WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste transfer system

  1. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  3. W-314, waste transfer alternative piping system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-30

    It is proposed that the reliability, operability, and flexibility of the Retrieval Transfer System be substantially upgraded by replacing the planned single in-farm pipeline from the AN-AY-AZ-(SY) Tank Farm Complex to the AP Farm with three parallel pipelines outside the tank farms. The proposed system provides simplified and redundant routes for the various transfer missions, and prevents the risk of transfer gridlock when the privatization effort swings into full operation.

  4. Determination of Erosion/Corrosion Rates in Hanford Tank Farms Radioactive Waste Transfer System Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Girardot, C. L.; Wilson, E. R.; Page, J. A.; Engeman, J. K.; Gunter, J. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Baide, D. G.; Cooke, G. A.; Larson, J. D.; Castleberry, J. L.; Boomer, K. D.

    2015-11-05

    The twenty-eight double-shell underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site near Richland, WA are interconnected by the Waste Transfer System network of buried steel encased pipelines and pipe jumpers in below-grade pits. The pipeline material is stainless steel or carbon steel in 51 mm to 152 mm (2 in. to 6 in.) sizes. The pipelines carry slurries ranging up to 20 volume percent solids and supernatants with less than one volume percent solids at velocities necessary to prevent settling. The pipelines, installed between 1976 and 2011, were originally intended to last until the 2028 completion of the double-shell tank storage mission. The mission has been subsequently extended. In 2010 the Tank Operating Contractor began a systematic evaluation of the Waste Transfer System pipeline conditions applying guidelines from API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 (2007), Fitness-For-Service. Between 2010 and 2014 Fitness-for-Service examinations of the Waste Transfer System pipeline materials, sizes, and components were completed. In parallel, waste throughput histories were prepared allowing side-by-side pipeline wall thinning rate comparisons between carbon and stainless steel, slurries and supernatants and throughput volumes. The work showed that for transfer volumes up to 6.1E+05 m3 (161 million gallons), the highest throughput of any pipeline segment examined, there has been no detectable wall thinning in either stainless or carbon steel pipeline material regardless of waste fluid characteristics or throughput. The paper describes the field and laboratory evaluation methods used for the Fitness-for-Service examinations, the results of the examinations, and the data reduction methodologies used to support Hanford Waste Transfer System pipeline wall thinning conclusions.

  5. Knowledge and technology transfer to improve the municipal solid waste management system of Durango City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Vázquez, Roberto; Pérez-López, Maria E; Vicencio-de-la-Rosa, María G; Martínez-Prado, María A; Rubio-Hernández, Rubén

    2014-09-01

    As society evolves its welfare level increases, and as a consequence the amount of municipal solid waste increases, imposing great challenges to municipal authorities. In developed countries, municipalities have established integrated management schemes to handle, treat, and dispose of municipal solid waste in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Municipalities of developing and transition countries are not exempted from the challenges involving municipal solid waste handling, but their task is not easy to accomplish since they face budget deficits, lack of knowledge, and deficiencies in infrastructure and equipment. In the northern territory of Mexico, the municipality of Durango is facing the challenge of increased volumes of waste with a lack of adequate facilities and infrastructure. This article analyses the evolution of the municipal solid waste management of Durango city, which includes actions such as proper facilities construction, equipment acquisition, and the implementation of social programmes. The World Bank, offering courses to municipal managers on landfill operation and waste management, promoted the process of knowledge and technology transfer. Thereafter, municipal authorities attended regional and some international workshops on waste management. In addition they followed suggestions of international contractors and equipment dealers with the intention to improve the situation of the waste management of the city. After a 15-year period, transfer of knowledge and technology resulted in a modern municipal solid waste management system in Durango municipality. The actual system did not reach the standard levels of an integrated waste management system, nevertheless, a functional evaluation shows clear indications that municipality actions have put them on the right pathway. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Project W-314 Specific Test and Evaluation Plan for 200E Waste Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    2000-02-25

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of the newly constructed 200E Waste Transfer System in the W-314 Project. The STEP provides the outline for test and evaluation methods that verify the system's performance and compliance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ''lower tier'' document based on the W-314 Test & Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  7. The role played by environmental factors in the integration of a transfer station in a municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C; Gallardo, A; Capuz-Rizo, S F

    2007-01-01

    Transfer stations are an integral part of present-day municipal solid waste management systems. The main criteria used to decide on the location of a transfer station has traditionally been the minimization of transport costs, since it is cheaper to transport great amounts of waste over long distances in large loads than in small ones. In this study, we are going to consider the environmental factor in order to compare the feasibility of using a transfer station integrated within a waste management system. Applying the Life Cycle Assessment technique will enable us to obtain an objective parameter that quantifies the environmental impact of transportation and of operating a transfer station. Taking the current rates of solid wastes generation in the Plana region of Castellón (Spain) as our starting point, in this study we compare the environmental costs involved in the process of taking municipal wastes directly to the nearest waste treatment facility, with those involved in a waste management system integrating a transfer station. Comparing these two cases, an average reduction of 16.8% in the environmental impact can be obtained when a transfer station is incorporated in the waste management system.

  8. A STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY EVALUATION OF THE TANK FARM WASTE TRANSFER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2006-03-09

    Radioactive supernate, salt, and/or sludge wastes (i.e., high level wastes) are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The waste is transported between tanks within and between the F and H area tank farms and other facilities on site via underground and a limited number of aboveground transfer lines. The Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) performed a comprehensive assessment of the structural integrity program for the Tank Farm waste transfer system at the SRS. This document addresses the following issues raised during the DOE assessment: (1) Inspections of failed or replaced transfer lines indicated that the wall thickness of some core and jacket piping is less than nominal; (2) No corrosion allowance is utilized in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. No basis for neglecting corrosion was provided in the calculations; (3) Wall loss due to erosion is not addressed in the transfer line structural qualification calculations; and (4) No basis is provided for neglecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. The common theme in most of these issues is the need to assess the potential for occurrence of material degradation of the transfer line piping. The approach used to resolve these issues involved: (1) Review the design and specifications utilized to construct and fabricate the piping system; (2) Review degradation mechanisms for stainless steel and carbon steel and determine their relevance to the transfer line piping; (3) Review the transfer piping inspection data; (4) Life estimation calculations for the transfer lines; and (5) A Fitness-For-Service evaluation for one of the transfer line jackets. The evaluation concluded that the transfer line system piping has performed well for over fifty years. Although there have been instances of failures of the stainless steel core pipe during off-normal service, no significant

  9. Assessment of Available Particle Size Data to Support an Analysis of the Waste Feed Delivery System Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JEWETT, J.R.

    2000-08-10

    Available data pertaining to size distribution of the particulates in Hanford underground tank waste have been reviewed. Although considerable differences exist between measurement methods, it may be stated with 95% confidence that the median particle size does not exceed 275 {micro}m in at least 95% of the ten tanks selected as sources of HLW feed for Phase 1 vitrification in the RPP. This particle size is recommended as a design basis for the WFD transfer system.

  10. System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of =14 micrometers (μm). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS' System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  11. System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Hopkins, Derek F.; Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A.

    2013-06-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of ≥14 micrometers (μm). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS’ System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP.

  12. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  13. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  14. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  15. Estimating waste transfer station delays using GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce Gordon; Vincent, Julie K

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of on-board global positioning system (GPS) data recorders as a method to collect field data on the movements of solid waste collection vehicles at transfer stations. The movements of five waste collection vehicles using four different transfer facilities were compared over a period of 1 year. The spatial data were analyzed using geofences to determine the amount of time each truck spent on each of four activities: queuing for access to the weigh scale, sitting on the weigh scale, queuing for access to the tipping floor, and unloading waste. The study found that queuing delays can be identified and measured using GPS data. The average time at a facility for all trucks was 16.4 min per visit, with a standard deviation of 14.3 min. Time at the facility ranged between 2 and 111 min per visit and the distribution of time at the facility was positively skewed. Multi-compartment vehicles (co-collection and recycling trucks) spent significantly more time at unloading facilities. There were also significant differences in the length and the location of the queues at different facilities. At one facility, the longest delays were encountered while waiting for the weigh scale, at two facilities trucks experienced delays in obtaining access to the tipping floor, while at the fourth facility no significant delays developed.

  16. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314 Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-09-28

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate.

  17. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1155 Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface... solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Clean Railroads Act of 2008 amended the U.S. Code to restrict the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The...

  18. 76 FR 16538 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1155 Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface...) over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Clean Railroads Act also added three new statutory... the Board, a solid waste rail transfer facility need not comply with State laws, regulations, orders...

  19. Heat and mass transfer through spiral tubes in absorber of absorption heat pump system for waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Itaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer of a LiBr/water absorption heat pump system (AHP was experimentally studied during working a heating-up mode. The examination was performed for a single spiral tube, which was simulated for heat transfer tubes in an absorber. The inside and outside of the tube were subjected to a film flow of the absorption liquid and exposed to the atmosphere, respectively. The maximum temperature of the absorption liquid was observed not at the entrance but in the region a little downward from the entrance in the tube. The steam absorption rate and/or heat generation rate in the liquid film are not constant along the tube. Hence the average convective heat transfer coefficient between the liquid film flowing down and the inside wall of the tube was determined based on a logarithmic mean temperature difference between the tube surface temperature and the film temperature at the maximum temperature location and the bottom. The film heat and mass transfer coefficients rose with increasing Reynolds number of the liquid film stream. The coefficients showed opposite trend to the empirical correlation reported for laminar film flow on a straight smooth tube in a refrigeration mode in the past work. The fact can be caused due to a turbulent promotion effect of the liquid in a spiral tube.

  20. Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential from Waste Transfer Station Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krystal J. Godri; Sean T. Duggan; Gary W. Fuller; Tim Baker; David Green; Frank J. Kelly; Ian S. Mudway

    ...). The highest PM concentrations in London occur in proximity to waste transfer stations (WTS), sites that experience high numbers of dust-laden, heavy-duty diesel vehicles transporting industrial and household waste. Objective...

  1. Fuel transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  2. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Technology transfer in hazardous waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Hazardous waste is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Industrialized countries have had to deal with the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes for many years. The newly industrializing countries of the world are now faced with immediate problems of waste handling. The developing nations of the world are looking at increasing quantities of hazardous waste generation as they move toward higher levels of industrialization. Available data are included on hazardous waste generation in Asia and the Pacific as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although there are many inconsistencies in the data (inconsistent hazardous waste definitions, inconsistent reporting of wastes, etc.) there is definite indication that a growing economy tends to lead toward larger quantities of hazardous waste generation. In developing countries the industrial sector is growing at a faster rate than in the industrialized countries. In 1965 industry accounted for 29% of GDP in the developing countries of the world. In 1987 this had grown to 37% of GDP. In contrast, industry accounted for 40% of GDP in 1965 in industrialized countries and dropped to 35% in 1987. This growth in industrial activity in the developing countries brings an increase in the need to handle hazardous wastes. Although hazardous wastes are ubiquitous, the control of hazardous wastes varies. The number of regulatory options used by various countries in Asia and the Pacific to control wastes are included. It is evident that the industrialized countries, with a longer history of having to deal with hazardous wastes, have found the need to use more mechanisms to control them. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  5. A multimodal transportation system routing implemented in waste collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste collection is an important municipal service that charges large expenditures to waste management (WM system. In this study, a hierarchical structure is proposed in order to minimize total cost of waste collection routing problem. Moreover, in second stage destructive environmental effects of waste transportation are minimized concurrently through taking advantage of a road/rail transportation system. In the proposed multimodal transportation system, waste packs are transferred to final destination while travel time and risk of environmental threatening is minimized. The discussed problem is formulated mathematically in two stages. In the first stage, a household waste collection routing problem is formulated while, in second stage a multimodal transportation system is routed to transfer waste packs to final destination through roads and railroads. In order to solve the proposed NP hard models, an improved genetic algorithm is developed. Comparison of the obtained results with those of GAMS for small-size samples validates the proposed models.

  6. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Truptimala Patanaik; Ambika Priyadarshini Mishra; Aishariya Durga; Gayatri Avipsa

    2016-01-01

    The towns and cities have become the centres of population growth and require three essential services viz., water supply, waste water treatment and solid wastes disposal. The tremendous increase in population accelerates the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Hence, the solid waste management (SWM) is one of the essential municipal services, to protect the environment, safeguard public health services and improve productivity.   In this context the case study is c...

  7. Development of a waste collection system for the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, A. F., Jr.; Swider, J. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a waste collection system to accommodate both male and female crew members for the space shuttle is discussed. The waste collection system, with emphasis on the collection and transfer of urine, is described. Human-interface requirements, zero-gravity influences and effects, and operational considerations required for total system design are discussed.

  8. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG......) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection...

  9. Waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-12-19

    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuit into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.

  10. Shielding requirements for K Basin waste transfer line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, H.J.

    1996-04-01

    K-East Basin sludge, mixed with water, is to be transported to the tank farms using a high integrity container mounted on a trailer. Load considerations preclude driving the truck directly to the tank opening. Thus, it is envisioned that a transfer line will run from a tanker unloading point to a point where the waste can be injected into a waste tank. It is presently envisioned that the waste will be pumped from the truck to the tank in a three inch pipe which is encased inside a six inch pipe. The transfer line will be shielded by either berming earth with a density of approximately 2.00 g/cm{sup 3} (125 lb/ft{sup 3}) around the line, or constructing a concrete raceway.

  11. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lyndon

    Full Length Research Paper. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste transfer stations in relation to location of landfill sites in Accra Metropolis. Lyndon Nii Adjiri Sackey. Waste Landfills Ghana Limited, P.O. Box DT 1670, Adenta-Accra, Ghana. Received 26 May, 2015; Accepted 23 December, 2015.

  12. Conceptual modeling to optimize the haul and transfer of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, D P

    2008-11-01

    Two conceptual mixed integer linear optimization models were developed to optimize the haul and transfer of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to landfilling. One model is based on minimizing time (h/d), whilst the second model is based on minimizing total cost (euro/d). Both models aim to calculate the optimum pathway to haul MSW from source nodes (waste production nodes, such as urban centers or municipalities) to sink nodes (landfills) via intermediate nodes (waste transfer stations). The models are applicable provided that the locations of the source, intermediate and sink nodes are fixed. The basic input data are distances among nodes, average vehicle speeds, haul cost coefficients (in euro/ton km), equipment and facilities' operating and investment cost, labor cost and tipping fees. The time based optimization model is easier to develop, since it is based on readily available data (distances among nodes). It can be used in cases in which no transfer stations are included in the system. The cost optimization model is more reliable compared to the time model provided that accurate cost data are available. The cost optimization model can be a useful tool to optimally allocate waste transfer stations in a region and can aid a community to investigate the threshold distance to a landfill above which the construction of a transfer station becomes financially beneficial. A sensitivity analysis reveals that queue times at the landfill or at the waste transfer station are key input variables. In addition, the waste transfer station ownership and the initial cost data affect the optimum path. A case study at the Municipality of Athens is used to illustrate the presented models.

  13. Technological inductive power transfer systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikolay D. Madzharov; Valentin S. Nemkov

    2017-01-01

    Inductive power transfer is a very fast expanding technology with multiple design principles and practical implementations ranging from charging phones and computers to bionic systems, car chargers...

  14. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO(2)-equivalent (kg CO(2)-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, and travel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways.

  15. York Region integrated solid waste processing and transfer facility : cash flow analysis of alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balfour, B. [Gartner Lee Ltd., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Cash flow modeling exercises of the two tier waste management system in York Region was presented to encourage decision-makers to think in terms of total system costs and how to achieve a desired diversion rate. The York Region consists of 9 municipalities which collect their own waste. The region is responsible for its treatment and disposal. This paper have shown that modeling of realistic options gives decision-makers the opportunity to see the financial impact of different types of waste management systems and provides them with the potential to view the critical parameters in the cost of waste management. This paper demonstrated through modelling the impacts of various alternatives such as collection, processing, transfer and disposal, and identified achievable diversions.

  16. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  17. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  18. Results of Waste Transfer and Back-Dilution in Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LA Mahoney; ZI Antoniak; WB Barton; JM Conner; NW Kirch; CW Stewart; BE Wells

    2000-07-26

    This report chronicles the process of remediation of the flammable gas hazard in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) by waste transfer and back-dilution from December 18, 1999 through April 2, 2000. A brief history is given of the development of the flammable gas retention and release hazard in this tank, and the transfer and dilution systems are outlined. A detailed narrative of each of the three transfer and dilution campaigns is given to provide structure for the balance of the report. Details of the behavior of specific data are then described, including the effect of transfer and dilution on the waste levels in Tanks SY-101 and SY-102, data from strain gauges on equipment suspended from the tank dome, changes in waste configuration as inferred from neutron and gamma logs, headspace gas concentrations, waste temperatures, and the mixerpump operating performance. Operating data and performance of the transfer pump in SY-101 are also discussed.

  19. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Han, B. S. [Atomic Creative Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication.

  20. Decentralized Energy from Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change.

  1. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed......Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational...... by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables...

  2. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-04-05

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  3. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  4. Multi agent gathering waste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro LOZANO MURCIEGO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data available and with the purpose of identifying limitations of the system.

  5. Independent engineering review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was initiated in June 1987. The HWVP is an essential element of the plan to end present interim storage practices for defense wastes and to provide for permanent disposal. The project start was justified, in part, on efficient technology and design information transfer from the prototype Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Development of other serial Hanford Waste Vitrification System (HWVS) elements, such as the waste retrieval system for the double-shell tanks (DSTs), and the pretreatment system to reduce the waste volume converted into glass, also was required to accomplish permanent waste disposal. In July 1991, at the time of this review, the HWVP was in the Title 2 design phase. The objective of this technical assessment is to determine whether the status of the technology development and engineering practice is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the HWVP and the balance of the HWVS system will operate in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The criteria used to facilitate a judgment of potential successful operation are: vitrification of high-level radioactive waste from specified DSTs on a reasonably continuous basis; and glass produced with physical and chemical properties formally acknowledge as being acceptable for disposal in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The criteria were proposed specifically for the Independent Engineering Review to focus that assessment effort. They are not represented as the criteria by which the Department will judge the prudence of the Project. 78 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Electron Transfer in Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Jeffrey Wayne

    1993-01-01

    A review of electron transfer in biology is provided. Chemiosmotic theory, a phenomenological discussion of electron transfer in the bacterial reaction center, and a general formalism for treating electron transfer in condensed systems (including biological systems) are presented. The effective electronic donor/acceptor coupling (H_{DA}) for a bridged electron transfer system is defined. An expression for H_{DA} in terms of the bridge Green's function is developed for systems represented by a tight-binding Hamiltonian. H_{DA } is computed exactly for two systems, and the existence of a dimensionless parameter which determines whether the effective coupling oscillates or decays with increasing donor/acceptor distance is shown. A numerical technique for computing H_{DA} is developed and shown to be significantly more powerful than the conventional Larsson technique. The inverse matrix technique and pathway methods for computing the effective coupling in bridged electron transfer systems are defined and compared. The inverse matrix technique is found to be more powerful on general theoretical grounds and more accurate for numerical calculations of the effective coupling for the butane-1-4-diyl diradical and dimethylene cyclohexane. Parameters for electron transfer Hamiltonians and multi-pathway effects are discussed. Calculations for a simple model electron transfer system and tuna cytochrome c demonstrate a dichotomy in the behavior of the effective coupling distance dependence. In one regime the effective coupling varies exponentially with distance and depends only on the average properties of the bridging material; in the other regime the effective coupling has a complex distance dependence and is sensitive to the details of the bridging material. Experiments and theory indicate that both regimes occur in biological systems, providing a new perspective on a recent controversy over the nature of the distance dependence. We review the status of effective coupling

  7. Technological inductive power transfer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzharov, Nikolay D.; Nemkov, Valentin S.

    2017-05-01

    Inductive power transfer is a very fast expanding technology with multiple design principles and practical implementations ranging from charging phones and computers to bionic systems, car chargers and continuous power transfer in technological lines. Only a group of devices working in near magnetic field is considered. This article is devoted to overview of different inductive power transfer (IPT) devices. The review of literature in this area showed that industrial IPT are not much discussed and examined. The authors have experience in design and implementation of several types of IPTs belonging to wireless automotive chargers and to industrial application group. Main attention in the article is paid to principles and design of technological IPTs

  8. Mass transfers through electromagnetically stirred interfaces - nuclear wastes application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtessole, C.; Etay, J. [CNRS-SIMAP-EPM ENSEEG BP75 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); SAADI, B.; Allibert, M. [23 Av. Marcellin Berthelot 38100 Grenoble (France)

    2009-06-15

    Molten salts are good heat conductors. They are identified for future applications such as the implementation of a GEN IV nuclear reactor, heat transportation between 650 deg. and 850 deg. C for the hydrogen generation purpose, and electrolysis of aluminum between 850 deg. and 950 deg. C. Generally speaking, these salts are aggressive for materials that maintain them such as transportation, mixing and chemical composition. That is why we want to study and implement induction devices to replace the functions of these materials by electromagnetic forces. This will allow a dual benefit: improving the longevity and reduce secondary wastes. In the present work, we use a specific electromagnetic device for accelerating mass transfers through liquid / liquid interface. To reduce barriers to transfer, the interface is shacked at a frequency near of one of its natural frequencies. To achieve this, we use an adapted dual-frequency electromagnetic field. A pyrometallurgy pre-industrial graded facility, based on cold crucible technique, is used to carry out numerous experiments on the extraction of actinides and other elements from a fluorinated salt into a liquid metal phase containing a reducing agent such as magnesium, aluminium or lithium. At time t = 0, the metallic alloy is poured under the molten salt. Metallic samples are taken from the bulk at known time intervals. Later, the samples are analysed using optical ICP. Transfer rate and kinetics are deduced from obtained experimental data. Compare to other treatment, the present one is found to lead faster to a higher rate of transfer. (authors)

  9. LCA of Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover......, specific methodological challenges arise when investigating waste systems, such as the allocation of impacts and the consideration of long-term emissions. The complexity of waste LCAs is mainly derived from the variability of the object under study (waste) which is made of different materials that may...

  10. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-09-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system.

  11. OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES IN MIXING AND TRANSFER OF HIGH YIELD STRESS SLUDGE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.; Bhatt, P.

    2009-12-07

    The ability to mobilize and transport non-Newtonian waste is essential to advance the closure of highly radioactive storage tanks. Recent waste removal operations from Tank 12H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) encountered sludge mixtures with a yield stress too high to pump. The waste removal equipment for Tank 12H was designed to mobilize and transport a diluted slurry mixture through an underground 550m long (1800 ft) 0.075m diameter (3 inch) pipeline. The transfer pump was positioned in a well casing submerged in the sludge slurry. The design allowed for mobilized sludge to enter the pump suction while keeping out larger tank debris. Data from a similar tank with known rheological properties were used to size the equipment. However, after installation and startup, field data from Tank 12H confirmed the yield stress of the slurry to exceed 40 Pa, whereas the system is designed for 10 Pa. A revision to the removal strategy was required, which involved metered dilution, blending, and mixing to ensure effective and safe transfer performance. The strategy resulted in the removal of over 255,000 kgs of insoluble solids with four discrete transfer evolutions for a total transfer volume of 2400 m{sup 3} (634,000 gallons) of sludge slurry.

  12. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  13. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  14. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  15. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  16. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties.

  17. Waste Management Information System (WMIS) User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. E. Broz

    2008-12-22

    This document provides the user of the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) instructions on how to use the WMIS software. WMIS allows users to initiate, track, and close waste packages. The modular design supports integration and utilization of data throuh the various stages of waste management. The phases of the waste management work process include generation, designation, packaging, container management, procurement, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal.

  18. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitz, D.A. [Independent Consultant, Kirkland, WA (United States); Berry, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  19. Potential future waste-to-energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thorin, Eva; Guziana, Bozena; Song, Han; Jääskeläinen, Ari; Szpadt, Ryszard; Vasilic, Dejan; Ahrens, Thorsten; Anne, Olga; Lõõnik, Jaan

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses potential future systems for waste-to-energy production in the Baltic Sea Region, and especially for the project REMOWE partner regions, the County of Västmanland in Sweden, Northern Savo in Finland, Lower Silesia in Poland, western part of Lithuania and Estonia. The waste-to-energy systems planned for in the partner regions are combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and solid recovered fuels from household and industry as well as anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge ...

  20. 77 FR 12497 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...'') to exclude or ``delist,'' from the list of hazardous wastes, a maximum of 200 cubic yards per year of... waste is not a hazardous waste. This exclusion conditionally excludes the petitioned waste from the...

  1. 76 FR 16534 - Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...,'' to exclude (or delist) on a one-time basis from the lists of hazardous waste, a certain solid waste... the petitioned waste is ] not hazardous waste. This exclusion applies to 148 cubic yards of sludge...

  2. Heat Transfer Model of a Small-Scale Waste Glass Melter with Cold Cap Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Alexander; Guillen, Donna Post; Pokorny, Richard

    2016-09-01

    At the Hanford site in the state of Washington, more than 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is stored in underground tanks. The cleanup plan for this waste is vitrification at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), currently under construction. At the WTP, the waste will be blended with glass-forming materials and heated to 1423K, then poured into stainless steel canisters to cool and solidify. A fundamental understanding of the glass batch melting process is needed to optimize the process to reduce cost and decrease the life cycle of the cleanup effort. The cold cap layer that floats on the surface of the glass melt is the primary reaction zone for the feed-to-glass conversion. The conversion reactions include water release, melting of salts, evolution of batch gases, dissolution of quartz and the formation of molten glass. Obtaining efficient heat transfer to this region is crucial to achieving high rates of glass conversion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is being used to understand the heat transfer dynamics of the system and provide insight to optimize the process. A CFD model was developed to simulate the DM1200, a pilot-scale melter that has been extensively tested by the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL). Electrodes are built into the melter to provide Joule heating to the molten glass. To promote heat transfer from the molten glass into the reactive cold cap layer, bubbling of the molten glass is used to stimulate forced convection within the melt pool. A three-phase volume of fluid approach is utilized to model the system, wherein the molten glass and cold cap regions are modeled as separate liquid phases, and the bubbling gas and plenum regions are modeled as one lumped gas phase. The modeling of the entire system with a volume of fluid model allows for the prescription of physical properties on a per-phase basis. The molten glass phase and the gas phase physical properties are obtained from previous experimental work. Finding representative

  3. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This paper reports the evaluation of households' usage of the current solid waste management system (SWMS) within the city of Ilorin, ... respectively of the households were unsatisfied and moderately satisfied with the current waste management system. ..... collection, separation and willingness to pay”,. Kuwait Journal of ...

  4. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  5. Transport concept of new waste management system (inner packaging system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakozaki, K. [Transnuclear Ltd (AREVA Group), Tokyo (Japan); Wada, R. [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Kobe Steel, Ltd. (KSL) and Transnuclear Tokyo (TNT) have jointly developed a new waste management system concept (called ''Inner packaging system'') for high dose rate wastes generated from nuclear power plants under cooperation with Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The inner packaging system is designed as a total management system dedicated to the wastes from nuclear plants in Japan, covering from the wastes conditioning in power plants up to the disposal in final repository. This paper presents the new waste management system concept.

  6. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N; Mahecha-Botero, Andrés; Grace, John R; Ikonomou, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical fiber data transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmillan, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    This Phase 2 effort applies the results of Phase 1 to design and fabricate an optical slip ring system for a helicopter rotor blade/wind tunnel application. In this application, there are two assemblies: one on the rotating portion of the mechanical system, one on the stationary portion. The assembly on the rotating portion digitizes and encodes 128 transducer signals from various parts of the blade, and optically transfers data across the noncontacting coupling. Two complete identical independent channels are provided. On the stationary side, the signals are decoded and one channel is transmitted in digital form to a computer for recording and analysis. The second channel reconstructs the analog transducer signals for real time observation. In the opposite direction, eight signal channels enable control signals to be passed from the stationary to the rotating part of the system. Power to the rotor mounted electronics is supplied via power slip rings. The advantages of the optical over the traditional electro-mechanical slip ring method of data transfer across a rotating joint are long life, low-maintenance, immunity to crosstalk, and wider bandwidth. Successful completion of this effort demonstrated that this method is practical and reliable, and can be implemented under difficult conditions of available space, power, environment, and stringent performance and equipment life requirements.

  8. TRANSFER PRICING AS A SYSTEM-FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Guisin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that transfer pricing plays a system-building role for multi-profile commercial banks of today. Bank transfer pricing system properties are outlined. Examples of practical implementation of the transfer pricing to bank activities are brought about. Impact of transferprices on key aspects of the bank management and control system is discussed.

  9. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Tetra Tech, 800-555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, Canada V6B 1M1 (Canada); Mahecha-Botero, Andrés, E-mail: andresm@chbe.ubc.ca [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Grace, John R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael [Institute of Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 6000, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, B.C., Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada)

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the various mass transfer (MT) and input/output steps for sub-systems in the landfill model. NeWS is defined as non-electronic waste solids, including sand and soil added as cover materials. Highlights: • A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). • Landfill samples and laboratory results are used to estimate the model

  10. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  11. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  12. Multi-criteria GIS-based siting of transfer station for municipal solid waste: The case of Kumasi Metropolitan Area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosompem, Christian; Stemn, Eric; Fei-Baffoe, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    The increase in the quantity of municipal solid waste generated as a result of population growth in most urban areas has resulted in the difficulty of locating suitable land areas to be used as landfills. To curb this, waste transfer stations are used. The Kumasi Metropolitan Area, even though it has an engineered landfill, is faced with the problem of waste collection from the generation centres to the final disposal site. Thus in this study, multi-criteria decision analysis incorporated into a geographic information system was used to determine potential waste transfer station sites. The key result established 11 sites located within six different sub-metros. This result can be used by decision makers for site selection of the waste transfer stations after taking into account other relevant ecological and economic factors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  14. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  15. 75 FR 11002 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities..., Tennessee from the lists of hazardous wastes. This final rule responds to a petition submitted by Valero to...

  16. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... specific waste from a particular generating facility should not be regulated as a hazardous waste. Based on waste-specific information provided by the petitioner, EPA granted an exclusion for up to 3,000 cubic...

  17. 75 FR 51678 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-0456; SW-FRL-9191-7] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste..., plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of waste generated, and... lists of hazardous wastes. This final rule responds to the petition submitted by OxyChem to delist K019...

  18. 75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-0549; SW-FRL-9191-8] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities... Tokusen will be disposed at a RCRA Subtitle D landfill: The Waste Management Industrial Landfill, North...

  19. Virtual model of an automated system for the storage of collected waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enciu George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems identified in waste collection integrated systems is the storage space. The design process of an automated system for the storage of collected waste includes finding solutions for the optimal exploitation of the limited storage space, seen that the equipment for the loading, identification, transport and transfer of the waste covers most of the available space inside the integrated collection system. In the present paper a three-dimensional model of an automated storage system designed by the authors for a business partner is presented. The storage system can be used for the following types of waste: plastic and glass recipients, aluminium cans, paper, cardboard and WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment. Special attention has been given to the transfer subsystem, specific for the storage system, which should be able to transfer different types and shapes of waste. The described virtual model of the automated system for the storage of collected waste will be part of the virtual model of the entire integrated waste collection system as requested by the beneficiary.

  20. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2649 (Transported Waste Receiving Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This document covers the design aspects of the new tank system and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for storing or treating hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during fabrication, installation, and testing of the new tank system in order to prove compliance of the final installation with governing requirements. The assessment is responsive to the Environmental Restoration Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  1. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository.

  2. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  3. Tank waste remediation system operational scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

  4. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-06

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces.

  5. Smart Garbage Monitoring System for Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusof Norfadzlia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles of rubbish are one of the major problems faced by most people in Malaysia, especially those who live in flats, as the number of bins is limited and shared among all residents. It may cause pollutions, which may lead to sanitary issues and diseases. This project presents the development of a smart garbage monitoring system in order to measure waste level in the garbage bin in real-time and to alert the municipality, in particular cases, via SMS. The proposed system is consisted by the ultrasonic sensor to measure the waste level, the GSM module to send the SMS, and an Arduino Uno which controls the system operation. It supposes to generate and send the warning messages to the municipality via SMS when the waste bin is full or almost full, so the garbage can be collected immediately. Furthermore, it is expected to contribute to improving the efficiency of the solid waste disposal management.

