criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems.

  20. Review of Regulatory Emphasis on Transportation Safety in the United States, 2002-2009: Public versus Private Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waycaster, Garrett C; Matsumura, Taiki; Bilotkach, Volodymyr; Haftka, Raphael T; Kim, Nam H

    2017-01-17

    The U.S. Department of Transportation is responsible for implementing new safety improvements and regulations with the goal of ensuring limited funds are distributed to where they can have the greatest impact on safety. In this work, we conduct a study of new regulations and other reactions (such as recalls) to fatal accidents in several different modes of transportation implemented from 2002 to 2009. We find that in the safest modes of commercial aviation and bus transport, the amount of spending on new regulations is high in relation to the number of fatalities compared to the regulatory attention received by less safe modes of general aviation and private automobiles. Additionally, we study two major fatal accident investigations from commercial aviation and two major automotive recalls associated with fatal accidents. We find differences in the cost per expected fatality prevented for these reactions, with the airline accident investigations being more cost effective. Overall, we observe trends in both the automotive and aviation sectors that suggest that public transportation receives more regulatory attention than private transport. We also observe that the types of safety remedies utilized, regulation versus investigation, have varying levels of effectiveness in different transport modes. We suggest that these differences are indicative of increased public demand for safety in modes where a third party may be held responsible, even for those not participating in the transportation. These findings have important implications for the transportation industry, policymakers, and for estimating the public demand for safety in new transport modes. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm(3) (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2 e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from -145 to 1016 kg CO2 e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO2 e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal routing for efficient municipal solid waste transportation by using ArcGIS application in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevi, V; Shahabudeen, P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, about US$410 billion is spent every year to manage four billion tonnes of municipal solid wastes (MSW). Transport cost alone constitutes more than 50% of the total expenditure on solid waste management (SWM) in major cities of the developed world and the collection and transport cost is about 85% in the developing world. There is a need to improve the ability of the city administrators to manage the municipal solid wastes with least cost. Since 2000, new technologies such as geographical information system (GIS) and related optimization software have been used to optimize the haul route distances. The city limits of Chennai were extended from 175 to 426 km(2) in 2011, leading to sub-optimum levels in solid waste transportation of 4840 tonnes per day. After developing a spatial database for the whole of Chennai with 200 wards, the route optimization procedures have been run for the transport of solid wastes from 13 wards (generating nodes) to one transfer station (intermediary before landfill), using ArcGIS. The optimization process reduced the distances travelled by 9.93%. The annual total cost incurred for this segment alone is Indian Rupees (INR) 226.1 million. Savings in terms of time taken for both the current and shortest paths have also been computed, considering traffic conditions. The overall savings are thus very meaningful and call for optimization of the haul routes for the entire Chennai.

  3. Fate and Transport of 17β-estradiol Beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, L. A.; Tyner, J. S.; Hawkins, S. A.; Lee, J.; Buchanan, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Steroidal hormones, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), are prevalent in animal waste and are a common subject of study due to potential stream and groundwater contamination. These particular hormones are labeled as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) because of their developmental effects in reptiles and amphibians. Dairy waste at concentrated animal feeding operations is typically stored in a pond that is regulated by law to include an underlying soil liner with a minimal hydraulic conductivity to limit leaching beneath the pond, yet some studies have traced stream and groundwater contamination to these ponds. Previous studies have shown that the soil underlying earthen ponds are always unsaturated. This increases the pore water velocity relative to a given flux, which itself is dictated almost entirely by an organic seal that forms at the bottom of a waste pond. This increased velocity results in more rapid transport and less retention time within the vadose zone where E2 could biodegrade into its daughter product, estrone (E1). And since the soil is unsaturated and therefore has a negative pressure, preferential flow should not serve as a method of transport. On the contrary, E2 and E1 may sorb to mobile colloids increasing their mobility. This study will evaluate the use of biochar, an increasingly common activated carbon source, as a soil liner amendment. Biochar has a specific surface area that can exceed 1,500 m2/g and is high in organic matter, which E2 sorbs to strongly. The biochar amendment should be most effective and enduring as a layer located at the bottom of the soil liner so that the leachate has been treated by the soil prior to contact. Another proposed amendment technique is to uniformly mix the biochar within the soil liner to increase the leachate contact time with the biochar, but realistically could prove to be too costly and energy-intensive. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to analyze hormone persistence and transport processes and

  4. Health and Safety Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clark, C. Jr.; Burman, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Manis, L.W.; Barre, W.L. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S&H) issues. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water This plan explains additional site-specific health and safety requirements such as Site Specific Hazards Evaluation Addendums (SSHEAs) to the Site Safety and Health Plan which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

  5. Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report; Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G.M.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.; Wahl, K.H.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the status of optimizing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods developed are illustrated by their application to samples from Tanks 241-SY-103 and 241-S-102. Capability to account for organic carbon in Tank SY-101 was improved significantly by improving techniques for isolating organic constituents relatively free from radioactive contamination and by improving derivatization methodology. The methodology was extended to samples from Tank SY-103 and results documented in this report. Results from analyzing heated and irradiated SY-103 samples (Gas Generation Task) and evaluating methods for analyzing tank waste directly for chelators and chelator fragments are also discussed.

  6. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  7. 10 CFR 76.87 - Technical safety requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.87... prevention; (4) Fire prevention; (5) Radiation protection; (6) Radioactive waste management; (7) Maintenance; (8) Environmental protection; (9) Packaging and transporting nuclear materials; (10)...

  8. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.

    1986-04-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report.

  9. Site health and safety plan/work plan for further characterization of waste drums at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abston, J.P.; Burman, S.N.; Jones, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    The health and safety plan/work plan describes a strategy for characterizing the contents of 172 liquid waste and 33 solid waste drums. It also addresses the control measures that will be taken to (1) prevent or minimize any adverse impact on the environment or personnel safety and health and (2) meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. When writing this document, the authors considered past experiences, recommendations, and best management practices to minimize possible hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or unplanned releases of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  10. Norwegian national report. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. [National report from Norway, fourth review meeting, 14-23 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report contains the national report from Norway to the fourth review meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to be held 14 to 23 May 2012. (Author)

  11. Investigation on the oxygen transport mechanisms in the Sarcheshmeh waste rock dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Yousefi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD are the serious environmental problems associated with the mining activities in sulphide ores. The rate of pyrite oxidation is governed by the availability of oxygen (Borden, 2003. Therefore, the identifying oxygen supplying mechanism is one of the most important issues related to the environmental assessment of waste rock dumps (Cathles and Apps, 1975; Jaynes et al., 1984; Davis and Ritchie, 1986. Although comprehensive researches were performed on the mathematical description of oxygen transport processes using the numerical modeling (Morin et al., 1988; Blowes et al., 1991; Wunderly et al., 1986; Elberling et al., 1994; Jannesar Malakooti et al., 2014, so far, the interactions between these processes and geochemical and mineralogical characteristics has not been studied especially in waste rock dumps. Therefore the main objective of this study is to identify the evidences for knowing the oxygen transport mechanisms in the waste dumps and also, its role in intensity of pyrite oxidation. It is expected that such these structural studies could be useful for better understanding of dominant processes in numerical modeling and also providing environmental management strategies in the study area and other sites by similar characteristics. Materials and Methods In this study, thirty solid samples were collected from six excavated trenches in the waste rock dumps No. 19 and 31 of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine. Collected samples were studied using several methods such as XRD, ASTM-D2492, paste pH and grain size distribution. The results obtained from these methods were used with the field observations in order to characterize some detail information about oxygen supplying mechanisms for oxidation reactions in the waste rock dumps. Result The main minerals found by the XRD analysis were quartz and muscovite which were present in all samples. Pyrite, orthose, albite, and chlorite were also

  12. Advanced multi-dimensional deterministic transport computational capability for safety analysis of pebble-bed reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyobeka, Bismark Mzubanzi

    A coupled neutron transport thermal-hydraulics code system with both diffusion and transport theory capabilities is presented. At the heart of the coupled code is a powerful neutronics solver, based on a neutron transport theory approach, powered by the time-dependent extension of the well known DORT code, DORT-TD. DORT-TD uses a fully implicit time integration scheme and is coupled via a general interface to the thermal-hydraulics code THERMIX-DIREKT, an HTR-specific two dimensional core thermal-hydraulics code. Feedback is accounted for by interpolating multigroup cross sections from pre-generated libraries which are structured for user specified discrete sets of thermal-hydraulic parameters e.g. fuel and moderator temperatures. The coupled code system is applied to two HTGR designs, the PBMR 400MW and the PBMR 268MW. Steady-state and several design basis transients are modeled in an effort to discern with the adequacy of using neutron diffusion theory as against the more accurate but yet computationally expensive neutron transport theory. It turns out that there are small but significant differences in the results from using either of the two theories. It is concluded that diffusion theory can be used with a higher degree of confidence in the PBMR as long as more than two energy groups are used and that the result must be checked against lower order transport solution, especially for safety analysis purposes. The end product of this thesis is a high fidelity, state-of-the-art computer code system, with multiple capabilities to analyze all PBMR safety related transients in an accurate and efficient manner.

  13. Uncertainty propagation in a radionuclide transport model for performance assessment of a nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutfoy, A. [Electricite de France R and D Safety and Reliability Branch (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France); Bouton, M. [Electricite de France R and D National Hydraulic Lab. and Environment (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France)

    2001-07-01

    Given the complexity of the involved phenomenon, performance assessment of a nuclear waste disposal requires numerical modelling. Because many of the input parameters of models are uncertain, analysis of uncertainties and their impact on the probabilistic outcome has become of major importance. This paper presents the EDF Research and Development Division methodology to propagate uncertainties arising from the parameters through models. This reliability approach provides two important quantitative results: an estimate of the probability that the outcome exceeds some two important quantitative results: an estimate of the probability that the outcome exceeds some specified threshold level (called failure event), and a probabilistic sensitivity measure which quantifies the relative importance of each uncertain variable with respect to the probabilistic outcome. Such results could become an integral component of the decision process for the nuclear disposal. The reliability method proposed in this paper is applied to a radionuclide transport model. (authors)

  14. Studies on contaminant transport at an industrial waste dumpsite of Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar Ahmed Mohammed Nazeer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization has produced various types of wastes that sometimes are dumped in low-lying areas without proper treatment and engineering controls. Bangalore district has more than 60 illegal dumpsites consisting of either municipal or industrial waste. Government records indicate that more than 1,500 industries are working at various industrial areas and other locations around the city. In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize the Bommasandra industrial area dump site located at the south of Bangalore. This dump site is 15 to 20 years old and spreads on an area of 12.7 acres. Around 60 to 70 industries of all nature are located around this dump site. A large number of soil samples were collected and after site characterization of soil properties, an attempt has been made to predict the transport behavior of selected chemical species using available mathematical models and a program based on MATLAB- 7 to study the migration properties of these selected chemical species as a function of time. Also a model provided by USEPA DRASTIC has been used. The DRASTIC Index found for this dumpsite was 146; therefore, one can conclude that the studied dumpsite is moderately vulnerable to pollutants. The migrating behavior of cations such as sodium, calcium and anions such as sulphate, chloride were considered. It was observed that cations are better retarded in comparison to anions. This was attributed to exchangeable chemical reactions.

