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Sample records for waste technical support

  1. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  2. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isoltaion in geologic formations. Volume 19. Thermal analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/19, ''Thermal Analyses,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the thermal impacts of the isolated high level and spent-fuel wastes in geologic formations. A detailed account of the methodologies employed is given as well as selected results of the analyses.

  3. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 23. Environmental effluent analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/23, ''Environmental Effluent Analysis,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Drat Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the releases to the environment of radioactive and non-radioactive materials that arise during facility construction and waste handling operations, as well as releases that could occur in the event of an operational accident. The results of the analyses are presented along with a detailed description of the analytical methodologies employed.

  4. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  5. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 16. Repository preconceptual design studies: BPNL waste forms in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 16, ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt,'' is one of a 23 volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provide a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The waste forms assumed to arrive at the repository were supplied by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL). The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/17, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt.''

  6. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 16. Repository preconceptual design studies: BPNL waste forms in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 16, ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt,'' is one of a 23 volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provide a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The waste forms assumed to arrive at the repository were supplied by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL). The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/17, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt.''

  7. FFCAct Clearinghouse, directory of abstracts: Radioactive waste technical support program. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) Clearinghouse is a card catalog of information about the FFCAct and its requirements for developing Site Treatment Plans (STP). The information available in the clearinghouse includes abstracts describing computer applications, technical reports, and a list of technical experts. This report contains 61 abstracts from the database relating to radioactive waste management. The clearinghouse includes information on characterization, retrieval, treatment, storage, and disposal elements of waste management as they relate to the FFCAct and the treatment of mixed wastes. Subject areas of information being compiled include: commercial treatment capabilities; listings of technical experts for assistance in selecting and evaluating treatment options and technologies; mixed waste data and treatability groups; guidance on STP development; life-cycle costs planning estimates for facilities; references to documentation on available technologies and technology development activities; Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for treatment facilities; regulatory, health and safety issues associated with treatment facilities and technologies; and computer databases, applications, and models for identifying and evaluating treatment facilities and technologies. Access to the FFCAct clearinghouse is available to the DOE and its DOE contractors involved in STP development and other FFCAct activities.

  8. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 10. Repository preconceptual design studies: granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 10 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in granite. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/11, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite.''

  9. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 8. Repository preconceptual design studies: salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 8 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/9, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt.''

  10. End-of-waste criteria for waste paper: Technical proposals

    OpenAIRE

    VILLANUEVA KRZYZANIAK Alejandro; Eder, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report presents proposals of end-of-waste (EoW) criteria for waste paper, defining the technical requirements that waste paper has to fulfil in order to cease to be waste in the EU. The report includes the background data and assessments used to support the proposals, including a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of waste paper recycling, and analyses of the potential economic, environmental and legal impacts when waste paper ceases to be waste. This report is a contribution to ...

  11. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 7. Baseline rock properties-basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/7 Baseline Rock Properties--Basalt, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report contains an evaluation of the results of a literature survey to define the rock mass properties of a generic basalt, which could be considered as a geological medium for storing radioactive waste. The general formation and structure of basaltic rocks is described. This is followed by specific descriptions and rock property data for the Dresser Basalt, the Amchitka Island Basalt, the Nevada Test Site Basalt and the Columbia River Group Basalt. Engineering judgment has been used to derive the rock mass properties of a typical basalt from the relevant intact rock property data and the geological information pertaining to structural defects, such as joints and faults.

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  13. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 22. Nuclear considerations for repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/22, ''Nuclear Considerations for Repository Design,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. Included in this volume are baseline design considerations such as characteristics of canisters, drums, casks, overpacks, and shipping containers; maximum allowable and actual decay-heat levels; and canister radiation levels. Other topics include safeguard and protection considerations; occupational radiation exposure including ALARA programs; shielding of canisters, transporters and forklift trucks; monitoring considerations; mine water treatment; canister integrity; and criticality calculations.

  14. ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management; Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Bourcier, W.L.; Bradley, C.R. [and others

    1994-06-01

    This report is an overview of the progress during FY 1993 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are anticipated to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: reviewing and evaluating available data on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; performing tests to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and initiating long-term tests to determine glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal.

  15. ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Gerding, T.J.; Gong, M.; Hoh, J.C.; Mazer, J.J.; Wronkiewicz, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bourcier, W.L.; Morgan, L.E.; Nielsen, J.K.; Steward, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Han, W.T.; Tomozawa, M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, MI (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This report provides an overview of progress during FY 1991 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defenses Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are likely to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: (1) to review and evaluate available information on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; (2) to perform testing to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and (3) to initiate long-term testing that will bound glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal.

  16. NRC nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria. Task 4. Test development review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyscinski, K.S.; Swyler, K.J.; Klamut, C.J.

    1980-05-01

    This interim report concerns the development of testing procedures to assess the performance of waste packages to be used for high-level waste disposal in geologic repositories. Single component testing of the waste package is determined to be a workable strategy for testing and evaluation in terms of NRC release rate criteria. An initial literature review has identified key tests and those variables which must be included in testing procedures to simulate repository conditions. The range of these conditions remains to be determined precisely. Methods for leach, corrosion, and sorption testing are reviewed and initial recommendations made for preferred procedures. A combination of static and dynamic tests is needed to evaluate waste package component performance. Additional research is necessary in certain areas both to establish reliable testing methods and to define the range of testing variables. Research recommendations are included in the report. Ancillary measurements will be required to ensure that key tests rigorously assess the durability of waste package components under anticipated repository conditions. In particular, radiation effects in the repository environment must be considered and, where necessary, simulated during critical testing. Research is recommended to aid in determining when and how this should be done.

  17. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 4. Baseline rock properties: salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Salt has long been considered a possible repository medium for nuclear waste disposal. This report is a result of a literature survey to determine rock mass properties of a generic salt. The properties of bedded salt deposits from three different areas are considered, namely, the Salina basin, the Permia basin and the Paradox basin. Dome salts are also considered. Because of the special characteristics of salt, especially, its self-healing properties, the rock-mass properties are similar to the intact properties.

  18. Guidance document for revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudera, D.E.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Meagher, B.G.

    1993-04-01

    This document provides guidance for the revision of DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management.`` Technical Working Groups have been established and are responsible for writing the revised order. The Technical Working Groups will use this document as a reference for polices and procedures that have been established for the revision process. The overall intent of this guidance is to outline how the order will be revised and how the revision process will be managed. In addition, this document outlines technical issues considered for inclusion by a Department of Energy Steering Committee.

  19. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction.

  20. Nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria for the NRC. Task 1. Waste package overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayal, R.; Lee, B.S.; Wilke, R.J.; Swyler, K.J.; Soo, P.; Ahn, T.M.; McIntyre, N.S.; Veakis, E.

    1982-02-01

    In this report the current state of waste package development for high level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel in the US and abroad has been assessed. Specifically, reviewed are recent and on-going research on various waste forms, container materials and backfills and tentatively identified those which are likely to perform most satisfactorily in the repository environment. Radiation effects on the waste package components have been reviewed and the magnitude of these effects has been identified. Areas requiring further research have been identified. The important variables affecting radionuclide release from the waste package have been described and an evaluation of regulatory criteria for high level waste and spent fuel is presented. Finally, for spent fuel, high level, and TRU waste, components which could be used to construct a waste package having potential to meet NRC performance requirements have been described and identified.

  1. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 14. Repository preconceptual design studies: basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in basalt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/15, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Basalt.''

  2. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 12. Repository preconceptual design studies: shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in shale. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/13, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Shale.''

  3. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  4. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

  5. Technical Support Essentials Advice to Succeed in Technical Support

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Technical Support Essentials is a book about the many facets of technical support. It attempts to provide a wide array of topics to serve as points of improvement, discussion, or simply topics that you might want to learn. The topics range from good work habits to the way technical supportgroups establish their own style of work. This book applies theories, models, and concepts synthesized from existing research in other fields-such as management, economics, leadership, and psychology-and connects them to technical support. The goal is to build on the work of others and allow their success to

  6. ERLN Technical Support for Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network provides policies and guidance on lab and data requirements, Standardized Analytical Methods, and technical support for water and radiological sampling and analysis

  7. Engineering Technical Support Center (ETSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETSC is EPA’s technical support and resource centers responsible for providing specialized scientific and engineering support to decision-makers in the Agency’s ten regional offices, states, communities, and local businesses.

  8. Flowcharts as Technical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Any time technology is employed in an organization there is a need to provide support for the users. Such support usually needs to be offered at the location where users are trying to access the technological resources. More often than not, the user who needs the support wants to get the support immediately, not at some point in the future after a…

  9. Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Saxon E

    2007-10-23

    The primary objective of Project Activity ORD-FY04-012, “Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative,” was to provide the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with expertise on past, present, and future climate scenarios and to support the technical elements of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) climate program. The Climate Technical Support Representative was to explain, defend, and interpret the YMP climate program to the various audiences during Site Recommendation and License Application. This technical support representative was to support DOE management in the preparation and review of documents, and to participate in comment response for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, the Site Recommendation Hearings, the NRC Sufficiency Comments, and other forums as designated by DOE management. Because the activity was terminated 12 months early and experience a 27% reduction in budget, it was not possible to complete all components of the tasks as originally envisioned. Activities not completed include the qualification of climate datasets and the production of a qualified technical report. The following final report is an unqualified summary of the activities that were completed given the reduced time and funding.

  10. Hanford site solid waste management environmental impact statement technical information document [SEC 1 THRU 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRITZ, L.L.

    2003-04-01

    This Technical Information Document (TID) provides engineering data to support DOE/EIS-0286, ''Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement,'' including assumptions and waste volumes calculation data.

  11. Technical area status report for waste destruction and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J.D.; Harris, T.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs/activities throughout the DOE complex. In order to successfully achieve the goal of properly managing waste and the cleanup of the DOE sites, the EM was divided into five organizations: the Office of Planning and Resource Management (EM-10); the Office of Environmental Quality Assurance and Resource Management (EM-20); the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30); the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40); and the Office of Technology and Development (EM-50). The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to develop treatment technologies for DOE`s operational and environmental restoration wastes where current treatment technologies are inadequate or not available. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by OTD to assist in the development of treatment technologies for the DOE mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) whose purpose is to identify, evaluate, and develop treatment technologies within five general technical areas representing waste treatment functions from initial waste handling through generation of final waste forms. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Physical/Chemical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. This report describes the functions of the Waste Destruction and Stabilization (WDS) group. Specifically, the following items are discussed: DOE waste stream identification; summary of previous efforts; summary of WDS treatment technologies; currently funded WDS activities; and recommendations for future activities.

  12. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  13. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  14. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boylan, M.S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  15. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  16. National waste terminal storage program: Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation Technical Program Plan. Volume 1, Technical Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-16

    A Technical Program Plan was developed detailing projected activities toward the development and operation of a geologic waste repository. This volume presents the overall program in summary fashion: objectives, technical scope, technical approach, schedule plan, FY 1979 budget and milestone plan, organization, management processes, and nuclear waste isolation issues. 8 figures, 8 tables. (DLC)

  17. USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...September 2014 Report No. CD-D-09-15 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | I. Gonin et al. Public...States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report

  18. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  19. Technical program plan, Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) program as administered by the DOE's Richland Operations Office and Rockwell Hanford Operations is described. The objectives, scope and scientific technologies are discussed. The work breakdown structure of the project includes: project management and support, systems integration, geosciences, hydrology, engineered barriers, test facility design and construction, engineering testing, repository studies, and schedules. The budget of the program including operating and capital cost control is also included. (DC)

  20. HANFORD SITE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT TECHNICAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT [SEC 1 THRU 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRITZ, L.L.

    2004-03-25

    This Technical Information Document (TID) provides engineering data to support DOE/EIS-0286, ''Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement''. Assumptions and waste volumes used to calculate engineering data are also provided in this document. This chapter provides a brief description of: the Solid Waste Management Program (including a description of waste types and known characteristics of waste covered under the program), the Hanford Site (including a general discussion of the operating areas), and the alternatives analyzed. The Hanford Site Solid Waste Management Program and DOE/EIS-0286 address solid radioactive waste types generated by various activities from both onsite and offsite generators. The Environmental Restoration (ER) waste management activities are not within the scope of DOE/EIS-0286 or this TID. Activities for processing and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) are not within the scope of the Solid Waste Management Program and this TID.

  1. Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Ordoñez, Isabel; Bolton, Kim; Dahlén, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  2. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  3. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  4. Engineering Forum Issue Paper: Online Hazardous Waste Cleanup Technical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper is intended to give the reader examples of some online technical resources that can assist with hazardous waste cleanups in the Superfund, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Brownfields programs.

  5. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-16

    This document contains the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Building 693 (B693) Yard Area of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at LLNL. The TSRs constitute requirements for safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analyses for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2011). The analysis presented therein concluded that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts of waste from other DOE facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities.

  6. Understanding and Supporting Technical Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Sas, Corina; Dix, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the topic of exploration (sic) within the design space and discusses how this can support the development of research design. It highlights the relevance of reflecting upon the exploration of the design space and introduces a set of techniques that can be used for this.