  6. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is a compilation of data relating to the Tank Waste Remediation System Multi-Year Program. Topics discussed include: management systems; waste volume, transfer and evaporation management; transition of 200 East and West areas; ferricyanide, volatile organic vapor, and flammable gas management; waste characterization; retrieval from SSTs and DSTs; heat management; interim storage; low-level and high-level radioactive waste management; and tank farm closure.

  7. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  8. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  9. Orbital Express fluid transfer demonstration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberger, Scott; SooHoo, David; Abraham, Gabriel

    2008-04-01

    Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft is no longer in the realm of high risk development. The recently concluded Orbital Express (OE) mission included a fluid transfer demonstration that operated the hardware and control logic in space, bringing the Technology Readiness Level to a solid TRL 7 (demonstration of a system prototype in an operational environment). Orbital Express (funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA) was launched aboard an Atlas-V rocket on March 9th, 2007. The mission had the objective of demonstrating technologies needed for routine servicing of spacecraft, namely autonomous rendezvous and docking, propellant resupply, and orbital replacement unit transfer. The demonstration system used two spacecraft. A servicing vehicle (ASTRO) performed multiple dockings with the client (NextSat) spacecraft, and performed a variety of propellant transfers in addition to exchanges of a battery and computer. The fluid transfer and propulsion system onboard ASTRO, in addition to providing the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) thruster system for rendezvous and docking, demonstrated autonomous transfer of monopropellant hydrazine to or from the NextSat spacecraft 15 times while on orbit. The fluid transfer system aboard the NextSat vehicle was designed to simulate a variety of client systems, including both blowdown pressurization and pressure regulated propulsion systems. The fluid transfer demonstrations started with a low level of autonomy, where ground controllers were allowed to review the status of the demonstration at numerous points before authorizing the next steps to be performed. The final transfers were performed at a full autonomy level where the ground authorized the start of a transfer sequence and then monitored data as the transfer proceeded. The major steps of a fluid transfer included the following: mate of the coupling, leak check of the coupling, venting of the coupling, priming of the coupling, fluid transfer, gauging

  10. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  11. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  12. 77 FR 56558 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...-2012-0447; FRL-9727-2] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management and UST Section, Office of Site... persistence in the environment once released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the...

  13. 75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... persistence in the environment once released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the... RCRA Subtitle D landfill: The Waste Management Industrial Landfill, North Little Rock, Arkansas. D...

  14. 76 FR 59960 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... Planning and Permitting Division, Corrective Action and Waste Minimization Section (6PD-C), 1445 Ross... will be taken on this petition. A new petition will be required for this waste stream. List of Subjects...

  15. 77 FR 41720 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste.... Fax: (617) 918-0647, to the attention of Sharon Leitch. 4. Mail: Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management... Square, Suite 100, Boston, MA 02109-3912. 5. Hand Delivery: Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management and UST...

  16. 76 FR 48073 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and... the Agency) is proposing to revise the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource... hazardous wastes, which would make them subject to EPA's comprehensive RCRA hazardous waste management...

  17. 75 FR 73972 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... period on this action. Lists of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 261 Environmental Protection, Hazardous waste... part 261 is amended as follows: PART 261--IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE 0 1. The...

  18. Saturn facility oil transfer automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Nathan R.; Thomas, Rayburn Dean; Lewis, Barbara Ann; Malagon, Hector Ricardo.

    2014-02-01

    The Saturn accelerator, owned by Sandia National Laboratories, has been in operation since the early 1980s and still has many of the original systems. A critical legacy system is the oil transfer system which transfers 250,000 gallons of transformer oil from outside storage tanks to the Saturn facility. The oil transfer system was iden- ti ed for upgrade to current technology standards. Using the existing valves, pumps, and relay controls, the system was automated using the National Instruments cRIO FGPA platform. Engineered safety practices, including a failure mode e ects analysis, were used to develop error handling requirements. The uniqueness of the Saturn Oil Automated Transfer System (SOATS) is in the graphical user interface. The SOATS uses an HTML interface to communicate to the cRIO, creating a platform independent control system. The SOATS was commissioned in April 2013.

  19. Integrated technologies for solid waste bin monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arebey, Maher; Hannan, M A; Basri, Hassan; Begum, R A; Abdullah, Huda

    2011-06-01

    The integration of communication technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID), global positioning system (GPS), general packet radio system (GPRS), and geographic information system (GIS) with a camera are constructed for solid waste monitoring system. The aim is to improve the way of responding to customer's inquiry and emergency cases and estimate the solid waste amount without any involvement of the truck driver. The proposed system consists of RFID tag mounted on the bin, RFID reader as in truck, GPRS/GSM as web server, and GIS as map server, database server, and control server. The tracking devices mounted in the trucks collect location information in real time via the GPS. This information is transferred continuously through GPRS to a central database. The users are able to view the current location of each truck in the collection stage via a web-based application and thereby manage the fleet. The trucks positions and trash bin information are displayed on a digital map, which is made available by a map server. Thus, the solid waste of the bin and the truck are being monitored using the developed system.

  20. [Method for estimating the population risk attributable to a transfer station of municipal solid waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Burgoa, C; Rojas-Bracho, L; Barrera-Romero, N; Ongay-Delhumeau, E; Escamilla-Cejudo, J A

    1992-01-01

    Due to the great volume of municipal solid waste that is produced daily in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City a sound management has been an impossible task. This is why during the past few years solid waste transfer stations have been constructed in the City, allowing a more efficient solid waste collection. The attributable risk to the population's health for the operation of such stations needs to be assessed in order to have them working within the urbanized areas without posing a potential risk to the health of the inhabitants of the inhabitants of the surrounding areas.

  1. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  2. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...... to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches...

  3. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN HARGHITA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Constantin AVORNICULUI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste management problems in Harghita County (and other places in the country have a major negative impact on society and pose a direct threat to human health, and an adverse effect on quality of life. Considering the current practices, it is clear that the system of waste management in Romania and Harghita county needs to be improved to meet the requirements of new national and European regulations. In Harghita County there are 36 protected areas of national interest, four protected areas of local interest and 18 Natura 2000 sites, including 13 Sites of Community Importance (SCI and 5 Special Protection Areas (SPA. Strengthening a sustainable waste management system involves major changes to current practices. Implementing such changes can be successfully achieved only through the involvement of the whole society: population– as users, entrepreneurs, socio-economic institutions and public authorities.

  4. System design description for Waste Information and Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-12-16

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Hazardous Material Control Group (HMC) of the 222-S Laboratory has requested the development of a system to help resolve many of the difficulties associated with tracking and data collection of containers and drums of waste. This system has been identified as the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). WICS shall partially automate the procedure for acquisition, tracking and reporting of the container, drum, and waste data that is currently manually processed. The WICS project shall use handheld computer units (HCU) to collect laboratory data, a local database with an user friendly interface to import the laboratory data from the HCUs, and barcode technology with associated software and operational procedures. After the container, drum, and waste data has been collected and verified, WICS shall be manipulated to provide informal reports containing data required to properly document waste disposal. 8 refs, 82 figs, 69 tabs.

  5. 78 FR 46940 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... AGENCY RIN 2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special... conjunction with the proposed rule: Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of...) Mail: Send two copies of your comments to Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification...

  6. EVALUATION OF THE FAILURE OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINE JACKET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B; Alan03 Plummer, A; Karthik Subramanian, K; Charles Jenkins, C; William Hinz, W; A Fellinger, A

    2007-04-06

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks primarily via an underground transfer piping system. Due to the hazardous nature of the waste, the inner core stainless steel pipe is typically surrounded by a carbon steel pipe jacket, which provides secondary containment. Recently several through-wall penetrations were discovered on a segment of one of the jackets. An evaluation was performed to verify the failure mechanism and to estimate the degree of damage that occurred to the pipe segment. Failure analysis of a section of the jacket confirmed that pitting corrosion on the exterior of the pipe led to the through-wall penetration. Ultrasonic measurements on sections of the pipe were utilized to determine the remaining wall thickness in adjacent areas of the pipe. Based on these measurements, the degree of pitting and general corrosion was determined. Pit growth rate models were then developed to estimate the life expectancy of sections of the pipe that had not been excavated. The calculations estimated that the occurrence of through-wall failures in this jacket will begin to increase substantially in 12 years. Given that this pipe segment will be utilized beyond this time, short-term and long-term solutions to this failure were proposed. The short-term solutions focused on the repair or replace decisions that must be made to return the jacket to service as soon as practical. The long-term solutions focused on a broader strategy to address jacket integrity issues in the entire tank farm facility. These solutions included the evaluation of innovative remote inspection and repair techniques.

  7. UC-Berkeley-area citizens decry waste transfer from lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nakasato, L

    2002-01-01

    Residents are working to stop the transfer of potentially hazardous and radioactive material from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The lab has begun to dismantle the Bevatron which has been shut down since 1993 and says eight trucks per day will move material offsite (1 page).

  8. An optimization model for collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal of infectious medical waste: Application to a Greek region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzaras, Gerasimos; Voudrias, Evangelos A

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an optimization model to minimize the cost of a collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal system for infectious medical waste (IMW). The model calculates the optimum locations of the treatment facilities and transfer stations, their design capacities (t/d), the number and capacities of all waste collection, transport and transfer vehicles and their optimum transport path and the minimum IMW management system cost. Waste production nodes (hospitals, healthcare centers, peripheral health offices, private clinics and physicians in private practice) and their IMW production rates were specified and used as model inputs. The candidate locations of the treatment facilities, transfer stations and sanitary landfills were designated, using a GIS-based methodology. Specifically, Mapinfo software with exclusion criteria for non-appropriate areas was used for siting candidate locations for the construction of the treatment plant and calculating the distance and travel time of all possible vehicle routes. The objective function was a non-linear equation, which minimized the total collection, transport, treatment and disposal cost. Total cost comprised capital and operation costs for: (1) treatment plant, (2) waste transfer stations, (3) waste transport and transfer vehicles and (4) waste collection bins and hospital boxes. Binary variables were used to decide whether a treatment plant and/or a transfer station should be constructed and whether a collection route between two or more nodes should be followed. Microsoft excel software was used as installation platform of the optimization model. For the execution of the optimization routine, two completely different software were used and the results were compared, thus, resulting in higher reliability and validity of the results. The first software was Evolver, which is based on the use of genetic algorithms. The second one was Crystal Ball, which is based on Monte Carlo

  9. Function analysis for waste information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, J.L.; Neal, C.T.; Heath, T.C.; Starling, C.D.

    1996-04-01

    This study has a two-fold purpose. It seeks to identify the functional requirements of a waste tracking information system and to find feasible alternatives for meeting those requirements on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and the Portsmouth (PORTS) and Paducah (PGDP) facilities; identify options that offer potential cost savings to the US government and also show opportunities for improved efficiency and effectiveness in managing waste information; and, finally, to recommend a practical course of action that can be immediately initiated. In addition to identifying relevant requirements, it also identifies any existing requirements that are currently not being completely met. Another aim of this study is to carry out preliminary benchmarking by contacting representative companies about their strategic directions in waste information. The information obtained from representatives of these organizations is contained in an appendix to the document; a full benchmarking effort, however, is beyond the intended scope of this study.

  10. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  11. Part 1: The role of waste data in building knowledge: The South African waste information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An empirical study was undertaken with 31 organisations submitting data to the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) in order to explore the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge generated through a process of learning...

  12. 75 FR 71559 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of Direct Final Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal of...

  13. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacement drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The WP emplacement gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The WP emplacement gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery

  14. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: a pilot-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-04-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32-306.03 μg m(-3)) were much higher than those as compressor off (0-13.31 μg m(-3)). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m(-3) as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter-photocatalytic (BTF-PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF-PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, L.G.

    1996-02-06

    This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) implementation of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Systems Engineering (SE) policy provided in Tank Waste Remediation System Systems Engineering Management Policy, DOE/RL letter, 95-RTI-107, Oct. 31, 1995. This SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Program to accomplish SE objectives. This TWRS SEMP is applicable to all aspects of the TWRS Program and will be used as the basis for tailoring SE to apply necessary concepts and principles to develop and mature the processes and physical systems necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program.

  16. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  17. Effect of heterogeneity and anisotropy related to the construction method on transfer processes in waste rock piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmira, Belkacem; Lefebvre, René; Aubertin, Michel; Bussière, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Waste rock piles producing acid mine drainage (AMD) are partially saturated systems involving multiphase (gas and liquid) flow and coupled transfer processes. Their internal structure and heterogeneous properties are inherited from their wide-ranging material grain sizes, their modes of deposition, and the underlying topography. This paper aims at assessing the effect of physical heterogeneity and anisotropy of waste rock piles on the physical processes involved in the generation of AMD. Generic waste rock pile conditions were represented with the numerical simulator TOUGH AMD based on those found at the Doyon mine waste rock pile (Canada). Models included four randomly distributed material types (coarse, intermediate, fine and very fine-grained). The term "randomly" as used in this study means that the vertical profile and spatial distribution of materials in waste rock piles (internal structure) defy stratigraphy principles applicable to natural sediments (superposition and continuity). The materials have different permeability and capillary properties, covering the typical range of materials found in waste rock piles. Anisotropy with a larger horizontal than vertical permeability was used to represent the effect of pile construction by benches, while the construction by end-dumping was presumed to induce a higher vertical than horizontal permeability. Results show that infiltrated precipitation preferentially flows in fine-grained materials, which remain almost saturated, whereas gas flows preferentially through the most permeable coarse materials, which have higher volumetric gas saturation. Anisotropy, which depends on pile construction methods, often controls global gas flow paths. Construction by benches favours lateral air entry close to the pile slope, whereas end-dumping leads to air entry from the surface to the interior of the pile by secondary gas convection cells. These results can be useful to construct and rehabilitate waste rock piles to minimize

  18. A mathematical model for the municipal solid waste location-routing problem with intermediate transfer stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Asefi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is one of the challenging issues in mega cities due to various interrelated factors such as operational costs and environmental concerns. Cost as one of the most significant constraints of municipal solid waste management can be effectively economized by efficient planning approaches. Considering diverse waste types in an integrated municipal solid waste system, a mathematical model of the location-routing problem is formulated and solved in this study in order to minimize the total cost of transportation and facility establishment.

  19. 75 FR 67919 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Proposed Exclusion for Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [EPA-R05-RCRA-2010-0843; SW-FRL-9221-2] Hazardous Waste Management System; Proposed Exclusion for Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... list of hazardous wastes. The Agency has tentatively decided to grant the petition based on an...

  20. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and... the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA... proposed rule to revise the regulations for hazardous waste management under the Resource Conservation and...

  1. 75 FR 51434 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 257, 261, 264, 265, 268, 271, and 302 RIN-2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste... No. EPA-HQ-RCRA-2009-0640. Mail: Send your comments to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Management... Delivery: Deliver two copies of your comments to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System...

  2. 77 FR 43002 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... certified that the management and operation of the Billings Refinery has not changed due to the... changes to appendix IX of part 261 are effective July 23, 2012. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments...

  3. 75 FR 60632 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 3.0 in the evaluation of the impact of the petitioned waste on human health and the environment... applicability; (2) rules relating to agency management or personnel; and (3) rules of agency organization... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...

  4. 75 FR 60689 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 3.0 in the evaluation of the impact of the petitioned waste on human health and the environment... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...: [email protected] . 3. Mail: Michelle Peace, Environmental Protection Agency, Multimedia Planning...

  5. LANGUAGE SYSTEM: INFORMATION, INFORMATIONAL CONTENT, INFORMATION TRANSFERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Galievna Zarifullina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of language system as information system. To this point of view informational content and information transferity are properties of language as main and the most fail-safe communication instrument in human society.  In whole, informational content and information transferity are aspects of information. In that meaning the language realizes function that associated with database of information system: realization of information in formalized form, accumulation, storage and information transfer.But language itself is not an information. Information is language and speech, created with language. Language should be defined as database, because in human thought language doesn’t present as information, but as the formalized model, the system, which elements are bounded with each other and united by the algorithms. The modern forms of language existence are distributed database with multiple accesses, because language belongs to language native bearers, which use it simultaneously.

  6. Intelligent Information System for Waste Management; Jaetehuollon aelykaes tietojaerjestelmae iWaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    'iWaste' is a project for developing and testing intelligent computational methods for more comprehensive waste management. Important issues are automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection, forecasting of waste formation, data handling of waste disposal sites and simulation and modelling of regional waste management. The main objective of the project is to identify and analyse known sources of information and to link them to the existing information processing systems in the field of waste management. Additionally, the goal is to identify and test functional elements that could be developed further to software products and services. The results of the project can be categorized into three sectors. Firstly, the guidelines for a comprehensive information system in waste management will be created. This includes the requirement specifications of different parties, definitions for the data exchange interfaces and an architectural plan for software products capable of co-operative processing. Secondly, the central parts of the intelligent information system will be piloted using the research database collected in the early stage of the project. The main topics investigated are data quality, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection and forecasting of waste formation. Additionally, the pilot information system can be utilized in derivative projects to speed up the starting phases of them. This makes it possible to create persistent development of waste management information systems both academically and commercially. (orig.)

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Waste Management System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LCA has been defined as a tool for evaluating the environmental burdens and potential impacts that can be applied to municipal solid waste management systems for determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy.To investigate the Waste Management system strategyof Karaj City we used LCA ...

  8. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The system also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacment drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery after abnormal events may require clearing of equipment

  9. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-09

    This TWRS Program plan presents the planning requirements and schedules and management strategies and policies for accomplishing the TWRS Project mission. It defines the systems and practices used to establish consistency for business practices, engineering, physical configuration and facility documentation, and to maintain this consistency throughout the program life cycle, particularly as changes are made. Specifically, this plan defines the following: Mission needs and requirements (what must be done and when must it be done); Technical objectives/approach (how well must it be done); Organizational structure and philosophy (roles, responsibilities, and interfaces); and Operational methods (objectives and how work is to be conducted in both management and technical areas). The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and supports the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing contracts with private contractors for the treatment (immobilization) of Hanford tank high-level radioactive waste.

  10. Facilitating the improved management of waste in South Africa through a national waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Developing a waste information system (WIS) for a country is more than just about collecting routine data on waste; it is about facilitating the improved management of waste by providing timely, reliable information to the relevant role-players. It is a means of supporting the waste governance challenges facing South Africa - challenges ranging from strategic waste management issues at national government to basic operational challenges at local government. The paper addresses two hypotheses. The first is that the identified needs of government can provide a platform from which to design a national WIS framework for a developing country such as South Africa, and the second is that the needs for waste information reflect greater, currently unfulfilled challenges in the sustainable management of waste. Through a participatory needs analysis process, it is shown that waste information is needed by the three spheres of government, to support amongst others, informed planning and decision-making, compliance monitoring and enforcement, community participation through public access to information, human, infrastructure and financial resource management and policy development. These needs for waste information correspond closely with key waste management challenges currently facing the country. A shift in governments approach to waste, in line with national and international policy, is evident from identified current and future waste information needs. However, the need for information on landfilling remains entrenched within government, possibly due to the poor compliance of landfill sites in South Africa and the problems around the illegal disposal of both general and hazardous waste.

  11. Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process control plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carothers, K.G.

    1998-07-25

    Project W-320 has installed the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System at the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site to retrieve the sludge from single-shell tank 241-C-106 and transfer it into double-shell tank 241-AY-102. Operation of the WRSS process will resolve the high-heat safety issue for tank 241-C-106 and demonstrate a technology for the retrieval of single-shell tank wastes. This process control plan coordinates the technical operating requirements (primarily mass transfer, temperature, and flammable gas) for the sluicing operation and provides overall technical guidance for the retrieval activity.

  12. A STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGROUND PIPING ASSOCIATED WITH THE TRANSFER OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B

    2006-04-25

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks via underground transfer piping. An assessment of the structural integrity of the transfer piping was performed to ensure that the present condition of the piping was sound and to provide life expectancy estimates for the piping based on anticipated service. The assessment reviewed the original design of the piping, the potential and observed degradation mechanisms, the results from past inspections of the piping, and a Fitness-For-Service evaluation for a section of piping that experienced pitting in a locally thinned area. The assessment concluded that the piping was structurally sound. Assuming that service conditions remain the same, the piping will remain functional for its intended service life.

  13. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  14. Measuring externalities of waste transfer stations in Israel using hedonic pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshet, Tzipi; Baron, Mira G; Shechter, Mordechai; Ayalon, Ofira

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates the economic value of externalities related to waste transfer stations in Israel. Most externalities are associated with local disamenities experienced by residents living in close proximity to transfer stations - including noise, odor, litter, vermin, visual intrusion and any associated perceived discomfort. Following the mapping of all active transfer stations in Israel, problematic sites near residential areas were identified. Four of these sites were selected for detailed examination. The study involved estimating the economic value of disamenities using the Hedonic Price Method, which examines the impact of disamenities on property values. The results indicate that the maximum spatial extent of the impact occurs about 2.8km away from a transfer station with an increase of about $5000 in housing price for each additionalkm away from the site. Alternatively, an increase of 1% in the average distance of a house from the local transfer station is associated with a 0.06% rise in the price of the average house. These figures, representing the relationship between changes in environmental quality and property prices, indicate that transfer stations create externalities that should be taken into account in location and clean-up policies for transfer stations as well as in potential compensation policies.

  15. Economic Analysis about the Solid Waste Quantities and Optimal Hauling Distance to Install Transfer Stations in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perdomo, Jorge; Ramírez, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop an economic analysis estimating the solid waste quantities and optimal hauling distance to install transfer stations in Colombia, according to landfill location...

  16. A Management Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Systems and Its Application to Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L. Thyberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a complex task involving numerous waste fractions, a range of technological treatment options, and many outputs that are circulated back into society. A systematic, interdisciplinary systems management framework was developed to facilitate the planning, implementation, and maintenance of sustainable waste systems. It aims not to replace existing decision-making approaches, but rather to enable their integration to allow for inclusion of overall sustainability concerns and address the complexity of solid waste management. The framework defines key considerations for system design, steps for performance monitoring, and approaches for facilitating continual system improvements. It was developed by critically examining the literature to determine what aspects of a management framework would be most effective at improving systems management for complex waste systems. The framework was applied to food waste management as a theoretical case study to exemplify how it can serve as a systems management tool for complex waste systems, as well as address obstacles typically faced in the field. Its benefits include the integration of existing waste system assessment models; the inclusion of environmental, economic, and social priorities; efficient performance monitoring; and a structure to continually define, review, and improve systems. This framework may have broader implications for addressing sustainability in other disciplines.

  17. Satellite system considerations for computer data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W. L.; Kaul, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Communications satellites will play a key role in the transmission of computer generated data through nationwide networks. This paper examines critical aspects of satellite system design as they relate to the computer data transfer task. In addition, it discusses the factors influencing the choice of error control technique, modulation scheme, multiple-access mode, and satellite beam configuration based on an evaluation of system requirements for a broad range of application areas including telemetry, terminal dialog, and bulk data transmission.

  18. Effect of mass transfer on concentration wave propagation during anaerobic digestion of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Shchelkanov, Micael Yu; Rytov, Sergey V

    2002-05-01

    A distributed model of anaerobic digestion of solid waste was developed to study effects of mass transfer on the rate of propagation of initiation methanogenic area. The diffusion and advection of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and methanogenic biomass were taken into account in the model of a one-dimensional (ID) reactor. It was considered that VFA inhibits both polymer hydrolysis and acetoclastic methanogenesis. This approach allows to view the bioreactor as an active medium that provokes concentration waves from some area of methanogenic initiation (local VFA depression) to the total reactor volume. The model shows that mass transfer-based acceleration of methane production in the reactor is possible when the intensity of VFA utilization in the methanogenic area is sufficient for a complete digestion of the incoming VFA. Otherwise, initiation methanogenic area will be suppressed by increasing concentration of VFA. The obtained results emphasize the importance of considering spatial heterogeneity of the reaction for the analysis of solid anaerobic digestion in bioreactors and landfills. The digestion of solid waste can be optimized by setting the low rate of mass transfer (mixing or leachate recirculation) during lag-phase of the reaction with subsequent increase in the mass transfer rate in parallel with the propagation of methanogenic population. In this case, the rate of concentration waves substantially increases.

  19. Forest Resource Information System. Phase 3: System transfer report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczynski, R. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Transfer of the forest reserve information system (FRIS) from the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing to St. Regis Paper Company is described. Modifications required for the transfer of the LARYS image processing software are discussed. The reformatting, geometric correction, image registration, and documentation performed for preprocessing transfer are described. Data turnaround was improved and geometrically corrected and ground-registered CCT LANDSAT 3 data provided to the user. The technology transfer activities are summarized. An application test performed in order to assess a Florida land acquisition is described. A benefit/cost analysis of FRIS is presented.

  20. System modeling of waste flow in energy planning | Njoku | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of waste flow in energy system planning was investigated by adopting integrated systems enginee-ring approach. The system model was considered at multiple levels of hierarchy. Waste flow in energy plann-ing process was viewed as a system arranged or organized that plans and policies as controlled ...

  1. Environmental monitoring and fuzzy synthetic evaluation of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing in 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunping; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yiming; Li, Yanfu; Huang, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Transfer station (TS) is an integral part of present-day municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. To provide information for the incorporation of waste facilities within the current integrated waste management system, the authors measured the existing environmental quality at five MSW TSs. Discharged wastewater, air, and noise were monitored and assayed at the five TSs in Beijing in 2001-2006 during rainy seasons (RSs) and dry seasons (DSs). Except Ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the analytical results of total suspended particles (TSPs), odor, noise, ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended solid (SS), and fecal coliform concentrations were all degree-varied higher than the criteria limit in China. Using fuzzy mathematics, the environmental quality of MSW TSs in Beijing was classified into five categories, with levels of certainty of belonging to different categories and evaluations. The result indicated that the whole environmental quality of Datun TS, Majialou TS, and Xiaowuji TS, in Beijing, were bad during 2001-2006 in RSs and DSs. Except in 2002, the entire environmental quality of the Wuluju TS during 2001-2006 in RSs was poor. Only in the DSs of 2002 and 2003 was the whole environmental quality of the Wuluju TS good. The whole environmental quality of the Yamenkou TS during 2001-2006 in DSs was bad, which was lower than that of 2001-2006 DSs.

  2. Subsurface Sample Acquisition and Transfer Systems (SSATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeek, S.; Gorevan, S. P.; Kong, K. Y.

    2001-01-01

    In the exploration of planets and small bodies, scientists will need the services of a deep drilling and material handling system to not only obtain the samples necessary for analyses but also to precisely transfer and deposit those samples in in-situ instruments on board a landed craft or rover. The technology for such a deep sampling system as the SSATS is currently been developed by Honeybee Robotics through a PIDDP effort. The SSATS has its foundation in a one-meter prototype (SATM) drill that was developed under the New Millenium Program for ST4/Champollion. Additionally the SSATS includes relevant coring technology form a coring drill (Athena Mini-Corer) developed for the Mars Sample Return Mission. These highly developed technologies along with the current PIDDP effort, is combined to produce a sampling system that can acquire and transfer samples from various depths. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Safety evaluation for packaging transportation of equipment for tank 241-C-106 waste sluicing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, D.B.

    1994-08-25

    A Waste Sluicing System (WSS) is scheduled for installation in nd waste storage tank 241-C-106 (106-C). The WSS will transfer high rating sludge from single shell tank 106-C to double shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (102-AY). Prior to installation of the WSS, a heel pump and a transfer pump will be removed from tank 106-C and an agitator pump will be removed from tank 102-AY. Special flexible receivers will be used to contain the pumps during removal from the tanks. After equipment removal, the flexible receivers will be placed in separate containers (packagings). The packaging and contents (packages) will be transferred from the Tank Farms to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage and then to T Plant for evaluation and processing for final disposition. Two sizes of packagings will be provided for transferring the equipment from the Tank Farms to the interim storage facility. The packagings will be designated as the WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings throughout the remainder of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP). The WSSP-1 packagings will transport the heel and transfer pumps from 106-C and the WSSP-2 packaging will transport the agitator pump from 102-AY. The WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings are similar except for the length.

  4. System requirements specification for waste information and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the requirements for the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). The document defines the functions, constraints, and objectives that pertain to WICS. This shall serve as the baseline document to ensure the needs of the Hazardous Material Control group (HMC) at 222-S Laboratory are met with regard to assurance of accuracy and quality of data taken with WICS.

  5. QuickCash: Secure Transfer Payment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhothaily, Abdulrahman; Alrawais, Arwa; Song, Tianyi; Lin, Bin; Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2017-06-13

    Payment systems play a significant role in our daily lives. They are an important driver of economic activities and a vital part of the banking infrastructure of any country. Several current payment systems focus on security and reliability but pay less attention to users' needs and behaviors. For example, people may share their bankcards with friends or relatives to withdraw money for various reasons. This behavior can lead to a variety of privacy and security issues since the cardholder has to share a bankcard and other sensitive information such as a personal identification number (PIN). In addition, it is commonplace that cardholders may lose their cards, and may not be able to access their accounts due to various reasons. Furthermore, transferring money to an individual who has lost their bankcard and identification information is not a straightforward task. A user-friendly person-to-person payment system is urgently needed to perform secure and reliable transactions that benefit from current technological advancements. In this paper, we propose two secure fund transfer methods termed QuickCash Online and QuickCash Offline to transfer money from peer to peer using the existing banking infrastructure. Our methods provide a convenient way to transfer money quickly, and they do not require using bank cards or any identification card. Unlike other person-to-person payment systems, the proposed methods do not require the receiving entity to have a bank account, or to perform any registration procedure. We implement our QuickCash payment systems and analyze their security strengths and properties.

  6. QuickCash: Secure Transfer Payment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Alhothaily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Payment systems play a significant role in our daily lives. They are an important driver of economic activities and a vital part of the banking infrastructure of any country. Several current payment systems focus on security and reliability but pay less attention to users’ needs and behaviors. For example, people may share their bankcards with friends or relatives to withdraw money for various reasons. This behavior can lead to a variety of privacy and security issues since the cardholder has to share a bankcard and other sensitive information such as a personal identification number (PIN. In addition, it is commonplace that cardholders may lose their cards, and may not be able to access their accounts due to various reasons. Furthermore, transferring money to an individual who has lost their bankcard and identification information is not a straightforward task. A user-friendly person-to-person payment system is urgently needed to perform secure and reliable transactions that benefit from current technological advancements. In this paper, we propose two secure fund transfer methods termed QuickCash Online and QuickCash Offline to transfer money from peer to peer using the existing banking infrastructure. Our methods provide a convenient way to transfer money quickly, and they do not require using bank cards or any identification card. Unlike other person-to-person payment systems, the proposed methods do not require the receiving entity to have a bank account, or to perform any registration procedure. We implement our QuickCash payment systems and analyze their security strengths and properties.

  7. Review of Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Operations and Data for Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Carothers, Kelly G.; Damschen, Dennis W.; Kuhn, William L.; Lechelt, Jeanne A.; Sathyanarayana, Kurabalakota; Stauffer, Leslie A.

    2000-09-26

    Sluicing operations were performed to retrieve high-heat sludge from single-shell tank 241-C-106 and transfer it to double-shell tank 241-AY-102 using the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System. This eliminated the high-heat safety issue for C-106 and demonstrated a technology for retrieval of single-shell tank waste. Both AY-102 and C-106 were monitored during the waste transfer operations, providing a clear picture of general trends in each tank. Specific issues addressed were evaluation of the data for evidence of flammable gas accumulation in AY-102 and thermal performance of AY-102 under the increasing heat load.