  15. Long-term reactive transport modelling of stabilized/solidified waste: from dynamic leaching tests to disposal scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windt, Laurent de [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CG-Hydrodynamics and Reaction Group, 35 R. St-Honore, 77300 Fontainebleau (France)]. E-mail: laurent.dewindt@ensmp.fr; Badreddine, Rabia [INERIS, Direction des Risques Chroniques, Unite Dechets et Sites Pollues, Parc Technologique Alata BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Lagneau, Vincent [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CG-Hydrodynamics and Reaction Group, 35 R. St-Honore, 77300 Fontainebleau (France)

    2007-01-31

    Environmental impact assessment of hazardous waste disposal relies, among others, on standardized leaching tests characterized by a strong coupling between diffusion and chemical processes. In that respect, this study shows that reactive transport modelling is a useful tool to extrapolate laboratory results to site conditions characterized by lower solution/solid (L/S) ratios, site specific geometry, infiltration, etc. A cement solidified/stabilized (S/S) waste containing lead is investigated as a typical example. The reactive transport model developed in a previous study to simulate the initial state of the waste as well as laboratory batch and dynamic tests is first summarized. Using the same numerical code (HYTEC), this model is then integrated to a simplified waste disposal scenario assuming a defective cover and rain water infiltration. The coupled evolution of the S/S waste chemistry and the pollutant plume migration are modelled assessing the importance of the cracking state of the monolithic waste. The studied configurations correspond to an undamaged and fully sealed system, a few main fractures between undamaged monoliths and, finally, a dense crack-network in the monoliths. The model considers the potential effects of cracking, first the increase of rain water and carbon dioxide infiltration and, secondly, the increase of L/S ratio and reactive surfaces, using either explicit fracture representation or dual porosity approaches.

  16. Identification and characterization of potential discharge areas for radionuclide transport by groundwater from a nuclear waste repository in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Sten; Bosson, Emma; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Sassner, Mona

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes solute transport modeling carried out as a part of an assessment of the long-term radiological safety of a planned deep rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden. Specifically, it presents transport modeling performed to locate and describe discharge areas for groundwater potentially carrying radionuclides from the repository to the surface where man and the environment could be affected by the contamination. The modeling results show that topography to large extent determines the discharge locations. Present and future lake and wetland objects are central for the radionuclide transport and dose calculations in the safety assessment. Results of detailed transport modeling focusing on the regolith and the upper part of the rock indicate that the identification of discharge areas and objects considered in the safety assessment is robust in the sense that it does not change when a more detailed model representation is used.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Potential Discharge Areas for Radionuclide Transport by Groundwater from a Nuclear Waste Repository in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Sten [HydroResearch AB, Taeby (Sweden)], E-mail: sten.berglund@hydroresearch.se; Bosson, Emma; Selroos, Jan-Olof [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB), Stockholm (Sweden); Sassner, Mona [DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    This paper describes solute transport modeling carried out as a part of an assessment of the long-term radiological safety of a planned deep rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden. Specifically, it presents transport modeling performed to locate and describe discharge areas for groundwater potentially carrying radionuclides from the repository to the surface where man and the environment could be affected by the contamination. The modeling results show that topography to large extent determines the discharge locations. Present and future lake and wetland objects are central for the radionuclide transport and dose calculations in the safety assessment. Results of detailed transport modeling focusing on the regolith and the upper part of the rock indicate that the identification of discharge areas and objects considered in the safety assessment is robust in the sense that it does not change when a more detailed model representation is used.

  18. Safety improvement issues for mission aborts of future space transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, M; Wächter, M; Sachs, G

    2006-01-01

    Two-stage winged space access vehicles consisting of a carrier stage with airbreathing turbo/ram jet engines and a rocket propelled orbital stage which may significantly reduce space transport costs and have additional advantages offer a great potential for mission safety improvements. Formulating the nominal mission and abort scenarios caused by engine malfunctions as an optimal control problem allows full exploitation of safety capabilities. The shaping of the nominal mission has a significant impact on the prospective safety. For this purpose, most relevant mission aborts are considered together with the nominal mission, treating them as an optimization problem of branched trajectories where the branching point is not fixed. The applied procedure yields a safety improved nominal trajectory, showing the feasibility of the included mission aborts with minimum payload penalty. The other mission aborts can be separately treated, with the initial condition given by the state of the nominal trajectory at the time when a failure occurs. A mission abort plan is set up, covering all emergency scenarios.

  19. Generation, transport and conduct of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level; Generacion, transporte y gestion de desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Jimenez, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The technological development of the last decades produced an increment in the application of the radiations in different human activities. The effect of it has been it the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, some of the stages of the administration of the waste of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work aspects of the generation, the transport and the administration of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level produced in the non energy applications from the radioactive materials to national level, indicating the generated average quantities, transported and tried annually by the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). The main generators of wastes in Mexico, classified according to the activity in which the radioactive materials are used its are listed. Some of the main processes of treatment of radioactive wastes broadly applied in the world and those that are used at the moment in our country are also presented. (Author)

  20. A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross; R. Best

    2001-08-17

    The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results from existing models and codes such as RADTRAN, RISKIND, INTERLINE, and HIGHWAY to estimate transportation-related impacts of transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial reactors and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to Yucca Mountain. The source tables in the database are compendiums of information from many diverse sources including: radionuclide quantities for each waste type; route and route characteristics for rail, legal-weight truck, heavy haul. truck, and barge transport options; state-specific accident and fatality rates for routes selected for analysis; packaging and shipment data by waste type; unit risk factors; the complex behavior of the packaged waste forms in severe transport accidents; and the effects of exposure to radiation or the isotopic specific effects of radionclides should they be released in severe transportation accidents. The database works together with the codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser, et al, 1994) and RISKlND (Yuan, et al, 1995) to calculate incident-free dose and accident risk. For the incident-free transportation scenario, the database uses RADTRAN and RISKIND-generated data to calculate doses to offlink populations, onlink populations, people at stops, crews, inspectors, workers at intermodal transfer stations, guards at overnight stops, and escorts, as well as non-radioactive pollution health effects. For accident scenarios, the database uses RADTRAN-generated data to calculate dose risks based on ingestion, inhalation, resuspension, immersion (cloudshine), and groundshine as

  1. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security traffic and transportation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding and safety and security elements in traffic and transportation theory, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between different research approaches and through laying the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both ways – this book puts forward new congestion models, breaking new ground by introducing game theory and safety/security. Addressing the multiple actors who may hold different concerns regarding system reliability; e.g. one or several terrorists, a government, various local or regional government agencies, or others with stakes for or against system reliability, this book describes how ...

  2. Environmental assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of commercial low level nuclear waste across the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This environmental assessment investigates the potential environmental and safety effects which could result from the land transport of low level radioactive wastes across the Savannah River Plant. Chem-Nuclear Systems operates a low level radioactive waste burial facility adjacent to the Savannah River Plant and is seeking permission from the DOE to transport the waste across Savannah River Plant.

  3. Combined evaluation. Plutonium transports in France. Problems of safety and reliability of transport container FS47; Evaluation Conjointe. Transports de plutonium en France. Problemes de surete et de securite du container de transport FS47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marignac, Y.; Coeytaux, X. [Wise-Paris, 75 (France); Large, J.H. [Nuclear Engineer, Large and Associates, Londres (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    This report concerns the safety and the protection of plutonium dioxide transported from Cogema La Hague to the mixed oxide fuel plant of Marcoule and Cadarache. The French approach of the transport safety is based on the combining of two essential principles: the first one affirms that the performances of the FS47 container in regard of containment (norms TS-R-1 from IAEA for the accidental conditions) is conceived to resist in any situation even terrorism or sabotage. In fact, the IAEA norm follows a probabilistic study without a voluntary attack such a terrorist one. The second principle rests on the ability to prevent the treat of terrorism acts, because of a secrecy policy on the plutonium transport. It appeared that the Green peace association has succeeded several times to know exactly the hours, the trips of the plutonium transport and this simple thing raises more questions than it solves. (N.C.)

  4. Numerical simulations of water flow and contaminants transport near mining wastes disposed in a fractured rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Abdelghani Farouk; Aubertin Michel; Simon Richard; Therrien René

    2015-01-01

    A numerical tool, called Hydro-Geosphere, was used to simulate unsaturated water flow and contami-nants migration around an open pit filled with mining wastes. Numerical simulations had been carried out to assess the influence of various factors on water flow and solute transport in and around the surface openings including recharge, properties of the waste material and presence of fractures in the surround-ing rock mass. The effect of the regional hydraulic gradient was also investigated. The analyses were con-ducted by simulating various 2D cases using experimentally obtained material properties and controlled boundary conditions. The effects of the hydrogeological properties of the filling material (i.e., water reten-tion curve and hydraulic conductivity function), fracture network characteristics and conductivity of the joints were assessed. The results illustrate that fractures control water flow and contaminants transport around the waste disposal area. A fracture network can desaturate the system and improve the regional gradient effect.

  5. 10 CFR 51.52 - Environmental effects of transportation of fuel and waste-Table S-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... encapsulated in zircaloy rods; (3) The average level of irradiation of the irradiated fuel from the reactor...-water-cooled nuclear power reactor, and submitted after February 4, 1975, shall contain a statement concerning transportation of fuel and radioactive wastes to and from the reactor. That statement...

  6. Investigating the Use of 3-D Deterministic Transport for Core Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. D. Gougar; D. Scott

    2004-04-01

    An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate the feasibility of using a three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila®) to perform global (core-wide) criticality, flux and depletion calculations for safety analysis of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the ATR, model development, capabilities of Attila, generation of the cross-section libraries, comparisons to experimental results for Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) concepts, and future work planned with Attila.

  7. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 8. Land Transportation Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    f LAND TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES The polyesters considered here are the linear thermoplastics; polylethylene terephthalate ), ( PET ...Polyvinyl Chloride 4.5.4 Acrylics 4.5.5 Nylons 4.5.6 Cellulosics 4.5.7 Polyacetals 4.5.8 Polyesters 4.5.9 Polycarbonates 4.5.10 Chlorinated and...Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene 4.6 Thermosetting Resins 4.6.1 Phenolic Resins and Molding Compounds 4.6.1.1 Resoles 4.6.1.2 Novolaks 4.6.1.3 Fire Safety

  8. 78 FR 75672 - New Jersey Regulations on Transportation of Regulated Medical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ...-3A.14 that the words ``Medical Waste'' or ``Infectious Waste'' must be labeled on the outside of the... a water resistant tag below the generator's marking on the outer surface of the container with the... registration number; and 3) either the words ``Medical Waste'' or ``Infectious Waste'' on two sides and...

  9. Safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise based on the relative entropy aggregation in group decision making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Li, Chengbing; Huo, Yueying

    2014-01-01

    Safety of dangerous goods transport is directly related to the operation safety of dangerous goods transport enterprise. Aiming at the problem of the high accident rate and large harm in dangerous goods logistics transportation, this paper took the group decision making problem based on integration and coordination thought into a multiagent multiobjective group decision making problem; a secondary decision model was established and applied to the safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise. First of all, we used dynamic multivalue background and entropy theory building the first level multiobjective decision model. Secondly, experts were to empower according to the principle of clustering analysis, and combining with the relative entropy theory to establish a secondary rally optimization model based on relative entropy in group decision making, and discuss the solution of the model. Then, after investigation and analysis, we establish the dangerous goods transport enterprise safety evaluation index system. Finally, case analysis to five dangerous goods transport enterprises in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region validates the feasibility and effectiveness of this model for dangerous goods transport enterprise recognition, which provides vital decision making basis for recognizing the dangerous goods transport enterprises.

  10. Investigation of flammable gas and thermal safety issues for retrieval of waste from Tank 241-AN-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caley, S.M.; Stewart, C.W.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Cuta, J.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Panisko, F.E.

    1998-09-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to identify and resolve some of the flammable gas and thermal safety issues potentially associated with the retrieval of waste from Tank 241-AN-105 (AN-105), which is the first double-shell tank scheduled for waste retrieval at Hanford. The planned retrieval scenario includes the following steps in AN-105: (1) degas the tank using two submerged mixing pumps, (2) turn off the mixer pump(s) and allow any suspended solids to settle, (3) decant the supernatant to the intermediate feed staging tank(s) (IFSTs) (AP-102 and/or AP-104) using water/caustic dilution at the transfer pump inlet, (4) add the remaining dilution water/caustic to the slurry remaining in AN-105, (5) mix the tank with the mixer pump(s) until the soluble solids dissolve, (6) turn off the mixer pump(s) and let the insoluble solids settle, and (7) decant the new supernatant to the IFST(s), leaving the insoluble solids behind. Three waste retrieval safety issues are addressed in this report. They are (1) the controlled degassing of AN-105 to ensure that the headspace remains <25% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), (2) an assessment of how dissolved gas (mainly ammonia) released during the transfer of the supernatant in AN-105 to the IFSTs and the water/caustic dilution of the remaining slurry in AN-105 will affect the flammability in these tanks; and (3) an assessment of the maximum waste temperatures that might occur in AN-105 during retrieval operations.