  7. Technical supports for nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jong Sung; Kwak, Eun Hoh; Noh, Sung Kee; Soh, Dong Sub; Yoon, Wan Kee; Shin, Jang Soo; Paek, Dae Hyun; Park, Wan Soo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Park, Chan Sik; Cha, Hong Yul; Choi, Yoon Dong; Park, Jin Hoh; Lee, Eui Jin; An, Jin Soo; Kim, Jong Heui [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The project was carried out to support the establishment of the system of accountancy and control of nuclear materials in Korea. The training of inspectors and seminar were held to improve inspection capability of the nuclear inspectors. The information about the north Korean nuclear activities were successfully analyzed. In the drafts of nuclear energy law the national inspection and the regulation of physical protection were newly introduced for the purpose to clarify the openness of nuclear activities in Korea. 1 fig, 20 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  8. Technical Support and Transfer of Geothrmal Technical Knowledge and Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Lund; Toni" Boyd

    2007-11-14

    The Geo-Heat Center (GHC) staff provided responses to 1442 technical support requests during the contract period (April 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007), which were six quarters under this contract. Our website, consisting of 1900 files, also contributes to our technical assistance activity. Downloaded files were 1,889,323 (3,448 per day) from our website, the total number of users was 1,365,258 (2,491 per day), and the total number of hits were 6,008,500 (10,064 per day). The GHC staff attended 60 workshops, short course and professional meeting and made 29 technical presentations. The staff also prepared and mailed out 2,000 copies of each of five issues of the GHC Quaterly Bulletin which contained 26 articles. We also mailed out approximately 5,000 papers and publications to interested individuals and organizations.

  9. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-06

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy`s evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors.

  10. Technical program plan, Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-19

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Program covers all activities necessary to assess the feasibility and provide the technology needed to design and construct a nuclear waste repository in basalt. The program is divided into the following areas: program management; systems integration; scientific technology; near-surface test facility; and repository studies. The program is discussed in detail.

  11. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, July-December, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    This report provides information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, other support, in situ storage or disposal, waste form development and characterization, process and equipment development, and the Defense Waste Processing Facility are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations: tank farm operation, inspection program, burial ground operations, and waste transfer/tank replacement.

  12. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-12-31

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report.

  13. Technical summary: Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Browne, L.M.; Bryan, G.H.; Holton, L.K.; Irish, E.R.; Siemens, D.H.

    1979-05-01

    Six PWR fuel assemblies, containing 2.3 metric tons uranium from Point Beach, have been processed by a conventional Purex-type process. U and other chemicals were added to the dilute HLLW, and the waste was then vitrified to produce two canisters of glass. The on-stream efficiency of the waste preparation facility exceeded 90% for the first 3 weeks; the overall average was 62%. The only processing difficulty in the vitrification facility was a partial failure in the spray calciner nozzle. The Pu byproduct of waste preparation was purified by ion exchange and calcined to oxide; one can of oxide ruptured due to self-heating. 27 figures, 16 tables. (DLC)

  14. Valorization technics by means of vermiculture for fatty wastes resulting from wastes water purification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignoles, C. (Service Assainissement, 31 - Toulouse (France))

    Fats, scums and other floating organic wastes extracted from waste water purification plants have always caused important problems of treatment to specialists. Municipal and technical services of Toulouse have elaborated an original valorization process. Results are simultaneously spectacular for environment and economically reasonable. One may think that this natural method is bound to experience interesting developments in the future.

  15. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-17

    This report provides the results of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment led by the Savannah River National Laboratory and conducted by a team of experts in pertinent disciplines from SRNL and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL).

  17. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  18. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2009). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas, consisting

  19. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2008-06-16

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the 'Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities' (DSA) (LLNL 2008). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas

  20. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  1. Radioactive Waste Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal

    CERN Document Server

    Streffer, Christian; Kamp, Georg; Kröger, Wolfgang; Rehbinder, Eckard; Renn, Ortwin; Röhlig, Klaus-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Waste caused by the use of radioactive material in research, medicine and technologies, above all high level waste from nuclear power plants, must be disposed of safely. However, the strategies discussed for the disposal of radioactive waste as well as proposals for choosing a proper site for final waste disposal are strongly debated. An appropriate disposal must satisfy complex technical requirements and must meet stringent conditions to appropriately protect man and nature from risks of radioactivity over very long periods. Ethical, legal and social conditions must be considered as well. An interdisciplinary team of experts from relevant fields compiled the current status and developed criteria as well as strategies which meet the requirements of safety and security for present and future generations. The study also provides specific recommendations that will improve and optimize the chances for the selection of a repository site implementing the participation of stakeholders including the general public an...

  2. Draft low level waste technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information.

  3. Engineering Technical Support Center Annual Report Fiscal Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Office of Research and Development (ORD) created the Engineering Technical Support Center (ETSC) in 1987, one of several technical support centers created as part of the Technical Support Project (TSP). ETSC provid...

  4. Engineering Technical Support Center Annual Report Fiscal Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Office of Research and Development (ORD) created the Engineering Technical Support Center (ETSC) in 1987, one of several technical support centers created as part of the Technical Support Project (TSP). ETSC provid...

  5. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-29

    0575 N5-95-1 Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support...SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMED. Sp-5 Safety and Health Final Report Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Technical Support Committee Task No

  6. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  7. Impact of Technical Support on Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Gajic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Technical support through co-creation of value in automotive paint processes and activities is essential to the success of paint manufacturing companies. This study aimed to explore the impact of technical support on customer satisfaction through value-in-use in the automotive paint market. A quantitative questionnaire survey involving a convenience sample of 169 respondents was used for data collection. The questionnaire design bore on the SERVPERF instrument with embedded value-in-use attributes. The data were analyzed by using SPSS 21 statistical methods exploratory factor analysis (EFA and multiple regression analysis (MRA. The findings of this study revealed that the key value-in-use attributes were relationship quality (trust, knowledge required for providing help in getting maximum product benefits, sharing of knowledge, and a range of product and service offerings that satisfy customer needs. Trust had the greatest impact on customer satisfaction. The results also revealed that service quality dimension assurance exerted the greatest positive impact on customer satisfaction.

  8. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  9. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT NEEDS RELATED TO CONCEPTUAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR SUBSURFACE REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING OF INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS, RADIONUCLIDES, AND NUTRIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Office of Research and Development is responsible to EPA's Office of Solid Waste to provide research and technical support for waste site closures and the development of technical guidance in support of environmental regulations and programmatic policies. ORD is also respo...

  10. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E.; Galbraith, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Grant, P.R.; Francuz, D.J.; Schroeder, P.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs.

  12. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E

    2013-06-01

    Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project "LabelAgriWaste" revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process ("Quality I") and another one for plastic profile production process ("Quality II"). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW.

  13. 75 FR 61228 - Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act...

  14. Technical and economic aspects of waste heat utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen Slavomir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the following presentation is the comparison and evaluation of the conditions for waste heat utilization in Germany and in Poland. This paper presents synthetically the results of economic analysis of the different technical variants. The employment of heat pumps and other heat transformers, respectively, can reduce the energy consumption, but using of those technical possibilities depends mainly on the economic aspects. The main parameters of the financial calculations were the energy and equipment costs but beyond it a number of other factors were also considered and compared, for example calculation interests, profit tax level and similar. Four different technical alternatives were analyzed, it is using of absorption heat pump, compression heat pump, heat transformer (absorption, and a special combined system with gas motor to drive of heat pump compressor. The capital value as main result of the investigations is in Poland generally lower because of relatively high investment cost and lower energy prices compared to the situation in Germany and West Europe. The basis for the presented comparative analysis was an industrial project in Germany which effected in development of concepts for waste heat using. .

  15. Separate collection of plastic waste, better than technical sorting from municipal solid waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Jansen, Michael; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U

    2017-02-01

    The politically preferred solution to fulfil legal recycling demands is often implementing separate collection systems. However, experience shows their limitations, particularly in urban centres with a high population density. In response to the European Union landfill directive, mechanical biological waste treatment plants have been installed all over Europe. This technology makes it possible to retrieve plastic waste from municipal solid waste. Operators of mechanical biological waste treatment plants, both in Germany and the Netherlands, have started to change their mechanical separation processes to additionally produce plastic pre-concentrates. Results from mechanical biological waste treatment and separate collection of post-consumer packaging waste will be presented and compared. They prove that both the yield and the quality of plastic waste provided as feedstock for the production of secondary plastic raw material are largely comparable. An economic assessment shows which conditions for a technical sorting plant are economically attractive in comparison to separate collection systems. It is, however, unlikely that plastic recycling will ever reach cost neutrality.

  16. Technical Evaluations of Proposed Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Characterization Requirements at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G.; Channell, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    Characterization, packaging, transport, handling and disposal of remotely handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste at WIPP will be different than similar operations with contact handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste. This paper presents results of technical evaluations associated with the planned disposal of remotely handled transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  17. Thirteenth annual report of the Technical Advisory Committee on the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-15

    This report details activities since the last reporting period by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). The emphasis of the work in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) has been on the writing of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the associated set of the primary reference document as well as supporting documents. These are in preparation for submission to the Environmental Assessment Review Panel who will lead the national evaluation of the disposal concept under the auspices of the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO).

  18. National Waste Terminal Storage Program: management and technical program plan, FY 1976--FY 1978. [Information is obsolete and of historical interest only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-21

    The discussion on the management plan covers the program, responsibilities, general program schedule and logic, Office of Waste Isolation organization and facilities, management approach, administrative plan, and public affairs plan. The technical program plan includes geological studies, technical support studies, engineering studies, waste facility projects, environmental studies, system studies, data management, and international activities. The information contained in this report is obsolete and of historical interest only. (LK)

  19. AISI waste oxide recycling program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aukrust, E.; Downing, K.B.; Sarma, B.

    1995-08-01

    In March 1995 AISI completed a five-year, $60 million collaborative development program on Direct Steelmaking cost-shared by DOE under the Metals Initiative. This program defined an energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly technology to produce hot metal for steelmaking directly from coal and iron ore pellets without incurring the high capital costs and environmental problems associated with traditional coke oven and blast furnace technology. As it becomes necessary to replace present capacity, this new technology will be favored because of reduced capital costs, higher energy efficiency, and lower operating costs. In April 1994, having failed to move forward with a demonstration plant for direct ironmaking, despite substantial efforts by both Stelco and Geneva Steel, an alternative opportunity was sought to commercialize this new technology without waiting until existing ironmaking capacity needed to be replaced. Recycling and resource recovery of steel plant waste oxides was considered an attractive possibility. This led to approval of a ten-month, $8.3 million joint program with DOE on recycling steel plant waste oxides utilizing this new smelting technology. This highly successful trial program was completed in December 1994. The results of the pilot plant work and a feasibility study for a recycling demonstration plant are presented in this final technical report.

  20. Technical bases for leak detection surveillance of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.G.; Badden, J.J.

    1995-02-13

    This document provides the technical bases for specification limits, monitoring frequencies and baselines used for leak detection and intrusion (for single shell tanks only) in all single and double shell radioactive waste storage tanks, waste transfer lines, and most catch tanks and receiver tanks in the waste tank farms and associated areas at Hanford.

  1. The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues.

  2. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkert, R. [California Dept. of Health Services, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  3. National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation technical program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage Program (NWTS) was established in 1976 with the objective of developing a system for the permanent isolation of nuclear wastes. DOE is charged with developing programs for the long term management of highly radioactive nuclear wastes by federal law. This legislation specifies that DOE must provide facilities for the successful isolation of these wastes from the biosphere in federally licensed and owned repositories for as long as they represent a significant hazard. The scope of NWTS activities includes providing the technology and facilities for the terminal isolation of commercial wastes by disposal in stable geologic repositories deep underground. Steps leading to the accomplishment of this purpose include: site exploration, characterization, and recommendation; design, licensing, construction, and operation of a geologic repository (or repositories); provision of spent fuel packaging and transportation facilities; technology to support these steps; and coordination of studies of altenate disposal concepts (i.e., deep hole, seabed, space, etc.). Emphasis is being placed on a system of multiple barriers - natural and man-made - to isolate nuclear waste from the environment. Because the nature of the host rock is basic to determination of other barriers, work in the geologic aspects of the multiple barrier system is well under way in several candidate media. Throughout the process, the NWTS Program has the responsibility to provide public information on all aspects of the program and to encourage public interaction.

  4. Impact of the WHO Technical Support Towards Malaria Elimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2University of Zambia, School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia. Key words: Malaria, strategies, technical support, WHO. ABSTRACT. Background: Zambia's National Malaria Strategic Plan .... the Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit (DMMU).

  5. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, October-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-07-01

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant and offplant participants. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, in situ storage or disposal, waste from development and characterization, process and equipment development, and low-level waste management are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities.

  6. 77 FR 8926 - Board Meeting: March 7, 2012-Albuquerque, NM; The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Will...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: March 7, 2012--Albuquerque, NM; The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board... authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board will hold...

  7. Wikis supporting PLM and Technical Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Høimyr, Nils-Joar; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years, Wikis have arisen as powerful tools for collaborative documentation on the Internet. The Encyclopaedia Wikipedia has become a reference, and the power of community editing in a Wiki allows for capture of knowledge from contributors all over the world. Use of a Wiki for Technical Documentation, along with hyper-links to other data sources such as a Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) system, provides a very effective collaboration tool as information can be easily feed into the system throughout the project life-cycle. In particular for software- and hardware projects with rapidly evolving documentation, the Wiki approach has proved to be successful. Certain Wiki implementations, such as TWiki, are project-oriented and include functionality such as automatic page revisioning. This paper addresses the use of TWiki to document hardware and software projects at CERN, from the requirements and brain-storming phase to end-product documentation. 2 examples are covered: large scale engineering for...