  8. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  9. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  10. 75 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... of hazardous wastes. EPA used the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS) Version 3.0 in the...-ethylhexyl)phthalate 0.009 0.0522 Chromium 0.019 10.3 Cobalt 0.012 0.318 Copper 0.052 22.1 Chloroform 0.001 0... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...

  11. Development of a Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J.; Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    NASA is working with a number of commercial companies to develop the next low Earth orbit spacecraft. The hardware volume and weight constraints are similar to or greater than those of the Apollo era. This, coupled with the equally demanding cost challenge of the proposed commercial vehicles, causes much of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designs to be reconsidered. The Waste Collection System (WCS) is within this group of ECLSS hardware. The development to support this new initiative is discussed within. A WCS concept - intended to be common for all the vehicle platforms currently on the drawing board - is being developed. The new concept, referred to as the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), includes favorable features from previous designs while improving on other areas on previous Space Shuttle and the existing International Space Station (ISS) WCS hardware, as needed. The intent is to build a commode that requires less crew time, improved cleanliness, and a 75% reduction in volume and weight compared to the previous US ISS/Extended Duration Orbitor WCS developed in the 1990s. The UWMS is most similar to the ISS Development Test Objective (DTO) WCS design. It is understood that the most dramatic cost reduction opportunity occurs at the beginning of the design process. To realize this opportunity, the cost of each similar component between the UWMS and the DTO WCS was determined. The comparison outlined were the design changes that would result with the greatest impact. The changes resulted in simplifying the approach or eliminating components completely. This initial UWMS paper will describe the system layout approach and a few key features of major components. Future papers will describe the UWMS functionality, test results, and components as they are developed.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of Σ18PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  14. Characteristics of soil-to-plant transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roivainen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy generates large amounts of different types of radioactive wastes that can be accidentally released into the environment. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for the dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and is usually described by a concentration ratio (CR) between plant and soil concentrations in radioecological models. Our knowledge of the soil-to-plant transfer of many radionuclides is currently limited and concerns mainly agricultural species and temperate environments. The validity of radioecological modelling is affected by the accuracy of the assumptions and parameters used to describe soil-to-plant transfer. This study investigated the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements (cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)) relevant to radioactive waste at two boreal forest sites and assessed the factors affecting the CR values. May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) were selected as representatives of understory species, while rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) represented trees in this study. All the elements studied were found to accumulate in plant roots, indicating that separate CR values for root and aboveground plant parts are needed. The between-species variation in CR values was not clearly higher than the within-species variation, suggesting that the use of generic CR values for understory species and trees is justified. No linear relationship was found between soil and plant concentrations for the elements studied and a non-linear equation was found to be the best for describing the dependence of CR values on soil concentration. Thus, the commonly used assumption of a linear relationship between plant and soil concentrations may lead to underestimation of plant root uptake at low soil concentrations. Plant nutrients potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur were found to

  15. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy System for Monitoring Pineapple Waste Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Conesa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS has been used for monitoring the enzymatic pineapple waste hydrolysis process. The system employed consists of a device called Advanced Voltammetry, Impedance Spectroscopy & Potentiometry Analyzer (AVISPA equipped with a specific software application and a stainless steel double needle electrode. EIS measurements were conducted at different saccharification time intervals: 0, 0.75, 1.5, 6, 12 and 24 h. Partial least squares (PLS were used to model the relationship between the EIS measurements and the sugar determination by HPAEC-PAD. On the other hand, artificial neural networks: (multilayer feed forward architecture with quick propagation training algorithm and logistic-type transfer functions gave the best results as predictive models for glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars. Coefficients of determination (R2 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP were determined as R2 > 0.944 and RMSEP < 1.782 for PLS and R2 > 0.973 and RMSEP < 0.486 for artificial neural networks (ANNs, respectively. Therefore, a combination of both an EIS-based technique and ANN models is suggested as a promising alternative to the traditional laboratory techniques for monitoring the pineapple waste saccharification step.

  16. 75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... used the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS) Version 3.0 in the evaluation of the impact of the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...-line instructions for submitting comments. 2. E-mail: [email protected] . 3. Mail: Michelle Peace...

  17. Tank waste remediation system risk management list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    1995-10-31

    The Tank Waste Remedation System (TWRS) Risk Management List and it`s subset of critical risks, the Critical Risk Management List, provide a tool to senior RL and WHC management (Level-1 and -2) to manage programmatic risks that may significantly impact the TWRS program. The programmatic risks include cost, schedule, and performance risks. Performance risk includes technical risk, supportability risk (such as maintainability and availability), and external risk (i.e., beyond program control, for example, changes in regulations). The risk information includes a description, its impacts, as evaluation of the likelihood, consequences and risk value, possible mitigating actions, and responsible RL and WHC managers. The issues that typically form the basis for the risks are presented in a separate table and the affected functions are provided on the management lists.

  18. Trends in monitoring of waste water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynggaard-Jensen, A

    1999-11-15

    A review of the trends in monitoring of waste water systems is given - with the focus on the use of sensors for on-line real-time monitoring and control. The paper formed a basis for discussion at the workshop on Methodologies for Wastewater Quality Monitoring, Nimes, 29-30 October 1998, organised by the European Commission and Ecoles des Mines d'Alès. The basic structure of the typical organisation of monitoring and control based on sensors and the handling of the sensor data are discussed and the different types of sensors are classified according to the method used for their introduction into the structure. Existing and new sensor technologies are briefly described, and the possibilities of how standardisation of on-line in-situ sensors can encourage further developments and use of sensors are presented.

  19. Verification of structures for utilization of waste multicomponent electrolytic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suljkanović Midhat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of process structure of thermal utilization of mineral mat­ters from waste streams, is a multi-variant problem. These processes are energy-intensive and it is very important to determine the process structures for realization of the required processes in the starting phases of process development. The structure of the process system, beside the system equilibrium, depends on vector parameters of the feed stream. In this work a newly developed methodology for determination of process variants of thermal utilization of mineral salts from a hypothetical three-component AX-BX-H2O system is presented. The methodology is created on starting synthesis problem for which a set of types of process units for realization process and type of desired crystal product is determined. The methodology includes process decomposition in two subsystems: concentration (saturation subsystem and crystallization subsystem. Concentration of feed stream is realized in isothermal conditions of water evaporation and crystallization process using various techniques: isothermal water evaporation, cooling of solution in vacuum and cooling of solution through contact surface. Determination of physical feasible processes is performed by simulation of the process superstructure in which each particular process structure is a special case of the created process superstructure. Realization of mentioned activity is provided by creating algorithms and programming software (process simulator in which the equation system of the superstructure mathematical model is solved for various variants of set of specified variables. The created methodology and possibilities of the created process simulator are presented in the illustrative case study of waste stream utilization of the NaCl-KCl-H2O system. In addition to this, for conditions of total heat integration of subsystems is demonstrated that a small change of salt concentration of feed stream can require transfer non

  20. Development of a Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A concept for a Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) has been developed based on the knowledge gained from over 50 years of space travel. It is being designed for Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and Multi ]Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and is based upon the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) commode. The UMWS was modified to enhance crew interface and reduce volume and cost. The UWMS will stow waste in fecal canisters, similar to the EDO, and urine will be stowed in bags for in orbit change out. This allows the pretreated urine to be subsequently processed and recovered as drinking water. The new design combines two fans and a rotary phase separator on a common shaft to allow operation by a single motor. This change enhances packaging by reducing the volume associated with an extra motor, associated controller, harness, and supporting structure. The separator pumps urine to either a dual bag design for COTS vehicles or directly into a water reclamation system. The commode is supported by a concentric frame, enhancing its structural integrity while further reducing the volume from the previous design. The UWMS flight concept development effort is underway and an early output of the development will be a ground based UMWS prototype for manned testing. Referred to as the Gen 3 unit, this prototype will emulate the crew interface included in the UWMS and will offer a great deal of knowledge regarding the usability of the new design, allowing the design team the opportunity to modify the UWMS flight concept based on the manned testing.

  1. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Calcined Petroleum Coke in Waste Heat Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of heat transfer characteristics of calcined petroleum coke in waste heat recovery process. The model of heat exchanger was set up. The model has been used to investigate the effects of porosity (0.58 to 0.79, equivalent heat conductivity coefficient (0.9 to 1.1, and equivalent specific heat (0.9 to 1.1. The calculated values of calcined petroleum coke temperature showed good agreement with the corresponding available experimental data. The temperature distribution of calcined petroleum coke, the calcined petroleum coke temperature at heat exchanger outlet, the average heat transfer coefficient, and the heat recovery efficiency were studied. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for heat exchanger designs when employed in industry.

  2. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  3. Submersible pumping system with heat transfer mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel Francis Alan; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D; Jankowski, Todd Andrew

    2014-04-15

    A submersible pumping system for downhole use in extracting fluids containing hydrocarbons from a well. In one embodiment, the pumping system comprises a rotary induction motor, a motor casing, one or more pump stages, and a cooling system. The rotary induction motor rotates a shaft about a longitudinal axis of rotation. The motor casing houses the rotary induction motor such that the rotary induction motor is held in fluid isolation from the fluid being extracted. The pump stages are attached to the shaft outside of the motor casing, and are configured to impart fluid being extracted from the well with an increased pressure. The cooling system is disposed at least partially within the motor casing, and transfers heat generated by operation of the rotary induction motor out of the motor casing.

  4. System Transfer, Education, and Development in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Cossa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the author used conceptual historical method to assess the phenomenon of system transfer and the association between education and development in Mozambique. The assessment was administered through critical analysis of documents pertaining to the Salazar (1924-1966, Machel (1975-1986, and Chissano (1986-2005 administrations. The findings were that (a the colonial government created economic and educational systems for colonizing Mozambique, whereas the Machel and Chissano administrations adapted foreign systems of government and education (i.e., Socialism, Soviet, Democracy, Portuguese, etc., to their particular context without altering the inherent theoretical basis of the systems transferred; (b the Machel and Chissano administrations, implicitly or explicitly, perceived the relationship between education and development as circular causality rather than a unidirectional linear causality, while the Salazar administration perceived it as unidirectional linear causality; and (c while the Machel and Chissano administrations focused on primary education, literacy campaigns, and education of women and girls, they differed in the reasons for such focus.

  5. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some of the conclusions reached as a result of this study are summarized. Waste form parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. The billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit the packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume. The effect of this packing inefficiency in reducing the net waste form per waste payload can be seen graphically. The cermet waste form mass per unit mass of waste payload is lower than that of the iodine waste form even though the cermet has a higher density (6.5 versus 5.5). This is because the lead iodide is cast achieving almost 100% efficiency in packing. This inefficiency in the packing of the cermet results in a 20% increase in number of flights which increases both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low flight rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A comprehensive trade study would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This study was not conducted as part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. Several candidates look attractive for both single- and dual-launch systems (see sec. 4.4), but due to the relatively small number of missions, a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs including DDT and E would be required to select the best system. The reference system described in sections 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development efforts for disposal of the reference cermet waste form.

  6. Joint optimisation of the future Danish waste and energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Pizarro, Amalia Rosa; Salvucci, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    In this article the impact of the future development of the energy system on the feasibility of waste treatment options is analysed. In the article two different optimization tools are used: a regional electricity model (Balmorel) and a national waste treatment and district heating model (OptiWaste......). When performing optimization by minimizing the socio-economic costs, into future energy systems with high wind power production, it proves feasible primarily to incinerate waste in large scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants, whereas more incineration takes place in decentralized CHP plants...... in future scenarios with higher biomass consumption, where the average heat prices are higher. In both scenarios, biogas produced from organic waste is upgraded and fed into the natural gas grid and waste is incinerated rather than being centrally sorted in a material recovery facility....

  7. Mathematical modelling of antimicrobial resistance in agricultural waste highlights importance of gene transfer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michelle; Hobman, Jon L; Dodd, Christine E R; Ramsden, Stephen J; Stekel, Dov J

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is of global concern. Most antimicrobial use is in agriculture; manures and slurry are especially important because they contain a mix of bacteria, including potential pathogens, antimicrobial resistance genes and antimicrobials. In many countries, manures and slurry are stored, especially over winter, before spreading onto fields as organic fertilizer. Thus, these are a potential location for gene exchange and selection for resistance. We develop and analyse a mathematical model to quantify the spread of antimicrobial resistance in stored agricultural waste. We use parameters from a slurry tank on a UK dairy farm as an exemplar. We show that the spread of resistance depends in a subtle way on the rates of gene transfer and antibiotic inflow. If the gene transfer rate is high, then its reduction controls resistance, while cutting antibiotic inflow has little impact. If the gene transfer rate is low, then reducing antibiotic inflow controls resistance. Reducing length of storage can also control spread of resistance. Bacterial growth rate, fitness costs of carrying antimicrobial resistance and proportion of resistant bacteria in animal faeces have little impact on spread of resistance. Therefore, effective treatment strategies depend critically on knowledge of gene transfer rates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lyndon

    African Journal of Environmental. Science and Technology. Full Length Research Paper ... an issue of increasing environmental concerns of public debate (Rahman and Moten Ashraf, 2007). Historically, ... The American Heritage Dictionary of English language defines waste transfer stations as a facility where solid.

  9. Analysis of Mass Transfer Resistance for Adsorption of Phosphate onto Industrial Waste Materials in Plug-flow column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamidun Mohd Hairul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding resistance of mass transfer for adsorption of phosphate (PO43- onto industrial waste such as clay brick and ceramic as an adsorbent is important to verify. This study presented the removal of (PO43- from a synthetic solution by adsorbing onto the clay brick and ceramic wastes in a plug flow column (PFC. The experimental results showed that increasing the flow rate was decreases the breakthrough time. The mass transfer factor (MTF models were used to study the behaviours of breakthrough curve and to determine the resistance of mass transfer. The MTF models verified that the resistance of mass transfer could be dependent on porous diffusion until the percentage of outflow reaches 72% for clay brick waste and 86% for ceramic waste, even though film mass transfer can play a minor role in controlling the movement of (PO43- from the bulk water to film zone. The results of MTF models coefficient could be indicated to increase the capacity of clay brick and ceramic wastes to adsorb (PO43- from synthetic solution, it needs to develop the porosity of these adsorbents by either physical or chemical modification.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of Σ{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  11. Waste removal systems and recycling participation in residential environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    form of recycling (Ackerman, 1997; Pieters, 1989). Therefore, residential environments in developed countries increasingly contain separate collection systems for that fraction of waste that can be recycled, and hence re-utilized, in the production of new goods. These collection systemsare in addition......Systems for the removal of waste are important although often overlooked elements of any residential environment. It is an old insight that when these systems are ineffective (and this is globally and historically the rule rather than the exception), human living conditions and often even human...... health are severely impaired (Pieters, 1989). More recently, resource waste and environmental hazards from waste have given rise to public and political concern as well, even when disposal systems are well managed. This concern has led to efforts to divert solid waste away from disposal and towards some...

  12. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer system integrated test (POTR-007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacquet, E.A.

    1998-04-02

    This report documents the results obtained during the performance of Preoperational Test POTP-007, from December 12, 1997 to March 27, 1998. The main objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the following Cross-Site Transfer System components: Booster pumps P-3125A and P-3125B interlocks and controls, both local and remote; Booster pump P-3125A and P-3125B and associated variable speed drives VSD-1 and VSD-2 performance in both manual and automatic modes; and Water filling, circulation, venting and draining of the transfer headers (supernate and slurry line). As described in reference 1, the following components of the Cross-Site Transfer System that would normally be used during an actual waste transfer, are not used in this specific test: Water Flush System; Valving and instrumentation associated with the 241-SY-A valve pit jumpers; and Valving and instrumentation associated with the 244-A lift station.

  13. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  14. Intelligent Information System for Waste Management; Jaetehuollon aelykaes tietojaerjestelmae - iWaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland); Isoaho, S. [Tampere Univ. (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    ''Waste'' - Intelligent Information System for Waste Management - is a joint project of the University of Kuopio and the Tampere University of Technology. The main objective of the project is to create a basis for more comprehensive utilisation and management of waste management data and for the development of database management systems. The results of the project are numerous. A study of the present state of data management in the field of waste management was carried out. The studied aspects were for example information needs of different actors and their requirements for the information quality, interfaces for information exchange between different actors, and the characteristics of the software products. During the second phase of the project, a hyper document describing waste management systems, and a software application for describing material flows and their management will be finalized. Also methodologies and practices for processing data into information, which is needed in the decision making process, will be developed. The developed methodologies include e.g. data mining techniques, and the practices include e.g. the prediction of waste generation and optimisation of waste collection and transport. (orig.)

  15. Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Guyonnet, D.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis in LCA studies has been subject to major progress over the last years. In the context of waste management, various methods have been implemented but a systematic method for uncertainty analysis of waste-LCA studies is lacking. The objective of this paper is (1) to present...... the sources of uncertainty specifically inherent to waste-LCA studies, (2) to select and apply several methods for uncertainty analysis and (3) to develop a general framework for quantitative uncertainty assessment of LCA of waste management systems. The suggested method is a sequence of four steps combining...

  16. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  17. Redesign and modernization of radioactive waste administration systems in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder-Westermann, Gerald H.; Walther, Thorsten; Krone, Juergen [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The European Commission (EC) has undertaken a series of projects to render assistance to Ukraine in modernizing and redesigning the Ukrainian approach to the administration, management and ultimately disposal of all forms of radioactive waste, including waste associated with the Chornobyl accident as well as waste generated as part of the Ukrainian energy infrastructure and from industrial and medical applications. One of the most recently completed projects focused on modernizing Ukraine's management and administrative systems responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste.

  18. 46 CFR 153.430 - Heat transfer systems; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer systems; general. 153.430 Section 153.430... Temperature Control Systems § 153.430 Heat transfer systems; general. Each cargo cooling system required by... separated from all other cooling and heating systems; and (c) Allow manual regulation of the system's heat...

  19. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

  1. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  2. Sustainable waste management via incineration system: an Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper would firstly examine solid waste management currently experienced in Malaysia with special concentration given to waste incineration. Its function and benefits entailed from this system shall then be identified. This paper attempts to emphasize this notion within the Islamic perspective, stressing on the needs to ...

  3. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  4. Smart City Platform Development for an Automated Waste Collection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicerone Laurentiu Popa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, governments and companies are looking for solutions to increase the collection level of various waste types by using new technologies and devices such as smart sensors, Internet of Things (IoT, cloud platforms etc. In order to fulfil this need, this paper presents solutions provided by a research project involving the design, development and implementation of fully automated waste collection systems with an increased usage degree, productivity and storage capacity. The paper will focus on the main results of this research project in turning the automated waste collection system into a smart system so that it can be easily integrated in any smart city infrastructure. For this purpose, the Internet of Things platform for the automated waste collection system provided by the project will allow real time monitoring and communication with central systems. Details about each module are sent to the central systems: various modules’ statuses (working, blocked, needs repairs or maintenance etc.; equipment status; storage systems status (allowing full reports for all waste types; the amount of waste for each module, allowing optimal discharging; route optimization for waste discharging etc. To do that, we describe here an IoT cloud solution integrating device connection, data processing, analytics and management.

  5. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  6. A facility location model for municipal solid waste management system under uncertain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinay; Bhurjee, A K; Karmakar, Subhankar; Dikshit, A K

    2017-12-15

    In municipal solid waste management system, decision makers have to develop an insight into the processes namely, waste generation, collection, transportation, processing, and disposal methods. Many parameters (e.g., waste generation rate, functioning costs of facilities, transportation cost, and revenues) in this system are associated with uncertainties. Often, these uncertainties of parameters need to be modeled under a situation of data scarcity for generating probability distribution function or membership function for stochastic mathematical programming or fuzzy mathematical programming respectively, with only information of extreme variations. Moreover, if uncertainties are ignored, then the problems like insufficient capacities of waste management facilities or improper utilization of available funds may be raised. To tackle uncertainties of these parameters in a more efficient manner an algorithm, based on interval analysis, has been developed. This algorithm is applied to find optimal solutions for a facility location model, which is formulated to select economically best locations of transfer stations in a hypothetical urban center. Transfer stations are an integral part of contemporary municipal solid waste management systems, and economic siting of transfer stations ensures financial sustainability of this system. The model is written in a mathematical programming language AMPL with KNITRO as a solver. The developed model selects five economically best locations out of ten potential locations with an optimum overall cost of [394,836, 757,440] Rs.(1) /day ([5906, 11,331] USD/day) approximately. Further, the requirement of uncertainty modeling is explained based on the results of sensitivity analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste in health information systems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang Kalong, Nadia; Yusof, Maryati

    2017-05-08

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss a systematic review on waste identification related to health information systems (HIS) in Lean transformation. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review was conducted on 19 studies to evaluate Lean transformation and tools used to remove waste related to HIS in clinical settings. Findings Ten waste categories were identified, along with their relationships and applications of Lean tool types related to HIS. Different Lean tools were used at the early and final stages of Lean transformation; the tool selection depended on the waste characteristic. Nine studies reported a positive impact from Lean transformation in improving daily work processes. The selection of Lean tools should be made based on the timing, purpose and characteristics of waste to be removed. Research limitations/implications Overview of waste and its category within HIS and its analysis from socio-technical perspectives enabled the identification of its root cause in a holistic and rigorous manner. Practical implications Understanding waste types, their root cause and review of Lean tools could subsequently lead to the identification of mitigation approach to prevent future error occurrence. Originality/value Specific waste models for HIS settings are yet to be developed. Hence, the identification of the waste categories could guide future implementation of Lean transformations in HIS settings.

  8. GIS based solid waste management information system for Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Jain, Preeti; Sharma, N; Bhattacharyya, J K; Vaidya, A N; Sohony, R A

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major problems of today's world and needs to be addressed by proper utilization of technologies and design of effective, flexible and structured information system. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to design and develop a GIS based solid waste management information system as a decision making and planning tool for regularities and municipal authorities. The system integrates geo-spatial features of the city and database of existing solid waste management. GIS based information system facilitates modules of visualization, query interface, statistical analysis, report generation and database modification. It also provides modules like solid waste estimation, collection, transportation and disposal details. The information system is user-friendly, standalone and platform independent.

  9. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  11. The Integrated Waste Tracking Systems (IWTS) - A Comprehensive Waste Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2005-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site located near Idaho Falls, ID USA, has developed a comprehensive waste management and tracking tool that integrates multiple operational activities with characterization data from waste declaration through final waste disposition. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS) provides information necessary to help facility personnel properly manage their waste and demonstrate a wide range of legal and regulatory compliance. As a client?server database system, the IWTS is a proven tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of flexibility. This paper describes some of the history involved with the development and current use of IWTS as a comprehensive waste management tool as well as a discussion of IWTS deployments performed by the INL for outside clients. Waste management spans a wide range of activities including: work group interactions, regulatory compliance management, reporting, procedure management, and similar activities. The IWTS documents these activities and performs tasks in a computer-automated environment. Waste characterization data, container characterization data, shipments, waste processing, disposals, reporting, and limit compliance checks are just a few of the items that IWTS documents and performs to help waste management personnel perform their jobs. Throughout most hazardous and radioactive waste generating, storage and disposal sites, waste management is performed by many different groups of people in many facilities. Several organizations administer their areas of waste management using their own procedures and documentation independent of other organizations. Files are kept, some of which are treated as quality records, others not as stringent. Quality records maintain a history of: changes performed after approval, the reason for the change(s), and a record of whom and when

  12. Economic Analysis about the Solid Waste Quantities and Optimal Hauling Distance to Install Transfer Stations in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Perdomo; Juan Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop an economic analysis estimating the solid waste quantities and optimal hauling distance to install transfer stations in Colombia, according to landfill location. This goal is met by using a difference in differences approach (impact evaluation technique), means panel data (random effects), comparative static analysis and mathematical optimization. These methods allowed comparing total production costs between firms with and without transfer stati...

  13. Intelligent information system for waste management; Jaetehuollon aelykaes tietojaerjestelmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuortio, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    'iWaste - Intelligent Information System for Waste Management' - was a joint project of the University of Kuopio and the Tampere University of Technology. The main objective of the project was to improve the management and use of waste management data. Also the project focused on the development of information management systems. The results of the project are numerous. A study of the present state of information management in the field of waste management was carried out. The studied aspects were for example information needs of different actors and their requirements for the information quality, communication requirements among different actors, and the characteristics and applications of the software products. The conceptual data model of waste management was developed and resulted as the hyper document for connecting waste and information management specialists, and for research and educational purposes. Also, this model can be used for the development of political regulation. Methodologies and models for processing data into information for decision making were developed. The methodologies and models include e.g. data mining techniques, prediction of waste generation and optimisation of waste pick-up and transport. (orig.)

  14. Integrated scheduled waste management system in Kuala Lumpur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall development of this project was carried out in several phases which are problem identification, problem statement, literature review, identification of domain experts, prototype development, knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation and prototype development. Scheduled waste expert system is ...

  15. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  16. Smart City Platform Development for an Automated Waste Collection System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cicerone Laurentiu Popa; George Carutasu; Costel Emil Cotet; Nicoleta Luminita Carutasu; Tiberiu Dobrescu

    2017-01-01

    ...), cloud platforms etc. In order to fulfil this need, this paper presents solutions provided by a research project involving the design, development and implementation of fully automated waste collection systems...

  17. Geochemical analysis of leachates from cement/low-level radioactive waste/soil systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscenti, L.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1988-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted as part of the Special Waste Form Lysimeters/endash/Arid Program. These experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of solidified low-level nuclear waste in a typical arid, near-surface disposal site, and to evaluate the ability of laboratory tests to predict leaching in actual field conditions. Batch leaching, soil adsorption column, and soil/waste form column experiments were conducted using Portland III cement waste forms containing boiling-water reactor evaporator concentrate and ion-exchange resin waste. In order to understand the reaction chemistry of the cement waste form/soil/ground-water system, the compositions of the leachates from the laboratory experiments were studied with the aid of the MINTEQ ion speciation/solubility and mass transfer computer code. The purpose of this report is to describe the changes in leachate composition that occur during the course of the experiments, to discuss the geochemical modeling results, and to explore the factors controlling the major element chemistry of these leachates. 18 refs., 84 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-10-11

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O&M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis.

  19. Comparative techniques for nuclear fuel cycle waste management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Voss, J.W.

    1979-09-01

    A safety assessment approach for the evaluation of predisposal waste management systems is described and applied to selected facilities in the light water reactor (LWR) once-through fuel cycle and a potential coprocessed UO/sub 2/-PuO/sub 2/ fuel cycle. This approach includes a scoping analysis on pretreatment waste streams and a more detailed analysis on proposed waste management processes. The primary evaluation parameters used in this study include radiation exposures to the public from radionuclide releases from normal operations and potential accidents, occupational radiation exposure from normal operations, and capital and operating costs. On an overall basis, the waste management aspects of the two fuel cycles examined are quite similar. On an individual facility basis, the fuel coprocessing plant has the largest waste management impact.

  20. Use of theoretical waste inventories in planning and monitoring of hazardous waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozge; Can, Zehra S; Toroz, Ismail; Dogan, Ozgur; Oncel, Salim; Alp, Emre; Dilek, Filiz B; Karanfil, Tanju; Yetis, Ulku

    2014-08-01

    Hazardous waste (HW) generation information is an absolute necessity for ensuring the proper planning, implementation, and monitoring of any waste management system. Unfortunately, environmental agencies in developing countries face difficulties in gathering data directly from the creators of such wastes. It is possible, however, to construct theoretical HW inventories using the waste generation factors (WGFs). The objective of this study was to develop a complete nationwide HW inventory of Turkey that relies on nation-specific WGFs to support management activities of the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urbanization (MoEU). Inventory studies relied on WGFs from: (a) the literature and (b) field studies and analysis of waste declarations reflecting country-specific industrial practices. Moreover, new tools were introduced to the monitoring infrastructure of MoEU to obtain a comprehensive waste generation data set. Through field studies and a consideration of country specific conditions, it was possible to more thoroughly elucidate HW generation trends in Turkey, a method that was deemed superior to other alternatives. Declaration and literature based WGFs also proved most helpful in supplementing field observations that could not always be conducted. It was determined that these theoretical inventories could become valuable assets in supporting regulating agencies in developing countries for a more thorough implementation of HW management systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  2. Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Ordoñez, Isabel; Bolton, Kim; Dahlén, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  3. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  4. Tank waste remediation system simulation analysis retrieval model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-09-30

    The goal of simulation was to test tll(., consequences of assumptions. For the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model, l@lie specific assumptions are primarily defined with respect to waste processing arid transfer timing. The model tracks 73 chem1913ical constituents from underground waste tanks to glass; yet, the detailed (@hemistrv and complete set of unit operations of the TWRS process flow sheet are represented only at the level necessary to define the waste processing and transfer logic and to estimate the feed composition for the treatment facilities. Tlierefor(,, the model should net be regarded as a substitute for the TWRS process flow sheet. Pra(!ticallv the model functions as a dyrt(imic extension of the flow sheet model. I I The following sections present the description, assunipt@ions, architecture, arid evalua- tion of the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model. Section 2 describes the model in terms of an overview of the processes represented. Section 3 presents the assumptions for the simulation model. Specific assumptions 9.tt(l parameter values used in the model are provided for waste retrieval, pretreatment, low-level waste (LLNN7) immobilization, and high-level waste (HLW) immobilization functions. Section 4 describes the model in terms of its functional architec- rare to d(@fine a basis for a systematic evaluation of the model. Finally, Section 5 documents an independent test and evaluation of the niodel`s performance (i.e., the verification and validation). Additionally, Appendix A gives a complete listing of the tank inventory used. Appendix B documents the verification and validation plan that was used for the (Section 5) evaluation work. A description and listing of all the model variables is given in Appendix C along with a complete source listing.

  5. Geochemical modeling of the nuclear-waste repository system. A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    The primary objective of the geochemical modeling task is to develop an understanding of the waste-repository geochemical system and provide a valuable tool for estimating future states of that system. There currently exists a variety of computer codes which can be used in geochemical modeling studies. Some available codes contain the framework for simulating a natural chemical system and estimating, within limits, the response of that system to environmental changes. By data-base enhancement and code development, this modeling technique can be even more usefully applied to a nuclear-waste repository. In particular, thermodynamic data on elements not presently in the data base but identified as being of particular hazard in the waste-repository system, need to be incorporated into the code to estimate the near-field as well as the far-field reactions during a hypothetical breach. A reaction-path-simulation code, which estimates the products of specific rock/water reactions, has been tested using basalt and ground water. Results show that the mass-transfer capabilities of the code will be useful in chemical-evolution studies and scenario analyses. The purpose of this report is to explain the status of geochemical modeling as it currently applies to the chemical system of a hypothetical nuclear-waste repository in basalt and to present the plan proposed for further developmet and application.

  6. THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER PRICING SYSTEM IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Besfamilnyy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author's denition of transfer prices and transfer pricing based on the analysis of the current legislation in Russia as well as on current economic practice. Considered state regulation of transfer pricing for the purpose of harmonization of relationship between government and business. Given the denition of the transfer pricing system in Russian Federation and the description of its main parts and connections between them, necessary for effective functioning.

  7. Indigenous Knowledge Management Transfer Systems Across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge transfer is becoming an increasingly important issue in the development fraternity as development practitioners seek answers to develop indigenous communities. This article reports on the findings of a study that was aimed at establishing how indigenous knowledge can be preserved and transferred ...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY SAVING IN WASTE RECYCLING USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is a topic of great importance in integrated waste management, evidence of this is verified in the National Policy of Solid Waste, decreed in 2010, where it is considered one of the priorities. In this article is presented a computer simulation model, since their development until its validation, which aims to support environmental managers in their decisions regarding the definition and / or maintenance of solid waste policies recycling, as well as evaluating the benefits of process in the environment (in this article we evaluated the energy savings. For the model development was considered: the rate of natural population growth (births and deaths, percentage of solid waste recycled (for each type of material, gravimetric composition of the material in the total waste generated, the amount of waste generated per inhabitant and energy savings caused by each distinct type of material. Through the model results generated, end users (environmental managers thereof may, for example, set incentives to reduce the total generation of solid waste, produce campaigns enhancing reuse and recycling and to assess the relative benefits of energy savings caused by recycling. Model validation was through analysis of future scenarios for a given municipality in southern Brazil. For modeling and system validation was used Vensim from Ventana Systems.