  11. Innovative neuro-fuzzy system of smart transport infrastructure for road traffic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinarovica, Anna; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2017-09-01

    The proposed study describes applying of neural network and fuzzy logic in transport control for safety improvement by evaluation of accidents’ risk by intelligent infrastructure devices. Risk evaluation is made by following multiple-criteria: danger, changeability and influence of changes for risk increasing. Neuro-fuzzy algorithms are described and proposed for task solution. The novelty of the proposed system is proved by deep analysis of known studies in the field. The structure of neuro-fuzzy system for risk evaluation and mathematical model is described in the paper. The simulation model of the intelligent devices for transport infrastructure is proposed to simulate different situations, assess the risks and propose the possible actions for infrastructure or vehicles to minimize the risk of possible accidents.

  12. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodríguez-Buño; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism

  13. Safety guidebook relative to the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formation; Guide de surete relatif au stockage definitif des dechets radioactifs en formation geologique profonde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) initiated in 2003 a revision process of the objectives to be considered during the research and work steps of the implementation of a radioactive waste storage facility in deep geologic formations. The purpose of this document is to define the safety objectives that have to be retained at each step of this implementation, from the site characterization to the closure of the facility. This update takes into account the works carried out by the ANDRA (French national agency of radioactive wastes) in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991, and the advices of the permanent experts group about these works. It takes also into consideration the international research works in this domain and the choices defined in the program law no 2006-739 from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The main modifications concern: the notion of reversibility, the definition of the safety functions of disposal components, the safety goals and the design principles assigned to waste packages, the control of nuclear materials and the monitoring objectives of the facility. The documents treats of the following points: 1 - the objectives of public health and environment protection; 2 - the safety principles and the safety-related design bases of the facility; and 3 - the method used for demonstrating the disposal safety. (J.S.)

  14. Geosphere transport of radionuclides in safety assessment of spent fuel disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, P

    2000-07-01

    The study is associated with a research project of Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to utilise analytical models in safety assessment for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Geosphere constitutes a natural barrier for the possible escape of radionuclides from a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel. However, rock contains fractures in which flowing groundwater can transport material. Radionuclide transport in rock is complicated - the flow paths in the geosphere are difficult to characterise and there are various phenomena involved. In mathematical models, critical paths along which radionuclides can reach the biosphere are considered. The worst predictable cases and the effect of the essential parameters can be assessed with the help of such models although they simplify the reality considerably. Some of the main differences between the transport model used and the reality are the mathematical characterisation of the flow route in rock as a smooth and straight fracture and the modelling of the complicated chemical processes causing retardation with the help of a distribution coefficient that does not explain those phenomena. Radionuclide transport models via a heat transfer analogy and analytical solutions of them are derived in the study. The calculations are performed with a created Matlab program for a single nuclide model taking into account 1D advective transport along a fracture, 1D diffusion from the fracture into and within the porous rock matrices surrounding the fracture, retardation within the matrices, and radioactive decay. The results are compared to the results of the same calculation cases obtained by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and presented in TILA-99 safety assessment report. The model used by VTT is the same but the results have been calculated numerically in different geometry. The differences between the results of the present study and TILA-99 can to a large extent be explained by the different approaches to

  15. A Bayesian network model for assessing natural estrogen fate and transport in a swine waste lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W; Yost, Erin; Meyer, Michael T; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2014-10-01

    Commercial swine waste lagoons are regarded as a major reservoir of natural estrogens, which have the potential to produce adverse physiological effects on exposed aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, there remains limited understanding of the complex mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern the fate and transport of natural estrogens within an anaerobic swine lagoon. To improve lagoon management and ultimately help control the offsite transport of these compounds from swine operations, a probabilistic Bayesian network model was developed to assess natural estrogen fate and budget and then compared against data collected from a commercial swine field site. In general, the model was able to describe the estrogen fate and budget in both the slurry and sludge stores within the swine lagoon. Sensitivity analysis within the model demonstrated that the estrogen input loading from the associated barn facility was the most important factor in controlling estrogen concentrations within the lagoon slurry storage, whereas the settling rate was the most significant factor in the lagoon sludge storage. The degradation reactions were shown to be minor in both stores based on prediction of average total estrogen concentrations. Management scenario evaluations demonstrated that the best possible management options to reduce estrogen levels in the lagoon are either to adjust the estrogen input loading from swine barn facilities or to effectively enhance estrogen bonding with suspended solids through the use of organic polymers or inorganic coagulants.

  16. Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where 222Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and 222Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3).

  17. A Bayesian Network Model for Assessing Estrogen Fate and Transport in a Swine Waste Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W.; Yost, Erin; Meyer, Michael T.; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Reckhow, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial swine waste lagoons are regarded as a major reservoir of natural estrogens, which have the potential to produce adverse physiological effects on exposed aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, there remains limited understanding of the complex mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern the fate and transport of natural estrogens within an anaerobic swine lagoon. To improve lagoon management and ultimately help control the offsite transport of these compounds from swine operations, a Bayesian network model was developed to predict estrogen fate and budget and compared against data collected from a commercial swine field site. In general, the model was able to predict the estrogen fate and budget in both the slurry and sludge stores within the swine lagoon. Sensitivity analysis within the model, demonstrated that the estrogen input loading from the associated barn facility was the most important factor in controlling estrogen concentrations within the lagoon slurry storage, while the settling rate was the most significant factor in the lagoon sludge storage. The degradation reactions were shown to be minor in both stores based on prediction of average total estrogen concentrations. Management scenario evaluations showed that the best possible management options to reduce estrogen levels in the lagoon are either to adjust the estrogen input loading from swine barn facilities or to effectively enhancing estrogen bonding with suspended solids through the use of organic polymers or inorganic coagulants. PMID:24798317

  18. Accident risk and safety measures in the transport sector in Norway; Ulykkesrisiko og sikkerhetstiltak i transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The scope of the work described in this report was (1) to evaluate methods for risk mapping considering all of the different means of transport, (2) to evaluate the extent to which measures should be taken against various types of accidents, (3) to evaluate cost-benefit assessments of accident-reducing measures irrespective of the different means of transport, (4) to evaluate the preferences of measures/cost effectiveness of different measures within different sectors, and (4) to evaluate the possibility of improving the efficiency of possible measures. It also considers the risk situation for ferry service. In addition to the purely human aspect, traffic accidents constitute an expensive social problem. Yet it would be too costly to meet a potential requirement that traffic accidents should disappear. The resources used by society to combat accidents have to be seen in the light of (1) the profit that can be achieved compared to alternative use of the resources, and (2) the possible negative consequences of different safety measures on, for instance, travel time and the extent of the transport. It is pointed out that when accident risk is compared from one transport means to another, different relative positions are found depending on how risk is quantified. Thus, for instance, on average, per year 5 times as many people die in accidents involving private cars as in motor cycle accidents, while for the number of deaths per billion person kilometers the ratio is almost the opposite,1:6.5. 34 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Extended storage for radioactive wastes: relevant aspects related to the safety; Almacenamiento prolongado de residuos radiactivos: algunos aspectos de interes a considerar para su seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Reinaldo G.; Peralta V, José L.P.; Estevez, Gema G. F., E-mail: gesr@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: peralta@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gema@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Protección e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Agencia de Energía Nuclear y Tecnologías de Avanzada (AENTA), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an issue of great relevance globally linked to the issue of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Among the steps in the management of this waste, the safe storage is one of the most important. Given the high costs and uncertainties existing among other aspects of the variants of disposal of radioactive waste, the prolonged storage of these wastes for periods exceeding 50 years is an option that different countries more and more value. One of the fundamental problems to take into account is the safety of the stores, so in this work are evaluated different safety components associated with these facilities through a safety analysis methodology. Elements such as human intrusion, the construction site, the design of the facility, among others are identified as some of the key aspects to take into account when evaluating the safety of these types of facilities. Periods of activities planned for a long-term storage of radioactive waste exceed, in general, the useful life of existing storage facilities. This work identified new challenges to overcome in order to meet the requirements for the achievement of a safe management of radioactive waste without negative impacts on the environment and man.

  20. Information need about the safety of the final disposal of nuclear waste. Information receiver`s views in Eurajoki, Kuhmo and Aeaenekoski municipalities; Tiedontarve ydinjaetteen loppusijoituksen turvallisuudesta. Vastaanottajan naekoekulmia Eurajoella, Kuhmossa ja Aeaenekoskella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautakangas, H.

    1997-03-01

    The study analyses the public`s information need about the safety issues related to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel generated by the Finnish nuclear power stations. Locals in three municipalities that are studied as possible sites for final disposal were interviewed for the study. Earlier studies made in Finland had indicated that the public`s knowledge about safety issues related to the final disposal was almost opposite to the findings of the natural sciences. Also, the public had expressed a wish to receive more information from the safety authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). This study therefore had two basic objectives: To find out what kind of safety information the locals need and what the safety authority`s role could be in providing information. The main results show interest and need especially for information concerning the disposal phases taking place on the ground level, such as nuclear waste transportation and encapsulation. Also, the interviews show a clear need and desire for an impartial actor such as STUK in the information and communication process. (author) (107 refs.).

  1. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  2. Waste isolation safety assessment program. Technical progress report for FY-77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Greenborg, J.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    Purpose of WISAP is to evaluate the post-closure effectiveness of deep geologic nuclear waste repository systems. The work conducted centered in four subject areas: (1) the analysis of potential repository release scenarios, (2) the analysis of potential release consequences, (3) the measurement of waste form leaching rates, and (4) the measurement of the interactions of dissolved radionuclides with geologic media. 12 figures, 24 tables.

  3. Dynamics of EU Transport Safety Regulation in the European Policy Process: Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Fragola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Community (EC and subsequently, the European Union (EU, have been central to an impressive development of regulation at the European level. In this ‘regulatory age’ (Majone 1994, product safety has become one of the first issues to be dealt with, in order to overcome barriers to trade, and should be regarded as a first step to be taken in order to integrate European markets. Transport industries have experienced distinct levels, forms and timing of EU safety regulation. While the automotive industry has undergone a standardisation process since the 1970s, such questions were only addressed in the context of railways in the 2000s. Thus, it is interesting to question and analyse the various interplays of actors and/or events which have characterised the European policy process in each transport sector. In addition, a trans-sectoral comparison will help in explaining such differences and their impact on the validity of traditional EU decision-making theories, such as that developed by Héritier in 1996.

  4. Organic tanks safety program waste aging studies. Final report, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C. [and others

    1998-09-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive byproducts and contaminated process chemicals that are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of saltcakes, metal oxide sludges, and aqueous brine solutions. Tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes might be at risk for fuel-nitrate combustion accidents. This project started in fiscal year 1993 to provide information on the chemical fate of stored organic wastes. While historical records had identified the organic compounds originally purchased and potentially present in wastes, aging experiments were needed to identify the probable degradation products and evaluate the current hazard. The determination of the rates and pathways of degradation have facilitated prediction of how the hazard changes with time and altered storage conditions. Also, the work with aged simulated waste contributed to the development of analytical methods for characterizing actual wastes. Finally, the results for simulants provide a baseline for comparing and interpreting tank characterization data.