  8. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  9. Basalt Waste Isolation Project Reclamation Support Project:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1992-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Reclamation Support Project began in the spring of 1988 by categorizing sites distributed during operations of the BWIP into those requiring revegetation and those to be abandoned or transferred to other programs. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory's role in this project was to develop plans for reestablishing native vegetation on the first category of sites, to monitor the implementation of these plans, to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, and to identify remediation methods where necessary. The Reclamation Support Project focused on three major areas: geologic hydrologic boreholes, the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF). A number of BWIP reclamation sites seeded between 1989 and 1990 were found to be far below reclamation objectives. These sites were remediated in 1991 using various seedbed treatments designed to rectify problems with water-holding capacity, herbicide activity, surficial crust formation, and nutrient imbalances. Remediation was conducted during November and early December 1991. Sites were examined on a monthly basis thereafter to evaluate plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites early plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites, early plant growth far exceeded any previously obtained using other methods and seedbed treatments. Seeded plants did best where amendments consisted of soil-plus-compost or fertilizer-only. Vegetation growth on Gable Mountain was less than that found on other areas nearby, but this difference is attributed primarily to the site's altitude and north-facing orientation.

  10. Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

    1997-04-01

    Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

  11. Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office. 2008 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Develop advanced methods to extract and enhance audio recordings and video images from surveillance sources. Identify computer systems and media...Investigative Support & Forensics IS F Selected Completed Projects Steganography Decryption Steganography , the art of hiding messages in other innocuous...messages containing steganography , then isolates and decrypts the hidden message. Besides having advanced detection and decryption capabilities, the

  12. An analysis of the technical status of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, T.; Miller, C.; Bullard, E.; Campbell, R.; Chockie, A.; Divita, E.; Douthitt, C.; Edelson, E.; Lees, L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical status of the old U.S. mailine program for high level radioactive nuclear waste management, and the newly-developing program for disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel was assessed. The method of long term containment for both of these waste forms is considered to be deep geologic isolation in bedded salt. Each major component of both waste management systems is analyzed in terms of its scientific feasibility, technical achievability and engineering achievability. The resulting matrix leads to a systematic identification of major unresolved technical or scientific questions and/or gaps in these programs.

  13. 75 FR 12989 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... hazardous waste and owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities... of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities) In 40 CFR part 264, EPA is amending... owners and operators of certain types of hazardous waste treatment and storage facilities operating under...

  14. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a technical and economic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1984-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using in-situ decontamination techniques to convert glove boxes and other large TRU-contaminated components directly into LLW. The results of the technical evaluation indicate that in-situ decontamination of these types of components to non-TRU levels is technically feasible. Applicable decontamination techniques include electropolishing, hand scrubbing, chemical washes/sprays, strippable coatings and Freon spray-cleaning. The removal of contamination from crevices and other holdup areas remains a problem, but may be solved through further advances in decontamination technology. Also, the increase in the allowable maximum TRU level from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g as defined in DOE Order 5820.2 reduces the removal requirement and facilitates measurement of the remaining quantities. The major emphasis of the study was on a cost/benefit evaluation that included a review and update of previous analyses and evaluations of TRU-waste volume reduction and conversion options. The results of the economic evaluation show, for the assumptions used, that there is a definite cost incentive to size reduce large components, and that decontamination of sectioned material has become cost competitive with the size reduction options. In-situ decontamination appears to be the lowest cost option when based on routine-type operations conducted by well-trained and properly equipped personnel. 16 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  15. Logistic management materials-technical support railway enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dykan, V.; Borozenetc, T.

    2014-01-01

    The essence of logistics management. Determine the feasibility of applying the principles of logistics management in organizing the logistics of railway transport. Discussed measures to develop suppliers in the implementation of logistics management logistics. Identified the need to develop and implement regulatory and methodical system to improve materials-technical support through the introduction of modern logistics principles. Applied systemic campaign to organize the materials-technical ...

  16. Logistic management materials-technical support railway enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dykan, V.; Borozenetc, T.

    2014-01-01

    The essence of logistics management. Determine the feasibility of applying the principles of logistics management in organizing the logistics of railway transport. Discussed measures to develop suppliers in the implementation of logistics management logistics. Identified the need to develop and implement regulatory and methodical system to improve materials-technical support through the introduction of modern logistics principles. Applied systemic campaign to organize the materials-technical ...

  17. A decision support system for regional hazardous waste management alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyar A. Amouzegar; Jacobsen, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    With the passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the subsequent amendments to RCRA, efforts to provide tighter controls on the transportation and disposal of hazardous waste have been steadily gaining ground. This paper, intended as a decision support tool for regional planning, incorporates information on the hazardous waste generation, treatment capacity and the costs of waste treatment alternatives into an optimization problem of finding the relationship between g...

  18. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook; Kim, Gye Ryung (and others)

    2003-06-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the subprojects from the various fields, It has been tried to make the subprojects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, TRM(Technology Road Map) is made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  19. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-03-31

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  20. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  1. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others

    2005-08-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  2. 75 FR 13066 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities, the... generator requirements, the standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage and... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 268, and 270 RIN 2050-AG52 Hazardous Waste...

  3. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operatinglicensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and

  4. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    As part of its overall program, the MWFA uses a national mixed waste data set to develop approaches for treating mixed waste that cannot be treated using existing capabilities at DOE or commercial facilities. The current data set was originally compiled under the auspices of the 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report. The data set has been updated over the past two years based on Site Treatment Plan revisions and clarifications provided by individual sites. The current data set is maintained by the MWFA staff and is known as MWFA97. In 1996, the MWFA developed waste groupings, process flow diagrams, and treatment train diagrams to systematically model the treatment of all mixed waste in the DOE complex. The purpose of the modeling process was to identify treatment gaps and corresponding technology development needs for the DOE complex. Each diagram provides the general steps needed to treat a specific type of waste. The NWFA categorized each MWFA97 waste stream by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. Appendices B through F provide the complete listing of waste streams by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. The MWFA97 waste strewn information provided in the appendices is defined in Table A-1.

  5. 76 FR 17970 - Board Meeting: April 27, 2011-Amherst, New York; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: April 27, 2011--Amherst, New York; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review... 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Nuclear...

  6. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results......, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing...... waste LCA models. This review infers that some of the differences in waste LCA models are inherent to the time they were developed. It is expected that models developed later, benefit from past modelling assumptions and knowledge and issues. Models developed in different countries furthermore rely...

  7. Socio-technical systems analysis of waste to energy from municipal solid waste in developing economies: a case for Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyamu Hope O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an inevitable by-product of human activity, and it is on the rise due to rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, increased wealth and population. The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW in developed and developing economies differ, especially with the organic fraction. Research shows that the food waste stream of MSW in developing countries is over 50%. The case study for this investigation, Nigeria, has minimal formal recycling or resource recovery programs. The average composition of waste from previous research in the country is between 50–70% putrescible and 30–50% non-putrescible, presenting significant resource recovery potential in composting and biogas production. Waste-to-energy (WtE is an important waste management solution that has been successfully implemented and operated in most developed economies. This contribution reports the conditions that would be of interest before WtE potentials of MSW is harnessed, in an efficient waste management process in a developing economy like Nigeria. The investigation presents a set of socio-technical parameters and transition strategy model that would inform a productive MSW management and resource recovery, in which WtE can be part of the solution. This model will find application in the understanding of the interactions between the socio-economic, technical and environmental system, to promote sustainable resource recovery programs in developing economies, among which is WtE.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  9. Basalt Waste Isolation Project technical program evaluation process: A criteria-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babad, H.; Evans, G. C.; Wolfe, B. A.

    The need to objectively evaluate the progress being made by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) toward establishing the feasibility of siting a nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) mandates a process for evaluating the technical work of the project. To assist BWIP management in the evaluation process, the Systems Department staff has developed a BWIP Technical Program Evaluation Process (TPEP). The basic process relates progress on project technical work to the SWIP Functional and System Performance Criteria as defined in National Waste Terminal Storage (MWTS) Criteria Documents. The benefits of the TPEP to BWIP and future plans for TPEP are discussed. During fiscal year (FY) 1982, TPEP will be further formalized and further applied to the review of BWIP technical activities.

  10. Basalt Waste Isolation Project Technical Program Evaluation Process: a criteria-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babad, H.; Evans, G.C.; Wolfe, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The need to objectively evaluate the progress being made by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) toward establishing the feasibility of siting a nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) mandates a process for evaluating the technical work of the project. To assist BWIP management in the evaluation process, the Systems Department staff has developed a BWIP Technical Program Evaluation Process (TPEP). The basic process relates progress on project technical work to the SWIP Functional and System Performance Criteria as defined in National Waste Terminal Storage (MWTS) Criteria Documents. The benefits of the TPEP to BWIP and future plans for TPEP are discussed. During fiscal year (FY) 1982, TPEP wll be further formalized and further applied to the review of BWIP technical activities.

  11. Technical resource document for assured thermal processing of wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrow, R.L.; Fisk, G.A.; Hartwig, C.M.; Hurt, R.H.; Ringland, J.T.; Swansiger, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    This document is a concise compendium of resource material covering assured thermal processing of wastes (ATPW), an area in which Sandia aims to develop a large program. The ATPW program at Sandia is examining a wide variety of waste streams and thermal processes. Waste streams under consideration include municipal, chemical, medical, and mixed wastes. Thermal processes under consideration range from various incineration technologies to non-incineration processes such as supercritical water oxidation or molten metal technologies. Each of the chapters describes the element covered, discusses issues associated with its further development and/or utilization, presents Sandia capabilities that address these issues, and indicates important connections to other ATPW elements. The division of the field into elements was driven by the team`s desire to emphasize areas where Sandia`s capabilities can lead to major advances and is therefore somewhat unconventional. The report will be valuable to Sandians involved in further ATPW program development.

  12. TECHNICAL NOTE LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL IN URBAN LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of in a properly designed and integrated network of pipes, which collect and ... been overcrowding, poverty, health problems and an ever increasing strain on basic ... ·adequate water supply, then 111 adequate waste disposal syltcm is needed ...

  13. Solid waste sampling and distribution project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) established a Waste Management Program within the Office of Fossil Energy. A key goal of this program is to ensure that waste management issues do not become obstacles to the commercialization of advanced coal utilization technologies. In achieving this goal, the Waste Management Program identifies various emerging coal utilization technologies and performs comprehensive characterizations of the waste streams and products. The characterizations include engineering assessments to define waste streams of interest/potential concern, field studies to collect samples of the waste, and complete chemical analysis of the collected samples. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) was selected to perform the site selection and the sampling aspects of five (5) of these facilities. The current EER contract consists of two interrelated efforts: site selection and waste sampling. Detailed sample analysis is being conducted under another DOE contract. The primary objectives of the site selection and sampling effort are listed: (1) Survey sites at which advanced fossil energy combustion technologies are being operated, and identify five sites for sampling. Priority should be given to DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program Sites. (2) Identify candidate solid waste streams in advanced coal utilization processes likely to present disposal problems and prioritized them for sampling at selected sites. (3) Contact site personnel for site access, sample the streams representatively and document them according to established methodology and known process conditions; and (4) Distribute the samples to DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center or their representatives for analysis and report on the site visit.

  14. Reflecting socio-technical combinations in radioactive waste management. Results from the InSOTEC European research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany); Bergmans, Anne [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); Martell, Meritxell [Merience Strategic Thinking, Olerdola (Spain); Schroeder, Jantine [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); SCK - CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    InSOTEC is a three-year collaborative social sciences research project funded under the European Atomic Energy Community's 7th Framework Programme FP7. The project aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. In doing so, InSOTEC has moved beyond the social and technical division that is frequently being found in this context by - investigating the consideration of social sciences and the recognition of socio-technical combinations in research programs on geological disposal, - analyzing the socio-technical entanglement in selected contexts like siting, reversibility and retrievability, demonstrating safety and technology transfer on the basis of case studies, and - exploring the integration of diverse stakeholders in technology oriented networks. The analyses reveal that activities in the context of geological disposal, whether related to research, planning, siting etc., rather support the divide of social and technical aspects than fostering the consideration of their entanglement. Reasons identified for this are manifold. The wish to reduce complexity by focusing stakeholder involvement on social questions and fixing the technical part ''when acceptance is reached'' is only one of them. However, the analyses also show that over the long timescales of repository planning and implementation, robust management strategies must provide the flexibility to adapt to both technical and social developments and demands. Understanding the socio-technical interplay and creating structures for its consideration provides the basis for dealing with this challenge. This presentation will focus on the main findings of the InSOTEC project with regard to the consideration of socio-technical combinations in practice. These insights are currently under development and will be finalized at the end of the project in June 2014. We will reflect on

  15. A web-based Decision Support System for the optimal management of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banias, G; Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Moussiopoulos, N; Papaioannou, I

    2011-12-01

    Wastes from construction activities constitute nowadays the largest by quantity fraction of solid wastes in urban areas. In addition, it is widely accepted that the particular waste stream contains hazardous materials, such as insulating materials, plastic frames of doors, windows, etc. Their uncontrolled disposal result to long-term pollution costs, resource overuse and wasted energy. Within the framework of the DEWAM project, a web-based Decision Support System (DSS) application - namely DeconRCM - has been developed, aiming towards the identification of the optimal construction and demolition waste (CDW) management strategy that minimises end-of-life costs and maximises the recovery of salvaged building materials. This paper addresses both technical and functional structure of the developed web-based application. The web-based DSS provides an accurate estimation of the generated CDW quantities of twenty-one different waste streams (e.g. concrete, bricks, glass, etc.) for four different types of buildings (residential, office, commercial and industrial). With the use of mathematical programming, the DeconRCM provides also the user with the optimal end-of-life management alternative, taking into consideration both economic and environmental criteria. The DSS's capabilities are illustrated through a real world case study of a typical five floor apartment building in Thessaloniki, Greece.