  9. Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System Startup Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This Startup Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, quality assurance (QA), personnel qualifications, and testing requirements for the Cross-Site Transfer System.

  10. System dynamic modeling on construction waste management in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Li, Jingru; Cai, Hong

    2014-05-01

    This article examines the complexity of construction waste management in Shenzhen, Mainland China. In-depth analysis of waste generation, transportation, recycling, landfill and illegal dumping of various inherent management phases is explored. A system dynamics modeling using Stella model is developed. Effects of landfill charges and also penalties from illegal dumping are also simulated. The results show that the implementation of comprehensive policy on both landfill charges and illegal dumping can effectively control the illegal dumping behavior, and achieve comprehensive construction waste minimization. This article provides important recommendations for effective policy implementation and explores new perspectives for Shenzhen policy makers.

  11. The GNC Measurement System for the Automated Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Y.; da Cunha, P.

    The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a European Space Agency (ESA) funded spacecraft developed by EADS Space Transportation as prime contractor for the space segment together with major European industrial partners, in the frame of the International Space Station (ISS). Its mission objective is threefold : to supply the station with fret and propellant, to reboost ISS to a higher orbit and to dispose of waste from the station. The ATV first flight, called Jules Verne and planned on 2005, will be the first European Vehicle to perform an orbital rendezvous. The GNC Measurement System (GMS) is the ATV on board function in charge of the measurement data collection and preconditioning for the navigation, guidance and control (GNC) algorithms. The GMS is made up of hardware which are the navigation sensors (with a certain level of hardware redundancy for each of them), and of an on-board software that manages, monitors and performs consistency checks to detect and isolate potential sensor failures. The GMS relies on six kinds of navigation sensors, used during various phases of the mission : the gyrometers assembly (GYRA), the accelerometers assembly (ACCA), the star trackers (STR), the GPS receivers, the telegoniometers (TGM) and the videometers (VDM), the last two being used for the final rendezvous phase. The GMS function is developed by EADS Space Transportation together with other industrial partners: EADS Astrium, EADS Sodern, Laben and Dasa Jena Optronik.

  12. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  13. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  14. Comparative environmental evaluation of construction waste management through different waste sorting systems in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Uzzal; Wu, Zezhou; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the environmental performance of building construction waste management (CWM) systems in Hong Kong. Life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was applied to evaluate the performance of CWM systems holistically based on primary data collected from two real building construction sites and secondary data obtained from the literature. Different waste recovery rates were applied based on compositions and material flow to assess the influence on the environmental performance of CWM systems. The system boundary includes all stages of the life cycle of building construction waste (including transportation, sorting, public fill or landfill disposal, recovery and reuse, and transformation and valorization into secondary products). A substitutional LCA approach was applied for capturing the environmental gains due to the utilizations of recovered materials. The results showed that the CWM system by using off-site sorting and direct landfilling resulted in significant environmental impacts. However, a considerable net environmental benefit was observed through an on-site sorting system. For example, about 18-30kg CO 2 eq. greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission were induced for managing 1 t of construction waste through off-site sorting and direct landfilling, whereas significant GHGs emission could be potentially avoided (considered as a credit -126 to -182kg CO 2 eq.) for an on-site sorting system due to the higher recycling potential. Although the environmental benefits mainly depend on the waste compositions and their sortability, the analysis conducted in this study can serve as guidelines to design an effective and resource-efficient building CWM system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. System and method for determining the net output torque from a waste heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaud, Christophe; Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2016-12-13

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system with a system and method for calculation of the net output torque from the waste heat recovery system. The calculation uses inputs from existing pressure and speed sensors to create a virtual pump torque sensor and a virtual expander torque sensor, and uses these sensors to provide an accurate net torque output from the WHR system.

  16. Transfer pricing under an origin based VAT system

    OpenAIRE

    Genser, Bernd; Günther G. Schulze

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes transfer pricing incentives under a destination-based and an origin-based VAT system. While a switch to the origin-based VAT may moderate or reinforce the incentive for transfer pricing induced by income tax differentials, we show that in the case of the EU this switch tends to reduce the transfer pricing incentive and thus should remove one of the last major objections against the adoption of an origin-based VAT system in the EU.

  17. Reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a energy efficient waste management system: methodology and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.

  18. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  19. Optimization-based design of waste heat recovery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano

    product and process system in terms of efficiency and sustainability. Today, some of the most important chemical product design problems are solvents and working fluids. Solvents are a vital part in the recovery of valuable resources in separation processes or waste water treatment. Working fluids....../or selected. This dissertation focuses on the chemical product and process systems used for waste heat recovery. Here, chemical products are working fluids, which are under continuous development and screening to fulfill regulatory environmental protection and safe operation requirements. Furthermore......, for the recovery of low-grade waste heat, new fluids and processes are needed to make the recovery technically and economically feasible. As the chemical product is influential in the design of the process system, the design of novel chemical products must be considered with the process system. Currently, state...

  20. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  1. A systematic look at Tank Waste Remediation System privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, J.H.; Duffy, M.A.; Vieth, D.L.; Sohn, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program is to store, treat, immobilize, and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford radioactive tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner. Highly radioactive Hanford waste includes current and future tank waste plus the cesium and strontium capsules. In the TWRS program, as in other Department of Energy (DOE) clean-up activities, there is an increasing gap between the estimated funding required to enable DOE to meet all of its clean-up commitments and level of funding that is perceived to be available. Privatization is one contracting/management approach being explored by DOE as a means to achieve cost reductions and as a means to achieve a more outcome-oriented program. Privatization introduces the element of competition, a proven means of establishing true cost as well as achieving significant cost reduction.

  2. Automated liquid-helium transfer tube lifting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kiyonori; Suzui, Mitsukazu

    1990-07-01

    An automatic liquid-helium transfer tube lifting system has been developed, in which the transfer tube can be raised or lowered very slowly by remote control. This system relieves the operator of considerable manual labor, and protects the O-ring seals from damage at low temperature.

  3. LANDFILLS FOR NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE AND INERT WASTE AND THEIR OPERATION CYCLE IN NEW SYSTEM OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kunc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 2012, the chief method of disposing of municipal waste in Poland was by storing it on non-hazardous and inert waste landfills. The introduction of a new waste management system as well as new formal and legal requirements have forced changes in key documents related to landfill installations such as processing permits, landfill operation instructions and management instructions. The operation cycle has been disturbed, reducing considerably their operation time and leading to a premature discontinuation of waste receipt, closure, and rehabilitation. These processes result in many irregularities in land rehabilitation which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment. The article identifies the fundamental changes which can interrupt the landfill operation cycle, and discusses the threats to the process of rehabilitation, highlighting both administrative and technical problems discovered based on processes that have been already completed. The description has been drawn up based on the study of literature, analyses and the reports of public administration bodies as well as on own research into the number of landfills faced with this problem.

  4. Mass Transfer and Tidal Dynamics in White Dwarf Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jeffrey; Fuller, J.

    2014-01-01

    Compact white dwarf (WD) binary systems (with orbital periods ranging from minutes to hours) can produce a variety of interesting astrophysical objects (e.g., type Ia supernovae, AM CVn systems, R Cor Bor stars, sdB stars) upon the onset of mass transfer. These systems are driven toward Roche lobe overflow by the emission of gravitational radiation, but it is not known whether the mass transfer will be stable (forming an Am CVn system) or become unstable (resulting in a merger). We analyze how the combined effects of mass transfer and tidal torques affect the evolution of these systems by creating numerical models with the MESA stellar evolution program. Using new calculations of the tidal torque in rotating WDs, we predict the outcome of mass transfer in these systems as a function of the masses of the WD components. We find that the stability of mass transfer depends primarily on the peak mass transfer rate near the period minimum, which is highly dependent on the WD masses and on the strength of the tidal torques. Except for low WD accretor masses, the tidal torques are insufficient to significantly increase the stability of mass transfer. We find that mass transfer is generally unstable for WD donor masses greater than about 0.25 solar masses, and that the 12 minute system SDSS J0615 will end its inspiral in a WD merger, likely producing an R Cor Bor star.

  5. An innovative national health care waste management system in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toktobaev, Nurjan; Emmanuel, Jorge; Djumalieva, Gulmira; Kravtsov, Alexei; Schüth, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    A novel low-cost health care waste management system was implemented in all rural hospitals in Kyrgyzstan. The components of the Kyrgyz model include mechanical needle removers, segregation using autoclavable containers, safe transport and storage, autoclave treatment, documentation, recycling of sterilized plastic and metal parts, cement pits for anatomical waste, composting of garden wastes, training, equipment maintenance, and management by safety and quality committees. The gravity-displacement autoclaves were fitted with filters to remove pathogens from the air exhaust. Operating parameters for the autoclaves were determined by thermal and biological tests. A hospital survey showed an average 33% annual cost savings compared to previous costs for waste management. All general hospitals with >25 beds except in the capital Bishkek use the new system, corresponding to 67.3% of all hospital beds. The investment amounted to US$0.61 per capita covered. Acceptance of the new system by the staff, cost savings, revenues from recycled materials, documented improvements in occupational safety, capacity building, and institutionalization enhance the sustainability of the Kyrgyz health care waste management system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Overvoltage protection system for wireless power transfer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Paul H.; Jones, Perry T.; Miller, John M.; Onar, Omer C.; Tang, Lixin; White, Clifford P.

    2017-05-02

    A wireless power transfer overvoltage protection system is provided. The system includes a resonant receiving circuit. The resonant receiving circuit includes an inductor, a resonant capacitor and a first switching device. The first switching device is connected the ends of the inductor. The first switching device has a first state in which the ends of the inductor are electrically coupled to each other through the first switching device, and a second state in which the inductor and resonant capacitor are capable of resonating. The system further includes a control module configured to control the first switching device to switching between the first state and the second state when the resonant receiving circuit is charging a load and a preset condition is satisfied and otherwise, the first switching device is maintained in the first state.

  7. Low flux submerged membrane bioreactor treating high strength leachate from a solid waste transfer station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Bui Xuan; Dan, Nguyen Phuoc; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2013-08-01

    A submerged membrane bioreactor was employed to treat high strength leachate generating from a solid waste transfer station. The reactor was operated at low fluxes of 1.2; 2.4; 3.8 and 5.1 LMH. The organic loading rate (OLR) ranged from 2 to 10 kg COD/m(3)day. Results show that 97% removal efficiency of COD at flux of 2.4 LMH. The highest removal of ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen was 92.0 ± 1.5% and 88.0 ± 2.0% respectively at flux of 3.8 LMH. Fouling rates were observed to be 0.075; 0.121; 3.186 and 6.374 kPa/day for the fluxes of 1.2; 2.4; 3.8 and 5.1 LMH, respectively. Membrane fouled very slowly at low flux operation. The sustainable flux was identified to be less than 2.4 LMH for treating high strength leachate. It reveals less fouling was able to achieve for high strength wastewater by reducing the membrane flux. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-Loop Automatic of Control System the Landfill of Household Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, T. G.; Kostarev, S. N.

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of models of governance ground municipal solid waste (MSW). Considered a distributed circuit (spatio-temporal) ground control model. Developed a dynamic model of multicontour control landfill. Adjustable parameters are defined (the ratio of CH4 CO2 emission/fluxes, concentrations of heavy metals ions) and control (purging array, irrigation, adding reagents). Based on laboratory studies carried out with the analysis of equity flows and procedures developed by the transferring matrix that takes into account the relationship control loops. A system of differential equations in the frequency and time domains. Given the numerical approaches solving systems of differential equations in finite differential form.

  9. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  10. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-09

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  11. Environmental comparison of solid waste management systems: A case study of the cities of Iasi, Romania and Enschede, Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinea, Cristina; Petraru, Madalina; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region can be achieved by integrated waste management systems. The waste management systems differ in developed and developing countries. The Netherlands has a unique waste management system, the Dutch approach to waste consist in “avoid waste as

  12. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  13. Inertial waste separation system for zero G WMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The design, operation, and flight test are presented for an inertial waste separation system. Training personnel to use this system under simulated conditions is also discussed. Conclusions indicate that before the system is usable in zero gravity environments, a mirror for the user's guidance should be installed, the bounce cycle and bag changing system should be redesigned, and flange clips should be added to improve the user's balance.

  14. The International Stripa Project: Technology transfer from cooperation in scientific and technological research on nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levich, R.A. [USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Yucca Mountain Project Office; Patera, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Ferrigan, P.M. [USDOE Chicago Operations Office, Argonne, IL (USA); Wilkey, P.L. [CER Corp., Argonne, IL (USA)

    1990-04-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA) sponsors the International Stripa Project. The objectives of the Stripa Project are to develop techniques for characterizing sites located deep in rock formations that are potentially suitable for the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to evaluate particular engineering design considerations that could enhance the long-term safety of a high-level radioactive waste repository in a geologic medium. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the research conducted at Stripa and discuss the ways in which the technology developed for the Stripa Project has been and will be transfered to the United States Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program`s Yucca Mountain Project. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Wet Oxidation as a Waste Treatment Method in Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisko, B. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry of the wet oxidation process was investigated in relation to production of plant nutrients from plant and human waste materials as required for a closed life support system. Hydroponically grown lettuce plants were used as a model plant waste, and oxygen gas was used as an oxidant. Organic nitrogen content was decreased 88-100%, depending on feed material. Production of ammonia and nitrogen gas accounted for all of the observed decrease in organic nitrogen content. No nitrous oxide (N2O) was detected. The implications of these results for closed life support systems are discussed.

  16. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  17. E-Waste Recycling Systems and Sound Circulative Economies in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis of Systems in Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-cheol Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to review and compare E-waste management systems operating in East Asian countries in efforts to identify future challenges facing the circulative economies in the region. The first topic of this paper is cost sharing (physical and financial as applied to the various stakeholders, including producers, consumers, local governments and recyclers, in the E-waste management systems. The second topic is the environmental and economical impacts of these E-waste management systems on recycling technology, trans-boundary movement of E-wastes and Design for Environment (DfE. The final topic is the possibility for international cooperation in the region in terms of E-waste management systems. The authors’ preliminary result is that the E-waste management systems operating in these East Asian countries have contributed to extended producer responsibility and DfE to some extent, but many challenges remain in their improvement through proper cost sharing among the stakeholders. It is also clear that the cross-border transfer of E-wastes cannot be resolved by one nation alone, and thus international cooperation will be indispensable in finding a suitable solution.

  18. Environmental comparison of solid waste management systems: A case study of the cities of Iasi, Romania and Enschede, Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Chinea, Cristina; Petraru, Madalina; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region can be achieved by integrated waste management systems. The waste management systems differ in developed and developing countries. The Netherlands has a unique waste management system, the Dutch approach to waste consist in “avoid waste as much as possible, recover the valuable raw materials from any waste that is created, try to generate energy by incinerating the residual waste, and only then dump what is left”. Netherlands is tod...

  19. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueping; Yang, Yuan; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-16

    Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling's more accuracy for the actual application. The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system's further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application.

  20. Quantifying electron transfer reactions in biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjulstok, Emil Sjulstok; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Solov'yov, Ilia A

    2015-01-01

    Various biological processes involve the conversion of energy into forms that are usable for chemical transformations and are quantum mechanical in nature. Such processes involve light absorption, excited electronic states formation, excitation energy transfer, electrons and protons tunnelling...... which for example occur in photosynthesis, cellular respiration, DNA repair, and possibly magnetic field sensing. Quantum biology uses computation to model biological interactions in light of quantum mechanical effects and has primarily developed over the past decade as a result of convergence between...... quantum physics and biology. In this paper we consider electron transfer in biological processes, from a theoretical view-point; namely in terms of quantum mechanical and semi-classical models. We systematically characterize the interactions between the moving electron and its biological environment...

  1. Transfer Learning in Integrated Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    and represented in a modular form. In addition, the agent can reuse learned knowledge about the map. The agent exhibits (positive) transfer if it...other concepts as well as primitive facts. The concept hierarchy provides relational, modular descriptions of the current state. It can also be used...specifically, ASU has focused on expanding ICARUS’ representational and inference capabilities to support temporal reasoning, and on improving the

  2. Data Transfer Minimization for Coherent Passive Location Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    particularly those that must operate from mobile platforms, techniques that minimize data transfer requirements while maintaining reliable system performance...must be carefully considered during system design. Performance losses of several candidate data transfer reduction techniques of varying complexity are compared with minimal bounds obtained from rate distortion theory....at physically separate receivers. They are inherently robust. Performance characteristics and system requirements including observation intervals, data

  3. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRODE, J.N.

    1999-08-24

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

  4. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  5. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [URS, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-17

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

  6. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  7. Analysis of Ecodesign Implementation and Solutions for Packaging Waste System by Using System Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, Alise; Dace, Elina; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research project which explored the packaging waste management system in Latvia. The paper focuses on identifying how the policy mechanisms can promote ecodesign implementation and material efficiency improvement and therefore reduce the rate of packaging waste accumulation in landfill. The method used for analyzing the packaging waste management policies is system dynamics modeling. The main conclusion is that the existing legislative instruments can be used to create an effective policy for ecodesign implementation but substantially higher tax rates on packaging materials and waste disposal than the existing have to be applied.

  8. Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case of health centers in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. ... Operational guidelines were not found in all assessed health centers. Nine out 70 (13%) interviewed healthcare workers had needle injuries during the last 12 months prior this study.

  9. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  10. Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management System and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the evaluation of households' usage of the current solid waste management system (SWMS) within the city of Ilorin, central Nigeria and investigates the determinants of household's willingness-to-Pay (WTP) for its improvement. Data was collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to ...

  11. Microbial network for waste activated sludge cascade utilization in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis and anaerobic fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; He, Zhangwei; Yang, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic digestion (AD) for waste activated sludge (WAS). Microbial communities in integrated system would build a thorough energetic and metabolic interaction network regarding fermentation communities and electrode respiring communities...... and Parabacteroides, which showed a delayed contribution to the extracellular electron transport leading to a slow cascade utilization of WAS. Conclusions: Efficient pretreatment could supply more short-chain fatty acids and higher conductivities in the fermentative liquid, which facilitated mass transfer in anodic...

  12. Engineered Resilient Systems: Knowledge Capture and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-29

    ld be captured. The st udy description at a t op level shou ld include an overview, identification of key decision makers, t he goals for the study...capture and transfer across TSE st udies . EXPLORATION CASE STUDY One of t he tasks in this research proj ect was to conduct an exploratory case study to...knowledge t radeoffs in a TSE st udy using RSC 54 Products similar to Figure 18 would be very useful to practitioners as well as for further

  13. Sustainable solid waste management a systems engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, N

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between human activities and the environment are complicated and often difficult to quantify. In many occasions, judging where the optimal balance should lie among environmental protection, social well-being, economic growth, and technological progress is complex. The use of a systems engineering approach will fill in the gap contributing to how we understand the intricacy by a holistic way and how we generate better sustainable solid waste management practices. This book aims to advance interdisciplinary understanding of intertwined facets between policy and technology relevant to solid waste management issues interrelated to climate change, land use, economic growth, environmental pollution, industrial ecology, and population dynamics.

  14. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  15. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  16. Elementary study on evaluation of environmental loads and costs for waste treatment system in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    INAZUMI, Shinya; OHTSU, Hiroyasu; SHIOTANI, Tomoki; KATSUMI, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    It is very important for waste to be controlled and appropriately treated in a waste treatment system because of its impact on the environment. This study quantitatively evaluates the current waste treatment system and suggests countermeasures based on their impact on reducing the environmental and treatment costs in order to solve waste treatment problems in Bangkok, Thailand. Evaluation models are applied to estimate the treatment and environmental costs in the current waste treatment syste...

  17. Optimising waste treatment and energy systems - focusing on spatial and temporal issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    The aim of the TOPWASTE project is to evaluate current and future optimal treatment of waste fractions in terms of economy and the environment, with a focus on recycling versus Waste-to-Energy technologies. After optimization of the waste management system, results must be analysed so...... as to identify drivers and barriers that efficient waste utilization in Denmark is facing and discuss the economic and/or environmental benefits that might arise from a change of the current waste management system....

  18. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  19. Radioactive waste generated from JAERI partitioning-transmutation cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinichi, Nakayama; Yasuji, Morita; Kenji, Nishihara [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and {sup 59}Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (author)

  20. Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchuk, Igor V

    2009-01-01

    The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD.

  1. Modelling of Evaporator in Waste Heat Recovery System using Finite Volume Method and Fuzzy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaporator is an important component in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC-based Waste Heat Recovery (WHR system since the effective heat transfer of this device reflects on the efficiency of the system. When the WHR system operates under supercritical conditions, the heat transfer mechanism in the evaporator is unpredictable due to the change of thermo-physical properties of the fluid with temperature. Although the conventional finite volume model can successfully capture those changes in the evaporator of the WHR process, the computation time for this method is high. To reduce the computation time, this paper develops a new fuzzy based evaporator model and compares its performance with the finite volume method. The results show that the fuzzy technique can be applied to predict the output of the supercritical evaporator in the waste heat recovery system and can significantly reduce the required computation time. The proposed model, therefore, has the potential to be used in real time control applications.

  2. Energy implications of alternative solid waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.L.; Becker, M.B.; Schatzki, S.T.

    1990-02-01

    This study examines the energy implications of alternative solid waste management systems. As state and local governments move away from a traditional single facility strategies to more integrated waste management systems, energy use and recovery patterns will be substantially altered. The direct and indirect effects of such trends will result in major shifts in the volumes and composition of waste handled at incineration, recycling, composting and landfill facilities. In addition, second order energy savings will result from the substitution of recycled for virgin materials in the manufacturing sector. As such shifts occur, the energy balance -- the difference between energy recovered and energy used -- will undergo major adjustments. Such repercussions will occur at the regional, state, local and facility-specific level. Energy balances defined in this study cover seven use points, three recovery points and, separately, energy saved in production processes. For each of eleven Northeastern states, we estimate current balances based on existing waste management systems. State-specific profiles of recycling, composting, resource recovery and landfill activities provide the starting point for these base year estimates. Using the same estimating procedure, and taking into account each state's policy and planning objectives during the 1990's, we proceed to estimate the energy balances which will result if such objectives are met. By comparing current against future balances, we project the percentage change over a specified planning horizon. 2 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. Role of the South African Waste Information System in improving waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available . Interviews with officials from municipalities and private waste companies highlighted that certain organizations, typically private waste companies have been successful in collecting waste data. Through a process of learning, these organizations have utilized...

  4. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y

    2000-06-01

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

  5. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  6. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-10-24

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

  7. Falluja Waste Water Treatment System, Falluja, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    project assumptions. Advantages to Both Systems Lagoon System Inexpensive to construct and operate Simple technology/lowest lifecycle cost...100 millimeter (mm) polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) pipes. Influent wastewater is aerated to form ―activated sludge‖ – a bacterial colony that degrades...Resident Office representative stated some of the PVC diffusers in the tanks have been exposed to sunlight and will need to be replaced before

  8. Characterization of the ORNL MVST Waste Tanks After Transfer of Sludge from BVEST, GAAT, and OHF Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.

    2001-03-23

    Over the last several years most of the sludge and liquid from the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL has been transferred and consolidated in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The contents of the MVST tanks at the time the sludge samples were collected for this report included the original inventory in the MVSTs along with the sludge and liquid from the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), Old Hydrofracture (OHF) tanks, and most of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). During the spring and summer of 2000 the MVST composite sludge was sampled and characterized to validate the radiochemical content and to ensure regulatory compliance. This report only discusses the analytical characterization of the sludge from the MVST waste tanks (except for W-29 and W-30). The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) and plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) were ''denatured'' as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the MVST sludge was found to be hazardous by RCRA characteristics based on total analysis of chromium, mercury, and lead. Also, the alpha activity due to transuranic isotopes was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the MVST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat, were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

  9. The Characteristics of an Abstract System for the Transfer of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    PER / PELJ 2012(15)3. 120 / 183. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ABSTRACT SYSTEM FOR THE TRANSFER OF. PROPERTY IN SOUTH AFRICAN LAW AS DISTINGUISHED FROM A CAUSAL. SYSTEM. PJW Schutte. *. 1. Introduction. Two divergent systems are usually differentiated between when it comes to the way.

  10. A Microcontroller-Based Automatic Transfer Switching System for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a Microcontroller-Based Automatic Transfer Switching System (MBATSS), which eliminates the challenges of a manual changeover system. A voltage sensing circuit, a Hall Effect current sensor, relays, LEDs and an LCD were all coordinated using a PIC16F877A microcontroller. A system flow chart was ...

  11. Novel gene transfer systems: intelligent gene transfer vectors for gene medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery systems for gene transfer are called 'vectors'. These systems were originally invented as a delivery system for the transfection in vitro or in vivo. Several vectors are then developed for clinical use of gene medicines and currently some of them are approved as animal drugs. Conventional drug delivery system generally consists of approved (existing) materials to avoid additional pre-clinical or clinical studies. However, current vectors contain novel materials to improve an efficacy of gene medicines. Thus, these vectors have functions more than a mere delivery of active ingredients. For example some vectors have immunological functions such as adjuvants in vaccines. These new types of vectors are called 'intelligent' or 'innovative' vector system', since the concept or strategy for the development is completely different from conventional drug delivery systems. In this article, we described a current status of 'intelligent gene transfer vectors and discussed on the potentials of them.

  12. Life cycle inventory and mass-balance of municipal food waste management systems: Decision support methods beyond the waste hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    When assessing the environmental and human health impact of a municipal food waste (FW) management system waste managers typically rely on the principles of the waste hierarchy; using metrics such as the mass or rate of waste that is 'prepared for recycling,' 'recovered for energy,' or 'sent to landfill.' These metrics measure the collection and sorting efficiency of a waste system but are incapable of determining the efficiency of a system to turn waste into a valuable resource. In this study a life cycle approach was employed using a system boundary that includes the entire waste service provision from collection to safe end-use or disposal. A life cycle inventory of seven waste management systems was calculated, including the first service wide inventory of FW management through kitchen in-sink disposal (food waste disposer). Results describe the mass, energy and water balance of each system along with key emissions profile. It was demonstrated that the energy balance can differ significantly from its' energy generation, exemplified by mechanical biological treatment, which was the best system for generating energy from waste but only 5 th best for net-energy generation. Furthermore, the energy balance of kitchen in-sink disposal was shown to be reduced because 31% of volatile solids were lost in pre-treatment. The study also confirmed that higher FW landfill diversion rates were critical for reducing many harmful emissions to air and water. Although, mass-balance analysis showed that the alternative end-use of the FW material may still contain high impact pollutants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transportation operations functions of the Federal Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Attaway, C.R.; Best, R.E.; Jones, R.H.; Jowdy, A.K.; Kline, S.C.; Peterson, R.W.; Rawl, R.R.

    1988-06-01

    This document discusses the functions that are required to accept the waste, transport the waste, and provide the mandatory support activities. These functions are independent of any organizational structure and reflect a conventional and generally accepted transportation system involving casks; ancillary equipment; truck, rail, and barge transporters; cask and vehicle maintenance facilities; traffic management activities; and other related support system subelements. Where appropriate, the functions are ordered to identify their relationship with each other. This relationship is depicted graphically in functional flow block diagrams (FFBDs). The FFBDs provide a definition of the functions that the systems must perform; a tool to aid in the identification of important issues and trade-off studies; an important method for tracing requirements and decisions back to essential functions; and a basis for allocating the functions, a process that will identify where, how, and by whom they will be performed. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Domain Specific Language for Modeling Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram

    In order to develop sustainable waste management systems with considering life cycle perspective, scientists and domain experts in environmental science require readily applicable tools for modeling and evaluating the life cycle impacts of the waste management systems. Practice has proved...... that modeling these systems with general-purpose tools is a cumbersome task. On one hand, the scientists have to spend considerable amount of time to understand these tools in order to develop their models. On another hand, integrated assessments are becoming gradually common in environmental management...... and therefore scientists are also faced with the problem of integrating models across scales and domains, which is not a straightforward process. Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) are languages which are specialized for a specific application domain and they promise to increase developer productivity by raising...

  15. Effect of metal shielding on a wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Huang, Xueliang; Chen, Chen; Tan, Linlin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Jinpeng

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of non-ferromagnetic metal shielding (NFMS) material on the resonator of wireless power transfer (WPT) is studied by modeling, simulation and experimental analysis. And, the effect of NFMS material on the power transfer efficiency (PTE) of WPT systems is investigated by circuit model. Meanwhile, the effect of ferromagnetic metal shielding material on the PTE of WPT systems is analyzed through simulation. A double layer metal shield structure is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that by applying the novel double layer metal shielding method, the system PTE increases significantly while the electromagnetic field of WPT systems declines dramatically.

  16. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  17. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  18. Mass transfer in asymptotic-giant-branch binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Nordhaus, Jason; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Binary stars can interact via mass transfer when one member (the primary) ascends onto a giant branch. The amount of gas ejected by the binary and the amount of gas accreted by the secondary over the lifetime of the primary influence the subsequent binary phenomenology. Some of the gas ejected by the binary will remain gravitationally bound and its distribution will be closely related to the formation of planetary nebulae. We investigate the nature of mass transfer in binary systems containing an AGB star by adding radiative transfer to the AstroBEAR AMR Hydro/MHD code.

  19. Radiative heat transfer in low-dimensional systems -- microscopic mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Lilia; Phan, Anh; Drosdoff, David

    2013-03-01

    Radiative heat transfer between objects can increase dramatically at sub-wavelength scales. Exploring ways to modulate such transport between nano-systems is a key issue from fundamental and applied points of view. We advance the theoretical understanding of radiative heat transfer between nano-objects by introducing a microscopic model, which takes into account the individual atoms and their atomic polarizabilities. This approach is especially useful to investigate nano-objects with various geometries and give a detailed description of the heat transfer distribution. We employ this model to study the heat exchange in graphene nanoribbon/substrate systems. Our results for the distance separations, substrates, and presence of extended or localized defects enable making predictions for tailoring the radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale. Financial support from the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46297 is acknowledged.

  20. Successful synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LHC synchronization test successful The synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system and the rest of CERN's accelerator chain was successfully achieved last weekend. Tests began on Friday 8 August when a single bunch of a few particles was taken down the transfer line from the SPS accelerator to the LHC. After a period of optimization, one bunch was kicked up from the transfer line into the LHC beam pipe and steered about 3 kilometres around the LHC itself on the first attempt. On Saturday, the test was repeated several times to optimize the transfer before the operations group handed the machine back for hardware commissioning to resume on Sunday. The anti-clockwise synchronization systems will be tested over the weekend of 22 August.

  1. Integrated management system for radioactive waste repositories (SGI3R)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabio; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br, e-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    The implantation of a repository for radioactive wastes is a multidisciplinary project that needs specialists of different areas of knowledge, interaction with public and private institutions, data and information related to radioactive wastes, geology, technology etc. All the activities must be in accordance with norms, requirements and procedures, including national and international legislation. The maintenance of the waste inventory records is an important regulatory requirement and must be available even after the closure of the repository. CDTN - Center of Nuclear Technology Development - is coordinating the Project for the construction of the national repository to dispose the low -and intermediate-level wastes. In order to consolidate all information that will come from this Project, it is being developed and implanted in CDTN a manager system of database, called Integrated Management System for Radioactive Waste Repositories (SGI3R), which will also manage all data from previous work carried out in Brazil and around the world about this subject. The proposal is to build a structure of modules, having as base eight modules: inventory, site selection, types of repository, technology, partners, legislation, communication and documents. The SGI3R running comprises the data processing (inclusion, update and exclusion), integration, standardization, and consistency among the processes. The SGI3R will give support to the stages of this Project, which will allow the preservation of all the available information, preventing duplication of efforts and additional costs, improving, in this way, the Project planning and execution. Additionally the SGI3R will make possible the information access to all stakeholders. (author)

  2. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of fin-tube exchanger and PSHE for waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Bae, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Oh Kyung

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, heat transfer characteristics of fin-tube heat exchanger and primary surface heat exchanger (PSHE) used in waste heat recovery were investigated experimentally. The flow in the fin-tube heat exchanger is cross flow and in PSHE counter flow. The variations of friction factor and Colburn j factor with air mass flow rate, and Nu number with Re number are presented. Various comparison methods are used to evaluate heat transfer performance, and the results show that the heat transfer rate of the PSHE is on average 17.3% larger than that of fin-tube heat exchanger when air mass flow rate is ranging from 1.24 to 3.45 kg/min. However, the PSHE causes higher pressure drop, and the fin-tube heat exchanger has a wider application range which leads to a 31.7% higher value of maximum heat transfer rate compared to that of the PSHE. Besides, under the same fan power per unit frontal surface, a higher heat transfer rate value is given in the fin-tube heat exchanger.