  5. Safety evaluation of the leaching of metals from the printed graphic product wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka Adamović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the technological development of the graphic production, the environment is being faced with a large amount of printed graphic product wastes, especially packaging materials (paper, cardboard, paper and plastic bags, films, etc, but it is also being faced with the problem of their disposal. Many printing inks and coatings used in the production of the printed graphic product contain metals which, after the disposal of graphic waste, can migrate to different systems and have a negative influence on the environment. Because of that, the concentration levels of metals (zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, and nickel in the printed graphic product wastes have firstly been determined, and then the impact of those metals, through their migration from the printed graphic product wastes to the simulated environmental mediums with different pH values (acidic and neutral, has been estimated. Based on the experimentally obtained concentrations of metals that have migrated from the printed graphic product wastes to the neutral solution and based on the theoretical distribution coefficient, the concentration of metals in the soil of illegal and municipal landfills, which represents the contribution to the overall metal concentration in the soil due to the migration from the waste printed graphic materials, has been calculated. Also, a comparison between the experimentally obtained metal concentrations and the literature values has been conducted, and an evaluation of their influence on the quality of soil has been given.

  6. Transportation Safety Standards for Wheelchair Users: A Review of Voluntary Standards for Improved Safety, Usability, and Independence of Wheelchair-Seated Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transportation for wheelchair users who do not transfer to the vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles requires after-market wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) to secure the wheelchair and provide crashworthy restraint for the wheelchair-seated occupant. In the absence of adequate government safety standards,…

  7. The Role of Temperature in the Safety Case for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: A Comparison of Design Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Heierli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep underground facilities requires a sparing use of spatial resources on the one side and favorable temperature conditions over the project lifetime on the other side. Under heat-sensitive conditions, these goals run in opposite directions and therefore a balance of some kind must be found. Often the elected strategy is to determine the size of the repository by capping the temperatures in the near-field, thus setting an upper limit to the deterioration of barrier materials. Alternatively, the spatial resources available in the siting area can be used to further reduce temperatures as long as supplementary benefits are returned from doing so. Using analytical modeling of the heat flow in the circumambient rock of a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel, this contribution examines possible obstacles in substantiating the safety case, namely the retrievability of waste during the operational lifetime of the facility, the representativeness of pilot disposal areas for monitoring, and the effect of thermal anomalies underground. The results indicate that there are, amongst the visited criteria, several benefits to the temperature-optimizing strategy over the prevailing space-optimizing concepts. The right balance between saving spatial resources and obtaining optimal temperature conditions is yet to be found.

  8. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  9. Safety Management of Waste in Veterinary Medicine Laboratory%动物医学实验室废弃物的安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 乔海莲; 蒿彩菊

    2013-01-01

    介绍了动物医学实验室对化学、生物及实验动物废弃物的分类及处理方法,以及废弃物安全管理的措施;以便今后更好地加强宣传,提高师生对废弃物安全管理的意识,培养学生的良好的习惯,强化社会责任感和增强道德义务感.%This article introduced the classification and disposal methods of waste involved in chemical, biological and experimental animal waste produced in veterinary medicine laboratory, and the safety management of waste means. The aim is to publicize the methods so as to enhance people's awareness of safety management about waste, cultivate students' good habits, and stress social responsibility and enhance moral duty.

  10. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wocken, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlasner, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aulich, Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  11. Influence of fracture networks on radionuclide transport from solidified waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharam, S.C., E-mail: suresh.seetharam@sckcen.be [Performance Assessments Unit, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Perko, J.; Jacques, D. [Performance Assessments Unit, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Mallants, D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Road – Gate 4, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Magnitude of peak radionuclide fluxes is less sensitive to the fracture network geometry. • Time of peak radionuclide fluxes is sensitive to the fracture networks. • Uniform flow model mimics a limiting case of a porous medium with large number of fine fractures. • Effect of fracture width on radionuclide flux depends on the ratio of fracture to matrix conductivity. • Effect of increased dispersivity in fractured media does not always result in a lower peak flux for specific fracture networks due to higher concentrations adjacent to the fracture plane. - Abstract: Analysis of the effect of fractures in porous media on fluid flow and mass transport is of great interest in many fields including geotechnical, petroleum, hydrogeology and waste management. This paper presents sensitivity analyses examining the effect of various hypothetical fracture networks on the performance of a planned near surface disposal facility in terms of radionuclide transport behaviour. As it is impossible to predict the initiation and evolution of fracture networks and their characteristics in concrete structures over time scales of interest, several fracture networks have been postulated to test the sensitivity of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Fluid flow through concrete matrix and fracture networks are modelled via Darcy's law. A single species radionuclide transport equation is employed for both matrix and fracture networks, which include the processes advection, diffusion, dispersion, sorption/desorption and radioactive decay. The sensitivity study evaluates variations in fracture network configuration and fracture width together with different sorption/desorption characteristics of radionuclides in a cement matrix, radioactive decay constants and matrix dispersivity. The effect of the fractures is illustrated via radionuclide breakthrough curves, magnitude and time of peak mass flux, cumulative mass flux and concentration profiles. For the

  12. Exploration on constructing safety management system for laboratory hazardous waste disposal%建设实验室废弃物安全管理体系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勤; 李秀珍; 王征; 李汉军; 赵显利

    2011-01-01

    The article briefly introduces the internal and external current situation of safety management of laboratory waste disposal in universities. Based on the experience and achievement of constructing the safety management of laboratory waste disposal at Beijing Institute of Technology, it is to imply the importance of the safety management of laboratory waste disposal, some detail operations and the positive effect for building the harmonious campus.%分析了目前国内外高校实验室废弃物安全管理现状,结合北京理工大学开展实验室废弃物安全管理体系建设所取得的经验和成果,说明实验室废弃物安全管理的意义和一些具体做法,以及对建设和谐校园的积极作用.

  13. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

  14. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question.

  15. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-SY-102 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-08-14

    Three grab samples (2SY-96-1, 2SY-96-2, and 2SY-96-3) were taken from Riser 1A of Tank 241-SY 102 on January 14, 1997, and received by 222-S Laboratory on January 14, 1997. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farm Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results. Acetone analysis was not performed in accordance with Cancellation of Acetone Analysis for Tank 241-SY-102 Grab Samples.

  16. 60-Day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for AY-102 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-31

    Four grab samples (2AY-96-15, 2AY-96-16, 2AY-96-17, and 2AY-96-18) were taken from Riser 15D of Tank 241-AY-102 on October 8, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 8, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results.

  17. Proceedings of the Task 4 Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program second contractor information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, Jeff R.

    1978-01-01

    Volume II contains the following papers: Laboratory Studies of Radionuclide Distributions between Selected Groundwaters and Geologic Media; Applicability of Microautoradiography to Sorption Studies; The Kinetics and Reversibility of Radionuclide Sorption Reactions with Rocks; Mobility and Sorption Processes of Radioactive Waste Materials in Subsurface Migration; Batch K/sub d/ Experiments with Common Minerals and Representative Groundwaters; Cesium and Strontium Migration in Unconsolidated Geologic Material; Statistical Investigation of the Mechanics Controlling Radionuclide Sorption; The ARDISC Model - A Computer Program to Calculate the Distribution of Trace Element Migration in Partially-Equilibrating Media; and Some Geochemical Aspects of the Canadian Nuclear Waste Disposal System. Individual papers were processed.

  18. Probability analysis of geological processes: a useful tool for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessandro, M.; Murray, C.N.; Bertozzi, G.; Girardi, F.

    1980-05-01

    In the development of methods for the assessment of the risk associated with the disposal of radioactive wastes over periods up to 10/sup 6/ years, much discussion has occurred on the use of probability analysis for geological processes. The applicability and limitations of this concept are related to the proper use of the geological data-base and the critical interpretation of probability distributions. The interpretation of geological phenomena in terms of probability is discussed and an example of application to the determination of faulting probability is illustrated. The method has been used for the determination of failure probability of geological segregation of a waste repository in a clay formation.

  19. Bibliography of PNL publications in management of radioactive wastes, subject-indexed (alphabetically) and listed chronologically (latest issues first)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.A. (ed.)

    1976-07-01

    The citations are arranged under: actinides, alpha particles, americium, beta particles, calcination, cements, ceramics, cesium, containers, decontamination, evaporation, fluidized bed, glass, ground release, high-level wastes, incinerators, liquid wastes, marine disposal, melting, nonradioactive waste disposal, Pu, radiation doses, radiation protection, disposal, processing, radionuclide migration, Ru, safety, separation processes, soils, solidification, solid wastes, stack disposal, temperature, thermal conductivity, transmutation, tritium, underground disposal, U, volatility, and waste disposal/management/processing/storage/transportation. (DLC)

  20. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  1. [Outsourcing: theory and practice at a clinical hospital in Szczecin exemplified by medical waste transport and treatment service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlega, Dariusz; Nowacki, Przemysław; Lewiński, Dariusz; Chmurowicz, Ryszard; Ciećwiez, Sylwester

    2011-01-01

    Outsourcing proves to be a useful tool in the difficult process of improving the financial result of hospitals. Outsourcing means separation of some functions and services in one entity and their transfer to another. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of outsourcing at the Second Independent Public University Hospital of the Pomeranian Medical University (SPSK 2 PUM) in Szczecin. We studied the transport and treatment of medical waste. Outsourcing of waste treatment services led to financial savings. The cost of treatment of one kilogram of waste by an external company was PLN 2.53. The same service provided by the hospital would cost approximately PLN 7 per kilogram. Appropriate attention should be paid to the quality of services. It seems useful to have appropriate tools for quality control and monitoring. SPSK 2 PUM can serve as a good example of effective use of outsourcing.

  2. 60-day waste compatibility safety issue and final results for 244-TX DCRT, grab samples TX-95-1, TX-95-2, and TX-95-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Three grab samples (TX-95-1, TX-95-2, and TX-95-3) were taken from tank 241- TX-244 riser 8 on November 7, 1995 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on that same day. Samples TX-95-1 and TX-95-2 were designated as supernate liquids, and sample TX-95-3 was designated as a supernate/sludge. These samples were analyzed to support the waste compatibility safety program. Accuracy and precision criteria were met for all analyses. No notifications were required based on sample results. This document provides the analysis to support the waste compatibility safety program.

  3. Integration of service providers into supply chain services and waste disposal transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Saskia; Haasis, Hans-Dietrich

    2004-02-01

    An increasing number of manufacturers is responsible for the complete lifecycle of their products and they must create efficient and effective circular flow economic systems. The quality of these material and product cycles depend on the logistical processes and the development of logistic concepts, which have to suffer economic and ecological aims. The complexity of the different circular economic systems need the co-operation of the different participants in order to integrate the different core abilities. The aim of this contribution is to describe the possibilities of the service providers in combining services and transports of supply and waste disposal. As well as to represent their advantages, disadvantages and possible barriers. It was possible to refer to conclusions of the research project "Konfiguration von kooperativen Kreislaufwirtschaftssystemen unter besonderer Ber'cksichtigung von Logistikdienstleistern" within the scope of the Research Center of Logistics at the University of Bremen (FoLo). The research work was carried out in a closed collaboration of the following institutes and enterprises: University of Bremen, the Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (ISL) and the BLG International Logistics GmbH & Co.