  16. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  17. RE/SPEC Inc. technical support to the Repository Technology Program; Summary of activities for September 1, 1988--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report presents a summary of all RE/SPEC Inc. technical support activities to the Repository Technology Program (RTP) from September 1, 1988, through June 30, 1992. The RE/SPEC Inc. activities are grouped into the following categories: project management, project quality assurance (QA), performance assessment (PA), support of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) through technical reviews and general assistance, participation in the Department of Energy (DOE) International Program, and code evaluation and documentation.

  18. WASTE CONTAINER AND WASTE PACKAGE PERFORMANCE MODELING TO SUPPORT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-06-30

    Prior to subsurface burial of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, a demonstration that disposal of the wastes can be accomplished while protecting the health and safety of the general population is required. The long-time frames over which public safety must be insured necessitates that this demonstration relies, in part, on computer simulations of events and processes that will occur in the future. This demonstration, known as a Safety Assessment, requires understanding the performance of the disposal facility, waste containers, waste forms, and contaminant transport to locations accessible to humans. The objective of the coordinated research program is to examine the state-of-the-art in testing and evaluation short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste packages (container and waste form) in near surface repository conditions. The link between data collection and long-term predictions is modeling. The objective of this study is to review state-of-the-art modeling approaches for waste package performance. This is accomplished by reviewing the fundamental concepts behind safety assessment and demonstrating how waste package models can be used to support safety assessment. Safety assessment for low- and intermediate-level wastes is a complicated process involving assumptions about the appropriate conceptual model to use and the data required to support these models. Typically due to the lack of long-term data and the uncertainties from lack of understanding and natural variability, the models used in safety assessment are simplistic. However, even though the models are simplistic, waste container and waste form performance are often central to the case for making a safety assessment. An overview of waste container and waste form performance and typical models used in a safety assessment is supplied. As illustrative examples of the role of waste container and waste package performance, three sample test cases are provided. An example of the impacts of

  19. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  20. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  1. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  2. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-20

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  3. Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Developmen: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Mgana, S.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures o

  4. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ross, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nakaoka, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schumacher, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Cunnane, J.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  5. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ross, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nakaoka, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schumacher, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Cunnane, J.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  6. Low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment at Murmansk, Russia: Technical design and review of facility upgrade and expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R.S.; Diamante, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of International Activities; Duffey, R.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The governments of Norway and the US have committed their mutual cooperation and support the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to expand and upgrade the Low-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLRW) treatment system located at the facilities of the Russian company RTP Atomflot, in Murmansk, Russia. RTP Atomflot provides support services to the Russian icebreaker fleet operated by the MSCo. The objective is to enable Russia to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters. The proposed modifications will increase the facility`s capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3} per year to 5,000 m{sup 3} per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy`s Northern fleet, and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The three countries set up a cooperative review of the evolving design information, conducted by a joint US and Norwegian technical team from April through December, 1995. To ensure that US and Norwegian funds produce a final facility which will meet the objectives, this report documents the design as described by Atomflot and the Russian business organization, ASPECT, both in design documents and orally. During the detailed review process, many questions were generated, and many design details developed which are outlined here. The design is based on the adsorption of radionuclides on selected inorganic resins, and desalination and concentration using electromembranes. The US/Norwegian technical team reviewed the available information and recommended that the construction commence; they also recommended that a monitoring program for facility performance be instituted.

  7. Generation of organic waste from institutions in Denmark: case study of the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    As a response to the growing pressure on the supply chains, developing a resource-efficient circular economy will be fundamental to satisfy the future demands for material resources. In this context, the Danish Government, in 2013, launched its Resource Strategy Plan, mandating that, by 2018...... at least 60% of organic waste – that cannot be prevented or reduced –generated by service sector, should be source-segregated and collected separately. In order to establish the baseline of the current situation, and to allow for any evaluation of performance against target indicators, data on solid waste...... generation and composition are required. The overall aim of this study was to quantify the potential for source-segregated organic waste as well as mixed waste from institution. This study was carried at the Department of Environmental Engineering at Technical University of Denmark. In the course...

  8. Life cycle assessment of waste management systems: Assessing technical externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    from the LCAs of full waste management systems revealed that capital goods should be included in future LCAs. The impact share of capital goods was highest for resource depletion and the impacts of toxicity on humans and ecosystems. To evaluate the quality and consistency of available data...... for the primary and secondary production of materials, 366 datasets were gathered. The materials in focus were: paper, newsprint, cardboard, corrugated board, glass, aluminium, steel and plastics (HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PET, PS, PVC). Only one quarter of these data concerned secondary production, thus underlining...... a severe lack of data for these production processes. The results showed large variations in CO2 emissions from the production of each of the evaluated materials. An evaluation of the data revealed that energy systems are central to impacts and are thereby important to specify as background information...

  9. Large Hospital 50% Energy Savings: Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Studer, D.; Parker, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document documents the technical analysis and design guidance for large hospitals to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 and represents a step toward determining how to provide design guidance for aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling methods used to demonstrate that the design recommendations meet or exceed the 50% goal. EnergyPlus was used to model the predicted energy performance of the baseline and low-energy buildings to verify that 50% energy savings are achievable. Percent energy savings are based on a nominal minimally code-compliant building and whole-building, net site energy use intensity. The report defines architectural-program characteristics for typical large hospitals, thereby defining a prototype model; creates baseline energy models for each climate zone that are elaborations of the prototype models and are minimally compliant with Standard 90.1-2004; creates a list of energy design measures that can be applied to the prototype model to create low-energy models; uses industry feedback to strengthen inputs for baseline energy models and energy design measures; and simulates low-energy models for each climate zone to show that when the energy design measures are applied to the prototype model, 50% energy savings (or more) are achieved.

  10. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  11. Energy recovery from solid waste. Volume 2: Technical report. [pyrolysis and biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. J.; Dalton, C.

    1975-01-01

    A systems analysis of energy recovery from solid waste demonstrates the feasibility of several current processes for converting solid waste to an energy form. The social, legal, environmental, and political factors are considered in depth with recommendations made in regard to new legislation and policy. Biodegradation and thermal decomposition are the two areas of disposal that are considered with emphasis on thermal decomposition. A technical and economic evaluation of a number of available and developing energy-recovery processes is given. Based on present technical capabilities, use of prepared solid waste as a fuel supplemental to coal seems to be the most economic process by which to recover energy from solid waste. Markets are considered in detail with suggestions given for improving market conditions and for developing market stability. A decision procedure is given to aid a community in deciding on its options in dealing with solid waste, and a new pyrolysis process is suggested. An application of the methods of this study are applied to Houston, Texas.

  12. TECHNICAL SUPPORT AS A BASIS OF HIGH AVAILABILITY LEVEL AND IT SYSTEM SERVICE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vidojevic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development and implementation methodology of technical support in IT1system operation. Methodology is developed and applied in realistic system (Information system of the Tax administration - DIS 2003, which is technically very complex and highly distributed. The results of IT system availability assessment and identification of the critical components are input parameters in the process of establishing of the technical support. The importance of technical support for achieving optimal IT system availability and IT service quality is assessed according to its operation during one year. The history of technical support system operation is a basis for further continuous improvement.

  13. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  14. Nuclear Waste Management Decision-Making Support with MCDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schwenk-Ferrero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA framework for a comparative evaluation of nuclear waste management strategies taking into account different local perspectives (expert and stakeholder opinions. Of note, a novel approach is taken using a multiple-criteria formulation that is methodologically adapted to tackle various conflicting criteria and a large number of expert/stakeholder groups involved in the decision-making process. The purpose is to develop a framework and to show its application to qualitative comparison and ranking of options in a hypothetical case of three waste management alternatives: interim storage at and/or away from the reactor site for the next 100 years, interim decay storage followed in midterm by disposal in a national repository, and disposal in a multinational repository. Additionally, major aspects of a decision-making aid are identified and discussed in separate paper sections dedicated to application context, decision supporting process, in particular problem structuring, objective hierarchy, performance evaluation modeling, sensitivity/robustness analyses, and interpretation of results (practical impact. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the application of the MCDA framework developed to a generic hypothetical case and indicate how MCDA could support a decision on nuclear waste management policies in a “small” newcomer country embarking on nuclear technology in the future.

  15. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  16. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  17. Communication of technical information to lay audiences. [National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, J.E.; Stamm, K.R.; Jackson, K.M.; Moore, J.

    1978-05-01

    One of the objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide terminal storage facilities for commercial radioactive wastes in various geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States. The activities performed under the NWTS Program will affect regional, state, and local areas, and widespread public interest in this program is expected. Since a large part of the NWTS Program deals with technical information it was considered desirable to initiate a study dealing with possible methods of effectively transmitting this technical information to the general public. This study has the objective of preparing a state-of-the-art report on the communication of technical information to lay audiences. The particular task of communicating information about the NWTS Program to the public is discussed where appropriate. The results of this study will aid the NWTS Program in presenting to the public the quite diverse technical information generated within the program so that a widespread, thorough public understanding of the NWTS Program might be achieved. An annotated bibliography is included.

  18. Identifying Effective Strategies to Providing Technical Support to One-to-One Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of this study was that while one-to-one initiatives in the K-12 environment are growing, the technical support personnel that work in these environments are experiencing problems supporting these initiatives. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify common problems of providing technical support in a one-to-one laptop program,…

  19. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  20. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. (ed.)

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  1. 76 FR 24065 - Board Workshop: June 6-7, 2011-Arlington, Virginia; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Workshop: June 6-7, 2011--Arlington, Virginia; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Will Hold a Workshop on Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Waste Streams Pursuant to its...

  2. Analysis of nuclear waste disposal in space, phase 3. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The options, reference definitions and/or requirements currently envisioned for the total nuclear waste disposal in space mission are summarized. The waste form evaluation and selection process is documented along with the physical characteristics of the iron nickel-base cermet matrix chosen for disposal of commercial and defense wastes. Safety aspects of radioisotope thermal generators, the general purpose heat source, and the Lewis Research Center concept for space disposal are assessed as well as the on-pad catastrophic accident environments for the uprated space shuttle and the heavy lift launch vehicle. The radionuclides that contribute most to long-term risk of terrestrial disposal were determined and the effects of resuspension of fallout particles from an accidental release of waste material were studied. Health effects are considered. Payload breakup and rescue technology are discussed as well as expected requirements for licensing, supporting research and technology, and safety testing.

  3. Technical data summary supporting the spent nuclear fuel environment impact statement, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, R.L.; Claxton, R.E.; Lengel, J.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This report has been compiled by the WSRC Nuclear Materials Processing Division`s Planning Section at the request of the Office of Spent Fuel Management and Special Projects (EM-37) to support issuance of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Environmental Impact Statement. Savannah River Site input data evaluates five programmatic options (including {open_quotes}No Action{close_quotes}) ranging up to transfer of all DOE responsibility spent fuel to the SRS. For each option, a range of management/disposition scenarios has been examined. Each case summary provides information relative to the technical proposal, technical issues, environmental impacts, and projected costs for a forty year period (FY-35) when it is assumed that the material will be dispositioned from the SRS. The original issue of the report which was prepared under severe time constraints contained many simplifications and assumptions. Although the revisions have corrected some of the shortcomings of the original report, it is still highly recommended that significant additional study be performed before basing key decisions upon the data contained in this report. The data represents the best effort by a significant group of technical personnel familiar with nuclear materials processing, handling, and storage; but it is likely that careful scrutiny will reveal numerous discrepancies, inconsistencies and omissions. Nor does this report attempt to analyze every potential disposal pathway, but probably establishes the bounds for the most of the viable pathways. The bulk of the effort went into defining the engineering approaches necessary to execute the various mission scenarios which were changed since the last revision. The decision to limit reprocessing to only SRS aluminum clad required a major alteration of the TDS. Collection and/or calculation of much of the various waste, emission, and utility consumption data, so important to an EIS, has been updated since the last revision, but not thoroughly completed.

  4. Impact of the WHO Technical Support Towards Malaria Elimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Zambia's National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP) 2011-2016 aims to ... than the global goal contained in Global Technical Strategy (GTS) 2016- 2030. ... Strategy, for WHO in Zambia; and Health Bulletins and Health Management ...