  3. Transference and counter-transference in systems psychodynamic group process consultation: The consultant’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cilliers

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored consultants’ experiences of transference and counter-transference when conducting group relations training from the systems psychodynamic stance. A phenomenological research design was used with semistructured interviews conducted on a purposive sample of 13 organisational development consultants in a financial institution. The data was analysed by means of content analysis. The results showed that consultants have varied receptiveness in terms of receiving projections and managing transference. These differences involve triggers, characteristics and systemic valence. The consultants experienced counter- transference on five different cognitive and emotional levels. Distinguishing between personal and group emotions, receiving projections and managing transference, all contribute to the complexity of organisational consulting. Opsomming Hierdie studie het ondersoek ingestel na konsultante se ervarings van oordrag en teen-oordrag tydens groepverhoudingsopleiding vanuit die sistemiese psigodinamiese posisie. ’n Fenomenologiese navorsingsontwerp is gebruik met semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude gevoer met ’n doelgerigte steekproef van 13 organisasie ontwikkelingskonsultante in ’n finansiële instelling. Die data is ontleed deur middel van inhoudsontleding. Die resultate het aangetoon dat konsultante uiteenlopende ontvanklikheid het wat betref die ontvangs van projeksies en die hantering van oordrag. Hierdie verskille behels snellers, kenmerke en sistemiese valensie. Die konsultante het teen-oordrag ervaar op vyf verskillende kognitiewe and emosionele vlakke. Om onderskeid te tref tussen persoonlike en groep-emosies, die ontvang van projeksies en die hantering van oordrag, dra alles by tot die kompleksiteit van konsultering.

  4. Thermoelectric System Absorbing Waste Heat from a Steel Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Meng, Xiangning; Zhu, Miaoyong; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-01-01

    China's iron and steel industry has made great progress in energy savings and emission reductions with the application of many waste heat recovery technologies. However, most of the medium and low temperature waste heat and radiant waste heat has not been effectively utilized. This paper proposes a thermoelectric system that generates electricity by absorbing the radiant heat from the surface of steel ladles in a steel plant. The thermoelectric behavior of modules in this system is analyzed by a numerical simulation method. The effects of external resistance and module structure on thermoelectric performance are also discussed in the temperature range of the wall surface of a steel ladle. The results show that the wall temperature has a significant influence on the thermoelectric behavior of the module, so its uniformity and stability should be considered in practical application. The ratio of the optimum external resistance to the internal resistance of the thermoelectric module is in the range of 1.6-2.0, which indicates the importance of external load optimization for a given thermoelectric system. In addition, the output power and the conversion efficiency of the module can be significantly improved by increasing the length of the thermoelectric legs and adopting a double-layer structure. Finally, through the optimization of external resistance and structure, the power output can reach 83-304 W/m2. This system is shown to be a promising approach for energy recovery.

  5. Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavreul, Julie; Guyonnet, Dominique; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty analysis in LCA studies has been subject to major progress over the last years. In the context of waste management, various methods have been implemented but a systematic method for uncertainty analysis of waste-LCA studies is lacking. The objective of this paper is (1) to present the sources of uncertainty specifically inherent to waste-LCA studies, (2) to select and apply several methods for uncertainty analysis and (3) to develop a general framework for quantitative uncertainty assessment of LCA of waste management systems. The suggested method is a sequence of four steps combining the selected methods: (Step 1) a sensitivity analysis evaluating the sensitivities of the results with respect to the input uncertainties, (Step 2) an uncertainty propagation providing appropriate tools for representing uncertainties and calculating the overall uncertainty of the model results, (Step 3) an uncertainty contribution analysis quantifying the contribution of each parameter uncertainty to the final uncertainty and (Step 4) as a new approach, a combined sensitivity analysis providing a visualisation of the shift in the ranking of different options due to variations of selected key parameters. This tiered approach optimises the resources available to LCA practitioners by only propagating the most influential uncertainties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning Transfer--Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Bates, Reid; Holton, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construct validity of learning transfer system inventory (LTSI) for use in Portugal. Furthermore, it also aims to analyze whether LTSI dimensions differ across individual variables such as gender, age, educational level and job tenure. Design/methodology/approach: After a rigorous translation…

  7. Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Improved Waste Collection System (IWCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This high angle overall view shows the top side components of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Waste Collection System (WCS) scheduled to fly aboard NASA's Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, for the STS-54 mission. Detailed Test Objective 662, Extended duration orbiter WCS evaluation, will verify the design of the new EDO WCS under microgravity conditions for a prolonged period. OV-105 has been modified with additional structures in the waste management compartment (WMC) and additional avionics to support/restrain the EDO WCS. Among the advantages the new IWCS is hoped to have over the currect WCS are greater dependability, better hygiene, virtually unlimited capacity, and more efficient preparation between shuttle missions. Unlike the previous WCS, the improved version will not have to be removed from the spacecraft to be readied for the next flight. The WCS was documented in JSC's Crew Systems Laboratory Bldg 7.

  8. Safety evaluation for packaging for onsite transfer of B Plant organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-10-07

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the use of a 17,500-L (4,623-gal) tank manufactured by Brenner Tank, Incorporated, to transport up to 16,221 L (4,285 gal) of radioactive organic liquid waste. The waste will be transported from the organic loading pad to a storage pad. Both pads are within the B Plant complex, but approximately 4 mi apart.

  9. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRADY RAAP, M.C.

    1999-06-24

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999.

  10. The Role of Mass Transfer in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Gürel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Membranes are situated in the foreground among the considerably popular treatment systems in the last years. The use of membranes was become widespread in many fields such as drinking water treatment, wastewater treatment and obtaining drinking water from sea water. The predominance of membranes against the classical systems regarding the wastewater treatment, and the decreasing cost of membrane materials each day provided these systems to enter among the preferable options. There are considerably different types of membranes. Microfiltration (MF, ultrafiltration (UF, nanofiltration (NF and reverse osmosis (RO are the processes drawing most attention. One of the most important considerations in membrane processes is the amount of constituents passing from the membrane and rejecting by the membrane. Mass transfer concept arises in this place. Mass transfer is a critically important case used in the design of treatment systems and the estimation of efficiency. In addition to the points mentioned above, investigation of mass transfer occurring in membranes is important in comparing of different membrane types. In this review article, general information about the membranes, membrane types, uses of membranes and module designs are given, concept of mass transfer is viewed and the mass transfer processes realizing in these treatment systems are assessed.

  11. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bostick, T.L. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915-MHz, 75-kW microwave vitrification system or ``microwave melter`` is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge.

  12. Design of microwave vitrification systems for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.L.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaick, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in the research and development of high-power microwave heating systems for the vitrification of DOE radioactive sludges. Design criteria for a continuous microwave vitrification system capable of processing a surrogate filtercake sludge representative of a typical waste-water treatment operation are discussed. A prototype 915 MHz, 75 kW microwave vitrification system or `microwave melter` is described along with some early experimental results that demonstrate a 4 to 1 volume reduction of a surrogate ORNL filtercake sludge.

  13. Photoinduced electron transfer in model systems of photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, U.

    1988-01-01

    This Thesis describes Investigations on photoinduced electron transfer (ET) for several compounds, serving as model systems of the natural photosynthesis. In addition, the properties of the systems, e.g. the conformation in solution and the electronic properties of the photoexcited states

  14. Performance validation of commercially available mobile waste-assay systems: Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanfein, M.; Bonner, C.; Maez, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content to reduce the radioactive hazard to the public. Validation of the waste-assay systems` performance is critical for establishing the credibility of the assay results for storage and disposal purposes. Canberra Nuclear has evaluated regulations worldwide and identified standard, modular, neutron- and gamma-waste-assay systems that can be used to characterize a large portion of existing and newly generated transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste. Before making claims of guaranteeing any system`s performance for specific waste types, the standardized systems` performance be evaluated. 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Transfer Stations for urban solid wastes. Design; Transferencia ferroviaria de residuos solidos domiciliarios. Alternativas para el diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussuel Jurado, E.

    2004-07-01

    On the basis of experience in the design of projects promoted by Spanish companies for Transfer Stations for Solid Domestic Waste (RSD) using the railway, aspects regarding location, technological alternatives, restrictions and dimensions are considered. The equipment necessary for the different options is described. The paper is concerned with the Metropolitan Area of Santiago (Chile) and comments on and discusses the regulatory restrictions laid down by the PRMS (Metropolitan Regulatory Plan for Santiago) affecting decisions on location, dimensions and design. Last of all, the costs of Transfer Stations are analysed depending on the distance from the sanitary landfill nd in comparison with the alternative by road, laying down convenience kerbs. Also analysed are the environmental advantages of the railway option as opposed to roads. (Author)

  16. Healthcare waste generation and its management system: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    The mean healthcare waste generation rate among health centers did not significantly vary. Segregation of wastes .... waste were daily distributed to different section of the health center. ..... Clinical Technology and Department of Protection.

  17. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.

  18. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Tsay, S.C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  19. Allocation and 'what-if' scenarios in life cycle assessment of waste management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijungs, Reinout; Guinée, Jeroen B.

    2007-01-01

    Many modern waste treatment processes and waste management systems are able to treat many different types of waste at the same time, and deliver a number of useful outputs (secondary materials, energy) as well. These systems are thus increasingly multi-functional. As such, in life cycle assessment

  20. Lunar transfer vehicle design issues with electric propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes parametric design studies of electric propulsion lunar transfer vehicles. In designing a lunar transfer vehicle, selecting the 'best' operating points for the design parameters allows significant reductions in the mass in low earth orbit (LEO) for the mission. These parameters include the specific impulse, the power level, and the propulsion technology. Many of the decisions regarding the operating points are controlled by the propulsion and power system technologies that are available for the spacecraft. The relationship between these technologies is discussed and analyzed here. It is found that both ion and MPD propulsion offer significant LEO mass reductions over O2/H2 for lunar transfer vehicle missions. The recommended operating points for the lunar transfer vehicle are an I(sp) of 5000 lb(f)-s/lb(m) and a 1 MW power level. For large lunar missions, krypton may be the best choice for ion propulsion.

  1. Chemistry and Properties of Slags from Navy Solid Waste Destruction in the Plasma Arc System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talmy, Inna

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Navy is currently developing a highly efficient shipboard system which employs a plasma torch to process Navy solid wastes primarily consisting of cardboard, paper, steel, aluminum, glass, and food waste...

  2. Mapping Of Construction Waste Illegal Dumping Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Azwana Rothman, Rosfazreen

    2016-11-01

    Illegal dumping of solid waste not only affecting the environment but also social life of communities, hence authorities should have an effective system to cater this problem. Malaysia is experiencing extensive physical developments and this has led to an increase of construction waste illegal dumping. However, due to the lack of proper data collection, the actual figure for construction waste illegal dumping in Malaysia are not available. This paper presents a mapping of construction waste illegal dumping in Kluang district, Johor using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Information of the dumped waste such as coordinate, photos, types of material and quantity of waste were gathered manually through site observation for three months period. For quantifying the dumped waste, two methods were used which are the first method is based on shape of the waste (pyramids or squares) while the second method is based weighing approach. All information regarding the waste was assigned to the GIS for the mapping process. Results indicated a total of 12 types of construction waste which are concrete, tiles, wood, gypsum board, mixed construction waste, brick and concrete, bricks, sand, iron, glass, pavement and tiles, and concrete at 64 points locations of illegal dumping on construction waste in Kluang. These wastes were accounted to an estimated volume of 427.2636 m3. Hopefully, this established map will assist Kluang authority to improve their solid waste management system in Kluang.

  3. Heat transfer fluids for solar DHW systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedel, S.; Bezzel, E.

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the sudden clogging of the pipes in collectors as a consequence of liquid deterioration after repeated boiling during stagnation. A method to perform simple screening as accelerated tests of a large number liquid of samples subjected to various chemical- and physical environments have been designed. The acceleration factor of experiments relative to real systems is quite substantial primarily due to the extensive stress cycles in tests. Possible degradation mechanisms have been investigated and generally, there are two different paths to degradation of glycol: Thermal degradation and oxidative degradation primarily yielding propylene derivatives and carboxylic acids respectively. Polymerisation is an obvious possibility in a system containing various organic compounds such as acids and alcohols. Consequently, the reaction patterns alter making room for alternative interconnected mechanisms thus generating a broad spectrum of possible degradation products. Reserve alkalinity and pH are somewhat unreliable means of solely estimating the state of a liquid in relation to degradation and precipitation, as curvature of the RA-pH relations are different from liquid to liquid. For the majority of liquids, precipitation is not correlated with pH and RA. Coloration and precipitation in the liquid phase during stagnation separated liquids in two sub-categories. Fluids with inhibitor have sparing to moderate sedimentation and are brownish-black due to deterioration. Glycols without additives were either pale or colourless and did not precipitate. During normal operation, all fluids are clear and transparent and the majority has the same initial colour. The same distinction in liquids was observed on examination on the inside surface of the tubes concerning extent and the quantity of deposit. Liquids with additives tend to have significantly more deposit covering a larger surface than liquids without. Visual evaluation has proved that

  4. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  5. Recycling systems and material flows from the viewpoint of thermal waste treatment; Kreislaufwirtschaft- und Stoffstrombetrachtungen aus Sicht der thermischen Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnke, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Mast, P.G. [Tauw Umwelt GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Material stream analysis can serve as a basis for decisions on which materials should be kept in circulation, and in what quantity, and which materials it is better to remove from the recycling system and dispose of as waste. Wastes destined for disposal are mostly transferred to waste treatment plants and landfills. The role of thermal treatment as part of the disposal system is to destroy or decompose organic pollutants contained in the waste, concentrate and remove inorganic pollutants, make the heat arising during the treatment process available for use as energy, and make the greatest possible physical use of the treatment residues. The present paper reviews the current regulations for the promotion of recycling and investigates selected material streams and the fate of these materials. In connection with the residue quality of household waste incineration slag as a thermal waste treatment product it also considers the influence of waste management measures on wastes destined for disposal. [Deutsch] Stoffstrombetrachtungen koennen als Grundlage fuer Entscheidungen dienen, welche Stoffe in welchem Umfang im Kreislauf verbleiben oder wieder integriert werden sollten und welche besser als Abfall zur Beseitigung aus dem Kreislaufsystem auszuschleusen sind. Fuer Abfaelle zur Beseitigung wird diese Aufgabe i.d.R. von thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen und Deponien uebernommen. Im Rahmen der Entsorgung kommt der thermischen Behandlung dabei die Aufgabe zu, die im Abfall zur Beseitigung enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe zu zerstoeren oder abzubauen, anorganische Schadstoffe aufzukonzentrieren und auszuschleusen, die bei dem Behandlungsprozess entstehende Waerme einer weitgehenden Energienutzung zuzufuehren und die Rueckstaende aus der Behandlung so weit wie moeglich stofflich zu verwerten. Nachfolgend sollen insbesondere die Regelungen zur Unterstuetzung der Kreislaufwirtschaft, ausgewaehlte Stofffluesse und der Verbleib dieser Stoffe und Materialien und der

  6. HOW TO DEAL WITH WASTE ACCEPTANCE UNCERTAINTY USING THE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FORECASTING AND ANALYSIS CAPABILITY SYSTEM (WACFACS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, K. S.; Hampshire, G. J.; Patterson, J. E.; Perkins, A. B.

    2002-02-25

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria Forecasting and Analysis Capability System (WACFACS) is used to plan for, evaluate, and control the supply of approximately 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous wastes from over 60 environmental restoration projects between FY02 through FY10 to the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). WACFACS is a validated decision support tool that propagates uncertainties inherent in site-related contaminant characterization data, disposition volumes during EMWMF operations, and project schedules to quantitatively determine the confidence that risk-based performance standards are met. Trade-offs in schedule, volumes of waste lots, and allowable concentrations of contaminants are performed to optimize project waste disposition, regulatory compliance, and disposal cell management.

  7. Efficiency Assessment of E-waste Management System in Lithuanian Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilenko, Laura; Gurauskienė, Inga; Varžinskas, Visvaldas

    2009-01-01

    Rapid technology change, low initial costs have resulted in a fast-growing surplus of electrical and electronic equipment waste (e-waste) around the globe. Management of e-waste in an environment friendly way according to all legal regulations carries great importance. E-waste management system incorporates different stakeholders through the whole life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) - producers/importers, distributors, consumers/users, collectors, recyclers. The system's ...

  8. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  9. Membrane-Based Absorption Refrigeration Systems: Nanoengineered Membrane-Based Absorption Cooling for Buildings Using Unconcentrated Solar & Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: UFL is improving a refrigeration system that uses low quality heat to provide the energy needed to drive cooling. This system, known as absorption refrigeration system (ARS), typically consists of large coils that transfer heat. Unfortunately, these large heat exchanger coils are responsible for bulkiness and high cost of ARS. UFL is using new materials as well as system design innovations to develop nanoengineered membranes to allow for enhanced heat exchange that reduces bulkiness. UFL’s design allows for compact, cheaper and more reliable use of ARS that use solar or waste heat.

  10. Polaron assisted charge transfer in model biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqi; Movaghar, Bijan

    2016-11-01

    We use a tight binding Hamiltonian to simulate the electron transfer from an initial charge-separating exciton to a final target state through a two-arm transfer model. The structure is copied from the model frequently used to describe electron harvesting in photosynthesis (photosystems I). We use this network to provide proof of principle for dynamics, in quantum system/bath networks, especially those involving interference pathways, and use these results to make predictions on artificially realizable systems. Each site is coupled to the phonon bath via several electron-phonon couplings. The assumed large energy gaps and weak tunneling integrals linking the last 3 sites give rise to"Stark Wannier like" quantum localization; electron transfer to the target cluster becomes impossible without bath coupling. As a result of the electron-phonon coupling, local electronic energies relax when the site is occupied, and transient polaronic states are formed as photo-generated electrons traverse the system. For a symmetric constructively interfering two pathway network, the population is shared equally between two sets of equivalent sites and therefore the polaron energy shift is smaller. The smaller energy shift however makes the tunnel transfer to the last site slower or blocks it altogether. Slight disorder (or thermal noise) can break the symmetry, permitting essentially a "one path", and correspondingly more efficient transfer.

  11. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  12. Role of accelerator-driven systems in waste incineration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatores, M.; Slessarev, I.; Tchistiakov, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Mouney, H.; Vergnes, J.

    1997-12-31

    At CEA accelerator-driven systems (ADS) are studied in the frame of the R and D required to answer the request of a law voted in 1991 by the French Parliament, `to search for solutions allowing to partition and transmute long lived radioactive wastes, in order to reduce their volume and toxicity`. These systems (called `INCAs`) are still at a conceptual level. However, the role of ADS has been clarified as a first step, and this will be the subject of the present paper. (author)

  13. Smart Waste Collection System Based on Location Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Jose Manuel Guterrez Lopez; Jensen, Michael; Andreasen, Morten Henius

    2015-01-01

    (IoT) integration with data access networks, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), combinatorial optimization, and electronic engineering can contribute to improve cities’ management systems. We present a waste collection solution based on providing intelligence to trashcans, by using an IoT prototype......Cities around the world are on the run to become smarter. Some of these have seen an opportunity on deploying dedicated municipal access networks to support all types of city management and maintenance services requiring a data connection. This paper practically demonstrates how Internet of Things...

  14. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of solid-waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.; Henriquez, M.; Kay, J.; Walzer, W.

    1978-08-15

    Recovery of municipal solid wastes (MSW) can reduce the mass of landfilled wastes by as much as 95% and can tap a vast new energy resource. The yearly collection of MSW is estimated to be 125 million tons nationwide. Three basic technologies for recovering energy from MSW are considered, namely: direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized, or pelleted refuse-derived fuel for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described here include both energy and resource-recovery systems as well as necessary pollution-control equipment for gaseous emissions. Three end-use applications of cogeneration systems are characterized, including: fluidized-bed cogeneration systems for use in the pulp and paper industry; diesel system using the digested sewage gas of a sewage treatment plant for electricity generation as well as heating and pumping; and an enhanced oil recovery system. Comparisons are made of system inputs per 10/sup 12/ Btu steam output for Landguard pyrolysis, Garrett flash pyrolysis, Union Carbide Purox process, direct combustion, refuse-derived fuels, fluidized-bed cogeneration, diesel cogeneration, and enhanced oil recovery (cogeneration). The RFD system is by far the cheapest to build and is also the most efficient in terms of energy recovery per ton of MSW. The fluidized-bed system has the highest overall system efficiency. However, the PUROX system uses the least ancillary energy and is the only system not requiring an input water flow. Thus the RFD is the most favorable for capital inputs and the PUROX is the most favorable for operational inputs.

  16. National economic models of industrial water use and waste treatment. [technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. G.; Calloway, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air emission and solid waste restrictions on production costs and resource use by industry is investigated. A linear program is developed to analyze how resource use, production cost, and waste discharges in different types of production may be affected by resource limiting policies of the government. The method is applied to modeling ethylene and ammonia plants at the design stage. Results show that the effects of increasingly restrictive wastewater effluent standards on increased energy use were small in both plants. Plant models were developed for other industries and the program estimated effects of wastewater discharge policies on production costs of industry.

  17. Case study: Is the 'catch-all-plastics bin' useful in unlocking the hidden resource potential in the residual waste collection system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzinger, Lukas; Schopf, Kerstin; Pomberger, Roland; Punesch, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    Austria's performance in the collection of separated waste is adequate. However, the residual waste still contains substantial amounts of recyclable materials - for example, plastics, paper and board, glass and composite packaging. Plastics (lightweight packaging and similar non-packaging materials) are detected at an average mass content of 13% in residual waste. Despite this huge potential, only 3% of the total amount of residual waste (1,687,000 t y -1 ) is recycled. This implies that most of the recyclable materials contained in the residual waste are destined for thermal recovery and are lost for recycling. This pilot project, commissioned by the Land of Lower Austria, applied a holistic approach, unique in Europe, to the Lower Austrian waste management system. It aims to transfer excess quantities of plastic packaging and non-packaging recyclables from the residual waste system to the separately collected waste system by introducing a so-called 'catch-all-plastics bin'. A quantity flow model was constructed and the results showed a realistic increase in the amount of plastics collected of 33.9 wt%. This equals a calculated excess quantity of 19,638 t y -1 . The increased plastics collection resulted in a positive impact on the climate footprint (CO 2 equivalent) in line with the targets of EU Directive 94/62/EG (Circular Economy Package) and its Amendments. The new collection system involves only moderate additional costs.

  18. Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Wörner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of charge at the molecular level plays a fundamental role in many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. Today, more than 60 years after the seminal work of R. A. Marcus, charge transfer is still a very active field of research. An important recent impetus comes from the ability to resolve ever faster temporal events, down to the attosecond time scale. Such a high temporal resolution now offers the possibility to unravel the most elementary quantum dynamics of both electrons and nuclei that participate in the complex process of charge transfer. This review covers recent research that addresses the following questions. Can we reconstruct the migration of charge across a molecule on the atomic length and electronic time scales? Can we use strong laser fields to control charge migration? Can we temporally resolve and understand intramolecular charge transfer in dissociative ionization of small molecules, in transition-metal complexes and in conjugated polymers? Can we tailor molecular systems towards specific charge-transfer processes? What are the time scales of the elementary steps of charge transfer in liquids and nanoparticles? Important new insights into each of these topics, obtained from state-of-the-art ultrafast spectroscopy and/or theoretical methods, are summarized in this review.

  19. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  20. Transfer Efficiency Analysis of Wireless Power Transfer System under Frequency Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shoudao; Li, Zhongqi; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonant wireless power transfer (WPT) is an emerging technology that may create new applications for wireless power charging. However, low efficiency resulting from resonant frequency drift is a main obstructing factor for promoting this technology. In this paper, the system efficiency...... and input impedance are obtained by solving the system equivalent equations and based on that a method of adjusting the operating frequency and load resistor is proposed. When resonant frequency drift occurs, the WPT system can now operate at quasi-resonant state and the efficiency can be improved by using...

  1. Optimal Energy Transfer in Light-Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is one of the most essential biological processes in which specialized pigment-protein complexes absorb solar photons, and with a remarkably high efficiency, guide the photo-induced excitation energy toward the reaction center to subsequently trigger its conversion to chemical energy. In this work, we review the principles of optimal energy transfer in various natural and artificial light harvesting systems. We begin by presenting the guiding principles for optimizing the energy transfer efficiency in systems connected to dissipative environments, with particular attention paid to the potential role of quantum coherence in light harvesting systems. We will comment briefly on photo-protective mechanisms in natural systems that ensure optimal functionality under varying ambient conditions. For completeness, we will also present an overview of the charge separation and electron transfer pathways in reaction centers. Finally, recent theoretical and experimental progress on excitation energy transfer, charge separation, and charge transport in artificial light harvesting systems is delineated, with organic solar cells taken as prime examples.

  2. 75 FR 41121 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 257, 261, 264, 265, 268, 271 and 302 RIN 2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste...), 3001, 3004, 3005, and 4004 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1970, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984...

  3. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Quenching of curcumine fluorescence by thionine, both immobilised in cellulose acetate occurs in accordance with the Forster mechanism of energy transfer. The rate constant of energy transfer for this donor - acceptor pair is found to be 9.4 x 109 L ' mol S1 with R0 = 37±1 Б. When this donor - acceptor pair is ...

  4. Spatial issues when optimising waste treatment and energy systems – A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Münster, Marie; Petrovic, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the challenge of including geographical information related to waste resources, energy demands and production plants, and transport options in the optimization of waste management. It analyses how waste may serve as an energy source through thermal conversion and anaerobic...... digestion. The relation to the energy sector is taken into account. The geographically specific potentials and utilization possibilities of waste are taken into account. Thus, the relative location of the resources (in this study waste and manure for codegestion) is accounted for. Also the location...... of the year. The study provides an analysis of the Danish waste and energy systems with a spatial and temporal resolution....

  5. Production and transfer of energy and information in Hamiltonian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Chris G; Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an "experimental" implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented.

  6. Production and transfer of energy and information in Hamiltonian systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G Antonopoulos

    Full Text Available We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an "experimental" implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented.

  7. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  8. Transfer effects in learning a second language grammatical gender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A; de Haan, Ger J

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language

  9. Modeling and design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Hodges, George; Piccione, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Issues related to the design of biphasic (liquid) catalytic reaction operations are discussed. A chemical system involving the reaction of an organic-phase soluble reactant (A) with an aqueous-phase soluble reactant (B) in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) is modeled and based on it, ...

  10. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  11. Mass Transfer Studies on Adsorption of Phenol from Wastewater Using Lantana camara, Forest Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Girish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is one of the important treatment methods for the removal of pollutants from wastewater. The determination of rate controlling step in the process is important in the design of the process. Therefore, in the present work, mass transfer studies were done to evaluate the rate-limiting step in the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution onto Lantana camara. Different mass transfer models were used to find the rate-limiting step and also to find the values of external mass transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficient. The Biot number was found to investigate the importance of external mass transfer to intraparticle diffusion. From the various models studied and the Biot numbers obtained, it was found that the adsorption on Lantana camara was controlled by film diffusion. The sensitivity analysis was performed to study the significance of the model parameters on the adsorption process.

  12. The application of waste management systems for long duration spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, James M

    2012-01-01

    In the future planned interplanetary expedition mission to Mars, spaceflight crewmembers will be exposed to an environment that is completely unique from anything they are accustomed to on Earth. Due to the characteristics of these missions, a challenge will be to design an environment that allows crewmembers to easily work and live in for extended durations. One of the challenges associated with these future missions is supplying the crew with essential resources for survivability such as food and water. In this case, the waste management system can play a role in a closed-loop life support system, as provisions sent with the crew will be severely limited with no opportunity for resupply. The following looks at the rationale of designing a system for collecting, storing, and recycling human bodily waste that (1) is considered user-friendly by crewmembers in regard to habitability in spaceflight, and (2) provides applications for a self sustaining closed-loop life support system that will aid the crew during the mission. Future design processes should consider adhering to these guidelines to help in the spaceflight crew's living environment and the conduction of the interplanetary expedition.

  13. The effect of the waste separation policy in municipal solid waste management using the system dynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jamshidi Zanjani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In the present study, Vensim was used to simulate waste management system of Tehran, the capital of Iran, with the system dynamic approach. Materials and Methods: The environmental system dynamic modeling is one of the comprehensive simulation tools capable of simulating and analyzing complex systems. In this approach, the model is developed based on the existing realities and userâ€′comments. User participation to develop the model could increase the reliability of the results. Results: The simulation results revealed good conformity with the statistical data. Waste production prediction in the model with real data was more than 95%. Moreover, the effect of applying an encouraging policy for people to separate their waste was considered. The result indicated that applying a new policy, and the economic benefit through this policy would prevent getting a loan from the government after 20 years. Conclusions: It could be concluded that public participation in waste separation was an effective policy to help in the financial independence of the municipality in terms of urban waste management. Moreover, conformity between the simulation results and real data revealed an appropriate capability of the simulated model to predict Tehran waste generation.

  14. A Systematic Modelling Framework for Phase Transfer Catalyst Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Hyung Kim, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Phase-transfer catalyst systems contain two liquid phases, with a catalyst (PTC) that transfers between the phases, driving product formation in one phase and being regenerated in the other phase. Typically the reaction involves neutral species in an organic phase and regeneration involves ions...... in an aqueous phase. These reacting systems are receiving increased attention as novel organic synthesis options due to their flexible operation, higher product yields, and ability to avoid hazardous or expensive solvents. Major considerations in the design and analysis of PTC systems are physical and chemical...... equilibria, as well as kinetic mechanisms and rates. This paper presents a modelling framework for design and analysis of PTC systems that requires a minimum amount of experimental data to develop and employ the necessary thermodynamic and reaction models and embeds them into a reactor model for simulation...

  15. Aspects of forced convective heat transfer in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilty, K.; Chapman, D.S.; Mase, C.

    1978-07-01

    A knowledge of convective heat transfer is essential to understanding geothermal systems and other systems of moving groundwater. A simple, kinematic approach toward convective heat transfer is taken here. Concern is not with the cause of the groundwater motion but only with the fact that the water is moving and transferring heat. The mathematical basis of convective heat transfer is the energy equation which is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics. The general solution of this equation for a specific model of groundwater flow has to be done numerically. The numerical algorithm used here employs a finite difference approximation to the energy equation that uses central differences for the heat conduction terms and one-sided differences for the heat convection terms. Gauss--Seidel iteration is then used to solve the finite difference equation at each node of a non-uniform mesh. The Monroe and Red Hill hot springs, a small hydrothermal system in central Utah, provide an example to illustrate the application of convective heat transfer theory to a geophysical problem. Two important conclusions regarding small geothermal systems follow immediately from the results of this application. First, the most rapid temperature rise in the convecting part of a geothermal system is near the surface. Below this initially rapid temperature increase the temperature increases very slowly, and thus temperatures extrapolated from shallow boreholes can be seriously in error. Second, the temperatures and heat flows observed at Monroe and Red Hill, and probably at many other small geothermal areas, can easily result from moderate vertical groundwater velocities in faults and fracture zones in an area of normal heat flow.