  4. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Meeting for Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and WasteTreatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-30

    The sixth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held November 15-17, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, and Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 55 Russian attendees from 16 different Russian organizations and four non-Russian attendees from the US. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C. The 16 different Russian design, industrial sites, and scientific organizations in attendance included staff from Rosatom/Minatom, Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of Russia (GOSATOMNADZOR, NIERA/GAN), All Russian Designing & Scientific Research Institute of Complex Power Technology (VNIPIET), Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), A. A. Bochvar All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), All Russian & Design Institute of Production Engineering (VNIPIPT), Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation Specialized State Designing Institute (GSPI), State Scientific Center Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR), Siberian Chemical Combine Tomsk (SCC), Mayak PO, Mining Chemical Combine (MCC K-26), Institute of Biophysics (IBPh), Sverdlosk Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building (SNIIChM), Kurchatov Institute (KI), Institute of Physical Chemistry Russian Academy of Science (IPCh RAS) and Radon PO-Moscow. The four non-Russian attendees included

  5. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  6. Development by AVN of review guidance for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nys, V.; Smidts, O.; Mertens, J. [Association Vincotte Nuclear (AVN), Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the waste disposal context in Belgium since 1998 and the implications this had on AVN and its international relationships. The way in which AVN responded to these changes through the development of a review methodology is explained in detail. (authors)

  7. Study on creation and destruction of transport barriers via effective safety factors for energetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, Shun; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Garbet, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles with low kinetic energy move along magnetic field lines, but so do not energetic particles. We investigate the topological structure changes in the phase space of energetic particles with respect to the magnetic one. For this study cylindrical magnetic fields with non-monotonic safety factors that induce the magnetic internal transport barrier are considered. We show that the topological structure of the magnetic field line and of the particle trajectories can be quite different. We explain this difference using the concept of effective particle $q$-profile. Using this notion we can investigate the location and existence of resonances for particle orbits that are different from the magnetic ones. These are examined both numerically by integrating an equation of motion and theoretically by use of Alfv\\'en's guiding center theory and by use of the effective reduced Hamiltonian for the integrable unperturbed system. It is clarified that, for the energetic particles, the grad $B$ drift effect sh...

  8. Development and implementation of a dam safety program for Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Ninel S.; McLean, Angela D. [Manitoba infrastructure and transportation, Winnipeg, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Responsibility for the operation and maintenance of provincial dams has been transferred, at the province's initiative, to Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation (MIT). MIT used the 2007 CDA guidelines as reference in the development of a dam safety program for provincial dams in response to the lack of provincial legislation for the regulation and management of dams in Manitoba. This paper presented the work of the MIT to develop and implement a management system, with emphasis on the planning and implementation elements. MIT focused on both the prioritization of work and the implementation of an inspection program. To develop a prioritization scheme, a risk assessment was performed with the estimation of risk based on the impact of an event occurring and integrating the quality of the controls in place. Multiple account analysis (MAA) was also used to develop a second prioritization plan.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  10. Natural gas pipeline transportation safety countermeasures%天然气管道安全输送对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐平

    2016-01-01

    For natural gas pipeline transportation safety problems in the process are analyzed,and proposed to improve the level of natural gas pipeline transportation safety and effective measures designed to contribute to a healthy development of China’s natural gas industry.%针对天然气管道安全输送过程中存在的问题进行了分析,并提出了提高天然气管道安全输送水平的有效对策,旨在为我国天然气产业的健康发展贡献一份力量。

  11. Getting waste ready for shipment to the WIPP: integration of characterization and certification activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkule, B.; Knudsen, K.; Rogers, P.

    1996-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) serve as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The WIPP WAC address fulfillment of WIPP`s operational safety and performance assessment criteria, compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, and preparation of waste packages that meet all transportation criteria. At individual generator sites, preparation of transuranic waste for final disposal at WIPP includes characterizing the waste to meet the requirements of the transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) and certifying waste containers to meet the WIPP WAC and the Transuranic Package Transporter-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC). This paper compares the quality assurance and quality control requirements specified in the WIPP WAC, QAPP, and TRAMPAC and discusses the potential to consolidate activities to comply with the TRU waste characterization and certification program requirements.

  12. Adsorption and transport of methane in landfill cover soil amended with waste-wood biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-08-01

    The natural presence of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in landfill soils can stimulate the bio-chemical oxidation of CH4 to CO2 and H2O under suitable environmental conditions. This mechanism can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with organic materials such as biochars that are recalcitrant to biological degradation and are capable of adsorbing CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within their porous structure. Several series of batch and small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 sorption and transport properties of landfill cover soil amended with four types of waste hardwood biochars under different levels of amendment percentages (2, 5 and 10% by weight), exposed CH4 concentrations (0-1 kPa), moisture content (dry, 25% and 75% water holding capacity), and temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C). The linear forms of the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were used to determine the kinetics and the maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of cover materials. The maximum CH4 sorption capacity of dry biochar-amended soils ranged from 1.03 × 10(-2) to 7.97 × 10(-2) mol kg(-1) and exhibited a ten-fold increase compared to that of soil with 1.9 × 10(-3) mol kg(-1). The isosteric heat of adsorption for soil was negative and ranged from -30 to -118 kJ/mol, while that of the biochar-amended soils was positive and ranged from 24 to 440 kJ/mol. The CH4 dispersion coefficients for biochar-amended soils obtained through predictive transport modeling indicated that amending the soil with biochar enhanced the methane transport rates by two orders of magnitude, thereby increasing their potential for enhanced exchange of gases within the cover system. Overall, the use of hardwood biochars as a cover soil amendment to reduce methane emissions from landfills appears to be a promising alternative to conventional soil covers.

  13. Fundamentals of Melt-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K.Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho

    2005-04-26

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications.

  14. Preventive measures for safety and helth at work with the amphibious transporter PTS-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the knowledge of using the amphibious transporter STM-M ( STM-M is very limited. A small number of professional soldiers in the Serbian Armed Forces know how to use thisvery useful and high-quality military vehicle in a regular way. From the day onethis vehicle has remained in its basic shape without any modifications since it was made in the former Soviet Union. Today, the Serbian Armed Forces have only 12 of these vehicles in the operational use. The Serbian Armed Forces have two amphibious platoons in two pontoon batalions in the River Flotilla. As the author of this article was an officer in charge of maintaining this complex and “unusual” vehicle, the article deals with the provisions from the Regulations on preventive measures for safety and health while using work equipment (Ministry of Labour, 2012, applied to work with STM-Ms, The article makes a parallel between the provisions of the Regulations and the actual situation and specific conditions of using and maintaining STM-Ms . Introduction Some basic information about the STM-M is given here, twith Figure 1 of this vehicle and its tactical and technicalspecifications.The dangerous places onthe vehicle are presented as well. Mesuares and rules for safe work This part ofthe article presents all speciall tools on the STM-M that are used for safe work. Each piece of tool is described in detail -itslocationon the STM-M, its physical characteristics,  and most common mistakes during its use. Some measures for better maintenance and improved safety at work are also proposed. Conclusion The conclusion deals with the misuse and wrong maintenance of STM-Ms and gives some proposals for their better use. A critical commentary about the conditions of safety engineering in the Serbian Armed Forces can be found here as well.  

  15. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  16. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2010-02-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada” (DOE/EIS 0243). The DOE, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at Area 5 and Area 3. Since 2006, the Area 3 RWMS has been in cold stand-by. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to and from the NTS during FY 2009. In addition, this document provides shipment, volume, and route information on transuranic (TRU) waste shipped from the NTS to the Idaho National Laboratory, near Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  17. Physical, Hydraulic, and Transport Properties of Sediments and Engineered Materials Associated with Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Philip D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Current plans for treatment and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) from Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks include vitrification and storage of the glass waste form in a nearsurface disposal facility. This Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Central Plateau. Performance assessment (PA) of the IDF requires numerical modeling of subsurface flow and reactive transport processes over very long periods (thousands of years). The models used to predict facility performance require parameters describing various physical, hydraulic, and transport properties. This report provides updated estimates of physical, hydraulic, and transport properties and parameters for both near- and far-field materials, intended for use in future IDF PA modeling efforts. Previous work on physical and hydraulic property characterization for earlier IDF PA analyses is reviewed and summarized. For near-field materials, portions of this document and parameter estimates are taken from an earlier data package. For far-field materials, a critical review is provided of methodologies used in previous data packages. Alternative methods are described and associated parameters are provided.

  18. Safety-relevant hydrogeological properties of the claystone barrier of a Swiss radioactive waste repository: An evaluation using multiple lines of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    In Switzerland, the Opalinus Clay - a Jurassic (Aalenian) claystone formation - has been proposed as the first-priority host rock for a deep geological repository for both low- and intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. An extensive site and host rock investigation programme has been carried out during the past 30 years in Northern Switzerland, comprising extensive 2D and 3D seismic surveys, a series of deep boreholes within and around potential geological siting regions, experiments in the international Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, compilations of data from Opalinus Clay in railway and motorway tunnels and comparisons with similar rocks. The hydrogeological properties of the Opalinus Clay that are relevant from the viewpoint of long-term safety are described and illustrated. The main conclusions are supported by multiple lines of evidence, demonstrating consistency of conclusions based on hydraulic properties, porewater chemistry, distribution of natural tracers across the Opalinus Clay as well as small- and large-scale diffusion models and the derived conceptual understanding of solute transport.

  19. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  20. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  1. Emplacement Guidance for Criticality Safety in Low-Level-Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, K.R.

    2001-06-23

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) containing special nuclear material (SNM) presents some unusual challenges for LLW disposal site operators and regulators. Radiological concerns associated with the radioactive decay of the SNM are combined with concerns associated with the avoidance of a nuclear criticality both during handling and after disposal of the waste. Currently, there are three operating LLW disposal facilities: Envirocare, Barnwell, and Richland. All these facilities are located in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Agreement States and are regulated by their respective state: Utah, South Carolina, and Washington. As such, the amount of SNM that can be possessed by each of these facilities is limited to the 10 CFR Part 150 limits (i.e., 350 g of uranium-235, 200 g of uranium-233, and 200 g of Pu, with the sum-of-fractions rule applying), unless an exemption is issued. NRC has applied these SNM possession limits to above-ground possession. The purpose of this report is to provide data which could demonstrate that SNM waste at emplacement will not cause a nuclear criticality accident. Five different SNM isotopic compositions were studied: 100 wt% enriched uranium, 10 wt% enriched uranium, uranium-233, plutonium-239, and an isotopic mixture of plutonium (76 wt% plutonium-239, 12 wt% plutonium-240, and 12 wt% plutonium-241). Three different graded-approach methods are presented. The first graded-approach method is the most conservative and may be applicable to facilities that dispose of very low areal densities of SNM, or dispose of material with a low average enrichment. It relies on the calculation of average areal density or on the average enrichment of SNM. The area over which averaging may be performed is also specified, but the emplacement depth is not constrained. The second graded-approach method relies on limiting the average concentration by weight of SNM in the waste, and on limiting the depth of the emplacement. This method

  2. Laymen's demand on an understandable safety analysis for a nuclear waste repository. A communication challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, T.L.; Thunberg, A.M. [KASAM - Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This paper is a summary in English of some impressions from a seminar 'Safety Analysis of the Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste. An issue for specialists only or for all of us?' The seminar was held in Swedish and was arranged by KASAM in Nykoeping, Sweden in November 1997. A report in Swedish from the seminar has been published. The seminar was arranged in response to a request from representatives from some of the municipalities concerned by the feasibility studies, which are part of the siting process. They had noticed that it is very hard for people without specialist competence to get an understanding of the safety issues based on the available information. There is a need for a presentation of the safety analysis, which is adopted not only for the need of the safety authorities, which have their own expertise, but also for the need of laymen who are involved in issues about the design, siting and safety of a final repository. Therefore, the seminar was mainly intended for representatives for the citizens (i.e. politicians) from the municipalities involved in the ongoing feasibility studies in Sweden. Some representatives from different environmental organisations opposing final disposal were also invited as well as representatives from the nuclear industry and from the concerned Swedish authorities. The seminar was structured in four sessions The handling of risk in the modern society - risk assessment and risk comparisons; The safety analysis and its role for the citizens; What can actually happen - in our own time and in the future?; Group discussions. In order to give a realistic picture of the intense debate, which at least in some of the municipalities had been very apparent, the organisers had chosen to make SKB and Greenpeace main actors at the seminar, such as they appeared in connection with campaign before the referendum at Malaa. Parts of the seminar were arranged like a hearing, led by a science journalist. The intention with this paper is

  3. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  4. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  5. The Design of a Patient Transportation Robot's Lifting Arms Considering Comfort and Safety without the Presence of a Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hoon Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A transportation robot's lifting arms have an effect on the comfort and safety of patients. Improved arms have been designed through dynamic and static analyses to increase safety if a sheet not present on the lifting arms. To design the lifting arms, experimentation is very helpful, however, it is difficult and dangerous to experiment on patients; therefore, a simple human model was made and used for the dynamic analysis. Through the dynamic analysis results, a safe width and comfortable location for the lifting arms were determined. The thickness was then determined by static analysis and optimum design. In addition, tests have been conducted to confirm comfort and safety by deploying the designed lifting arms onto a transportation robot.