  5. General Merchandise 50% Energy Savings Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Leach, M.; Hirsch, A.; Torcellini, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents technical analysis for medium-box general merchandise stores aimed at providing design guidance that achieves whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  6. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, E. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, C. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, C. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, N. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, J. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valenta, M. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, D. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Robbins, R. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Thompson, L. E. [Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  7. Approach of technical decision-making by element flow analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation of municipal solid waste stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Bao-guo; SI Ji-tao; ZHAO Yan; WANG Hong-tao; HAO Ji-ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the procedure and methodology which can be used to select the optimal treatment and disposal technology of municipal solid waste (MSW), and to provide practical and effective technical support to policy-making, on the basis of study on solid waste management status and development trend in China and abroad. Focusing on various treatment and disposal technologies and processes of MSW, this study established a Monte-Carlo mathematical model of cost minimization for MSW handling subjected to environmental constraints. A new method of element stream (such as C, H, O, N, S) analysis in combination with economic stream analysis of MSW was developed. By following the streams of different treatment processes consisting of various techniques from generation, separation, transfer, transport, treatment, recycling and disposal of the wastes, the element constitution as well as its economic distribution in terms of possibility functions was identified. Every technique step was evaluated economically. The Mont-Carlo method was then conducted for model calibration. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to identify the most sensitive factors. Model calibration indicated that landfill with power generation of landfill gas was economically the optimal technology at the present stage under the condition of more than 58% of C, H, O, N, S going to landfill. Whether or not to generate electricity was the most sensitive factor. If landfilling cost increases, MSW separation treatment was recommended by screening first followed with incinerating partially and composting partially with residue landfilling. The possibility of incineration model selection as the optimal technology was affected by the city scale. For big cities and metropolitans with large MSW generation, possibility for constructing large-scale incineration facilities increases, whereas, for middle and small cities, the effectiveness of incinerating waste decreases.

  8. Technical requirements for the actinide source-term waste test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This document defines the technical requirements for a test program designed to measure time-dependent concentrations of actinide elements from contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste immersed in brines similar to those found in the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This test program wig determine the influences of TRU waste constituents on the concentrations of dissolved and suspended actinides relevant to the performance of the WIPP. These influences (which include pH, Eh, complexing agents, sorbent phases, and colloidal particles) can affect solubilities and colloidal mobilization of actinides. The test concept involves fully inundating several TRU waste types with simulated WIPP brines in sealed containers and monitoring the concentrations of actinide species in the leachate as a function of time. The results from this program will be used to test numeric models of actinide concentrations derived from laboratory studies. The model is required for WIPP performance assessment with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR Part 191B.

  9. Analysis of nuclear waste disposal in space, phase 3. Volume 1: Executive summary of technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives, approach, assumptions, and limitations of a study of nuclear waste disposal in space are discussed with emphasis on the following: (1) payload characterization; (2) safety assessment; (3) health effects assessment; (4) long-term risk assessment; and (5) program planning support to NASA and DOE. Conclusions are presented for each task.

  10. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-06-30

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 4. The analysis of the effect of cracks on the acceleration of the calcium leaching process of cement-based materials has been pursued. During the last period (Technical Progress Report No 3), we have introduced a modeling accounting for the high diffusivity of fractures in comparison with the weak solid material diffusivity. It has been shown through dimensional and asymptotic analysis that small fractures do not significantly accelerate the material aging process. This important result for the overall structural aging kinetics of containment structure has been developed in a paper submitted to the international journal ''Transport in Porous Media''.

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  12. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  13. Technical Support Document for Version 3.6.1 of the COMcheck Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Lucas, Robert G.; Richman, Eric E.; Schultz, Robert W.; Winiarski, David W.

    2009-09-29

    This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards.

  14. Technical and economic assessment of power generation from municipal solid waste incineration on steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Luna, Carlos Manuel; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto; Ferrufino, Gretta Larisa Aurora Arce; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Dept. of Energy. UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: carrocci@feg.unesp.br, perrella@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a concern in development of environmentally friendly methods for a municipal solid waste (MSW) management and demand for renewable energy sources. The source of waste is increasing, and the capacity and availability Landfill treatment and disposal are coming to be insufficient. In Sao Paulo City, the 10 million inhabitants produce 10,000 t of residential solid waste daily, being that 76% this quantity goes to landfill sites. In order to adopt a new treatment technology for MSW that will promote a solution minimizing this problem, within the order of priorities regarding waste management, the MSW incineration with energy recovery shown as the leading choice on the point of view of efficiency in converting energy. MSW incineration with energy recovery received wide acceptance from various countries including European Union members and the rest of the world in the past 15 years. Incineration has the ability decrease 90 % the volume of waste to be used in landfills, increasing the useful life of existing as well as a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. MSW incineration systems have a low global warming potential (GWP). now has become a less important source of dioxins and furans due to the current available technology. MSW incineration with energy recovery could contribute considerably in the energy matrix, thus promote the conservation of non-renewable resources. This paper proposes the assessment the technical and economic feasibility of a steam cycle with conventional steam generator for MSW incineration with energy recovery for power generation in Sao Paulo City. Will be developed a thermoeconomic analysis aiming at the total power generation product of MSW incineration, and the assessment investment cost regarding the total sale of power generated. The study shows that Sao Paulo City has potential for power generation from the MSW incineration, although it has a high cost investment this technology shown as a suitable alternative for

  15. Economic Issues in the Networking of Library Technical Support Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassler, Scott

    To acquaint library administrators with the economic issues of library networking, this guide of the Western Interstate Library Coordinating Organization (WILCO) outlines possible problems of a national technical services network. Market structures such as monopolies and oligopolies can exist among automated services, brokered services, and in the…

  16. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  17. 76 FR 63509 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... 121 RIN 3245-AG27 Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and... Small Business Administration 13 CFR Part 121 Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No....

  18. Branch technical position on the use of expert elicitation in the high-level radioactive waste program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotra, J.P.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); DeWispelare, A.R. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Should the site be found suitable, DOE will apply to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permission to construct and then operate a proposed geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. In deciding whether to grant or deny DOE`s license application for a geologic repository, NRC will closely examine the facts and expert judgment set forth in any potential DOE license application. NRC expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by DOE to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to address the many technical issues and inherent uncertainties associated with predicting the performance of a repository system for thousands of years. NRC has traditionally accepted, for review, expert judgment to evaluate and interpret the factual bases of license applications and is expected to give appropriate consideration to the judgments of DOE`s experts regarding the geologic repository. Such consideration, however, envisions DOE using expert judgments to complement and supplement other sources of scientific and technical information, such as data collection, analyses, and experimentation. In this document, the NRC staff has set forth technical positions that: (1) provide general guidelines on those circumstances that may warrant the use of a formal process for obtaining the judgments of more than one expert (i.e., expert elicitation); and (2) describe acceptable procedures for conducting expert elicitation when formally elicited judgments are used to support a demonstration of compliance with NRC`s geologic disposal regulation, currently set forth in 10 CFR Part 60. 76 refs.

  19. Technical support functions in a commercial PET environment: The challenge of a nationwide network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Steven S.; Torres, Steven P.

    2007-08-01

    The short half-life of positron-emitting radionuclides requires a highly distributed network to provide a nationwide supply of radiopharmaceuticals for PET. Such a network creates unique challenges that are previously unknown in the production and delivery of traditional radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Technical support plays a key role in any production process, but is especially critical in a distributed PET production environment. The infrastructure required to provide effective technical support in PET on a nationwide level has not been previously described. This paper describes PETNET's efforts to develop a cost-effective technical support system, including: (a) operations training, (b) real-time support for equipment and process related problems, (c) development of process improvements and (d) technical documentation.

  20. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-03

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  1. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade. This report presents a compilation of technical data on waste incineration that serve...... as background for a model of incineration processes to be used in the inventory analysis of LCA....

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Saunders, Scott A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation

  4. Decision Support Systems - Technical Prerequisites and Military Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Tolk, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Decision Support Systems in the sense of online alternative course of action (ACAO) development and analysis as well as tools for online Development of Doctrine and Tactics Techniques, and Procedures (DTTP) for support to operations make it possible to evaluate and forecast the command and control processes and the performance capabilities of the friendly and enemy forces and other decision relevant factors, support the military commander (brigade and higher) and his staff in their headquarter by increasing their ability to identify own opportunities, support all phases of the command and control process, use computer based, automatic and closed models, that can be adapted to the current situation. Objective of the paper is to present the results of studies conducted in Germany on behalf of the German Ministry of Defense with the objective to work out the conceptual basis for decision support systems and to evaluate, how this technique will influence the command and control system of the army of the federal a...

  5. Distance Education Programs: The Technical Support to Be Successful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Ryan E; Gordon, Jeffry S; Weiner, Elizabeth E; Trangenstein, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Academic success requires support on a variety of levels as well as access to contemporary tools and services. Supporting students enrolled in a successful higher education distance learning program, requires a strong, properly trained IT support staff in addition to a stable IT environment. Our distance education program began with a regional market but has grown significantly over the past few years. This is primarily due to the success of our distance education tools and support which have contributed to achieving a ranking of eleventh of best graduate schools in nursing according to the U.S. News and World Report. The entire student population is "Bring Your Own Devices" (BYOD). Critical to this support is the initial configuration and loading of needed software during the first week of orientation. All of this success requires a robust team of members prepared in a range of skill sets from networking to instructional design.

  6. THE SUPPORTING OF EXPLOITATION AND MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT WITHIN NETWORKED TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin DĄBROWSKI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Network technical systems are complex systems, which include distribution networks with devices and engineering objects supporting their work. These kind of systems are used for media distribution, such as: drinking water, fuel, gas, heat, etc. One of specific features of this system is large territorial dispersion of technical objects within the system. The exploitation specificity of networked technical systems requires a special approach for implementing maintenance and repair work, taking into account the large territorial dispersion of their components and limited access to technical infra-structure. The features pointed above show the difference between networked technical system and the typical industri-al technical objects (e.g. available in manufacturing plants. This difference also requires the use of specific IT tools for maintenance management. This article discusses examples of selected tools in this class.

  7. FY2001 Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis & Waste Information Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-08-02

    The Fiscal Year 2001 Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis and Waste Information Requirements Document (TSB-WIRD) has the following purposes: (1) To identify and integrate sampling and analysis needs for fiscal year (FY) 2001 and beyond. (2) To describe the overall drivers that require characterization information and to document their source. (3) To describe the process for identifying, prioritizing, and weighting issues that require characterization information to resolve. (4) To define the method for determining sampling priorities and to present the sampling priorities on a tank-by-tank basis. (5) To define how the characterization program is going to satisfy the drivers, close issues, and report progress. (6)To describe deliverables and acceptance criteria for characterization deliverables.

  8. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Lunina, Julia N; Zelenkova, Nina F; Morgunov, Igor G

    2015-10-01

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%.

  9. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE CONTAINERS COATED WITH POLYUREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    2007-03-30

    This technical report is to evaluate and establish that the transportation of waste containers (e.g. drums, wooden boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood (FRP) or metal boxes, tanks, casks, or other containers) that have an external application of polyurea coating between facilities on the Hanford Site can be achieved with a level of onsite safety equivalent to that achieved offsite. Utilizing the parameters, requirements, limitations, and controls described in the DOE/RL-2001-36, ''Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document'' (TSD) and the Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) approved package specific authorizations (e.g. Package Specific Safety Documents (PSSDs), One-Time Requests for Shipment (OTRSs), and Special Packaging Authorizations (SPAS)), this evaluation concludes that polyurea coatings on packages does not impose an undue hazard for normal and accident conditions. The transportation of all packages on the Hanford Site must comply with the transportation safety basis documents for that packaging system. Compliance with the requirements, limitations, or controls described in the safety basis for a package system will not be relaxed or modified because of the application of polyurea. The inspection criteria described in facility/projects procedures and work packages that ensure compliance with Container Management Programs and transportation safety basis documentation dictate the need to overpack a package without consideration for polyurea. This technical report reviews the transportation of waste packages coated with polyurea and does not credit the polyurea with enhancing the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, criticality, or gas generating posture of a package. Facilities/Projects Container Management Programs must determine if a container requires an overpack prior to the polyurea application recognizing that circumstances newly discovered surface contamination or loss of integrity may require a previously

  10. Fiscal year 2002 tank characterization technical sampling basis and waste information requirements document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2001-08-08

    The Fiscal Year 2002 Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis and Waste Information Requirements Document (TSB-WIRD) has the following purposes: (1) To identify and integrate sampling and analysis needs for fiscal year (FY) 2002 and beyond. (2) To describe the overall drivers that require characterization information and to document their source. (3) To describe the process for identifying, prioritizing, and weighting issues that require characterization information to resolve. (4) To define the method for determining sampling priorities and to present the sampling priorities on a tank-by-tank basis. (5) To define how the characterization program is going to satisfy the drivers, close issues, and report progress. (6) To describe deliverables and acceptance criteria for characterization deliverables. Characterization information is required to maintain regulatory compliance, perform operations and maintenance, resolve safety issues, and prepare for disposal of waste. Commitments connected with these requirements are derived from the Hanford Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1996), also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), Hanford Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-44-97-03 (Ecology et al. 1997). and other requirement sources described in Section 3.0 of this document. The information contained in this TSB-WED reflects ongoing planning and current understanding of characterization information needs to resolve the issues listed in this TSB-WIRD. Since baseline requirements are subject to revision, the information contained herein may not exactly reflect baselines or sampling schedules published at a later date.