  16. Network analysis and Canada's large value transfer system

    OpenAIRE

    Embree, Lana; Roberts, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the characteristics and structure of a network of financial institutions can provide insight into the complex relationships and interdependencies that exist in a payment, clearing, and settlement system (PCSS), and allow an intuitive understanding of the PCSS's efficiency, stability, and resiliency. The authors review the literature related to the PCSS network and describe the daily and intraday network structure of payment activity in the Large Value Transfer System (LVTS), which...

  17. Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste-to-Energy...... technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows...... the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also...

  18. Plasmon-Exciton Resonant Energy Transfer: Across Scales Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Kabbash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of an excitonic element in close proximity of a plasmonic nanostructure, under certain conditions, may lead to a nonradiative resonant energy transfer known as Exciton Plasmon Resonant Energy Transfer (EPRET process. The exciton-plasmon coupling and dynamics have been intensely studied in the last decade; still many relevant aspects need more in-depth studies. Understanding such phenomenon is not only important from fundamental viewpoint, but also essential to unlock many promising applications. In this review we investigate the plasmon-exciton resonant energy transfer in different hybrid systems at the nano- and mesoscales, in order to gain further understanding of such processes across scales and pave the way towards active plasmonic devices.

  19. Quantifying ‘Causality’ in Complex Systems: Understanding Transfer Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razak, Fatimah; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2014-01-01

    ‘Causal’ direction is of great importance when dealing with complex systems. Often big volumes of data in the form of time series are available and it is important to develop methods that can inform about possible causal connections between the different observables. Here we investigate the ability of the Transfer Entropy measure to identify causal relations embedded in emergent coherent correlations. We do this by firstly applying Transfer Entropy to an amended Ising model. In addition we use a simple Random Transition model to test the reliability of Transfer Entropy as a measure of ‘causal’ direction in the presence of stochastic fluctuations. In particular we systematically study the effect of the finite size of data sets. PMID:24955766

  20. [Implementation of an internal transfer pricing system for anaesthesia services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raetzell, M; Reissmann, H; Steinfath, M; Schuster, M; Schmidt, C; Scholz, J; Bauer, M

    2004-12-01

    Internal transfer pricing system (ITPS) of anaesthesia services is established to guarantee a close connection of delivered service and the budget of the department of anaesthesia. In most cases a time-based system is used with the pricing unit being calculated as the quotient from the enumerator "costs" divided by the denominator "anaesthesia time in minutes". The implementation of a transfer pricing system requires the identification of all relevant costs caused by the department of anaesthesia and a cost centre structure is needed which allocates all costs correctly according to their cause. The regulations regarding cost calculations as defined by the German DRG System should be considered. To generate valid data not only the necessary technical infrastructure is needed, but also detailed training of the staff and plausibility checks are needed to ensure correct and complete data. Subsequent agreements with the hospital administration are necessary in order to adjust the system if extrinsic cost increases occur. This paper gives a step-by-step guidance for the successful implementation of an internal transfer pricing system based on anaesthesia time.

  1. Socio-technical systems analysis of waste to energy from municipal solid waste in developing economies: a case for Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyamu Hope O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an inevitable by-product of human activity, and it is on the rise due to rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, increased wealth and population. The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW in developed and developing economies differ, especially with the organic fraction. Research shows that the food waste stream of MSW in developing countries is over 50%. The case study for this investigation, Nigeria, has minimal formal recycling or resource recovery programs. The average composition of waste from previous research in the country is between 50–70% putrescible and 30–50% non-putrescible, presenting significant resource recovery potential in composting and biogas production. Waste-to-energy (WtE is an important waste management solution that has been successfully implemented and operated in most developed economies. This contribution reports the conditions that would be of interest before WtE potentials of MSW is harnessed, in an efficient waste management process in a developing economy like Nigeria. The investigation presents a set of socio-technical parameters and transition strategy model that would inform a productive MSW management and resource recovery, in which WtE can be part of the solution. This model will find application in the understanding of the interactions between the socio-economic, technical and environmental system, to promote sustainable resource recovery programs in developing economies, among which is WtE.

  2. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  3. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  4. The potential environmental gains from recycling waste plastics: simulation of transferring recycling and recovery technologies to Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xudong; Xi, Fengming; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing attention on developing a low-carbon economy, it is necessary to seek appropriate ways on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through innovative municipal solid waste management (MSWM), such as urban symbiosis. However, quantitative assessments on the environmental benefits of urban symbiosis, especially in developing countries, are limited because only a limited number of planned synergistic activities have been successful and it is difficult to acquire detailed inventory data from private companies. This paper modifies and applies a two-step simulation system and used it to assess the potential environmental benefits, including the reduction of GHG emissions and saving of fossil fuels, by employing various Japanese plastics recycling/energy-recovery technologies in Shenyang, China. The results showed that among various recycling/energy-recovery technologies, the mechanical waste plastics recycling technology, which produces concrete formwork boards (NF boards), has the greatest potential in terms of reducing GHG emissions (1.66 kg CO(2)e/kg plastics), whereas the technology for the production of refuse plastic fuel (RPF) has the greatest potential on saving fossil fuel consumption (0.77 kg ce/kg-plastics). Additional benefits can be gained by applying combined technologies that cascade the utilization of waste plastics. Moreover, the development of clean energy in conjunction with the promotion of new waste plastics recycling programs could contribute to additional reductions in GHG emissions and fossil fuel consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  6. Characteristics and risks of secondary pollutants generation during compression and transfer of municipal solid waste in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Bing; Wu, Dong; Hassan, Muhammad; Huang, Changying

    2015-09-01

    The generation and seasonal variations of secondary pollutants were investigated during three municipal solid waste (MSW) compression and transfer in Shanghai, China. The results showed that the raw wastewater generated from three MSW transfer stations had pH of 4.2-6.0, COD 40,000-70,000mg/L, BOD5 15,000-25,000mg/L, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) 400-700mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) 600-1500mg/L, total phosphorus (TP) 50-200mg/L and suspended solids (SS) 1000-80,000mg/L. The pH, COD, BOD5 and NH3-N did not show regular change throughout the year while the concentration of TN, TP and SS were higher in summer and autumn. The animal and vegetable oil content was extremely high. The average produced raw wastewater of three transfer stations ranged from 2.3% to 8.4% of total refuse. The major air pollutants of H2S 0.01-0.17mg/m(3), NH3 0.75-1.8mg/m(3) in transfer stations, however, the regular seasonal change was not discovered. During the transfer process, the generated leachate in container had pH of 5.7-6.4, SS of 9120-32,475mg/L. The COD and BOD5 were 41,633-89,060mg/L and 18,116-34,130mg/L respectively, higher than that in the compress process. The concentration of NH3-N and TP were 587-1422mg/L and 80-216mg/L, respectively, and both increased during transfer process. H2S, VOC, CH4 and NH3 were 0.4-4mg/m(3), 7-19mg/m(3), 0-3.4% and 1-4mg/m(3), respectively. The PCA analysis showed that the production of secondary pollutants is closely related to temperature, especially CH4. Therefore, avoiding high temperature is a key means of reducing the production of gaseous pollutants. And above all else, refuse classification in source, deodorization and anti-acid corrosion are the important processes to control the secondary pollutants during compression and transfer of MSW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nervous system modification by transplants and gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, L C

    1994-11-01

    New possibilities to modify function and direct repair in the central nervous system (CNS) have been established by the merger of gene transfer technology with neural transplantation. Rapid advances in viral-mediated DNA-delivery procedures permit the study of novel gene expression in neurons and glial cells. Foreign genes, transferred by a virus vector, can be used to generate new cell lines, identify transplanted cells, and express growth factors or enzymes for neurotransmitter synthesis. In addition to CNS cell types, non-neural cells are also being studied with transgene technology in the nervous system. Functional effects have been obtained with grafts of genetically modified cells in animal models of several nervous system disorders, and the recent results set the stage for potential application of these techniques to human CNS gene therapy.

  8. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimei; Huang, Guo He; He, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced Design of Separated Household Waste Collection Systems on the Base of GIS Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ladanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian waste management sector is under transformation now. The new (2012/CLXXXV Law on the Waste applies requirements on the players of the waste market that will result in the reorganization of the whole waste management industrial sector. The aim of the system transformation is enhancing the proportion of separately treated waste in accordance with the EU directives. Emerging waste quantities to be separately treated means challenge for the existing logistic capacities (e.g., collector vehicles; thus evaluation of their actual efficiency and utilization seems to be useful in the course of the transformation. With this object in view, a new separated waste collection system planning approach and a software module were developed on the base of a geographic information system (GIS platform. The software module was designed to help choose and localize the appropriate collection methods and define the logistically effective collector vehicle routes according to the settlement structures of urban environments.

  10. Comparing Waste-to-Energy technologies by applying energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This article asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is carried out by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power as well as wind power. The study shows...... potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are hence interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research...

  11. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.

  12. Solid municipal wastes system using MIME/WASTE model Alava (Spain); Sistema para la gestion de residuos solidos municipales a partir del modelo MIMES/WASTE: el caso de Alava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaraz Minon, M.

    2001-07-01

    Environmental policies in European Union should be able to evolve looking for sustainable development. MIMES/Waste Models (Model for description and optimisation of Integrated Materials Flows and Energy Systems) have been developed for analysing solid waste management systems. This article describes the model and the methodology for using it to analyse municipal waste management systems, and processes to apply it in Alava (Spain). The author explains particularly the possibility of making source separation and later treatment of biodegradable waste fraction of household wastes on the one hand, and efficiency of a waste disposal tax on the other hand. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. Non-deposit system option for waste management on small islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, Monica; Voronova, Viktoria

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses waste management on small islands (on a global scale these are micro-islands). In the context of the paper, small islands are islands that have an area less than 50 km(2) The study presents an overview of the problems connected with waste transport from islands to the mainland. Waste generation on islands is very much related to tourists. If tourists do not handle waste properly, it will cause problems. Four small Estonian islands in the range of 3-19 km(2) are studied in detail. For these and other small islands, the main problem is the waste produced by tourists, or related to tourists and waste transport to the mainland. Currently, the local municipality has to arrange and finance waste transport. In fact, and based on the polluter-pays principle, the tourists should bear the cost of waste management. There are different tax options available in order to collect the money from tourists - waste tax, harbour tax, tourist tax, donations, environmental tax and others. The study results revealed that the best possible solution for Estonian islands may be a non-deposit system - including an additional charge on ferry ticket prices. The extra money should cover the costs of waste management and waste shipping. The tourists arriving in their own boats should pay a harbour tax, which includes a waste tax to compensate for the cost of waste management. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  15. Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

  16. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  17. Integrated management system for radioactive waste repositories (SGI3R)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabio; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br; tellocc@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    The site selection process, the construction and the operation of radioactive wastes repositories should meet the requirements specified by standards and it is usually carried out by professionals from different areas, such as geology, hydrology, biology, chemistry, physics of radiation, meteorology, engineering and law. In Brazil, the data about repository studies are dispersed and they are resultant from individual or small group efforts. Then it is very import to consolidate and recover efficiently this information. In the Center of Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN), the Project Repository includes: the site selection and characterization, technology development for the optimization of the engineering barriers performance, term-source calculation and safety assessment, among others. The results of this project must be integrated, organized and presented in such a way that all data can be useful and easily recovered by the involved areas and institutions. In order to have the effective control of these data and to fulfill the requirements, it will be elaborated and implanted in CDTN/CNEN, a manager system of database, called Integrated Management System for Radioactive Waste Repositories (SGI3R), compatible with Windows(TM) NT and Windows(TM)XP in Access(TM), with the purpose of supplying the managerial and technical needs of the Project Repository. The SGI3R will consist of relational tables, protocols and reports, which will allow the preservation of all the available information, preventing duplication of efforts and additional costs, improving, in this way, the Project planning and execution. (author)

  18. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  19. Effects of prevailing conditions during second Palestinian uprising on solid waste management system in Nablus city in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Zahra, Abdulsalam Abu

    2006-08-01

    Since the start of the second Palestinian uprising (Al-Aqsa Intifada), and due to the Israeli activities, curfews, closures, and military checkpoints imposed since 2000, the quality of social services rendered by Nablus city has been gradually deteriorating. Solid waste management in Nablus city was badly affected by these conditions, and this situation is negatively affecting health and damaging the environment. Most of these cases were due to reasons beyond the capability of the municipality with its limited resources. This study revealed that some of the important municipal solid waste (MSW) equipment had been damaged during the uprising. The workforce in the MSW system was reduced and certain MSW-related development projects and activities have been frozen due to the current conditions. The city's medical waste incinerator had been phased out and the number of special medical containers had been reduced from 16 to 10. Some MSW compressing trucks had been out of use with no substitute. Another important figure is the number of waste collection workers which decreased from 420 to 301, although the city is growing in premises as well as population. The created unsanitary solid waste transfer station is now a pollution source on its own, causing an ugly scene at the eastern entrance of Nablus city. There should be a comprehensive and urgent solution for this problem and the needed resources should be invested.

  20. The distribution and sea-air transfer of volatile mercury in waste post-desulfurization seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lumin; Lin, Shanshan; Feng, Lifeng; Huang, Shuyuan; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-09-01

    The waste seawater discharged in coastal areas from coal-fired power plants equipped with a seawater desulfurization system might carry pollutants such as mercury from the flue gas into the adjacent seas. However, only very limited impact studies have been carried out. Taking a typical plant in Xiamen as an example, the present study targeted the distribution and sea-air transfer flux of volatile mercury in seawater, in order to trace the fate of the discharged mercury other than into the sediments. Samples from 28 sampling sites were collected in the sea area around two discharge outlets of the plant, daily and seasonally. Total mercury, dissolved gaseous mercury and dissolved total mercury in the seawater, as well as gaseous elemental mercury above the sea surface, were investigated. Mean concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury and gaseous elemental mercury in the area were 183 and 4.48 ng m(-3) in summer and 116 and 3.92 ng m(-3) in winter, which were significantly higher than those at a reference site. Based on the flux calculation, the transfer of volatile mercury was from the sea surface into the atmosphere, and more than 4.4 kg mercury, accounting for at least 2.2 % of the total discharge amount of the coal-fired power plant in the sampling area (1 km(2)), was emitted to the air annually. This study strongly suggested that besides being deposited into the sediment and diluted with seawater, emission into the atmosphere was an important fate for the mercury from the waste seawater from coal-fired power plants.

  1. Analysis of the Coupling Coefficient in Inductive Energy Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless energy transfer systems, the energy is transferred from a power source to an electrical load without the need of physical connections. In this scope, inductive links have been widely studied as a way of implementing these systems. Although high efficiency can be achieved when the system is operating in a static state, it can drastically decrease if changes in the relative position and in the coupling coefficient between the coils occur. In this paper, we analyze the coupling coefficient as a function of the distance between two planar and coaxial coils in wireless energy transfer systems. A simple equation is derived from Neumann’s equation for mutual inductance, which is then used to calculate the coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is computed using CST Microwave Studio and compared to calculation and experimental results for two coils with an excitation signal of up to 10 MHz. The results showed that the equation presents good accuracy for geometric parameters that do not lead the solution of the elliptic integral of the first kind to infinity.

  2. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M.

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  3. Aquatic bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of tetrabromobisphenol-A flame retardant introduced from a typical e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Zi-He; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    While the flame retardant chemical, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), has been frequently detected in the environment, knowledge regarding its species-specific bioaccumulation and trophic transfer is limited, especially in the highly contaminated sites. In this study, the components of an aquatic food web, including two invertebrates, two prey fish, and one predator fish, collected from a natural pond at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China were analyzed for TBBP-A, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The aquatic species had TBBP-A concentrations ranging from 350 to 1970 pg/g wet weight, with higher concentrations in the invertebrates relative to the fish species. Field-determined bioaccumulation factors of TBBP-A in the two aquatic invertebrates were nearly or greater than 5000, suggesting that TBBP-A is highly bioaccumulative in the two species. The lipid-normalized concentrations of TBBP-A in the aquatic species were negatively correlated with the trophic levels determined from stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) (r = -0.82, p = 0.09), indicating that this compound experienced trophic dilution in the current food web.

  4. Heat transfer and fluid flow in nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fenech, Henri

    1982-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid in Flow Nuclear Systems discusses topics that bridge the gap between the fundamental principles and the designed practices. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover analysis of the predicting thermal-hydraulics performance of large nuclear reactors and associated heat-exchangers or steam generators of various nuclear systems. Chapter 1 tackles the general considerations on thermal design and performance requirements of nuclear reactor cores. The second chapter deals with pressurized subcooled light water systems, and the third chapter covers boiling water reacto

  5. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  6. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina; Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina

    2012-10-01

    Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO(2) and NO(x). The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-15

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 562 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 562 consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot · CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain · CAS 02-59-01, Septic System · CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain · CAS 02-60-02, French Drain · CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain · CAS 02-60-04, French Drain · CAS 02-60-05, French Drain · CAS 02-60-06, French Drain · CAS 02-60-07, French Drain · CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall · CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap · CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls Closure activities began in October 2011 and were completed in April 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 562 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste and hazardous waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 562 · The transfer of CAU 562 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO

  8. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  9. Tank waste remediation system functions and requirements document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, K.E

    1996-10-03

    This is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document derived from the TWRS Technical Baseline. The document consists of several text sections that provide the purpose, scope, background information, and an explanation of how this document assists the application of Systems Engineering to the TWRS. The primary functions identified in the TWRS Functions and Requirements Document are identified in Figure 4.1 (Section 4.0) Currently, this document is part of the overall effort to develop the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline, and contains the functions and requirements needed to properly define the top three TWRS function levels. TWRS Technical Baseline information (RDD-100 database) included in the appendices of the attached document contain the TWRS functions, requirements, and architecture necessary to define the TWRS Functional Requirements Baseline. Document organization and user directions are provided in the introductory text. This document will continue to be modified during the TWRS life-cycle.

  10. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, S Jimena; Odella, Emmanuel; Moore, Gary F; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2018-01-08

    Artificial photosynthetic constructs can in principle operate more efficiently than natural photosynthesis because they can be rationally designed to optimize solar energy conversion for meeting human demands rather than the multiple needs of an organism competing for growth and reproduction in a complex ecosystem. The artificial photosynthetic constructs described in this Account consist primarily of covalently linked synthetic chromophores, electron donors and acceptors, and proton donors and acceptors that carry out the light absorption, electron transfer, and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes characteristic of photosynthetic cells. PCET is the movement of an electron from one site to another accompanied by proton transfer. PCET and the transport of protons over tens of angstroms are important in all living cells because they are a fundamental link between redox processes and the establishment of transmembrane gradients of proton electrochemical potential, known as proton-motive force (PMF), which is the unifying concept in bioenergetics. We have chosen a benzimidazole phenol (BIP) system as a platform for the study of PCET because with appropriate substitutions it is possible to design assemblies in which one or multiple proton transfers can accompany oxidation of the phenol. In BIP, oxidation of the phenol increases its acidity by more than ten pKa units; thus, electrochemical oxidation of the phenol is associated with a proton transfer to the imidazole. This is an example of a PCET process involving transfer of one electron and one proton, known as electron-proton transfer (EPT). When the benzimidazole moiety of BIP is substituted at the 4-position with good proton acceptor groups such as aliphatic amines, experimental and theoretical results indicate that two proton transfers occur upon one-electron oxidation of the phenol. This phenomenon is described as a one-electron-two-proton transfer (E2PT) process and results in translocation of

  11. The contribution of multidimensional spatial analysis to a waste management policy: implementation of the ELECTRE method for characterizing transfer centers in the region of Oran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, A.; Trache, M. A.; Khelfi, M. F.

    2016-08-01

    The social and economic activity steadily growing in our cities creates a significant waste production in constantly evolving. The management of this waste is problematic because it is the center of many issues and interests. Indeed, any action or decision to the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste should be considered in the economic, social, political and especially environmental aspect. A global Geomatic solution requires implementing a GIS with powerful multidimensional spatial analysis tools that support really waste management problem. Algeria has adopted a solution of waste landfill for all urban cities. In the Oran region, it exists three Centers Controlled landfill (CET) which the most important is that of Hassi-Bounif. This center currently meeting the needs of the region is unsustainable solution at the long-term because of its rapid saturation and its geographic location, which is still far from city centers (20-30 km) implying a negative impact on the vehicle park collecting such frequent breakdowns, the rapid degradation, slow delivery time and especially the high cost of the maintenance operation. This phenomenon is aggravated by the absence of real and actual initiatives targeting the recycling and recovery of waste, which makes the CET an endpoint for all types of waste. We present in this study, the use of the ELECTRE method (Multicriteria Analysis) integrated into a GIS to characterize the impact of the implementation of transfers centers at Oran region. The results of this study will accentuate the advantages of the activation of waste warehouse closer to the city, and relieving considerably the volume of transfer towards CET. The objective of our presentation is to show the leading role of the new Geomatics tools and the multidimensional spatial analysis in the apprehension of an environmental problem such the waste management and more generally in the urban management.

  12. A system dynamics approach for healthcare waste management: a case study in Istanbul Metropolitan City, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciplak, Nesli; Barton, John R

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare waste consists of various types of waste materials generated at hospitals, medical research centres, clinics and laboratories. Although 75-90% of this waste is classified as 'domestic' in nature, 20-25% is deemed to be hazardous, which if not disposed of appropriately, poses a risk to healthcare workers, patients, the environment and even the whole community. As long as healthcare waste is mixed with municipal waste and not segregated prior to disposal, costs will increase substantially. In this study, healthcare waste increases along with the potential to decrease the amounts by implementing effective segregation at healthcare facilities are projected to 2040. Our long-term aim is to develop a system to support selection and planning of the future treatment capacity. Istanbul in Turkey was used as the case study area. In order to identify the factors affecting healthcare waste generation in Istanbul, observations were made and interviews conducted in Istanbul over a 3 month period. A system dynamics approach was adopted to build a healthcare waste management model using a software package, Vensim Ple Plus. Based on reported analysis, the non-hazardous municipal fraction co-disposed with healthcare waste is around 65%. Using the projected waste generation flows, reducing a municipal fraction to 30% has the potential to avoid some 8000 t year(-1) of healthcare waste by 2025 and almost 10 000 t year(-1) by 2035. Furthermore, if segregation practices ensured healthcare waste requiring incineration was also selectively managed, 77% of healthcare waste could be diverted to alternative treatment technologies. As the throughput capacity of the only existing healthcare waste treatment facility in Istanbul, Kemerburgaz Incinerator, has already been exceeded, it is evident that improved management could not only reduce overall flows and costs but also permit alternative and cheaper treatment systems (e.g. autoclaving) to be adopted for the healthcare waste.

  13. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.D. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions.

  15. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  16. Phase behaviour of transfer functions in vibrating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jianyuan; Ohlrich, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicabilities of pole-zero models and wave propagation theory in estimating the phase characteristics of vibrating systems. The measured phase spectra are compared with the estimated reverberant phase limit and wave propagation phase. The relations between transfer...... on frequency in this band, but from the transition frequency and onwards the phase increases only with the square root of frequency. This behaviour is characteristic for free propagating waves....

  17. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Michihiro; Tsuruta, Takashi; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    Sewage works facilities consist of various assets groups. And there are many kinds of financial resources. In order to optimize the maintenance plan, and to secure the stability and sustainability of sewage works management, it is necessary to carry out financial simulation based on the life-cycle cost analysis. Furthermore, it is important to develop management accounting system that is interlinked with the financial accounting system, because many sewage administration bodies have their financial accounting systems as public enterprises. In this paper, a management accounting system, which is designed to provide basic information for asset management of sewage works facilities, is presented. Also the applicability of the management accounting system presented in this paper is examined through financial simulations.

  18. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Waste Management System, Unit 4. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 4 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to explain how transportation, a geologic repository, and the multi-purpose canister will work together to provide short-term and long-term…

  19. Improving waste management through a process of learning: the South African waste information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available have been successful in collecting waste data. Through a process of learning, these organisations have utilised this waste data to inform and manage their operations. The drivers of such data collection efforts were seen to be financial (business...

  20. A DYNAMICAL SYSTEM APPROACH IN MODELING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie Husniah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss a mathematical model of two parties technology transfer from a leader to a follower. The model is reconstructed via dynamical system approach from a known standard Raz and Assa model and we found some important conclusion which have not been discussed in the original model. The model assumes that in the absence of technology transfer from a leader to a follower, both the leader and the follower have a capability to grow independently with a known upper limit of the development. We obtain a rich mathematical structure of the steady state solution of the model. We discuss a special situation in which the upper limit of the technological development of the follower is higher than that of the leader, but the leader has started earlier than the follower in implementing the technology. In this case we show a paradox stating that the follower is unable to reach its original upper limit of the technological development could appear whenever the transfer rate is sufficiently high.  We propose a new model to increase realism so that any technological transfer rate could only has a positive effect in accelerating the rate of growth of the follower in reaching its original upper limit of the development.

  1. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elicio, Andy U. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-05

    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  2. New magnet transport system for the LHC beam transfer lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system (pictured here in one of the tunnels) is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The lead vehicle is powered by an electric rail set into the roof of the tunnel. The system is backed up by electrical batteries that enable it to operate in the absence of an outside power source or in the event of power failure. Last but not least, for the long-distance transport of magnets, it can be optically guided by a line traced on the tunnel floor. The convoy moves through the particularly narr...

  3. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy efficiency in the waste water system; Energieeffizienz im Abwasserbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panckow, Kathrin; Wienke, Andreas (comps.)

    2008-08-15

    The volume 51 of the publication series of the Municipal Environmental Campaign U.A.N. (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the energy efficiency in the waste water section. This volume consists of the following contributions: (a) How much energy is necessary for the sewage plant? (Artur Mennerich); (b) Possibilities of energy saving in the sewer system (Wolfgang Buehler); (c) Possibilities of energy saving at sewage plants: a Survey (Ulf Theilen); (d) Possibilities of energy saving at sewage plants: Examples from the practice (Wilfried Osterloh); (e) Review of the possibilities of power generation at sewage plants (K.-H. Rosenwinkel, Linda Hinken); (f) Potentials of production and utilization of fouling gas (Johannes Mueller); (g) Realisation of a 5 MW biological gas facility with waste heat utilization for sewage sludge drying (Marc Stueben); (h) The micro gas turbine: An alternative for the compact cogeneration plant (Christian Schaum); (i) PR report: Energy efficiency - (rational utilization of energy), energy concepts - (analysis of energy, strategic perspectives) (Martin Mergelmeyer, Gerhard Seibert-Erling).

  5. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  6. Improvement of the material and transport component of the system of construction waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyshak, Mikhail; Lunyakov, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    Relevance of the topic of selected research is conditioned with the growth of construction operations and growth rates of construction and demolition wastes. This article considers modern approaches to the management of turnover of construction waste, sequence of reconstruction or demolition processes of the building, information flow of the complete cycle of turnover of construction and demolition waste, methods for improvement of the material and transport component of the construction waste management system. Performed analysis showed that mechanism of management of construction waste allows to increase efficiency and environmental safety of this branch and regions.

  7. Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics

    2004-07-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)

  8. Use of flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) waste and rejected fly ash in waste stabilization/solidification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X C; Poon, C S; Cheeseman, C

    2006-01-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes have been used as the final treatment step for hazardous wastes prior to land disposal. Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired power generation; a significant proportion of this material is low-grade, reject material (rFA) that is unsuitable as a cement replacement due to its high carbon content and large particle size (>45 microm). Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) sludge is a by-product from the air pollution control systems used in coal-fired power plants. The objective of this work was to investigate the performance of S/S waste binder systems containing these two waste materials (rFA and FGD). Strength tests show that cement-based waste forms with rFA and FGD replacement were suitable for disposal in landfills. The addition of an appropriate quantity of Ca(OH)2 and FGD reduces the deleterious effect of heavy metals on strength development. Results of TCLP testing and the progressive TCLP test show that cement-rFA-Ca(OH)2 systems with a range of FGD additions can form an effective S/S binder. The Leachability Index indicates that cement-based waste forms with rFA replacement were effective in reducing the mobility of heavy metals.

  9. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  10. E-Beam—a new transfer system for isolator technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Theo; Huber, Thomas

    2002-03-01

    In every aseptic filling application, the sterile transfer of goods into the aseptic area is a challenge, and there are many different ways to do it. With isolator technology a higher sterility assurance level (SAL) is achieved. This SAL is only as good as the weakest segment in the chain of manufacturing. The transfer of goods into and out of the isolator is one of these critical segments. Today different techniques, some already well established, others still very new, are available on the market like: dry heat tunnel, autoclave, pulsed light, rapid transfer systems (RTP), H 2O 2 tunnel, UV light, etc. all these systems are either not applicable for continuous transfer, only good for heat-compatible materials like glass, or do not guarantee a 6 log spore reduction. E-Beam opens new perspectives in this field. With E-beam technology it is possible to transfer heat-sensitive (plastic), pre-sterilised materials at high speed, continuously into an aseptic area. E-Beam unifies three different technologies, that result in a very efficient and high-speed decontamination machine designed for the pharmaceutical industry. First, there is the electron beam that decontaminates the goods and an accurate shielding that protects the surrounding from this beam. Second, there is the conveyor system that guarantees the output and the correct exposure time underneath the beam. And third, there is the isolator interface to provide correct differential pressure and clean air inside the tunnel as well as the decontamination of the tunnel with H 2O 2 prior to production. The E-beam is a low-energy electron beam, capable of decontaminating any kind of surface. It penetrates only a few micrometers into the material and therefore does not deform the packaging media. Currently, machines are being built to transfer pre-sterilised syringes, packed in plastic tubs with a Tyvek cover into an aseptic filling isolator with the following data: decontamination efficiency of 10 6 (6 log spore

  11. Final Report For The Erosion And Corrosion Analysis Of Waste Transfer Primary Pipeline Sections From 241-SY Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, J. S.; Wyrwas, R. B.; Cooke, G. A.

    2012-10-04

    Three sections of primary transfer pipeline removed from the 241-SY Tank Farm in Hanford's 200 West area, labeled as SN-285, SN-286, and SN-278, were analyzed for the presence and amount of corrosion and erosion on the inside surface of the transfer pipe. All three sections of pipe, ranging in length between 6 and 8 in., were received at the 222-S Laboratory still in the pipe-in-pipe assembly. The annular spaces were filled with urethane foam injected into the pipes for as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) purposes. The 3-in. primary transfer pipes were first separated from the outer encasement, 6-in. pipes. The pipes were cut into small sections, or coupons, based upon the results of a non-destructive pipe wall thickness measurement which used an ultrasonic transducer. Following removal of the foam, the coupons were subjected to a series of analytical methods utilizing both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to obtain erosion and corrosion information. The ultrasonic transducer analysis of the SN-285 primary pipe did not show any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for the 3-in. schedule 40 pipe of 216 mils. A coupon was cut from the thinnest area on the pipe, and analysis of the inside surface, which was in contact with the tank waste, revealed a continuous layer of corrosion ~ 100 11m (4 mils) thick under a semi-continuous layer of tank waste residue ~ 20 11m (1 mil) thick. This residue layer was composed of an amorphous phase rich in chromium, magnesium, calcium, and chlorine. Small pits were detected throughout the inside pipe surface with depths up to ~ 50 11m (2 mils). Similarly, the SN-286 primary pipe did not show, by the ultrasonic transducer measurements, any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for this pipe. Analysis of the coupon cut from the pipe section showed the presence of a tank waste layer containing sodium aluminate and phases rich in iron, calcium

  12. Coupling plant growth and waste recycling systems in a controlled life support system (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Jay L.