  6. Transporting industrial waste heat. The potential of using the existing sewer system.

    OpenAIRE

    Niphuis, Sander

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The industry in the Netherlands consumes large amounts of energy for the production of heat. After the industrial processes, a substantial share of this heat is degraded to waste heat. In general, this waste heat is just being discharged to surro

  7. Transporting industrial waste heat. The potential of using the existing sewer system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niphuis, Sander

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The industry in the Netherlands consumes large amounts of energy for the production of heat. After the industrial processes, a substantial share of this heat is degraded to waste heat. In general, this waste heat is just being discharged to surro

  8. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Ham, Sang Won; Moon, Sang Kee [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In this study, contents and survey and supervision items in each part are selected to avoid overlap between different parts referring national lows, criterion, and guidance related to atomic energy. The items consist of climatology, hydrology, geology, seismology, engineering geology, geochemistry, and civil and social parts. Based on these items, general study and systematic control related to the stability of disposal sites os established and as specific region required with the properties that is similar to properties of radioactive waste disposal sites, Ulsan region equipped with LPG underground storage facility was selected and its datum were surveyed and inputted. So propriety of established database system was proved.

  9. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Keyser, Peter; Turner, Roland; Rosengaard, Ulf; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Andersson, Sarmite; Sandberg, Viviana; Olsson, Kjell; Stenberg, Tor

    2009-10-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral assistance to Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in various projects financed by the European Union. The purpose of this project-oriented report is to provide the Swedish Government and other funding agencies as well as other interested audiences in Sweden and abroad with an encompassing understanding of our work and in particular the work performed during 2008. the activities are divided into four subfields: Nuclear waste management; Reactor safety; Radiation safety and emergency preparedness; and, Nuclear non-proliferation. SSM implements projects in the field of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in Russia. The problems in this field also exist in other countries, yet the concentration of nuclear and radioactive materials are nowhere higher than in north-west Russia. And given the fact that most of these materials stem from the Cold War era and remain stored under conditions that vary from 'possibly acceptable' to 'wildly appalling' it is obvious that Sweden's first priority in the field of managing nuclear spent fuel and radioactive waste lies in this part of Russia. The prioritisation and selection of projects in reactor safety are established following thorough discussions with the partners in Russia and Ukraine. For specific guidance on safety and recommended safety improvements at RBMK and VVER reactors, SSM relies on analyses and handbooks established by the IAEA in the 1990s. In 2008, there were 16 projects in reactor safety. SSM implements a large number of projects in the field of radiation protection and emergency preparedness. The activities are at a first glance at some distance from the activities covered and

  10. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered.

  11. Coupling of Nuclear Waste Form Corrosion and Radionuclide Transports in Presence of Relevant Repository Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Assessments of waste form and disposal options start with the degradation of the waste forms and consequent mobilization of radionuclides. Long-term static tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and the pressurized unsaturated flow test are often employed to study the durability of potential waste forms and to help create models that predict their durability throughout the lifespan of the disposal site. These tests involve the corrosion of the material in the presence of various leachants, with different experimental designs yielding desired information about the behavior of the material. Though these tests have proved instrumental in elucidating various mechanisms responsible for material corrosion, the chemical environment to which the material is subject is often not representative of a potential radioactive waste repository where factors such as pH and leachant composition will be controlled by the near-field environment. Near-field materials include, but are not limited to, the original engineered barriers, their resulting corrosion products, backfill materials, and the natural host rock. For an accurate performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository, realistic waste corrosion experimental data ought to be modeled to allow for a better understanding of waste form corrosion mechanisms and the effect of immediate geochemical environment on these mechanisms. Additionally, the migration of radionuclides in the resulting chemical environment during and after waste form corrosion must be quantified and mechanisms responsible for migrations understood. The goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms responsible for waste form corrosion in the presence of relevant repository sediments to allow for accurate radionuclide migration quantifications. The rationale for this work is that a better understanding of waste form corrosion in relevant systems will enable increased reliance on waste form performance in repository environments and potentially

  12. The radiation characteristics of the transport packages with vitrified high-level waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatov, S. A.; Mitenkova, E. F.; Novikov, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    The calculation method of neutron yield in the (α, n) reaction for a homogeneous material of arbitrary composition is represented. It is shown that the use of the ORIGEN 2 code excluding the real elemental composition of vitrified high-level waste leads to significant underestimation of the neutron yield in the (α, n) reaction. For vitrified high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel from VVER, the neutron fluxes are analyzed. The thickness of the protective materials for a transfer cask and a shipping cask with vitrified highlevel waste are estimated.

  13. The radiation characteristics of the transport packages with vitrified high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogatov, S. A. [JSC VNIPIpromtechnologii (Russian Federation); Mitenkova, E. F., E-mail: mit@ibrae.ac.ru; Novikov, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The calculation method of neutron yield in the (α, n) reaction for a homogeneous material of arbitrary composition is represented. It is shown that the use of the ORIGEN 2 code excluding the real elemental composition of vitrified high-level waste leads to significant underestimation of the neutron yield in the (α, n) reaction. For vitrified high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel from VVER, the neutron fluxes are analyzed. The thickness of the protective materials for a transfer cask and a shipping cask with vitrified highlevel waste are estimated.

  14. Comparison of the MACCS2 atmospheric transport model with Lagrangian puff models as applied to deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, John E; Rood, Arthur S; Garzon, Caroline D; Lagdon, Richard H

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of a new facility in terms of potential impacts from routine and accidental releases is typically evaluated using conservative models and assumptions to assure dose standards are not exceeded. However, overly conservative dose estimates that exceed target doses can result in unnecessary and costly facility design changes. This paper examines one such case involving the U.S. Department of Energy's pretreatment facility of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2) was run using conservative parameter values in prescribed guidance to demonstrate that the dose from a postulated airborne release would not exceed the guideline dose of 0.25 Sv. External review of default model parameters identified the deposition velocity of 1.0 cm s as being non-conservative. The deposition velocity calculated using resistance models was in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 cm s-1. A value of 0.1 cm s-1 would result in the dose guideline being exceeded. To test the overall conservatism of the MACCS2 transport model, the 95th percentile hourly average dispersion factor based on one year of meteorological data was compared to dispersion factors generated from two state-of-the-art Lagrangian puff models. The 95th percentile dispersion factor from MACCS2 was a factor of 3 to 6 higher compared to those of the Lagrangian puff models at a distance of 9.3 km and a deposition velocity of 0.1 cm s-1. Thus, the inherent conservatism in MACCS2 more than compensated for the high deposition velocity used in the assessment. Applications of models like MACCS2 with a conservative set of parameters are essentially screening calculations, and failure to meet dose criteria should not trigger facility design changes but prompt a more in-depth analysis using probabilistic methods with a defined margin of safety in the target dose. A sample application of the probabilistic approach is provided.

  15. Health and Safety Aspects of Solid Biomass Storage, Transportation and Feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppejan, J. [Procede Biomass, Enschede (Netherlands); Loennermark, A.; Persson, H.; Larsson, I.; Blomqvist, P. [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Arshadi, M.; Valencia-Reyes, E. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Melin, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Howes, Pat [AEA Group, London (United Kingdom); Wheeler, P. [Lend Lease, Sydney (Australia); Baxter, D. [Joint Research Institute JRC, European Commission EC, Brussels (Belgium); Nikolaisen, L. [Danish Technological Institute, Taastrup (Denmark)

    2013-05-15

    This publication focuses on the health and safety issues of the supply chain of solid biofuels with the objective to highlight commonly used mitigation methodologies to promote a better working environment when dealing with solid biofuels. It has been compiled as a joint effort by experts active in Tasks 32, 36, 37 and 40 of the IEA Bioenergy Agreement, with their own specific fields of expertise. Only through this cooperation, it was possible to touch upon the full range of issues in one publication that one may come across when developing projects in which solid biomass fuels are produced, traded or used. The properties of a biomass material and the intended use determine how the material should be safely transported and stored. Selfheating, off-gassing and dust explosions are significant challenges for the industry that have already resulted in significant losses of capital investments and even tragic loss of life. Likewise, exposure to biologically active material, such as moulds and spores may form a serious hazard for the health of workers involved. With the growth of the bioenergy sector, it is important not only that opportunities for bioenergy are implemented in an efficient and economic manner, but also safely.

  16. A distributed wireless sensor network system for transportation safety and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mashrur; Wang, Kuang-Ching; Fries, Ryan; Ma, Yongchang; Bagaria, Devang

    2007-04-01

    Given the anticipated increases in highway traffic, the scale and complexity of the traffic infrastructure will continue to grow progressively in time and in distributed geographical areas. To assure transportation efficiency, safety, and security in the presence of such growth, it is critical to identify an infrastructure development methodology that can adapt to expansions while assuring reliable operation for both centralized monitoring and distributed management. In this paper, a wireless sensor network design methodology is presented, aimed at providing effective distributed surveillance, anomaly detection, and coordinated response. The proposed methodology integrates state-of-the-art traffic sensors, with flexibly programmable controller devices that can integrate with the available traffic control equipments. The system methodology provides a paradigm in which sensors and controllers can be progressively incorporated and programmed to autonomously coordinate with peer sensors and a hierarchy of controllers to detect, notify, and react to anomalous events. Since the system can tolerate failure of parts of the system, as the network connectivity continues to increase, the proposed sensor network will have positive implications on evacuation plans during natural disasters or terrorist attacks. To illustrate the design methodology and usage, a simulated system along a freeway corridor in South Carolina was constructed in an integrated microscopic traffic and wireless sensor network simulation platform, in which distributed incident detection and response functions were implemented. The test results, including detection and false alarm rates and wireless communication latencies, are analyzed to identify insights of the system's operation and potential enhancement strategies.

  17. Addressing the Safety of Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems: Development and Validation of a Verbal Warning Utility Scale for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important application of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS, advances in intelligent transportation systems (ITS improve driving safety by informing drivers of hazards with warnings in advance. The evaluation of the warning effectiveness is an important issue in facilitating communication of ITS. The goal of the present study was to develop a scale to evaluate the warning utility, namely, the effectiveness of a warning in preventing accidents in general. A driving simulator study was conducted to validate the Verbal Warning Utility Scale (VWUS in a simulated driving environment. The reliability analysis indicated a good split-half reliability for the VWUS with a Spearman-Brown Coefficient of 0.873. The predictive validity of VWUS in measuring the effectiveness of the verbal warnings was verified by the significant prediction of safety benefits indicated by variables, including reduced kinetic energy and collision rate. Compared to conducting experimental studies, this scale provides a simpler way to evaluate overall utility of verbal warnings in communicating associated hazards in intelligent transportation systems. This scale can be further applied to improve the design of warnings of ITS in order to improve transportation safety. The applications of the scale in nonverbal warning situations and limitations of the current scale are also discussed.