  11. The role of risk perception and technical information in scientific debates over nuclear waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L

    1998-01-01

    This article examines how members of the lay public factor risk perceptions, trust and technical information from differing scientific sources into policy judgements about potentially hazardous facilities. Focusing on radwaste storage repositories, we examine how members of the public filter new information about potential hazards through risk perceptions, and adjust their own beliefs about risks in light of that information. Scientists play a large (and increasing) role in public policy debates concerning nuclear waste issues, in which public perceptions of human health and environmental risks often differ substantially from scientific consensus about those risks. Public concerns and uncertainties are compounded when scientists from competing groups (government agencies, scientific institutions, industries, and interest groups) make different claims about the likely health and environmental consequences of different policy options. We show the processes by which the public receive and process scientific information about nuclear waste management risks using data taken from interviews with 1800 randomly selected individuals (1200 in New Mexico, and 600 nationwide). Among the more important findings are: (1) members of the public are able to make quite reasonable estimates about what kinds of positions on the risks of nuclear waste disposal will be taken by scientists from differing organizations (e.g. scientists from environmental groups, government agencies, or the nuclear industry); (2) in assessing the credibility of scientific claims, members of the public place great emphasis on the independence of the scientists from those who fund the research; and (3) prior expectations about the positions (or expected biases) of scientists from different organizations substantially affects the ways in which members of the public weigh (and utilize) information that comes from these scientists.

  12. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT TO SUPPORT CLOSURE OF SINGLE-SHELL TANK WASTE MANAGEMENT AREA C AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGERON MP

    2010-01-14

    Current proposed regulatory agreements (Consent Decree) at the Hanford Site call for closure of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) C in the year 2019. WMA C is part of the SST system in 200 East area ofthe Hanford Site and is one of the first tank farm areas built in mid-1940s. In order to close WMA C, both tank and facility closure activities and corrective actions associated with existing soil and groundwater contamination must be performed. Remedial activities for WMA C and corrective actions for soils and groundwater within that system will be supported by various types of risk assessments and interim performance assessments (PA). The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the State ofWashington Department of Ecology (Ecology) are sponsoring a series of working sessions with regulators and stakeholders to solicit input and to obtain a common understanding concerning the scope, methods, and data to be used in the planned risk assessments and PAs to support closure of WMA C. In addition to DOE-ORP and Ecology staff and contractors, working session members include representatives from the U.S. Enviromnental Protection Agency, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), interested tribal nations, other stakeholders groups, and members of the interested public. NRC staff involvement in the working sessions is as a technical resource to assess whether required waste determinations by DOE for waste incidental to reprocessing are based on sound technical assumptions, analyses, and conclusions relative to applicable incidental waste criteria.

  13. Modern problems of technical progress and methodological support in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novyc'kyy, Victor V.; Lushchyk, Ulyana B.

    2001-06-01

    A rapid development of modern computer technologies gave a powerful incentive to technical progress as a whole and to medical equipment in particular. A range of medical diagnostic computer-based systems has recently appeared. There are various fields these techniques are used in: roentgenology, ultrasound diagnostic, neurophysiology, angiology etc. The advantages of the use of computer interface are undoubted: it gives possibility to enhance the functioning of the system itself, speed up all technological processes, carry out a reliable and easy archivation and exchange the information obtained. But the most important advantage of using PC in diagnostic system lies in an unlimited freedom of use mathematical algorithms and flexible mathematical models for processing information obtained. On the other hand, the absence of clinical techniques for interpretation of the data obtained is an obstacle to the use of software at its full potential. As a result, a close connection of a scientific development of hardware with high-informative techniques for clinical interpretation of the instrumental data obtained has become topical as never before. We see an optimal solution in introducing the interpretation patterns in conjunction with purely numerical computations into mathematical simulations.

  14. CYBERCITY:CONCEPTION,TECHNICAL SUPPORTS AND TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,the concepts about the CyberCity and the corresponding technique supports and typical applications are introduced.As the pilot projects,the applications of CCGIS software in CyberShenzhen and CyberShanghai are also presented.At last,some of key technologies such as the reconstruction of three dimensional city model,vast amount of data integration and its real time application of 3D animation are discussed.

  15. Professional technical support services for the Mining Equipment Test Facility. First annual technical progress report, April 14-September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garson, R C

    1981-10-01

    The Department of Energy recently began the operation of its Mining Equipment Test Facility. One component at that facility is the highly sophisticated Mine Roof Simulator (MRS) for research and development of roof support equipment. Because of its previous experience, the University of Pittsburgh was contracted to assist the Facilities Manager by providing professional technical support services, principally for the MRS. This technical progress report briefly describes the services provided during the reporting period and planned for the next period. No significant technical disclosures of interest to those not associated with the MRS are contained herein. One of the four units of the US government-owned METF is the Mine Roof Simulator. This unique $10 million test facility was designed to simulate underground mine roof loads and motions. The MRS is a hybrid, analog-digital, computer-controlled, closed-loop, electro-hydraulic, research device capable of applying either loads or displacements in the vertical and one horizontal axis. Its vertical capacity of 3,000,000 pounds can be applied over its 20 by 20 foot active test area. The horizontal load capacity is 1,600,000 pounds. It can simulate coal seam heights of up to 16 feet. Automatic data acquisition and real time display are provided. The most modern, sophisticated technology was used in its design and construction.

  16. Waste characterization for the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility in support of waste certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.F.

    1994-10-17

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) procedures define the rules concerning packages of solid Low Level Waste (LLW) that are sent to the E-area vaults (EAV). The WACs tabulate the quantities of 22 radionuclides that require manifesting in waste packages destined for each type of vault. These quantities are called the Package Administrative Criteria (PAC). If a waste package exceeds the PAC for any radionuclide in a given vault, then specific permission is needed to send to that vault. To avoid reporting insignificant quantities of the 22 listed radionuclides, the WAC defines the Minimum Reportable Quantity (MRQ) of each radionuclide as 1/1000th of the PAC. If a waste package contains less than the MRQ of a particular radionuclide, then the package`s manifest will list that radionuclide as zero. At least one radionuclide has to be reported, even if all are below the MRQ. The WAC requires that the waste no be ``hazardous`` as defined by SCDHEC/EPA regulations and also lists several miscellaneous physical/chemical requirements for the packages. This report evaluates the solid wastes generated within the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for potential impacts on waste certification.

  17. Technical support for Life Sciences communities on a production grid infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Franck; Glatard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    Production operation of large distributed computing infrastructures (DCI) still requires a lot of human intervention to reach acceptable quality of service. This may be achievable for scientific communities with solid IT support, but it remains a show-stopper for others. Some application execution environments are used to hide runtime technical issues from end users. But they mostly aim at fault-tolerance rather than incident resolution, and their operation still requires substantial manpower. A longer-term support activity is thus needed to ensure sustained quality of service for Virtual Organisations (VO). This paper describes how the biomed VO has addressed this challenge by setting up a technical support team. Its organisation, tooling, daily tasks, and procedures are described. Results are shown in terms of resource usage by end users, amount of reported incidents, and developed software tools. Based on our experience, we suggest ways to measure the impact of the technical support, perspectives to decrea...

  18. External Technical Support for School Improvement: Critical Issues from the Chilean Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osses, Alejandra; Bellei, Cristián; Valenzuela, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To what extent school improvement processes can be initiated and sustained from the outside has been a relevant question for policy-makers seeking to increase quality in education. Since 2008, the Chilean Government is strongly promoting the use of external technical support (ETS) services to support school improvement processes, as part of the…

  19. APPLICATION OF THE US DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR MATERIALS AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA¿s National Risk Management Research Laboratory has led the development of a municipal solid waste decision support tool (MSW-DST). The computer software can be used to calculate life-cycle environmental tradeoffs and full costs of different waste management plans or recycling...

  20. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY2001 to FY2046 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2000-08-31

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. This report does not include: waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste); mixed low-level waste that will be processed and disposed by the River Protection Program; and liquid waste (current or future generation). Although this report currently does not include liquid wastes, they may be added as information becomes available.

  1. Vision and framework for technical and management support to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Jardine, L J; Smith, C F

    1999-07-01

    This ''Technical and Management Support'' program would facilitate the transfer of spent fuel from commercial power plants in Taiwan to a storage and geologic repository site near Krasnoyarsk, Russia. This program resolves issues of disposition of Taiwan spent fuel (including US origin fuel) and provides revenue for Russia to develop an integrated spent fuel storage and radioactive waste management system including a geologic repository. LLNL has ongoing contracts and collaborations with all the principal parties and is uniquely positioned to facilitate the development of such a program. A three-phase approach over 20 years is proposed: namely, an initial feasibility investigation followed by an engineering development phase, and then implementation.

  2. Eleventh annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Executive summary, opening plenary, technical session summaries, and attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The conference consisted of ten technical sessions, with three sessions running simultaneously each day. Session topics included: regulatory updates; performance assessment;understanding remedial action efforts; low-level waste strategy and planning (Nuclear Energy); low-level waste strategy and planning (Defense); compliance monitoring; decontamination and decommissioning; waste characterization; waste reduction and minimization; and prototype licensing application workshop. Summaries are presented for each of these sessions.

  3. Supporting Indicators for the Successful Solid Waste Management Based on Community at Rawajati, South Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Furqan

    2013-01-01

    Community-based waste management is one of the strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of garbage that exist today. However, community-based waste management system could not be implemented as a whole in Indonesia and sometimes some areas are trying to do community-based waste management do not work well and is not sustainable. The purpose of this study was to determine the indicators of success in supporting community-based waste management in Urban Rawajati RW III, South Jakart...

  4. Technical support plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-29

    The Hanford Data Integration 2000 (HANDI 2000) Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) product solution with commercially proven business processes. The PassPort (PP) software is an integrated application for Accounts Payable, Contract Management, Inventory Management, and Purchasing. The PeopleSoft (PS) software is an integrated application for General Ledger, Project Costing, Human Resources, Payroll, Benefits, and Training. The implementation of this set of products, as the first deliverable of the HAND1 2000 Project, is referred to as Business Management System (BMS) and Chemical Management.

  5. Supporting Indicators for the Successful Solid Waste Management Based on Community at Rawajati, South Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Furqan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Community-based waste management is one of the strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of garbage that exist today. However, community-based waste management system could not be implemented as a whole in Indonesia and sometimes some areas are trying to do community-based waste management do not work well and is not sustainable. The purpose of this study was to determine the indicators of success in supporting community-based waste management in Urban Rawajati RW III, South Jakarta. The method of analysis used in this study using quantitative descriptive analysis, and discriminant analysis are useful for describing indicators supporting the success and sustainability of community-based waste management in RW III. Supporting indicators of success in community-based waste RW III, Sub Rawajati divided into 2 main indicators and supporting indicators. The main indicator of success is the use of RW III inorganic waste, the amount of participation, ownership and use of grinding machine home composter are classified into two major variables, namely the participation of society and shape the technology, while the supporting indicators are classified into three variables, namely institutional agreements, operational management and management financially.

  6. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  7. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  8. A hydrostratigraphical approach to support environmentally safe siting of a mining waste facility at Rautuvaara, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howett, Peter J.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Hyttinen, Outi

    2015-01-01

    A hydrostratigraphical approach to support environmentally safe siting of a mining waste facility at Rautuvaara, Finland Based on the construction of a detailed sedimentological model, hydrostratigraphy and local groundwater/surface water flows, this paper analyses the Niesajoki river valley...

  9. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  10. Modification A005: SOLCOST support and maintenance. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The FY80 activities performed by Martin Marietta Aerospace on the SOLCOST Solar Heating and Cooling Analysis project are described. Five tasks were addressed on this effort, including (1) development of the SOLCOST-PASSIVE program, (2) development of the SOLCOST-PHOTOVOLTAIC program, (3) SOLCOST validation, (4) process heating modifications, and (5) ongoing support of the SOLCOST software and its installation on five national timesharing networks. The passive solar heating capability in SOLCOST is based on the Los Alamos Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method. The SLR correlations were derived from hour-by-hour simulations made with the PASOLE computer program developed by the Los Alamos Solar Group. The SOLCOST-PASSIVE implementation of the SLR method predicts the solar savings fraction and required auxiliary heat for Trombe and water wall mass storage systems and direct gain buildings. Combinations of these approaches can be evaluated by simply specifying the parameters for each feature. The program also includes a powerful economic analysis, which accounts for federal and state solar tax incentives. The SOLCOST-PHOTOVOLTAIC program is an interactive computer design tool intended for use by non-solar specialists to predict the long term performance of photovoltaic systems. A life cycle cost analysis is included in the program along with the ERDA-EPRI standard economic analysis. SOLCOST-PV currently can evaluate flat plate arrays and concentrating arrays which use Fresnel lenses and passive cooling.