    1992-01-01

    The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One significant waste (resource) stream is inedible plant material. This research compared wheat growth in hydroponic solutions based on inorganic salts (modified Hoagland's) with solutions based on the soluble fraction of inedible wheat biomass (leachate). Recycled nutrients in leachate solutions provided the majority of mineral nutrients for plant growth, although additions of inorganic nutrients to leachate solutions were necessary. Results indicate that plant growth and waste recyling systems can be effectively coupled within CELSS based on equivalent wheat yield in leachate and Hoagland solutions, and the rapid mineralization of waste organic material in the hydroponic systems. Selective enrichment for microbial communities able to mineralize organic material within the leachate was necessary to prevent accumulation of dissolved organic matter in leachate-based solutions. Extensive analysis of microbial abundance, growth, and activity in the hydroponic systems indicated that addition of soluble organic material from plants does not cause excessive microbial growth or 'biofouling', and helped define the microbially-mediated flux of carbon in hydroponic solutions.

  13. The use of ACV in the integrated waste systems of waste management; El uso del ACV en el desarrollo de sistemas integrados de gestion de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, F. R.; Navarro, M

    2000-07-01

    The treatment systems of Solid Wastes must be conceived for minimizing the environment charge originated by them and to be economically assumed by the sectors of a community. The waste integrated management represents a global proposal which implies a wide range of different treatment options for all waste. (Author)

  14. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrakal, Suna [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  15. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brann, E.C. II

    1994-09-09

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  16. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosnick, C.K.

    1996-04-19

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  17. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  18. Specific gene repression by CRISPRi system transferred through bacterial conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Weiyue; Lee, Derrick; Wong, Eric; Dadlani, Priyanka; Dinh, David; Huang, Verna; Kearns, Kendall; Teng, Sherry; Chen, Susan; Haliburton, John; Heimberg, Graham; Heineike, Benjamin; Ramasubramanian, Anusuya; Stevens, Thomas; Helmke, Kara J; Zepeda, Veronica; Qi, Lei S; Lim, Wendell A

    2014-12-19

    In microbial communities, bacterial populations are commonly controlled using indiscriminate, broad range antibiotics. There are few ways to target specific strains effectively without disrupting the entire microbiome and local environment. Here, we use conjugation, a natural DNA horizontal transfer process among bacterial species, to deliver an engineered CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system for targeting specific genes in recipient Escherichia coli cells. We show that delivery of the CRISPRi system is successful and can specifically repress a reporter gene in recipient cells, thereby establishing a new tool for gene regulation across bacterial cells and potentially for bacterial population control.

  19. Optimized trajectories of the transfer cask system in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Filipe [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vale, Alberto, E-mail: avale@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fonte, Daniel [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, Isabel [Institute for Systems and Robotics, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    The transfer cask system (TCS) is one of the remote handling systems that will operate in ITER, transporting heavy and highly activated in-vessel components between the tokamak building and the hot cell building. A motion planning methodology for the TCS was developed, providing smooth paths that maximize the clearance to obstacles and that incorporate manoeuvres whenever necessary. This paper presents the results of the TCS planning algorithm with trajectories computed for nominal operations. The length of the journey, the velocity, the time duration, and the risk of collision were evaluated individually for each trajectory. A summary of all results, conclusions and future work are presented and discussed.

  20. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  1. Using information management systems to support waste minimization at US Army installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, R.S.; Butner, R.S.; Callaway, J.W.; Levine, L.O.

    1990-04-01

    The Army's to reduce hazardous waste generation emphasize reduction at the source. Waste minimization and environmental regulatory compliance are also being integrated into strategies and activities aimed at modernization of industrial operations. The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition (ASARDA) is conducting a Hazardous Waste Intervention study to understand and evaluate the existing operations and to assess waste minimization opportunities. The overall ASARDA study consists of several teams working on various aspects of hazardous waste intervention at Army installations. The first team is investigating methods of minimizing hazardous waste by modifying the acquisition cycle. This effort is aimed at reducing the generation of hazardous waste by reducing the number and the quantities of hazardous materials that are specified in program and product development. A second team is investigating the technological aspects of waste minimization. Finally, a third team is investigating opportunities for waste minimization by better managing the life-cycle of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. The third team is involved in several tasks, including evaluating the feasibility of using Information Management Systems (IMS) to support waste minimization. This paper summarizes the primary conclusions and recommendations from the information management system evaluation portion of PNL's work.

  2. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  3. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)). © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) transfer orbit attitude control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placanica, Samuel J.; Flatley, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft will be launched by the Shuttle from Vandenberg AFB into a 300 km altitude, 99 deg inclination, 6 a.m. or 6 p.m. ascending node orbit. After release from the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, an on-board monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system will raise the orbit altitude to 900 km. The spacecraft continuously spins during transfer orbit operations with the spin axis nominally horizontal and in or near the orbit plane. The blowdown propulsion system consists of twelve 5 lb thrusters (3 'spin', 3 'despin', and 6 'axial') with the latter providing initially 30 lb of force parallel to the spin axis for orbit raising. The spin/despin jets provide a constant roll rate during the transfer orbit phase of the mission and the axials control pitch and yaw. The axial thrusters are pulsed on for attitude control during coast periods and are normally on- and off-modulated for control during orbit raising. Attitude sensors employed in the control loops include an array of two-axis digital sun sensors and three planar earth scanners for position measurements, as well as six gyroscopes for rate information. System redundancy is achieved by means of unique three-axes-in-a-plane geometry. This triaxial concept results in a fail-safe operational system with no performance degradation for many different component failure modes.

  5. Waste Management Using a Multilevel Distributed System and Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DANILESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration is conducted through the control of events and management of problems in the territory. Economical growth and nowadays technologies lead to difficult problems related to environmental protection against pollution and to people safety against various direct threats from air soil, food. In this respect, an increasing importance get the collection of information and its processing and interpretation just to understand and discover threats and potential disturbance of the environment and health. The paper proposes a multilevel system for the administrative bodies involved in environment matters at local regional and national levels, which may collect and scrutiny data on waste generation, spread and reuse/elimination, and provide sound instruments to assist decision makers of the corresponding levels, using Data Mining and Business Intelligence.

  6. Installing and Commissioning a New Radioactive Waste Tracking System - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Miklos Garamszeghy; Fred Rodrigues; Ed Nicholls

    2005-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) recognizes the importance of information management particularly with regards to its low and intermediate level waste program. Various computer based waste tracking systems have been used in OPG since the 1980s. These systems tracked the physical receipt, processing, storage, and inventory of the waste. As OPG moved towards long-term management (e.g. disposal), it was recognized that tracking of more detailed waste characterization information was important. This required either substantial modification of the existing system to include a waste characterization module or replacing it entirely with a new system. After a detailed review of available options, it was decided that the existing waste tracking application would be replaced with the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS). Installing and commissioning a system which must receive historical operational waste management information (data) and provide new features, required much more attention than was originally considered. The operational readiness of IWTS required extensive vetting and preparation of historic data (which itself had been created from multiple databases in varied formats) to ensure a consistent format for import of some 30,000-container records, and merging and linking these container records to a waste stream based characterization database. This paper will discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses contributing to project success or hindrance so that others can understand and minimize the difficulties inherent in a project of this magnitude.

  7. Performance Analysis of Thermoelectric Based Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System with Nanofluid Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Output performance of a thermoelectric-based automotive waste heat recovery system with a nanofluid coolant is analyzed in this study. Comparison between Cu-Ethylene glycol (Cu-EG nanofluid coolant and ethylene glycol with water (EG-W coolant under equal mass flow rate indicates that Cu-EG nanofluid as a coolant can effectively improve power output and thermoelectric conversion efficiency for the system. Power output enhancement for a 3% concentration of nanofluid is 2.5–8 W (12.65–13.95% compared to EG-Water when inlet temperature of exhaust varies within 500–710 K. The increase of nanofluid concentration within a realizable range (6% has positive effect on output performance of the system. Study on the relationship between total area of thermoelectric modules (TEMs and output performance of the system indicates that optimal total area of TEMs exists for maximizing output performance of the system. Cu-EG nanofluid as coolant can decrease optimal total area of TEMs compared with EG-W, which will bring significant advantages for the optimization and arrangement of TEMs whether the system space is sufficient or not. Moreover, power output enhancement under Cu-EG nanofluid coolant is larger than that of EG-W coolant due to the increase of hot side heat transfer coefficient of TEMs.

  8. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never

  9. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  10. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-02-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation. The oxidant, or mediator, is a multivalent transition metal ion which is cleanly recycled in a number of charge transfer steps in an electrochemical cell. The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70{degrees}C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques. Although the oxidation of organics and the dissolution of transuranics by higher valency metal ions has been known for some time, applying the MEO technology to waste treatment is a relatively recent development. Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and

  11. Open conformal systems and perturbations of transfer operators

    CERN Document Server

    Pollicott, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this book is on open conformal dynamical systems corresponding to the escape of a point through an open Euclidean ball. The ultimate goal is to understand the asymptotic behavior of the escape rate as the radius of the ball tends to zero. In the case of hyperbolic conformal systems this has been addressed by various authors. The conformal maps considered in this book are far more general, and the analysis correspondingly more involved. The asymptotic existence of escape rates is proved and they are calculated in the context of (finite or infinite) countable alphabets, uniformly contracting conformal graph-directed Markov systems, and in particular, conformal countable alphabet iterated function systems. These results have direct applications to interval maps, meromorphic maps and rational functions. Towards this goal the authors develop, on a purely symbolic level, a theory of singular perturbations of Perron--Frobenius (transfer) operators associated with countable alphabet subshifts of finite t...

  12. Ultrafast Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Bimolecular Donor-Acceptor Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsulami, Qana A.

    2016-11-30

    The efficiency of photoconversion systems, such as organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, is largely controlled by a series of fundamental photophysical processes occurring at the interface before carrier collection. A profound understanding of ultrafast interfacial charge transfer (CT), charge separation (CS), and charge recombination (CR) is the key determinant to improving the overall performances of photovoltaic devices. The discussion in this dissertation primarily focuses on the relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier transport, carrier recombination and carrier collection in organic photovoltaic devices. A combination of steady-state and femtosecond broadband transient spectroscopies was used to investigate the photoinduced charge carrier dynamics in various donor-acceptor systems. Furthermore, this study was extended to investigate some important factors that influence charge transfer in donor-acceptor systems, such as the morphology, energy band alignment, electronic properties and chemical structure. Interestingly, clear correlations among the steady-state measurements, time-resolved spectroscopy results, grain alignment of the electron transporting layer (ETL), carrier mobility, and device performance are found. In this thesis, we explored the significant impacts of ultrafast charge separation and charge recombination at donor/acceptor (D/A) interfaces on the performance of a conjugated polymer PTB7-Th device with three fullerene acceptors: PC71BM, PC61BM and IC60BA. Time-resolved laser spectroscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy can illustrate the basis for fabricating solar cell devices with improved performances. In addition, we studied the effects of the incorporation of heavy metals into π-conjugated chromophores on electron transfer by monitoring the triplet state lifetime of the oligomer using transient absorption spectroscopy, as understanding the mechanisms controlling intersystem crossing and

  13. Part II - The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Linda [CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Scott, Dianne [University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Development Studies, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Difford, Mark [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE - Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This empirical study explores the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows that 'Experience, Data and Theory' account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strategic framework for Municipalities emerged from this study. - Abstract: Combining the process of learning and the theory of planned behaviour into a new theoretical framework provides an opportunity to explore the impact of data on waste behaviour, and consequently on waste management, in South Africa. Fitting the data to the theoretical framework shows that there are only three constructs which have a significant effect on behaviour, viz experience, knowledge, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Knowledge has a significant influence on all three of the antecedents to behavioural intention (attitude, subjective norm and PBC). However, it is PBC, and not intention, that has the greatest influence on waste behaviour. While respondents may have an intention to act, this intention does not always manifest as actual waste behaviour, suggesting limited volitional control. The theoretical framework accounts for 53.7% of the variance in behaviour, suggesting significant external influences on behaviour not accounted for in the framework. While the theoretical model remains the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57.6% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in private organisations. The results suggest that respondents in public and private waste organisations are subject to different structural forces that shape knowledge, intention, and resultant waste behaviour.

  14. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, S.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of feed composition on the performance of the high-level vitrification process. It is assumed in this study that the tank wastes are retrieved and blended by tank farms, producing 12 different blends from the single-shell tank farms, two blends of double-shell tank waste, and a separately defined all-tank blend. This blending scenario was chosen only for evaluating the impact of composition on the volume of high- level waste glass produced. Special glass compositions were formulated for each waste blend based on glass property models and the properties of similar glasses. These glasses were formulated to meet the applicable viscosity, electrical conductivity, and liquidus temperature constraints for the identified candidate melters. Candidate melters in this study include the low-temperature stirred melter, which operates at 1050{degrees}C; the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid-fed ceramic melter, which operates at 1150{degrees}C; and the high-temperature, joule-heated melter and the cold-crucible melter, which operate over a temperature range of 1150{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. In the most conservative case, it is estimated that 61,000 MT of glass will be produced if the Site`s high-level wastes are retrieved by tank farms and processed in the reference joule-heated melter. If an all-tank blend was processed under the same conditions, the reference melter would produce 21,250 MT of glass. If cross-tank blending were used, it is anticipated that $2.0 billion could be saved in repository disposal costs (based on an average disposal cost of $217,000 per canister) by blending the S, SX, B, and T Tank Farm wastes with other wastes prior to vitrification. General blending among all the tank farms is expected to produce great potential benefit.

  15. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    to be adjusted based on the waste changes. Marginal costs of diversion strategies in existing WtE facilities depend completely on the response in such facility. However, regardless of the response type, it was demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion are several times different than average costs. Hence......The Solid Waste Management (SWM) sector has evolved from a simple control of emissions towards a resource recovery sector while still being constrained by strict emission regulations. For that waste authorities are paying increased attention to the waste hierarchy as a set of priorities for solid...... waste treatment options to boost this shift towards higher resource recovery. In this hierarchy, waste prevention has the highest priority, followed by re-use and recycling options, and what cannot be recycled should be energy recovered; and, finally, the least favoured option is disposal in landfills...

  16. A review on organic waste to energy systems in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Rakesh

    2017-12-01

    Waste generation is increasing day-by-day with the growth of population which directly affects the environment and economy. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) and agriculture sectors contribute towards maximum waste generation in India. Thus, management of organic waste is very much essential with the increasing demand for energy. The present paper mainly focusses on reviewing waste to energy (WtE) potentials, its technologies, and the associated challenges. Different substrates are utilized through various technological options in India. Organic waste has good potential to attain sustainable energy yields with and without affecting the environment. A realistic scenario of WtE technologies and their challenges in line with the existing Indian condition is presented in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Problems associated with solid wastes from energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y.; Fradkin, L.; Barisas, S.; Surles, T.; Morris, S.; Crowther, A.; DeCarlo, V.

    1980-09-01

    Waste streams from many energy-related technologies including coal, oil shale, tar sands, geothermal, oil and gas extraction, and nuclear power generation are reviewed with an emphasis on waste streams from coal and oil shale technologies. This study has two objectives. The first objective is to outline the available information on energy-related solid wastes. Data on chemical composition and hazardous biological characteristics are included, supplemented by regulatory reviews and data on legally designated hazardous waste streams. The second objective is to provide disposal and utilization options. Solid waste disposal and recovery requirements specified under the RCRA are emphasized. Information presented herein should be useful for policy, environmental control, and research and development decision making regarding solid and hazardous wastes from energy production.

  18. EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE ANTIFOAM AGENTS, NOBLE METALS, MIXING SYSTEMS AND MASS TRANSFER ON GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE FROM NONNEWTONIAN SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, H; Mark Fowley, M; Charles Crawford, C; Michael Restivo, M; Robert Leishear, R

    2007-12-24

    Gas holdup tests performed in a small-scale mechanically-agitated mixing system at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) were reported in 2006. The tests were for a simulant of waste from the Hanford Tank 241-AZ-101 and featured additions of DOW Corning Q2-3183A Antifoam agent. Results indicated that this antifoam agent (AFA) increased gas holdup in the waste simulant by about a factor of four and, counter intuitively, that the holdup increased as the simulant shear strength decreased (apparent viscosity decreased). These results raised questions about how the AFA might affect gas holdup in Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels mixed by air sparging and pulse-jet mixers (PJMs). And whether the WTP air supply system being designed would have the capacity to handle a demand for increased airflow to operate the sparger-PJM mixing systems should the AFA increase retention of the radiochemically generated flammable gases in the waste by making the gas bubbles smaller and less mobile, or decrease the size of sparger bubbles making them mix less effectively for a given airflow rate. A new testing program was developed to assess the potential effects of adding the DOW Corning Q2-3183A AFA to WTP waste streams by first confirming the results of the work reported in 2006 by Stewart et al. and then determining if the AFA in fact causes such increased gas holdup in a prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system, or if the increased holdup is just a feature of the small-scale agitation system. Other elements of the new program include evaluating effects other variables could have on gas holdup in systems with AFA additions such as catalysis from trace noble metals in the waste, determining mass transfer coefficients for the AZ-101 waste simulant, and determining whether other AFA compositions such as Dow Corning 1520-US could also increase gas holdup in Hanford waste. This new testing program was split into two investigations, prototypic sparger

  19. Enhacements to the TTS-502 time transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, A. J.; Hua, Q. D.

    1985-04-01

    Two years ago STI introduced an affordable, relatively compact time transfer system on the market -- the TTS-502, and described that system at the 1981 PTTI conference. Over the past few months, that system has been improved, and new features have been added. In addition, new options have been made available to further enhance the capabilities of the system. These enhancements include the addition of a positioning algorithm and new options providing a corrected 5 MHz output that is phase coherent with the 1 pps output, and providing an internal Rubidium Oscillator. The Positioning Algorithm was developed because not all time transfer users had the luxury of the Defense Mapping Agency's (DMA) services for determining their position in WGS-72 coordinates. The enhanced TTS-502 determines the GPS position anywhere in the world, independent of how many GPS satellites are concurrently visible. However, convergence time to a solution is inversely proportional to the number of satellites concurrently visible and the quality of frequency standard used in conjunction with the TTS-502. Real World solution results will be presented for a variety of cases and satellite scheduling scenarios. Typically, positioning accuracies were achieved better than 5 to 10 meters r.s.s. using the C/A code only at Sunnyvale, California.

  20. Model predictive control of a waste heat recovery system for automotive diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.; De Jager, B.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is designed for an automotive Waste Heat Recovery system with two parallel evaporators. The objective is to maximize Waste Heat Recovery system output power, while satisfying safe operation under highly dynamic disturbances from the

  1. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-05

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor`s Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission.

  2. Future scenario development within life cycle assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina

    and LCAs of waste management systems. The study developed a systematic definition of importance of LCA model parameters based on their input uncertainty and their sensitivity on results with a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach. Within LCAs of waste management systems, the GSA approach allowed...

  3. 75 FR 3948 - Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Big Sky Energy Corp., Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc., Biometrics Security Technology, Inc., Biosys... Energy Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended December 31, 2006. It... concerning the securities of Biomedical Waste Systems, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  4. Detailed Modeling and Irreversible Transfer Process Analysis of a Multi-Element Thermoelectric Generator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Heng; Gou, Xiaolong; Yang, Suwen

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) power generation technology, due to its several advantages, is becoming a noteworthy research direction. Many researchers conduct their performance analysis and optimization of TE devices and related applications based on the generalized thermoelectric energy balance equations. These generalized TE equations involve the internal irreversibility of Joule heating inside the thermoelectric device and heat leakage through the thermoelectric couple leg. However, it is assumed that the thermoelectric generator (TEG) is thermally isolated from the surroundings except for the heat flows at the cold and hot junctions. Since the thermoelectric generator is a multi-element device in practice, being composed of many fundamental TE couple legs, the effect of heat transfer between the TE couple leg and the ambient environment is not negligible. In this paper, based on basic theories of thermoelectric power generation and thermal science, detailed modeling of a thermoelectric generator taking account of the phenomenon of energy loss from the TE couple leg is reported. The revised generalized thermoelectric energy balance equations considering the effect of heat transfer between the TE couple leg and the ambient environment have been derived. Furthermore, characteristics of a multi-element thermoelectric generator with irreversibility have been investigated on the basis of the new derived TE equations. In the present investigation, second-law-based thermodynamic analysis (exergy analysis) has been applied to the irreversible heat transfer process in particular. It is found that the existence of the irreversible heat convection process causes a large loss of heat exergy in the TEG system, and using thermoelectric generators for low-grade waste heat recovery has promising potential. The results of irreversibility analysis, especially irreversible effects on generator system performance, based on the system model established in detail have guiding significance for

  5. A system dynamics-based environmental performance simulation of construction waste reduction management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue

    2016-05-01

    A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (APT-MS) Mechanical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William V.

    1995-01-01

    During the last two feet or so of transfer, for a large or heavy payload to its restraining fixture, the consequences of unplanned contact (or impact) between payload and support structure can range from merely annoying to something approaching disaster. Current transfer methods employ technicians with meter sticks stationed at the various hold-down locations to estimate the distances to contact. This information is communicated orally to the crane operator. It is understandable that this work proceeds carefully and therefore slowly. The objectives of this study are (1) to explore mechanical sources of measurement error; and (2) to develop an improved prototype design that is compact, inexpensive, and addresses the measurement error issues. APT is a relatively inexpensive electro-mechanical device that reduces both time and manpower required to make shuttle payload transfers. APT measurement system would provide a GUI for the 'move-conductor' (crane operator) so he could see the displacements of all hold-down interfaces as they move together and thus have a more accurate, comprehensive and 'real-time' picture of the engagement activity. An error model attempts to include all estimatable sources of mechanical error and design features were introduced to reduce or eliminate major sources of error.

  7. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.B.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.K.; Ringbauer, Jr., J.A.; He, Q.; Zhou, J.; Voordouw, G.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Hazen, T.C.; Stolyar, S.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  8. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-06-22

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  9. Implementation of the waste management transfer act. Requirements from a regulatory point of view; Zur Umsetzung des Entsorgungsuebergangsgesetzes. Anforderungen aus regulatorischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Dehn, Christian [PreussenElektra GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Regulierung, Grundsatzfragen

    2017-11-15

    In future in Germany, the state will be responsible for financing and handling the interim and final storage of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants. With regard to interim storage, this objective is achieved with the provisions of the Waste Management Transfer Act. Regulatory implementation is based on these regulations. BGZ Gesellschaft fuer Zwischenlager mbH is responsible for interim storage on behalf of the Federal Government. Simultaneously with the transfer of interim storage facilities to BGZ a legal transfer of approval is carried out. Insofar as there is a technical, organisational or personnel conjunction with the nuclear power plant operation, which continues to exist beyond this deadline and is relevant for regulatory purposes, a regulation is made via a service contract with the BGZ. This ensures compliance with the licensing regulations. Irradiated fuel assemblies and the waste from reprocessing can be handed over to BGZ from 1 January 2019 onwards and waste with negligible heat generation can be disposed of as of the determination of their proper packaging.

  10. National information network and database system of hazardous waste management in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongchang [National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Industries in China generate large volumes of hazardous waste, which makes it essential for the nation to pay more attention to hazardous waste management. National laws and regulations, waste surveys, and manifest tracking and permission systems have been initiated. Some centralized hazardous waste disposal facilities are under construction. China`s National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has also obtained valuable information on hazardous waste management from developed countries. To effectively share this information with local environmental protection bureaus, NEPA developed a national information network and database system for hazardous waste management. This information network will have such functions as information collection, inquiry, and connection. The long-term objective is to establish and develop a national and local hazardous waste management information network. This network will significantly help decision makers and researchers because it will be easy to obtain information (e.g., experiences of developed countries in hazardous waste management) to enhance hazardous waste management in China. The information network consists of five parts: technology consulting, import-export management, regulation inquiry, waste survey, and literature inquiry.

  11. Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1997 multi-year workplan WBS 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.E.

    1996-09-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program to manage and immobilize for disposal the waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The TWRS program was established as a DOE major system acquisition under an approved Justification of Mission Need (JMN) dated January 19, 1993. The JMN states that the purpose of the TWRS Program is to: Resolve the tank waste safety issues; Integrate the waste disposal mission with the ongoing waste management mission; Assess the technical bases for tank waste management and disposal; Determine the technology available and develop any needed technologies; and Establish a dedicated organization and provide the resources to meet the technical challenge. The principal objectives of management of existing and future tank wastes is to cost-effectively minimize the environmental, safety, and health risks associated with stored wastes, with reduction of safety risks given the highest priority. The potentials must be minimized for release of tank wastes to the air and to the ground (and subsequently to the groundwater) and for exposure of the operating personnel to tank wastes.

  12. Transportable Vitrification System RCRA Closure Practical Waste Disposition Saves Time And Money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody

    2003-02-26

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude.

  13. Energy systems analysis of waste to energy technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.

    2009-04-15

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO{sub 2} reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together, the two solutions may contribute to an alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority given to combined heat and power plants with high electrical efficiencies. (author)

  14. A roadmap for development of sustainable E-waste management system in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wath, Sushant B; Vaidya, Atul N; Dutt, P S; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2010-12-01

    The problem of E-waste has forced Environmental agencies of many countries to innovate, develop and adopt environmentally sound options and strategies for E-waste management, with a view to mitigate and control the ever growing threat of E-waste to the environment and human health. E-waste management is given the top priority in many developed countries, but in rapid developing countries like India, it is difficult to completely adopt or replicate the E-waste management system in developed countries due to many country specific issues viz. socio-economic conditions, lack of infrastructure, absence of appropriate legislations for E-waste, approach and commitments of the concerned, etc. This paper presents a review and assessment of the E-waste management system of developed as well as developing countries with a special emphasis on Switzerland, which is the first country in the world to have established and implemented a formal E-waste management system and has recycled 11kg/capita of WEEE against the target of 4kg/capita set by EU. And based on the discussions of various approaches, laws, legislations, practices of different countries, a road map for the development of sustainable and effective E-waste management system in India for ensuring environment, as well as, occupational safety and health, is proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental Study of RF Energy Transfer System in Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, S.-E.; Proynov, P. P.; Stark, B. H.; Hilton, G. S.; Craddock, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a multi-transmitter, 2.43 GHz Radio-Frequency (RF) wireless power transfer (WPT) system for powering on-body devices. It is shown that under typical indoor conditions, the received power range spans several orders of magnitude from microwatts to milliwatts. A body-worn dual-polarised rectenna (rectifying antenna) is presented, designed for situations where the dominant polarization is unpredictable, as is the case for the on-body sensors. Power management circuitry is demonstrated that optimally loads the rectenna even under highly intermittent conditions, and boosts the voltage to charge an on-board storage capacitor.

  16. User Interface Technology Transfer to NASA's Virtual Wind Tunnel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDam, Andries

    1998-01-01

    Funded by NASA grants for four years, the Brown Computer Graphics Group has developed novel 3D user interfaces for desktop and immersive scientific visualization applications. This past grant period supported the design and development of a software library, the 3D Widget Library, which supports the construction and run-time management of 3D widgets. The 3D Widget Library is a mechanism for transferring user interface technology from the Brown Graphics Group to the Virtual Wind Tunnel system at NASA Ames as well as the public domain.

  17. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Swapan, E-mail: swapan2009sajal@gmail.com; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr., E-mail: bidyut53@yahoo.co.in

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  18. Application of integral methods to prediction of heat transfer from a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesch, C J; Kulacki, F A; Christensen, R N

    1983-10-01

    Integral methods have been developed and applied to the prediction of the far field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the heat balance integral has been applied to a semi-infinite layered domain in which a limited number of sublayers form the repository overburden, and the repository is represented by an infinite plane beneath either one or two sublayers. Calculations for PWR spent fuel with an initial areal thermal loading of 60 kW/acre are carried out for various stratigraphies and overburden compositions. Results of the analyses are temperature distributions and heat fluxes to the surface as a function to time. Based on this study, the thermophysical properties of the individual layers are identified as the most important influence on temperature distributions and maximum temperature rise at any position above the repository. The thicknesses of the sublayers play a secondary role for a given rock composition. Where a comparison to exact or numerical solutions is possible, the method predicts maximum temperature increases in the overburden to within 10 percent. Heat fluxes to the surface are found to be relatively insensitive to overburden composition. For dome salt, a maximum of 1.2 percent to 2.7 percent of the initial areal thermal power of a five-term source reaches the surface. For bedded salt, a maximum of 1 percent to 1.8 percent of the initial areal thermal power reaches the surface over a wide range of sublayer compositions. Similarly, low percentages of initial areal thermal power reach the surface for the other stratigraphies considered in the calculations.

  19. Introducing a downsized, open computer system with asynchronous transfer mode in PACS and its effect on image data transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Koyama, Y; Suzuki, H; Oriuchi, N; Aoyagi, K; Tomaru, Y; Ookoshi, A; Yamamoto, S; Nakajima, T; Aoki, J; Endo, K

    1998-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the introduction of a downsized, open computer system and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) as a network in a medium-sized picture archiving and communication system (PACS), we conducted experiments on image data transmission. The speed of image transfer, including registration in the computers in the new PACS, was four to eleven times faster than that in our first PACS. However, the introduction of ATM did not contribute significantly to the improvement of speed of image transfer because of the use of Ethernet branches between the gateway and display workstation computers. A star architecture without Ethernet branches may be suitable for PACS using an ATM network.

  20. Waste Generation and Recycling: Comparison of Conventional and Industrialized Building Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rawshan A. Begum; Siti K. Satari; Joy J. Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In the Malaysian construction industry, there is a pressing issue of minimizing construction waste, which cause significant impacts on the environment. With the increasing demand for major infrastructure projects, commercial buildings and housing development programmers, a large amount of construction waste is being produced. Adoption of prefabrication and industrialized building systems is now a priority in the industry and also an important means of reducing waste. Approa...

  1. Analysing the sustainability performance and critical improvement factors of urban municipal waste systems - Case study Trondheim

    OpenAIRE

    Unander, Silje Madalena Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The management of the natural output of consumption, waste, has to become more sustainable. Ideally this would mean that it simply ceased to exist, but as unrealistic that may be, the current discourse in waste legislation and management is on increasing the material recycling rate. This is a part of the circular economy. Analysing waste management systems is crucial to know what effect different measures might have on the actual recycling rate. In turn, these measures might impact the energ...

  2. Development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Heiko Vesper; Tobias Erxleben; Jens Schulze; Michał Kurpisz

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a growing problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment. The aim of this study was to present a new solutions of the system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes, which enable simplification and improvement of the process together with the reduction of total costs. Methods: The description of  the problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting c...

  3. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior across the High-Level Waste Evaporator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, D. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shah, H. B. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Jain, V. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Occhipinti, J. E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-17

    The Mercury Program team’s effort continues to develop more fundamental information concerning mercury behavior across the liquid waste facilities and unit operations. Previously, the team examined the mercury chemistry across salt processing, including the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU), and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheets. This report documents the data and understanding of mercury across the high level waste 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  4. Conceptual design of transfer station materials and energy recovery facility, City of Berkeley, Solid Waste Management Center. Final report: executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for the Berkeley Solid Waste Management Center incorporating modular combustion units. Markets for recovered materials and energy were confirmed in the study. Additional work briefly discussed covered an analysis of the waste stream; assessment of the front-end processing technology; an identification of regulatory agency requirements and environmental constraints; preparation of preliminary design and budget cost estimates for the transfer station/modular combustion plant; development of financing and procurement arrangements; identification of project risks; and establishment of an implementation master plan.

  5. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack C P; Ma, Lauren Y H

    2013-06-01

    Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C&D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D&R) works and the growing amount of D&R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D&R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D&R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry

  6. Optimization of use of waste in the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of mixed waste, anaerobic digestion of organic waste, and gasification of part of the potential RDF (refuse derived fuel) for CHP (combined heat and power) production, while the remaining part is co-combusted with coal. Co-combustion mainly takes place in new coal-fired power plants, allowing investments...

  7. Assessment of solid waste management systems in Ibadan North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management has been part of human activities right from time. Effort by the Oyo State Government in managing the collection and disposal of waste generated in Ibadan is seen in the provision of Skip bins at specific locations across the city. However, despite the provisions made by the government, ...