  18. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Microbiological corrosion in aerobic and anaerobic waste purification plants: safety and efficiency problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perego, P. [ISTIC - Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 15-16145 Genoa (Italy); Fabiano, B. [ISTIC - Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 15-16145 Genoa (Italy); Pastorino, R. [ISTIC - Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 15-16145 Genoa (Italy); Randi, G. [ISTIC - Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 15-16145 Genoa (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Carbon steels and stainless steels are largely employed in order to build up biological purification systems of urban and industrial waste. The former are applied in building up tanks, vessels and pipes; the latter are employed in building up operator machines and appliances. This paper presents a study of the corrosion behaviour of these materials in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Tests have been carried out by continuous immersion in a biologic liquid with mixed flora. The observation of samples taken at different times of exposure has given information of great interest of application, especially about the mechanisms of localized corrosion phenomena and about the behaviour of these materials in function. Besides the presented study shows original possibilities for the assessment of the corrosion phenomenon that can be adopted and developed further still. (orig.). With 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Livestock waste treatment systems for environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, José; Dabert, Patrick; Barrington, Suzelle; Burton, Colin

    2009-11-01

    The intensification of livestock operations has benefited production efficiency but has introduced major environmental issues, becoming a concern in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this paper is primarily to address the impact of the livestock sector on environmental pollution (ammonia, greenhouse gases and pathogens), evaluate the related health risks and, subsequently, assess the potential role of waste treatment systems in attenuating these environmental and health issues. This paper is a collection of data pertaining to world trends in livestock production, since the mid 1990s and intensive livestock farming practices along with their impact on: water pollution by nitrates and through eutrophication; air pollution, particularly ammonia and greenhouse gases emissions, and soil pollution because of nutrient accumulation. Finally, this paper examines some of the benefits of treating livestock manures, issues related to the adoption of treatment systems by livestock operations and current as well as past technological developments.

  1. Electrodriven selective transport of Cs+ using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide in polymer inclusion membrane: a novel approach for cesium removal from simulated nuclear waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sanhita; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Goswami, Asok

    2014-11-04

    The work describes a novel and cleaner approach of electrodriven selective transport of Cs from simulated nuclear waste solutions through cellulose tri acetate (CTA)/poly vinyl chloride (PVC) based polymer inclusion membrane. The electrodriven cation transport together with the use of highly Cs+ selective hexachlorinated derivative of cobalt bis dicarbollide, allows to achieve selective separation of Cs+ from high concentration of Na+ and other fission products in nuclear waste solutions. The transport selectivity has been studied using radiotracer technique as well as atomic emission spectroscopic technique. Transport studies using CTA based membrane have been carried out from neutral solution as well as 0.4 M HNO3, while that with PVC based membrane has been carried out from 3 M HNO3. High decontamination factor for Cs+ over Na+ has been obtained in all the cases. Experiment with simulated high level waste solution shows selective transport of Cs+ from most of other fission products also. Significantly fast Cs+ transport rate along with high selectivity is an interesting feature observed in this membrane. The current efficiency for Cs+ transport has been found to be ∼100%. The promising results show the possibility of using this kind of electrodriven membrane transport methods for nuclear waste treatment.

  2. A Two-Phase Cooling Loop for Fission Surface Power Waste Heat Transport Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current lunar-based Fission Surface Power (FSP) Systems that will support sustained surface outposts consist of a nuclear reactor with power converters, whose waste...

  3. Solid Waste Transportation through Ocean Currents: Marine Debris Sightings and their Waste Quantification at Port Dickson Beaches, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jing Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Four beaches at Port Dickson, Peninsular Malaysia, namely Saujana Beach, Nelayan Beach, Bagan Pinang Beach and Cermin beach have been sampled for marine debris from 7th June 2014 until 26th July 2014, on every Saturday. These beaches face the Strait of Malacca with a coastline stretching 18 km each. Our observations revealed a total debris items of 13193 in those beaches. The top three items of highest frequency were cigarette butts, foamed fragments and food wrappers. Plastic debris scaled high upto 41% of the total debris. Compared to the ocean conservancy�s 2013 report of marine debris in Malaysian beaches, which was 27,005 items with in 6.44 km, the current count is slightly low. However, Malaysia was ranked 14th place among the top 20 countries in International Marine Debris Watch program. Nelayan Beach is the dirtiest beach in Port Dickson. Around 50% of the total plastic items collected are found on those beaches. The marine debris items indicated that they arrived there by land-based and ocean-based activities. High energy conditions such as wind and waves in the beaches correlated well with less debris deposition on the beaches. With debris equivalent of 4193 items/km, Malaysia harvests less solid wastes compared to Croatia, USA, Singapore and Turkey. However, a nation wide survey is needed to assess the seriousness of marine debris problem in Malaysia.

  4. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-T-110 push mode samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-05-15

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-110. Push mode core segments were removed from risers 2 and 6 between January 29, 1997, and February 7, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-110 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO.

  5. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  6. Classification of the Z-Pinch Waste Stream as Low-Level Waste for Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singledecker, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The purpose of this document is to describe the waste stream from Z-Pinch Residual Waste Project that due to worker safety concerns and operational efficiency is a candidate for blending Transuranic and low level waste together and can be safely packaged as low-level waste consistent with DOE Order 435.1 requirements and NRC guidance 10 CFR 61.42. This waste stream consists of the Pu-ICE post-shot containment systems, including plutonium targets, generated from the Z Machine experiments requested by LANL and conducted by SNL/NM. In the past, this TRU waste was shipped back to LANL after Sandia sends the TRU data package to LANL to certify the characterization (by CCP), transport and disposition at WIPP (CBFO) per LANL MOU-0066. The Low Level Waste is managed, characterized, shipped and disposed of at NNSS by SNL/NM per Sandia MOU # 11-S-560.

  7. Viimsi water treatment plant for Ra removal: NORM residue/waste generation, radiation safety issues, and regulatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Realo, E.; Jantsikene, A.; Lumiste, L.; Vaeaer, K.; Isakar, K.; Koch, R. [University of Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In early 2012, the first large-scale water treatment plant, specifically designed to remove Ra-isotopes from groundwater, was commissioned in Viimsi parish, North-Estonia. The plant serves approximately 15 000 consumers with maximum production capacity of 6000 m{sup 3}/d. The chosen water treatment technology is chemical free and is based on co-precipitation and adsorption with Fe(OH){sub 3} and MnO{sub 2} flocks, and adsorption of residual Ra onto zeolite sand. The chosen technology is a complex approach and is designed to reduce high Fe and Mn concentrations as well as dissolved gases along with Ra isotopes. It is proved to be well adapted with hydro-chemical conditions of the groundwater feeding the plant. As the novel technology has been applied for the first time on a large scale, the plant was taken under long-term investigation when commissioned. The latter focuses on three areas: Ra removal efficiency and its dynamics, build-up of radioactive waste, and radiation safety. The average Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations in raw water feeding the plant are approximately 0.5 Bq/L and 0.6 Bq/L, respectively, resulting in total indicative dose of 0.4 mSv/y. Operating conditions of the plant are restricted by the established indicative value of 0.1 mSv/y for drinking water, i.e. a minimum 75% removal efficiency for Ra is required. Results of the studies show that the plant operates at Ra-removal efficiency of 98% or higher without the need of regeneration or replacement of filtering materials within the first two years. Measurements confirm that ∼90% of Ra accumulates in the solid filter media, 8-9% is washed out by backwash system as liquid effluent and 1-2% is fed on to the consumer distribution network. It has been calculated that at the level of current production capacity (below 3000 m{sup 3}/d) the yearly accumulation rate in the plant is approximately 300 and 400 MBq/y for Ra-226 and Ra-228, respectively. These values strongly exceed the exemption

  8. 75 FR 28200 - Safety Zone; Washington State Department of Transportation Ferries Division Marine Rescue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... safety of the participating ferries, rescue vessels, and the maritime public during the exercise by... response organization specific to ferries in the Puget Sound area. This temporary safety zone will mitigate... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Washington State Department of...

  9. Experimental Simulation of the Radionuclide Behaviour in the Process of Creating Additional Safety Barriers in Solid Radioactive Waste Repositories Containing Irradiated Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavliuk, A. O.; Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.; Bespala, E. V.; Zakarova, E. V.; Rodygina, N. I.; Ermolaev, V. M.; Proshin, I. M.; Volkova, A.

    2016-08-01

    Results of the experimental modeling of radionuclide behavior when creating additional safety barriers in solid radioactive waste repositories are presented. The experiments were run on the repository mockup containing solid radioactive waste fragments including irradiated graphite. The repository mockup layout is given; the processes with radionuclides that occur during the barrier creation with a clayey solution and during the following barrier operation are investigated. The results obtained confirm high anti-migration and anti-filtration properties of clay used for the barrier creation even under the long-term excessive water saturation of rocks confining the repository.

  10. A TRANSPORTATION RISK ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR ANALYZING THE TRANSPORT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TO THE PROPOSED YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2001-02-15

    The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis addressed the potential for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 origins for 34 types of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, and 10,911 rail shipments. The analysis evaluated transportation over 59,250 unique shipment links for travel outside Nevada (shipment segments in urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 links in Nevada. In addition, the analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The analysis also used mode-specific accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. This complex mix of data and information required an innovative approach to assess the transportation impacts. The approach employed a Microsoft{reg_sign} Access database tool that incorporated data from many sources, including unit risk factors calculated using the RADTRAN IV transportation risk assessment computer program. Using Microsoft{reg_sign} Access, the analysts organized data (such as state-specific accident and fatality rates) into tables and developed queries to obtain the overall transportation impacts. Queries are instructions to the database describing how to use data contained in the database tables. While a query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one sequence of queries that is used to calculate a particular transportation impact. For example, the incident-free dose to off-link populations in a state is calculated by a query that uses route segment lengths for each route in a state that could be used by shipments, populations for each segment, number of shipments on each segment, and an incident-free unit risk factor calculated using RADTRAN IV. In addition to providing a method for using large volumes of data in the calculations, the

  11. Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Health care activities can generate different kinds of hazardous wastes. Mismanagement of these wastes can result in environmental and occupational health risks. Developing countries are resource-constrained when it comes to safe management of hospital wastes. This study summarizes the main issues faced in hospital waste management in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that regulations and legislations focusing on hospital waste management are recent accomplishments in many of these countries. Implementation of these rules varies from one hospital to another. Moreover, wide variations exist in waste generation rates within as well as across these countries. This is mainly attributable to a lack of an agreement on the definitions and the methodology among the researchers to measure such wastes. Furthermore, hospitals in these countries suffer from poor waste segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal practices, which can lead to occupational and environmental risks. Knowledge and awareness regarding proper waste management remain low in the absence of training for hospital staff. Moreover, hospital sanitary workers, and scavengers, operate without the provision of safety equipment or immunization. Unsegregated waste is illegally recycled, leading to further safety risks. Overall, hospital waste management in developing countries faces several challenges. Sustainable waste management practices can go a long way in reducing the harmful effects of hospital wastes.

  12. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  13. Waste Tank Safety Program. Annual status report for FY 1993, Task 3: Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.T.W.; Hoheimer, R.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-02-01

    This task supports the tank-vapor project, mainly by providing organic analytical support and by analyzing Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) vapor-space samples, collected via SUMMA{trademark} canisters, by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). In the absence of receiving tank-vapor samples, we have focused our efforts toward validating the normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) sampling and analysis methods and preparing the SUMMA{trademark} laboratory. All required milestones were met, including a report on the update of phase I sampling and analysis on August 15, 1993. This update described the work involved in preparing to analyze phase I samples (Appendix A). This report describes the analytical support provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL){sup (a)} to the Hanford Tank Safety Vapor Program.

  14. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of transuranic waste (TRUW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) contact- and remote-handed (CH and RH) TRUW. Included are definitions of the TRUW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of CH and RH TRUW, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM TRUW case considered.

  15. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level waste (LLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLW. Included are definition of the LLW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of WM LLW, an overview of the risk assessment method, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLW alternative considered.