  11. Technical trend of alpha-bearing waste incinerator and R and D program in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Kim, Joon Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    An alpha-bearing waste incineration technology is being developed from this year, after licensing the {beta}/{gamma}-bearing waste incinerator as a treatment facility for burnable wastes generated from KAERI. Some foreign incineration technologies were reviewed. The alpha-bearing waste generation in Korea and their characteristics were also discussed. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. How Assessment Methods Can Support Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries—A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zurbrügg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting actions for improvement of solid waste management in low and middle income countries and understanding how a specific decision choice will fit and impact on a local context is key to identifying sustainable solutions. Assessment of the choice (be it technical or managerial and assessment of the local enabling or disabling conditions are both important steps in the decision making process. Various assessment tools and methods are currently available to support decision-making in solid waste management. Assessment can be used to identify weaknesses or strengths of existing systems in a structured way and hereby highlight factors of success and failure. Assessment methods can also evaluate and compare different possible choices as in project scenarios. This overview describes established and innovative assessment methods serving both these purposes. A range of assessment tools are often designed to assess a specific sustainability domain (technical, environmental and health, economic and financial, social and institutional, organizational aspects, others attempt to provide a more holistic picture by integrating different sustainability domains into the same tool. This paper reviews a number of methods describing and discussing each of them, and referring to their use in low and middle-income countries if published in scientific literature. The overview concludes that in low- and middle-income countries the use of comprehensive assessment methods is yet very limited. We hypothesize that most formal methods of assessment are still too complex and generally overburden the weak local capacities intended for their usage. The few applications identified, were conducted by academia for scientific purposes. Lack of resources to collect the vast data required for some assessment methods is a further restriction to their practical application. Future development is suggested to improve user friendliness of existing tools or to simplify certain

  13. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  14. Technical Basis for the Removal of Unremediated Nitrate Salt Sampling (UNS) to Support LANL Treatment Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The sampling of unremediated nitrate salts (UNS) was originally proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) (collectively, the Permittees) as a means to ensure adequate understanding and characterization of the problematic waste stream created when the Permittees remediated these nitrate salts-bearing waste with an organic absorbent. The proposal to sample the UNS was driven by a lack of understanding with respect to the radioactive contamination release that occurred within the underground repository at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in February 14, 2014, as well as recommendations made by a Peer Review Team. As discussed, the Permittees believe that current knowledge and understanding of the waste has sufficiently matured such that this additional sampling is not required. Perhaps more importantly, the risk of both chemical and radiological exposure to the workers sampling the UNS drum material is unwarranted. This memo provides the technical justification and rationale for excluding the UNS sampling from the treatment studies.

  15. Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Arsenal Downsizing: A Report by the APS Panel on Public Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Arsenal Downsizing A RepoRt by the ApS pAnel on public AffAiRS TM Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technical Steps to Support Nuclear Arsenal Downsizing : A Report by the APS Panel on Public Affairs 5a...Contents Executive Summary 2 Introduction 3 Verifying Downsizing and Dismantlement 5 Sustaining Capability and Expertise 15 Ensuring Peaceful Uses of

  16. Technical and Socioeconomic Potential of Biogas from Cassava Waste in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kemausuor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses technical potential and ex ante socioeconomic impacts of biogas production using cassava waste from agroprocessing plants. An analysis was performed for two biodigesters in two cassava processing communities in Ghana. The results showed that the two communities generate an excess of 4,500 tonnes of cassava peels per year. Using approximately 5% of the peels generated and livestock manure as inoculum can generate approximately 75,000 m3 of gas with an estimated 60% methane content from two separate plants of capacities 500 m3 and 300 m3 in the two communities. If used internally as process fuel, the potential gas available could replace over 300 tonnes of firewood per year for cassava processing. The displacement of firewood with gas could have environmental, economic, and social benefits in creating sustainable development. With a 10 percent discount rate, an assumed 20-year biodigester will have a Net Present Value of approximately US$ 148,000, 7-year Payback Period, and an Internal Rate of Return of 18.7%. The project will create 10 full-time unskilled labour positions during the investment year and 4 positions during operation years.

  17. Technical and Socioeconomic Potential of Biogas from Cassava Waste in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Addo, Ahmad; Darkwah, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses technical potential and ex ante socioeconomic impacts of biogas production using cassava waste from agroprocessing plants. An analysis was performed for two biodigesters in two cassava processing communities in Ghana. The results showed that the two communities generate an excess of 4,500 tonnes of cassava peels per year. Using approximately 5% of the peels generated and livestock manure as inoculum can generate approximately 75,000 m(3) of gas with an estimated 60% methane content from two separate plants of capacities 500 m(3) and 300 m(3) in the two communities. If used internally as process fuel, the potential gas available could replace over 300 tonnes of firewood per year for cassava processing. The displacement of firewood with gas could have environmental, economic, and social benefits in creating sustainable development. With a 10 percent discount rate, an assumed 20-year biodigester will have a Net Present Value of approximately US$ 148,000, 7-year Payback Period, and an Internal Rate of Return of 18.7%. The project will create 10 full-time unskilled labour positions during the investment year and 4 positions during operation years.

  18. Infrastructure support for a waste management institute. Final project report, September 12, 1994--September 11, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    North Carolina A and T State University has completed the development of an infrastructure for the interdisciplinary Waste Management Institute (WMI). The Interdisciplinary Waste Management Institute (WMI) was approved in June, 1994 by the General Administration of the University of North Carolina as an academic support unit with research and public service functions. The mission of the WMI is to enhance awareness and understanding of waste management issues and to provide instructional support including research and outreach. The goals of WMI are as follows: increase the number of minority professionals who will work in waste management fields; develop cooperative and exchange programs involving faculty, students, government, and industry; serve as institutional sponsor of public awareness workshops and lecture series; and support interdisciplinary research programs. The vision of the WMI is to provide continued state-of-the art environmental educational programs, research, and outreach.

  19. REPOSITORY LAYOUT SUPPORTING DESIGN FEATURE #13- WASTE PACKAGE SELF SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Owen

    1999-04-09

    The objective of this analysis is to develop a repository layout, for Feature No. 13, that will accommodate self-shielding waste packages (WP) with an areal mass loading of 25 metric tons of uranium per acre (MTU/acre). The scope of this analysis includes determination of the number of emplacement drifts, amount of emplacement drift excavation required, and a preliminary layout for illustrative purposes.

  20. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  1. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

  2. Process waste assessment approach, training and technical assistance for DOE contractors; FY93 report, ADS {number_sign}35303C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, S

    1994-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors are faced with a large waste management problem as are other industries. One of the tools used in a successful waste minimization pollution prevention (WMin/P2) program is a process waste assessment (PWA). The purpose of this project was to share the Kansas City Plant`s (KCP`s) PWA expertise with other DOE personnel and DOE contractors. This consisted of two major activities: (1) The KCP`s PWA graded approach methodology was modified with the assistance of DOE/Defense Program`s laboratories, and (2) PWA training and technical assistance were provided to interested DOE personnel and DOE contractors. This report documents the FY93 efforts, lesson learned, and future plans for both PWA-related activities.

  3. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at Savannah River Plant. Volume 1. Site geohydrology, and solid and hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, E.J.; Gordon, D.E. (eds.)

    1983-12-01

    The program for protecting the quality of groundwater underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is described in this technical summary report. The report is divided into two volumes. Volume I contains a discussion of the general site geohydrology and of both active and inactive sites used for disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. Volume II includes a discussion of radioactive waste disposal. Most information contained in these two volumes is current as of December 1983. The groundwater quality protection program has several elements which, taken collectively, are designed to achieve three major goals. These goals are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of SRP operations, to restore or protect groundwater quality by taking corrective action as necessary, and to ensure disposal of waste materials in accordance with regulatory guidelines.

  4. Technical Assistance to Schools and School Support Organizations. Closing the Achievement Gap Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tory

    2009-01-01

    This is the final report in Casey's "Closing the Achievement Gap" series that highlights stories, results, and lessons learned from more than a decade of education investing. This publication presents an overview of the Foundation's support to four organizations, each of which targeted technical assistance to a specific audience. It summarizes…

  5. Supporting Minority-Serving Institutions in Their Program Improvement Efforts: A Responsive Technical Assistance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Mary; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.; Guillory, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    To reform a special education teacher preparation program can be gratifying, difficult, complex, political, and urgently needed. The Monarch Center, a federally funded technical assistance center, was established to guide and support minority-serving institutions in their efforts to improve their teacher preparation programs. Four guidelines…

  6. How Teachers Used Reading Performance Charts Compiled Weekly by a Technical Support Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Jane; Dyck, Norma; Horton, Betty; Kaff, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how 26 teachers in two elementary schools used performance-charted data provided by a technical support agency. Although teachers did not report using the data extensively to make explicit instructional decisions, most teachers reported using the data to verify their own observations about student progress and as a…

  7. The Relationship between Return on Profitability and Costs of Outsourcing Information Technology Technical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Segun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to examine the relationship between costs of operation and total return on profitability of outsourcing information technology technical support in a two-year period of outsourcing operations. United States of America list of Fortune 1000 companies' chief information officers…

  8. 76 FR 66311 - Draft Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Files Specification for Module 1, version 2.0'' (which includes the U.S. regional document type definition, version 3.0) and ``Comprehensive Table of Contents Headings and Hierarchy, version 2.0.'' Supporting technical files are also being made available on the Agency Web site. These draft...

  9. The Relationship between Return on Profitability and Costs of Outsourcing Information Technology Technical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Segun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to examine the relationship between costs of operation and total return on profitability of outsourcing information technology technical support in a two-year period of outsourcing operations. United States of America list of Fortune 1000 companies' chief information officers…

  10. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  11. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  12. Decision support tools for evaluation and selection of technologies for soil remediation and disposal of halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, O.; Zinovyev, S.; Lodolo, A.; Vranes, S.; Miertus, S. [ICS-UNIDO, Trieste (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    One of the most justified demands in abating the pollution created by polychlorinated substances is the remediation of contaminated sites, mainly soil remediation, which is also the most complex technical task in removing pollution because of the necessity to process huge quantities of matrix and to account for numerous side factors. The commercial technologies are usually based on rather direct and simplified but also secure processes, which often approach remediation in a general way, where different types of pollutants can be decontaminated at the same time by each technology. A number of different soil remediation technologies are nowadays available and the continuous competition among environmental service companies and technology developers generates a further increase in the clean-up options. The demand for decision support tools that could help decision makers in selecting the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site has consequently increased. These decision support tools (DST) are designed to help decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the most suitable options in the DST is based on technical, economic, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all parties involved in the decision process to determine their relative importance for a particular remediation project. The aim of the present paper is to present the new approach for building decision support tool to evaluate different technologies for remediation and disposal of halogenated waste.

  13. Nuss procedure: Technical modifications to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuş, Osman Zeki; Ulusoy, Oktay; Hakgüder, Gülce; Ateş, Oğuz; Olguner, Çimen; Olguner, Mustafa; Akgür, Feza Mirac

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modifications defined to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement during minimal invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE) have not been reported. We herein report our experience with MIRPE including several technical modifications. METHODS: A total of 87 patients who underwent MIRPE were evaluated retrospectively. Technical modifications are (1) a template drawn preoperatively according to the anthropometric measurements, (2) more laterally placed thoracal incisions, (3) single existing incision for multiple support bars, (4) to secure lateral stabilizers to support bar in inverted position. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 11.2 ± 3.8 years. The mean operating time was 63.7 ± 18.7 min. The mean Haller index was 5.4 ± 2.1. Eight patients necessitated two support bars. The support bars were removed in 69 patients after the completion of treatment. Support bars were left in place 26.8 ± 4.3 months. Final chest contours of the 56 patients were evaluated as 12 months passed after support bar removal and excellent repair results were determined in 84.2%. CONCLUSION: Preoperative bending of the support bar according to anthropometric measurements and fixation of the lateral stabilizers to the support bar in inverted position facilitates bar shaping and lateral stabilizer placement. PMID:27512512

  14. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  15. Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1982-March 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1983-06-01

    This document is one of a series of technical progress reports designed to report radioactive waste management programs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Accomplishments in the following programs are reported: waste stabilization; Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; low-level waste management; remedial action; and supporting studies.

  16. Implementing Selective Waste Collection: The Articulation between Pedagogical Theory and Practice in the Pollution and Ecology Class in the Environmental Control Technical Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Giselle; Gonzalez, Wania R. Coutinho; Araujo, Flavia Monteiro de Barros

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of selective waste collection in a school located on the outskirts of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The participants consisted mainly of 64 students taking an Environmental Control technical course during 2007 and 2008. By addressing selective waste collection, the pedagogical proposal aimed at: a) enabling…

  17. Chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) and clinical trial technical support for influenza vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Rahnuma; Holt, Renee; Hjorth, Richard; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco

    2016-10-26

    With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services, PATH has contributed to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) by providing technical and clinical assistance to several developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). GAP builds regionally based independent and sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity to mitigate the overall global shortage of influenza vaccines. The program also ensures adequate influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity in the event of an influenza pandemic. Since 2009, PATH has worked closely with two DCVMs in Vietnam: the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) and VABIOTECH. Beginning in 2013, PATH also began working with Torlak Institute in Serbia; Instituto Butantan in Brazil; Serum Institute of India Private Ltd. in India; and Changchun BCHT Biotechnology Co. (BCHT) in China. The DCVMs supported under the GAP program all had existing influenza vaccine manufacturing capability and required technical support from PATH to improve vaccine yield, process efficiency, and product formulation. PATH has provided customized technical support for the manufacturing process to each DCVM based on their respective requirements. Additionally, PATH, working with BARDA and WHO, supported several DCVMs in the clinical development of influenza vaccine candidates progressing toward national licensure or WHO prequalification. As a result of the activities outlined in this review, several companies were able to make excellent progress in developing state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and completing early phase clinical trials. Licensure trials are currently ongoing or planned for several DCVMs.