  8. An assessment of the current municipal solid waste management system in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Maryam; Barlow, Claire Y; Wilson, David C

    2014-09-01

    The current status of solid waste management in Lahore, a metropolitan city of Pakistan, is reviewed in this article using an existing approach, the UN-Habitat city profile. This involves a systematic quantitative and qualitative assessment of physical components and governance features of the current waste management system. A material flow diagram (MFD) is developed, which allows visualisation of the current waste management system with all related inputs and outputs. This study shows that in the current system, waste collection and transportation is the main focus, however the collection coverage is only about 68%. There is no controlled or even semi-controlled waste disposal facility in Lahore. There is no official recycling system in the city. It is estimated that currently ~27% of waste by weight is being recycled through the informal sector. Making use of the organic content of the waste, a composting facility is operative in the city, producing 47,230 tonnes year(-1) of organic compost. Lahore does not perform very well in governance features. Inclusivity of users and providers of the waste management system is low in the city, as not all stakeholders are consulted in the decision making processes. Waste management costs US$20 per tonne of waste, where the main focus is only on waste collection, and the current user fees are much lower than the actual costs. This study recommends that recycling should be promoted by increasing public awareness and integrating the informal sector to make the current system sustainable and financially viable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. OCRWM (Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) System Engineering Management Plant (SEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement a program for the safe and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To achieve this objective, the OCRWM is developing an integrated waste-management system consisting of three elements: the transportation system, the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility, and the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS). The development of such a system requires management of many diverse disciplines that are involved in research, siting, design, licensing, and external interactions. The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe how the systems-engineering process will be implemented in the development of the waste-management system. Systems engineering will be used by the OCRWM to manage, integrate, and document all aspects of the technical development of the waste-management system and its system elements to ensure that the requirements of the waste-management program are met. It will be applied to all technical activities of the OCRWM program. It will be used by the OCRWM (1) to specify the sequence of technical activities necessary to define the requirements the waste-management system must satisfy, (2) to develop the waste-management system, can be optimized to most effectively satisfy the requirements. Furthermore, systems engineering will be used in the management of Program activities at the program, program-element, and project levels by specifying procedures, studies, reviews, and documentation requirements. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-05-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as: the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections in safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  11. Development and design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as; the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections In safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  12. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

  13. A Holistic Approach with Special Reference to Heat Transfer in Multi-Component Porous Media Systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Borah

    2010-01-01

    Problems involving multiphase flow, heat transfer and multi-component mass transport in porous media arise in a number of scientific engineering disciplines. Important technological applications include thermally enhanced oil recovery, subsurface contamination and remediation, capillary assisted thermal technologies, drying process, thermal insulation materials, multiphase trickle bed reactors, nuclear reactor safety analysis, high level radioactive waste repositories and geothermal energy ex...

  14. Development of automated information system for domestic waste logistics management (by the example of Apatity town)

    OpenAIRE

    Ladik A. S.; Masloboev A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A software system for management information support of domestic waste logistics (by the example of Apatity town) has been developed for management information support efficiency enhancement of domestic waste collection and transportation processes in the municipal systems subject to hygiene and sanitary norms and standards. The system is implemented as an interactive multilogic web-service. The system provides computational procedure execution of financial expenditure and ecological damage i...

  15. Dispersion modeling and health risk assessment of VOCs emissions from municipal solid waste transfer station in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhosh, Maryam; Shamsipour, AliAkbar; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Naddafi, Kazem; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    The waste transfer stations (WTSs) is one of the most important factors affecting on environment and human health. This research is aimed to evaluate health risk of VOCs among WTS personnel and provide a model for dispersion of VOCs. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) is able to simulate WTS emissions dispersion over each town. GC-MS was used to analysis collected gas samples to detect and estimate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic VOCs health risks. The total lifetime cancer risk values for the all personnel (3.30E-05), was more than acceptable limit (1.00E-06). Furthermore, hazard ratio (HR) of 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,3-dichloropropane, toluene, m,p-xylene and ethylbenzene were 3.7, 1.9 E-01, 4.4 E-03, 5.5 E-02 and 1.5 E-03, respectively, and total HR of the mentioned compounds were more than accepted limit (HR < 1.00). IOA is 0.85 and RMSE is 2.16 and TAPM has a good performance. The VOCs level is considerable in 1600 m far from the WTS particularly in summer that require more attention. The exposure to VOCs was at a high level in WTS, and some controlling strategy should be used for decreasing the pollution and protecting the citizens and personnel against non-cancerous and cancerous risks.

  16. GaN-Based Laser Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo De Santi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present a potential application of gallium nitride-based optoelectronic devices. By using a laser diode and a photodetector, we designed and demonstrated a free-space compact and lightweight wireless power transfer system, whose efficiency is limited by the efficiency of the receiver. We analyzed the effect of the electrical load, temperature, partial absorption and optical excitation distribution on the efficiency, by identifying heating and band-filling as the most impactful processes. By comparing the final demonstrator with a commercial RF-based Qi system, we conclude that the efficiency is still low at close range, but is promising in medium to long range applications. Efficiency may not be a limiting factor, since this concept can enable entirely new possibilities and designs, especially relevant for space applications.

  17. Development of automated information system for domestic waste logistics management (by the example of Apatity town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladik A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A software system for management information support of domestic waste logistics (by the example of Apatity town has been developed for management information support efficiency enhancement of domestic waste collection and transportation processes in the municipal systems subject to hygiene and sanitary norms and standards. The system is implemented as an interactive multilogic web-service. The system provides computational procedure execution of financial expenditure and ecological damage in the issue of domestic waste collection and transportation and environmental risk minimization on the basis of proposed algorithms for automated synthesis of adaptive journey routes in comparison with existing prototypes

  18. 300 Area dangerous waste tank management system: Compliance plan approach. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In its Dec. 5, 1989 letter to DOE-Richland (DOE-RL) Operations, the Washington State Dept. of Ecology requested that DOE-RL prepare ``a plant evaluating alternatives for storage and/or treatment of hazardous waste in the 300 Area...``. This document, prepared in response to that letter, presents the proposed approach to compliance of the 300 Area with the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Washington State`s Chapter 173-303 WAC, Dangerous Waste Regulations. It also contains 10 appendices which were developed as bases for preparing the compliance plan approach. It refers to the Radioactive Liquid Waste System facilities and to the radioactive mixed waste.

  19. Research of the multibarrier system for an underground deposition of radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Šofranko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals in brief with research problems of multiple protection barrier systems for an underground storage of highly radioactive waste in connection with the problem of resolving a definite liquidation of this waste. This problem has a worlwide importance and is comprehensively investigated, evaluated and resolved in many well accepted research centers. Present the experts agree, that the most suitable way of the long-lived radioactive wastes liquidation is their storage into suitable underground geological formations. The core insulation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere for an extremly long time can be achieved by using a technical isolation barrier in combination with an appropriate rock mass.

  20. Performance of a large-scale melter off-gas system utilizing simulated SRP DWPF waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, J L; Randall, C T

    1984-03-01

    The Department of Energy and the DuPont Company have begun construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility to immobilize radioactive waste now stored as liquids at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. The immobilization process solidifies waste sludge by vitrification into a leach-resistant borosilicate glass. Development of the process has been the responsibility of the Savannah River Laboratory. As part of the development, two large-scale glass melter systems have been designed and operated with simulated waste. Experimental data from these operations show that process requirements will be met. 6 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coordinates were then converted into points using ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel 2007 to help analysed the data collected. From the study, four transfer stations were located with the help of the GIS, namely: Ablekuman and Amomola (Transfer station 1),Oblogo and Weija (Transfer station 2),Ashongman and Agbogba ...

  2. System Description for Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMERO, S.G.

    2000-02-14

    The proposed activity provides the description of the Data Acquisition System for Tank 241-AZ-101. This description is documented in HNF-5572, Tank 241-AZ-101 Waste Retrieval Data Acquisition System (DAS). This activity supports the planned mixer pump tests for Tank 241-AZ-101. Tank 241-AZ-101 has been selected for the first full-scale demonstration of a mixer pump system. The tank currently holds over 960,000 gallons of neutralized current acid waste, including approximately 12.7 inches of settling solids (sludge) at the bottom of the tank. As described in Addendum 4 of the FSAR (LMHC 2000a), two 300 HP mixer pumps with associated measurement and monitoring equipment have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101. The purpose of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system Data Acquisition System (DAS) is to provide monitoring and data acquisition of key parameters in order to confirm the effectiveness of the mixer pumps utilized for suspending solids in the tank. The suspension of solids in Tank 241-AZ-101 is necessary for pretreatment of the neutralized current acid waste and eventual disposal as glass via the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. HNF-5572 provides a basic description of the Tank 241-AZ-101 retrieval system DAS, including the field instrumentation and application software. The DAS is provided to fulfill requirements for data collection and monitoring. This document is not an operations procedure or is it intended to describe the mixing operation. This USQ screening provides evaluation of HNF-5572 (Revision 1) including the changes as documented on ECN 654001. The changes include (1) add information on historical trending and data backup, (2) modify DAS I/O list in Appendix E to reflect actual conditions in the field, and (3) delete IP address in Appendix F per Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. request.

  3. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-05-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites.

  5. 75 FR 20942 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... shown in scientific studies to have toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic effects on humans or... toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic effects on humans or other life forms, and included... saccharin as a sweetening agent. Nor does the listing apply to manufacturing process wastes that may contain...

  6. 75 FR 61356 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... correcting the arsenic value limit and correcting it in Table 1 of appendix IX to part 261--Waste Excluded... rule, EPA has taken the necessary steps to eliminate drafting errors and ambiguity, minimize potential...: Authority: 42 U.S.C. 6905, 6912(a), 6921, 6922, and 6938. 0 2. In Tables 1 of Appendix IX to Part 261 revise...

  7. 77 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... and analytical data from the ExxonMobil, Beaumont, Texas facility. C. What are the limits of this... water (F039) generated from its facility located in Baytown, Texas. The waste falls under the... Ross Ave., Dallas, Texas 75202, within the time specified. All supporting data can be submitted on CD...

  8. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... to leachate data or ground water monitoring data) or any other data relevant to the delisted waste... exclusion applies to the centrifuge solids generated at Beaumont Refinery's Beaumont, Texas facility... located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202, and...

  9. 76 FR 76677 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...); or (3) the wastes are mixed with or derived from the treatment, storage or disposal of such... the Refinery's process area, as well as some dry-weather flow consisting of water from wash- down, maintenance, and cleaning activities, steam condensate and heat exchanger back-flushing. This sediment is...

  10. 76 FR 4823 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... and all data were scrutinized for adequacy by independent validation. Several issues with quality...; cadmium--0.005; chromium--0.1; lead-- 0.015; and zinc-- 11.3. 2. Annual Verification Testing: To verify... one waste sample on an annual basis using methods with appropriate detection concentrations and...

  11. 77 FR 36447 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA used the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS) Version 3.0... applicability; (2) rules relating to agency management or personnel; and (3) rules of agency organization...- Dinitrotoluene-- 0.13; Fluoride-- 765; Hexachlorobenzen e--0.13; Hexachloroethane -3; Lead--10.4; Manganese--311...

  12. Part II – The effect of data on waste behaviour: The South African waste information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available the same, respondents in public and private organisations represent two statistically significant sub-groups in the data set. The theoretical framework accounts for 47.8% of the variance in behaviour of respondents in public waste organisations and 57...

  13. Optimum municipal solid waste collection using geographical information system (GIS) and vehicle tracking for Pallavapuram municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhan, T E; Abbas Mohaideen, J; Srinivasan, S; Sundaram, V Lenin Kalyana

    2011-03-01

    Waste collection and transportation is the contact point between waste generators and waste management systems. A proposal for an innovative model for the collection and transportation of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is a part of a solid waste management system using a spatial geo database, integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment is presented. Pallavapuram is a fast-developing municipality of Chennai city in the southern suburbs about 20 km from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu in India. The disposal of MSW was previously occurring in an indiscriminate and irrational manner in the municipality. Hence in the present study an attempt was made to develop an engineered design of solid waste collection using GIS with a vehicle tracking system and final disposal by composting with investment costs. The GIS was used to analyse existing maps and data, to digitize the existing ward boundaries and to enter data about the wards and disposal sites. The proposed GIS model for solid waste disposal would give information on the planning of bins, vehicles and the optimal route. In the case of disposal, composting would be a successful strategy to accelerate the decomposition and stabilization of the biodegradable components of waste in MSW.

  14. The effect of system parameters on the biogas production from anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  15. Modelling sensitivity and uncertainty in a LCA model for waste management systems - EASETECH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    In the new model, EASETECH, developed for LCA modelling of waste management systems, a general approach for sensitivity and uncertainty assessment for waste management studies has been implemented. First general contribution analysis is done through a regular interpretation of inventory and impact...

  16. Efficiency Effects of Unit-based Pricing Systems and Institutional Choices of Waste Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, E.; Gradus, R.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Municipal residential waste costs are rising. Therefore, it is important to introduce measures that lower waste collection and disposal costs. Based on a large panel data set for the Netherlands we show that unit-based pricing systems are more important from a cost-minimizing point of view than the

  17. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  18. Influence of bacteria on lanthanide and actinide transfer from specific soil components (humus, soil minerals and vitrified municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash) to corn plants: Sr-Nd isotope evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouad, Georges [Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, Centre de Geochimie de la Surface/CNRS UMR 7517, 1 rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Stille, Peter [Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, Centre de Geochimie de la Surface/CNRS UMR 7517, 1 rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)]. E-mail: pstille@illite.u-strasbg.fr; Crovisier, Jean-Louis [Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, Centre de Geochimie de la Surface/CNRS UMR 7517, 1 rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Geoffroy, Valerie A. [UMR 7156 Universite Louis-Pasteur/CNRS, Genetique Moleculaire, Genomique Microbiologie, Departement Micro-organisme, Genomes, Environnement, 28 rue Goethe, 67083 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Meyer, Jean-Marie [UMR 7156 Universite Louis-Pasteur/CNRS, Genetique Moleculaire, Genomique Microbiologie, Departement Micro-organisme, Genomes, Environnement, 28 rue Goethe, 67083 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Lahd-Geagea, Majdi [Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, Centre de Geochimie de la Surface/CNRS UMR 7517, 1 rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2006-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to test the stability of vitrified municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator bottom ash under the presence of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and plants (corn). The substratum used for the plant growth was a humus-rich soil mixed with vitrified waste. For the first time, information on the stability of waste glasses in the presence of bacteria and plants is given. Results show that inoculated plant samples contained always about two times higher lanthanide and actinide element concentrations. Bacteria support the element transfer since plants growing in inoculated environment developed a smaller root system but have higher trace element concentrations. Compared with the substratum, plants are light rare earth element (LREE) enriched. The vitrified bottom ash has to some extent been corroded by bacteria and plant activities as indicated by the presence of Nd (REE) and Sr from the vitrified waste in the plants. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd isotope ratios of plants and soil components allow the identification of the corroded soil components and confirm that bacteria accelerate the assimilation of elements from the vitrified bottom ash. These findings are of importance for landfill disposal scenarios, and similar experiments should be performed in order to better constrain the processes of microbially mediated alteration of the MSW glasses in the biosphere.

  19. Apparatus and Method for Effecting Data Transfer Between Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Joey V. (Inventor); Grosz, Francis B., Jr. (Inventor); Lannes, Kenny (Inventor); Maniscalco, David G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting data transfer between data systems comprising a first transceiver and a second transceiver. The first transceiver has an input for receiving digital data from one of the data systems, an output for serially outputting digital data to one of the data systems, at least one transmitter for converting digital data received at the input into optical signals, and at least one receiver for receiving optical signals and serially converting the received optical signals to digital data for output to the data output. The second transceiver has an input for receiving digital data from another one of the data systems, an output for serially outputting digital data to the another one of the data systems, at least one transmitter for serially converting digital data received at the input of the second transceiver into optical signals, and at least one receiver for receiving optical signals and serially converting the received optical signals to digital data for output to the output of the second transceiver. The apparatus further comprises an optical link connecting the first and second transceivers. The optical link comprising a pair of optical fibers. One of the optical fibers optically links the transmitter of the first transceiver to the receiver of the second transceiver. The other optical fiber optically links the receiver of the first transceiver to the transmitter of the second transceiver.

  20. Tank waste remediation system process engineering instruction manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1998-11-04

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Process Engineering Instruction Manual is to provide guidance and direction to TWRS Process Engineering staff regarding conduct of business. The objective is to establish a disciplined and consistent approach to business such that the work processes within TWRS Process Engineering are safe, high quality, disciplined, efficient, and consistent with Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Policies and Procedures. The sections within this manual are of two types: for compliance and for guidance. For compliance sections are intended to be followed per-the-letter until such time as they are formally changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. For guidance sections are intended to be used by the staff for guidance in the conduct of work where technical judgment and discernment are required. The guidance sections shall also be changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. The required header for each manual section is illustrated in Section 2.0, Manual Change Control procedure. It is intended that this manual be used as a training and indoctrination resource for employees of the TWRS Process Engineering organization. The manual shall be required reading for all TWRS Process Engineering staff, matrixed, and subcontracted employees.

  1. The international regulation of Informal Value Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ajay Shah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 11th September 2001 attacks on the United States international attention quickly focused on the sources and methods of terrorist financing. Among the methods terrorists and other criminal actors use to transfer funds are Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS which operate either outside the formal financial sector, or through use of the formal financial sector, but without leaving a full record of the transaction. Though the vast majority of funds moved through IVTS are the earnings of migrant workers and immigrant communities, the lack of uniform worldwide regulation of IVTS provides ample opportunity for abuse and misuse. The international community primarily responded to IVTS concerns through the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, which issued a series of recommendations and best practices for states in regulating IVTS operations. While these recommendations are a secure beginning to regulation of IVTS operating within ethnic communities, they fail to address the more modern forms of IVTS that have come about in the post-Cold War globalised world. Comprehensive recommendations governing all types of IVTS, as well as concerted international cooperation and coordination are necessary to address this global phenomenon.

  2. Smart City Platform Development for an Automated Waste Collection System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cicerone Laurentiu Popa; George Carutasu; Costel Emil Cotet; Nicoleta Luminita Carutasu; Tiberiu Dobrescu

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, governments and companies are looking for solutions to increase the collection level of various waste types by using new technologies and devices such as smart sensors, Internet of Things (IoT...

  3. Methods for recovering metals from electronic waste, and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tedd E; Parkman, Jacob A; Diaz Aldana, Luis A; Clark, Gemma; Dufek, Eric J; Keller, Philip

    2017-10-03

    A method of recovering metals from electronic waste comprises providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor and providing an electrolyte comprising at least ferric ions in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor. The method further includes contacting the powders within the first reactor and the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from each reactor into the electrolyte and reduce at least some of the ferric ions to ferrous ions. The ferrous ions are oxidized at an anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions. The powder within the second reactor comprises a higher weight percent of the at least one base metal than the powder in the first reactor. Additional methods of recovering metals from electronic waste are also described, as well as an apparatus of recovering metals from electronic waste.

  4. Technology Transfer and Technology Management in Strategic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Salwan

    2005-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy, the issues of technology transfer and management of technology, especially in sensitive strategic industries, are of major concern. The transfer of technology is a complex multidisciplinary area of technology management involving technology transfers from overseas developing agencies and internal technology transfers. Technology isa combination of four basic com~onents-facilities, abilities, facts, and frameworks. Economics of scale and complexities in technologi...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Domitrović; Helena Vučenović; Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2012-01-01

    Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite) because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due f...

  6. Life cycle assessment of capital goods in waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2016-10-01

    The environmental importance of capital goods (trucks, buildings, equipment, etc.) was quantified by LCA modelling 1 tonne of waste treated in five different waste management scenarios. The scenarios involved a 240L collection bin, a 16m(3) collection truck, a composting plant, an anaerobic digestion plant, an incinerator and a landfill site. The contribution of capital goods to the overall environmental aspects of managing the waste was significant but varied greatly depending on the technology and the impact category: Global Warming: 1-17%, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: 2-90%, Ionising Radiation, Human Health: 2-91%, Photochemical Ozone Formation: 2-56%, Freshwater Eutrophication: 0.05-99%, Marine Eutrophication: 0.03-8%, Terrestrial Acidification: 2-13%, Terrestrial Eutrophication: 1-8%, Particulate Matter: 11-26%, Human Toxicity, Cancer Effect: 10-92%, Human Toxicity, non-Cancer Effect: 1-71%, Freshwater Ecotoxicity: 3-58%. Depletion of Abiotic Resources - Fossil: 1-31% and Depletion of Abiotic Resources - Elements (Reserve base): 74-99%. The single most important contribution by capital goods was made by the high use of steel. Environmental impacts from capital goods are more significant for treatment facilities than for the collection and transportation of waste and for the landfilling of waste. It is concluded that the environmental impacts of capital goods should always be included in the LCA modelling of waste management, unless the only impact category considered is Global Warming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Vesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment. The aim of this study was to present a new solutions of the system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes, which enable simplification and improvement of the process together with the reduction of total costs. Methods: The description of  the problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment as well as an alternative solution for the decentral fractioning of such wastes was presented. The influence onto the environment as well as the efficiency of the costly mechanical sorting of wastes was queried. The nowadays used principles of sorted and unsorted waste disposal were elucidated and their advantages and disadvantages evaluated. Results and conclusions: Based on this evaluation an innovative and future oriented development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes was presented. The new developed systems aim at the achievement of an easier, less costly and environment-friendlier process for the disposal of municipal wastes from apartment buildings.

  8. Dual Fan Separator within the Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Tom; Converse, Dave; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Since NASA's new spacecraft in development for both LEO and Deep Space capability have considerable crew volume reduction in comparison to the Space Shuttle, the need became apparent for a smaller commode. In response the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) was designed, resulting in an 80% volume reduction from the last US commode, while enhancing performance. The ISS WMS and previous shuttle commodes have a fan supplying air flow to capture feces and a separator to capture urine and separate air from the captured air/urine mixture. The UWMS combined both rotating equipment components into a single unit, referred to at the Dual Fan Separator (DFS). The combination of these components resulted in considerable packaging efficiency and weight reduction, removing inter-component plumbing, individual mounting configurations and required only a single motor and motor controller, in some of the intended UWMS platform applications the urine is pumped to the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) system. It requires the DFS to include less than 2.00% air inclusion, by volume, in the delivered urine. The rotational speed needs to be kept as low as possible in centrifugal urine separators to reduce air inclusion in the pumped fluid, while fans depend on rotational speed to develop delivered head. To satisfy these conflicting requirements, a gear reducer was included, allowing the fans to rotate at a much higher speed than the separator. This paper outlines the studies and analysis performed to develop the DFS configuration. The studies included a configuration trade study, dynamic stability analysis of the rotating bodies and a performance analysis of included labyrinth seals. NASA is considering a program to fly the UWMS aboard the ISS as a flight experiment. The goal of this activity is to advance the Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of the DFS and determine if the concept is ready to be included as part of the flight experiment deliverable.

  9. Design of waste stabilization pond systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Long T; Van Echelpoel, Wout; Goethals, Peter L M

    2017-10-15

    A better design instruction for waste stabilization ponds is needed due to their growing application for wastewater purification, increasingly strict environmental regulations, and the fact that most of previous design manuals are outdated. To critically review model-based designs of typical pond treatment systems, this paper analyzed more than 150 articles, books, and reports from 1956 to 2016. The models developed in these publications ranged from simple rules and equations to more complex first-order and mechanistic models. From a case study on all four approaches, it appeared that rules of thumb is no longer a proper tool for pond designs due to its low design specification and very high output variability and uncertainty. On the other hand, at the beginning phase of design process or in case of low pressure over land and moderate water quality required, regression equations can be useful to form an idea for pond dimensions. More importantly, mechanistic models proved their capacity of generating more precise and comprehensive designs but still need to overcome their lack of calibration and validation, and overparameterization. In another case study, an essential but often overlooked role of uncertainty analysis in pond designs was investigated via a comparison between deterministic and uncertainty-based approaches. Unlike applying a safety factor representing all uncertainty sources, probabilistic designs quantify the uncertainty of model outputs by including prior uncertainty of inputs and parameters, which generates more scientifically reliable outcomes for decision makers. Based on these findings, we advise engineers and designers to shift from the conventional approaches to more innovative and economic tools which are suitable for dealing with large variations of natural biological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2012-07-10

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  11. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-09-01

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  12. The Impact of Technical Data Transfer Problems During a Transition of Weapons System Production Between Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    39 Tech Data Transfer THE IMPACT OF TECHNICAL DATA TRANSFER PROBLEMS DURING A TRANSITION OF WEAPONS SYSTEM PRODUCTION BETWEEN NATIONS Michael E...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Impact of Technical Data Transfer Problems During a Transition of Weapons System Production Between Nations 5a. CONTRACT...of the L119 and established roy- alty payment procedures. The decision to produce the M119 41 Tech Data Transfer domestically was based on two

  13. Functional analysis, a resilience improvement tool applied to a waste management system - application to the "household waste management chain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, H.; Barroca, B.; Hubert, G.

    2012-12-01

    A waste management system plays a leading role in the capacity of an area to restart after flooding, as their impact on post-crisis management can be very considerable. Improving resilience, i.e. enabling it to maintain or recover acceptable operating levels after flooding is primordial. To achieve this, we must understand how the system works for bringing any potential dysfunctions to light and taking preventive measures. Functional analysis has been used for understanding the complexity of this type of system. The purpose of this article is to show the interest behind this type of method and the limits in its use for improving resilience of waste management system as well as other urban technical systems1, by means of theoretical modelling and its application on a study site. 1In a systemic vision of the city, urban technical systems combine all the user service systems that are essential for the city to operate (electricity, water supplies, transport, sewerage, etc.). These systems are generally organised in the form of networks (Coutard, 2010; CERTU, 2005).

  14. Comparative study of solid waste management system based on building types in Palembang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmyanto, Hendrik; Dahlan, Hatta; Zahri, Imron

    2017-11-01

    Most of the solid waste generation sources come from housing activities. The types of house buildings located in the Palembang is a traditional building which made from wood construction and a permanent house which made from concrete construction. The aim of this study is to calculate the amount of waste generation and to study the community behavior in waste management. The research used an observation and questionnaires that took place in 3 location of the traditional housing and 3 location of the permanent housing with 20 respondents for each location. The results showed that the waste generation in the traditional housing was 1.51 liters/person/day and the permanent housing was 1.63 liters/person/day. The collecting system in traditional housing was taken by the garbage cart every 1 days, while in permanent housing was taken by motorcycle, pick-up car, or dump truck every 1 or 2 days. The questionnaire results showed that 96,67% of the traditional housing and 91,67% of the permanent housing disposed of the waste in a mix condition. Amount of 6,67 % from the traditional housing and 0% of permanent housing managed their waste into compost. Amount of 15 % from traditional housing and 3,33% of permanent housing sold their waste. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the permanent housing has the largest number of waste generation and the people in traditional housing had a tendency to manage the waste better than the permanent housing.

  15. Reference waste form, basalts, and ground water systems for waste interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Long, P.E.

    1978-09-01

    This report summarizes the type of waste form, basalt, and ground water compositions to be used in theoretical and experimental models of the geochemical environment to be simulated in studying a typical basalt repository. Waste forms to be used in the experiments include, and are limited to, glass, supercalcine, and spent unreprocessed fuel. Reference basalts selected for study include the Pomona member and the Umtanum Unit, Shwana Member, of the Columbia River Basalt Group. In addition, a sample of the Basalt International Geochemical Standard (BCR-1) will be used for cross-comparison purposes. The representative water to be used is of a sodium bicarbonate composition as determined from results of analyses of deep ground waters underlying the Hanford Site. 12 figures, 13 tables.

  16. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection.

  17. Thermoelectric generator systems for waste heat usage in diesel electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heghmanns, Alexander; Schimke, Robert; Beitelschmidt, Michael [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerpermechanik (IFKM); Geradts, Karlheinz [Bombardier Transportation (Switzerland) AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    It is widely known, that the main part of the life cycle costs of diesel electric locomotives are the consumption costs for diesel fuel. On top of that the rising awareness of politics and society for environment protection and rising prices for energy shift that topic into the focus. One possibility to lower the fuel consumption is to recover the exhaust waste heat of the combustion engine. This can be achieved by converting the energy of the exhaust into mechanical energy (e.g. Steam Expander) or into electrical energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Using a high power TEG in a diesel electric locomotive is advantageous because of the electrified powertrain. That means there is a considerably high demand of electric power in almost all driving states. The challenge is to develop a system with a sufficient efficiency in order to achieve a short return of investment period. Up to now some TEG system prototypes have been developed for automotive applications. For example a combination of a TEG with the EGR, where cooling of the exhaust gas is necessary, proved to be promising. But because of the low temperature gradient in the EGR the output power is very limited. In future automotive systems the TEG could be integrated directly into the exhaust tract which leads to high temperature gradients and promises a higher power output. The challenge is to develop an efficient TEG material and a system which withstands the mechanical stress caused by the thermal cycles. For diesel electric locomotives a relatively good efficiency can be achieved by using a heat transfer oil circuit as intermediary heat carrier instead of integrating the TEG directly into the exhaust tract. This offers the advantage of using the better heat transfer between exhaust and oil compared to the heat transfer directly from exhaust to the TEG. Therefore a high power can be transmitted. Furthermore it is possible to collect the waste heat of secondary heat sources like the brake resistor. Another

  18. Secure Data Transfer Guidance for Industrial Control and SCADA Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, Robert E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Tews, Cody W.; Burnette, John R.; Goranson, Craig A.; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-09-01

    This document was developed to provide guidance for the implementation of secure data transfer in a complex computational infrastructure representative of the electric power and oil and natural gas enterprises and the control systems they implement. For the past 20 years the cyber security community has focused on preventative measures intended to keep systems secure by providing a hard outer shell that is difficult to penetrate. Over time, the hard exterior, soft interior focus changed to focus on defense-in-depth adding multiple layers of protection, introducing intrusion detection systems, more effective incident response and cleanup, and many other security measures. Despite much larger expenditures and more layers of defense, successful attacks have only increased in number and severity. Consequently, it is time to re-focus the conventional approach to cyber security. While it is still important to implement measures to keep intruders out, a new protection paradigm is warranted that is aimed at discovering attempted or real compromises as early as possible. Put simply, organizations should take as fact that they have been, are now, or will be compromised. These compromises may be intended to steal information for financial gain as in the theft of intellectual property or credentials that lead to the theft of financial resources, or to lie silent until instructed to cause physical or electronic damage and/or denial of services. This change in outlook has been recently confirmed by the National Security Agency [19]. The discovery of attempted and actual compromises requires an increased focus on monitoring events by manual and/or automated log monitoring, detecting unauthorized changes to a system's hardware and/or software, detecting intrusions, and/or discovering the exfiltration of sensitive information and/or attempts to send inappropriate commands to ICS/SCADA (Industrial Control System/Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems.

  19. A PC-based discrete event simulation model of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airth, G.L. [Hands-on GPSS Training, Corvallis, OR (United States); Joy, D.S.; Nehls, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A System Simulation Model has been developed for the Department of Energy to simulate the movement of individual waste packages (spent fuel assemblies and fuel containers) through the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). A discrete event simulation language, GPSS/PC, which runs on an IBM/PC and operates under DOS 5.0, mathematically represents the movement and processing of radioactive waste packages through the CRWMS and the interaction of these packages with the equipment in the various facilities. This model can be used to quantify the impacts of different operating schedules, operational rules, system configurations, and equipment reliability and availability considerations on the performance of processes comprising the CRWMS and how these factors combine to determine overall system performance for the purpose of making system design decisions. The major features of the System Simulation Model are: the ability to reference characteristics of the different types of radioactive waste (age, burnup, etc.) in order to make operational and/or system design decisions, the ability to place stochastic variations on operational parameters such as processing time and equipment outages, and the ability to include a rigorous simulation of the transportation system. Output from the model includes the numbers, types, and characteristics of waste packages at selected points in the CRWMS and the extent to which various resources will be utilized in order to transport, process, and emplace the waste.

  20. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.