  16. LOGISTICS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HEALTHCARE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The waste management system in health care is a tool that allows to conduct reasonable steps to reduce their amount, collection, storage and transport, and provide a high level of utilization or disposal. Logistics solutions in waste management are intended to make full use of the infrastructure and technical resources, optimize costs, ensure the safety and health at work and meet legal requirements. The article discusses the elements of the logistics system of waste management in hospital, necessary to ensure the smooth flow of waste from its origin to landfilling. The following criteria were characterized: technical and technological, ecological and economic that can be used in the analysis and evaluation of solutions in waste management in the hospital. Finally, solutions to improve waste management system in the hospital on the example of the real object have been presented.

  17. Safety assessment technology on the free drop impact and puncture analysis of the cask for radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dew Hey [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Lee, Ho Chul; Hong, Song Jin; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In this study, the regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for the free drop and puncture impact analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Impact analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for the free drop and the puncture impact analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is completely corresponded. And The integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology.

  18. HAZWOPER work plan and site safety and health plan for the Alpha characterization project at the solid waste storage area 4 bathtubbing trench at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This work plan/site safety and health plan is for the alpha sampling project at the Solid Waste Storage Area 4 bathtubbing trench. The work will be conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division and associated ORNL environmental, safety, and health support groups. This activity will fall under the scope of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER). The purpose of this document is to establish health and safety guidelines to be followed by all personnel involved in conducting work for this project. Work will be conducted in accordance with requirements as stipulated in the ORNL HAZWOPER Program Manual and applicable ORNL; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Energy policies and procedures. The levels of protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from historical data and preliminary evaluations of the area. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project. Unforeseeable site conditions or changes in scope of work may warrant a reassessment of the stated protection levels and controls. All adjustments to the plan must have prior approval by the safety and health disciplines signing the original plan.

  19. Stormwater run-off and pollutant transport related to the activities carried out in a modern waste management park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M; Hogland, W

    2001-02-01

    Stormwater run-off from twelve different areas and roads has been characterized in a modern waste disposal site, where several waste management activities are carried out. Using nonparametric statistics, medians and confidence intervals of the medians, 22 stormwater quality parameters were calculated. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, as well as run-off from several areas, showed measured values above standard limits for discharge into recipient waters--even higher than those of leachate from covered landfill cells. Of the heavy metals analyzed, copper, zinc and nickel were the most prevalent, being detected in every sample. Higher concentrations of metals such as zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron and cadmium were found in run-off from composting areas, compared to areas containing stored and exposed scrap metal. This suggests that factors other than the total amount of exposed material affect the concentration of metals in run-off, such as binding to organic compounds and hydrological transport efficiency. The pollutants transported by stormwater represent a significant environmental threat, comparable to leachate. Careful design, monitoring and maintenance of stormwater run-off drainage systems and infiltration elements are needed if infiltration is to be used as an on-site treatment strategy.

  20. Transport of elemental mercury in the unsaturated zone from a waste disposal site in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, M.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Striegl, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury contained in buried landfill waste may be released via upward emission to the atmosphere or downward leaching to groundwater. Data from the US Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in arid southwestern Nevada reveal another potential pathway of Hg release: long-distance (102 m) lateral migration of elemental Hg (Hg0) through the unsaturated zone. Gas collected from multiple depths from two instrumented boreholes that sample the entire 110-m unsaturated zone thickness and are located 100 and 160 m away from the closest waste burial trench exhibit gaseous Hg concentrations of up to 33 and 11 ng m-3, respectively. The vertical distribution of gaseous Hg in the borehole closest to the disposal site shows distinct subsurface peaks in concentration at depths of 1.5 and 24 m that cannot be explained by radial diffusive transport through a heterogeneous layered unsaturated zone. The inability of current models to explain gaseous Hg distribution at the ADRS highlights the need to advance the understanding of gas-phase contaminant transport in unsaturated zones to attain a comprehensive model of landfill Hg release.

  1. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  2. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  3. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew S; Clark, Sue B; Morrison, Samuel S; Watrous, Matthew G; Olson, John E; Snyder, Darin C

    2015-10-01

    Aeolian and pluvial processes represent important mechanisms for the movement of actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface. Soil samples taken in the early 1970's near a Department of Energy radioactive waste disposal site (the Subsurface Disposal Area, SDA, located in southeastern Idaho) provide a case study for studying the mechanisms and characteristics of environmental actinide and (137)Cs transport in an arid environment. Multi-component mixing models suggest actinide contamination within 2.5 km of the SDA can be described by mixing between 2 distinct SDA end members and regional nuclear weapons fallout. The absence of chemical fractionation between (241)Am and (239+240)Pu with depth for samples beyond the northeastern corner and lack of (241)Am in-growth over time (due to (241)Pu decay) suggest mechanical transport and mixing of discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples northeast of the SDA (the direction of the prevailing winds) contain anomalously high concentrations of Pu with (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios statistically identical to those in the northeastern corner. Taken together, these data suggest flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and a flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading in the northeastern direction resulted from wind transport of discrete particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. LCA of the Collection, Transportation, Treatment and Disposal of Source Separated Municipal Waste: A Southern Italy Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Feo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study performed a Life Cycle Assessment of the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of source-separated municipal waste (MW in Baronissi, a town of 17,000 inhabitants in the Campania region of Italy. Baronissi is a high-performing town in a region with scarcity of MW facilities. The environmental impacts were assessed with three different methods—IPCC 2007, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008—in order to evaluate how they influence the results as well as how the global warming affects the results, since it is one of the major environmental concerns of people. The obtained results showed how the presence of facilities in the area is fundamental. Their lack means high environmental loads due to the transportation of materials for long distances, particularly for the organic fraction. The presence of a composting plant at 10 km from the municipality would result in a decrease of 65% of the impacts due to the external transport, regardless of the evaluation method. The results obtained with ReCiPe 2008 and Ecological Footprint agreed, while those obtained with IPCC 2007 were very different since global warming is strongly affected by the transport phase. IPCC 2007 does not allow to take into account the advantages obtainable with a good level of separate collection. Considering a single impact evaluation method, there is a high risk of coming to misleading conclusions.

  5. Effect of transport-pathway simplifications on projected releases of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository (Sweden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof; Painter, Scott L.

    2012-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company has recently submitted an application for a license to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel, at approximately 500 m depth in crystalline bedrock. Migration pathways through the geosphere barrier are geometrically complex, with segments in fractured rock, deformation zones, backfilled tunnels, and near-surface soils. Several simplifications of these complex migration pathways were used in the assessments of repository performance that supported the license application. Specifically, in the geosphere transport calculations, radionuclide transport in soils and tunnels was neglected, and deformation zones were assumed to have transport characteristics of fractured rock. The effects of these simplifications on the projected performance of the geosphere barrier system are addressed. Geosphere performance is shown to be sensitive to how transport characteristics of deformation zones are conceptualized and incorporated into the model. Incorporation of advective groundwater travel time within backfilled tunnels reduces radiological dose from non-sorbing radionuclides such as I-129, while sorption in near-surface soils reduces radiological doses from sorbing radionuclides such as Ra-226. These results help quantify the degree to which geosphere performance was pessimistically assessed, and provide some guidance on how future studies to reduce uncertainty in geosphere performance may be focused.

  6. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  7. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  8. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  10. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topics / Enhanced safety and operation excellence and decommissioning experience and Waste management solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salnikova, Tatiana [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Schaffrath, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Summary report on the Key Topics ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' of the 47{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  11. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    expert in chemical security and work hard to safeguard the communities. Items discussed in this ... the public from injury, fire or other damage. In order to achieve these ..... 10.8 Transportation of hazardous chemicals and wastes? ... Chemical Security Engagement Program: https://chemsecurity.sandia.gov/. Chemical Safety.

  12. Nuclear waste management quarterly progress report, April--June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A.

    1978-11-01

    Work is reported in the following: decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues; monitoring methods for particulate and gaseous effluents from waste solidification processes; TRU waste immobilization; krypton solidification; /sup 14/C and /sup 129/I fixation; system studies; safety studies; waste isolation safety assessment; well logging instrumentation for shallow land burial; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; detection and characterization of mobile organic complexes of fission products; and electropolishing for surface decontamination of metals. 25 figures, 10 tables. (DLC)

  13. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  14. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Safety guidelines are presented. Waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication facilities, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, payload primary container/core, radiation shield, reentry systems, launch site facilities, uprooted space shuttle launch vehicle, Earth packing orbits, orbit transfer systems, and space destination are discussed. Disposed concepts and risks are then discussed.

  15. Polymeric foam characterization for packing use for radioactive wastes transportation; Caracterizacao de espuma polimerica para uso em embalagens para transporte de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)] E-mail: mouraor@urano.cdtn.br; Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] E-mail: mmattar@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    Impact limiters are sacrificial components widely used to protect radioactive waste packages against damage arising from falls, fires and collisions with protruding objects. Several materials have been used as impact limiter filling: wood, expanded cement and polymeric foams. One of the most popular materials among package designers is the petroleum rigid polyurethane foam, owing to its toughness, workability, low specific weight, low costs and commercial availability. In Brazil, a new foam was developed using the polymer extracted from the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis), a renewable source. Besides, no greenhouse gases are used during its manufacture. For a better performance, a detailed knowledge of the foam physical and mechanical properties is essential. A relatively vast amount of data about regular polymeric foams can be found in the literature and in several manufacturers' brochures, but no data has been published so far about the properties of the castor-oil foam. This paper presents the testing program carried out as part of ongoing research program aimed at developing a packaging for the transport of radioactive wastes. The results obtained reveal that the castor-oil foam has a mechanical behavior similar to that of regular foams, with good property reproducibility and homogeneity. (author)

  16. DOE Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report of Packaging- and Transportation-related Occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, L.S.

    2001-07-26

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been charged by the DOE National Transportation Program (NTP) with the responsibility of retrieving reports and information pertaining to packaging and transportation (P&T) incidents from the centralized Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database. These selected reports have been analyzed for trends, impact on P&T operations and safety concerns, and lessons learned (LL) in P&T operations. This task is designed not only to keep the NTP aware of what is occurring at DOE sites on a periodic basis, but also to highlight potential P&T problems that may need management attention and allow dissemination of LL to DOE Operations Offices, with the subsequent flow of information to contractors. The Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) was established by the NTP in fiscal year (FY) 1998 as an initiative to develop a methodology for reporting occurrences with the appropriate metrics to show rates and trends. One of its chief goals has been to augment historical reporting of occurrence-based information and present more meaningful statistics for comparison of occurrences. To this end, the SMIP established a severity weighting system for the classification of the occurrences, which would allow normalization of the data and provide a basis for trending analyses. The process for application of this methodology is documented in the September 1999 report DOE Packaging and Transportation Measurement Methodology for the Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP). This annual report contains information on those P&T-related occurrences reported to the ORPS during the period from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000. Only those incidents that occur in preparation for transport, during transport, and during unloading of hazardous material are considered as packaging- or transportation-related occurrences. Other incidents with P&T significance, but not involving hazardous material (such as vehicle accidents or empty

  17. Modeling Np and Pu transport with a surface complexation model and spatially variant sorption capacities: Implications for reactive transport modeling and performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    simulation conditions. Functional behaviors that cannot be fit include concentration trend reversals and radionuclide desorption spikes. Other simulation results are fit successfully but the fitted parameters (Kd and dispersivity) vary significantly depending on simulation conditions (e.g. "infiltration" vs. "cleanup" conditions). Notably, an increase in the variance of the specified sorption capacities results in a marked increase in the dispersion of the radionuclides. The results presented have implications for the simulation of radionuclide migration in performance assessments of nuclear waste-disposal sites, for the future monitoring of those sites, and more generally for modeling contaminant transport in ground-water environments. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

  19. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  20. 78 FR 59082 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... for their company and enforcement officers. Enforcement Management Information System (EMIS)--The EMIS... for FMCSA enforcement data. EMIS imports census files, investigatory files, driver/vehicle safety.../UNSATISFACTORY cases within EMIS resulting from Safety Rating letters generated by MCMIS. Analysis &...