  18. Technical Support Document for Version 3.9.1 of the COMcheck Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Lucas, Robert G.; Richman, Eric E.; Schultz, Robert W.; Winiarski, David W.

    2012-09-01

    COMcheck provides an optional way to demonstrate compliance with commercial and high-rise residential building energy codes. Commercial buildings include all use groups except single family and multifamily not over three stories in height. COMcheck was originally based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989) requirements and is intended for use with various codes based on Standard 90.1, including the Codification of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (90.1-1989 Code) (ASHRAE 1989a, 1993b) and ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 (Standard 90.1-1999). This includes jurisdictions that have adopted the 90.1-1989 Code, Standard 90.1-1989, Standard 90.1-1999, or their own code based on one of these. We view Standard 90.1-1989 and the 90.1-1989 Code as having equivalent technical content and have used both as source documents in developing COMcheck. This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards. Beginning with COMcheck version 3.8.0, support for 90.1-1989, 90.1-1999, and the 1998 IECC and version 3.9.0 support for 2000 and 2001 IECC are no longer included, but those sections remain in this document for reference purposes.

  19. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWIFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Morgan, J.

    1997-01-07

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. This web site does not include: liquid waste (current or future generation); waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); or waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste). The focus of this web site is on low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this web site is reporting data th at was requested on 10/14/96 and submitted on 10/25/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program's life cycle. Therefore, these data represent revisions from the previous FY97.0 Data Version, due primarily to revised estimates from PNNL. There is some useful information about the structure of this report in the SWIFT Report Web Site Overview.

  20. Technical Support Document for Version 3.9.0 of the COMcheck Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Lucas, R. G.; Richman, Eric E.; Schultz, Ralph W.; Winiarski, David W.

    2011-09-01

    COMcheck provides an optional way to demonstrate compliance with commercial and high-rise residential building energy codes. Commercial buildings include all use groups except single family and multifamily not over three stories in height. COMcheck was originally based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989) requirements and is intended for use with various codes based on Standard 90.1, including the Codification of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (90.1-1989 Code) (ASHRAE 1989a, 1993b) and ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 (Standard 90.1-1999). This includes jurisdictions that have adopted the 90.1-1989 Code, Standard 90.1-1989, Standard 90.1-1999, or their own code based on one of these. We view Standard 90.1-1989 and the 90.1-1989 Code as having equivalent technical content and have used both as source documents in developing COMcheck. This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards. Beginning with COMcheck version 3.8.0, support for 90.1-1989, 90.1-1999, and the 1998 IECC are no longer included, but those sections remain in this document for reference purposes.

  1. Evaluation of 241-AZ tank farm supporting phase 1 privatization waste feed delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1998-11-19

    This evaluation is one in a series of evaluations determining the process needs and assessing the adequacy of existing and planned equipment in meeting those needs at various double-shell tank farms in support of Phase 1 privatization. A number of tank-to-tank transfers and waste preparation activities are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractor in support of Phase 1 privatization. The scope of this evaluation is limited to process needs associated with 241-AZ tank farm during the Phase 1 privatization.

  2. Composite quarterly technical report long-term high-level-waste technology, October-December 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornman, W.R. (comp.)

    1982-06-01

    This document summarizes work performed at participating sites on the immobilization of high-level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of reactor fuels. The plan is to develop waste form alternatives for each of the three DOE sites (SRP, ICPP, and Hanford). Progress is reported in the following areas: waste preparation; fixation in glass, concrete, tailored ceramics, and coated particles; process and equipment development; and final handling. 12 figures, 19 tables. (DLC)

  3. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand.

  4. Bioregenerative technologies for waste processing and resource recovery in advanced space life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for producing oxygen, water, and food in space will require an interactive facility to process and return wastes as resources to the system. This paper examines the bioregenerative techologies for waste processing and resource recovery considered for a CELSS Resource Recovery system. The components of this system consist of a series of biological reactors to treat the liquid and solid material fractions, in which the aerobic and anaerobic reactors are combined in a block called the Combined Reactor Equipment (CORE) block. The CORE block accepts the human wastes, kitchen wastes, inedible refractory plant materials, grey waters from the CELLS system, and aquaculture solids and processes these materials in either aerobic or anaerobic reactors depending on the desired product and the rates required by the integrated system.

  5. The influence of system interactivity and technical support on learning management system utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Baleghi-Zadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing increase in using Learning Management System (LMS by universities. However, its utilization by students is limited in Malaysia. The main purpose of the present study is to develop and test a model that predicts LMS utilization by Malaysian higher education students. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, the study investigated the relationships among six constructs (system interactivity, technical support, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, behavioral intention to use and LMS use through structural equation modelling. The participants were 216 undergraduate students from a local university in Malaysia. The result of the study revealed that system interactivity had a significant effect on perceived usefulness, but not on perceived ease of use; technical support had a significant effect on perceived ease of use, but not on perceived usefulness.

  6. The effects of customers' mobile experience and technical support on the intention to use mobile banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Namho; Kwon, Soon Jae

    2009-10-01

    While mobile banking has become an integral part of banking activities, it has also caused systems-related stress and consequent distrust among mobile banking users. This study looks into the phenomenon of technology adoption for mobile banking users and identifies potential factors that nurture positive intentions toward mobile banking usage. It examines the effects of a customer's mobile experience and technical support on mobile banking acceptance and explains how some variables affect this intention. After a literature review, the method of empirical analysis using a structured questionnaire is developed. Hierarchical Moderated Regression Analyses (HMRA) is used to examine the model. We find that mobile experience and technical support tend to strengthen the relationship between technological characteristics and a customer's intention to use the mobile technology.

  7. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  8. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  9. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF FUZZY METAGRAPH BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Anbalagan Thirunavukarasu; Uma Maheswari

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a Fuzzy Metagraph based Decision Support System (DSS) for short term and long term investment in share market. This rule base decision system will help traders to make correct decision at very low risk. Relative Strength Index (RSI), Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) and WILLIAM- %R are some of the Technical Indicators which are used as input to train the system which is integrated with Fuzzy Metagraph. This approach of incorporating Fuzzy Metagraph with RSI, MA...

  10. Technical Support Document for Version 3.4.0 of the COMcheck Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan; Halverson, Mark A.; Lucas, Robert G.; Richman, Eric E.; Schultz, Robert W.; Winiarski, David W.

    2007-09-14

    COMcheck provides an optional way to demonstrate compliance with commercial and high-rise residential building energy codes. Commercial buildings include all use groups except single family and multifamily not over three stories in height. COMcheck was originally based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989) requirements and is intended for use with various codes based on Standard 90.1, including the Codification of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (90.1-1989 Code) (ASHRAE 1989a, 1993b) and ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 (Standard 90.1-1999). This includes jurisdictions that have adopted the 90.1-1989 Code, Standard 90.1-1989, Standard 90.1-1999, or their own code based on one of these. We view Standard 90.1-1989 and the 90.1-1989 Code as having equivalent technical content and have used both as source documents in developing COMcheck. This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards.

  11. Final report of the systems engineering technical advisory board for the Tank Waste Remediation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, F.P.; Goodlett, C.B.; Beard, S.J.; Duckworth, J.P.; Schneider, A.; Zahn, L.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is one segment of the environmental restoration program at the Hanford site. The scope is to retrieve the contents of both the single shell and double shell tanks and process the wastes into forms acceptable for long term storage and/or permanent disposal. The quantity of radioactive waste in tanks is significantly larger and substantially more complex in composition than the radioactive waste stored in tanks at other DOE sites. The waste is stored in 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks. The waste was produced over a period from the mid 1940s to the present. The single shell tanks have exceeded their design life and are experiencing failures. The oldest of the double shell tanks are approaching their design life. Spar double shell tank waste volume is limited. The priorities in the Board`s view are to manage safely the waste tank farms, accelerate emptying of waste tanks, provide spare tank capacity and assure a high degree of confidence in performance of the TWRS integrated program. At its present design capacity, the glass vitrification plant (HWVP) will require a period of about 15 years to empty the double shell tanks; the addition of the waste in single shell tanks adds another 100 years. There is an urgent need to initiate now a well focused and centralized development and engineering program on both larger glass melters and advanced separations processes that reduce radioactive constituents in the low-level waste (LLW). The Board presents its conclusions and has other suggestions for the management plan. The Board reviews planning schedules for accelerating the TWRS program.

  12. Technology status in support of refined technical baseline for the Spent Nuclear Fuel project. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigh, R.J.; Toffer, H.; Heard, F.J.; Irvin, J.J.; Cooper, T.D.

    1995-10-20

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) has undertaken technology acquisition activities focused on supporting the technical basis for the removal of the N Reactor fuel from the K Basins to an interim storage facility. The purpose of these technology acquisition activities has been to identify technology issues impacting design or safety approval, to establish the strategy for obtaining the necessary information through either existing project activities, or the assignment of new work. A set of specific path options has been identified for each major action proposed for placing the N Reactor fuel into a ``stabilized`` form for interim storage as part of this refined technical basis. This report summarizes the status of technology information acquisition as it relates to key decisions impacting the selection of specific path options. The following specific categories were chosen to characterize and partition the technology information status: hydride issues and ignition, corrosion, hydrogen generation, drying and conditioning, thermal performance, criticality and materials accountability, canister/fuel particulate behavior, and MCO integrity. This report represents a preliminary assessment of the technology information supporting the SNFP. As our understanding of the N Reactor fuel performance develops the technology information supporting the SNFP will be updated and documented in later revisions to this report. Revision 1 represents the incorporation of peer review comments into the original document. The substantive evolution in our understanding of the technical status for the SNFP (except section 3) since July 1995 have not been incorporated into this revision.

  13. 75 FR 79304 - Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...; and (3) teaching hospitals that are either owned by or have a formal written affiliation agreement... waste, an eligible academic entity must ``Write the words ``hazardous waste'' on the container label... Laboratories Owned by Colleges and Universities and Other Eligible Academic Entities Formally Affiliated...

  14. [TRU waste storage, technical data and calculations electropolishing, October 21, 1977--April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R. P.

    1977-12-31

    This document contains copies of three reports on electropolishing. Electropolishing is a key step in the processing of solid wastes. It is the design basis for decontaminating alpha, as well as beta-gamma, waste metals in spite of incomplete data on the process and associated equipment.

  15. Final disposal of radioactive wastes. Site selection criteria. Technical and economical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granero, J.J. (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    General considerations, geological and socioeconomical criteria for final disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations are treated. More attention is given to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and different solutions searched abroad which seems of interest for Spain.

  16. Active Control of Thermostatic Loads for Economic and Technical Support to Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Active control of electric water heaters (EWHs) is presented in this paper as a means of exploiting demand flexibility for supporting low-voltage (LV) distribution grids. A single-node model of an EWH is implemented in DIgSILENT PowerFactory using a thermal energy balancing equation and three...... of the energy band is done based on feeder loading to respect thermal grid constraints. Finally, a voltage-based control is implemented to provide real-time voltage support to the LV grids. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the presented method to realize both economic and technical advantages...

  17. FY07 Summary of System Interface and Support Systems R&D and Technical Issues Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-09-01

    This document provides a summary of research and development activities in the System Interface and Support Systems area of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in FY 2007. Project cost and performance data obtained from the PICS system, at least up through July 2007, are presented and analyzed. Brief summaries of accomplishments and references are provided. A mapping of System Interface and Support Systems technical issues versus the work performed is updated and presented. Lastly, near-term research plans are described, and recommendatioins are provided for additional research.

  18. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

  19. 77 FR 72691 - Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG27 Small Business Size Standards: Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule....

  20. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  1. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FOR TANK WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE DOE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-03

    Radioactive wastes from one hundred seventy-seven underground storage tanks in the 200 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State will be retrieved, treated and stored either on site or at an approved off-site repository. DOE is currently planning to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which would be treated and permanently disposed in separate facilities. A significant volume of the wastes in the Hanford tanks is currently classified as medium Curie waste, which will require separation and treatment at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Because of the specific challenges associated with treating this waste stream, DOE EM-21 funded a project to investigate the feasibility of using fractional crystallization as a supplemental pretreatment technology. The two process requirements for fractional crystallization to be successfully applied to Hanford waste include: (1) evaporation of water from the aqueous solution to enrich the activity of soluble {sup 137}Cs, resulting in a higher activity stream to be sent to the WTP, and (2) separation of the crystalline salts that are enriched in sodium, carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate and sufficiently depleted in {sup 137}Cs, to produce a second stream to be sent to Bulk Vitrification. Phase I of this project has just been completed by COGEMA/Georgia Institute of Technology. The purpose of this report is to document an independent expert review of the Phase I results with recommendations for future testing. A team of experts with significant experience at both the Hanford and Savannah River Sites was convened to conduct the review at Richland, Washington the week of November 14, 2005.

  2. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  3. Organizational Structures and Processes to Support and Sustain Effective Technical Assistance in a State-Wide Multi-Tiered System of Support Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Julie Q.; Russell, Christine; Dyer, Stephanie; Metcalf, Terri; Rahschulte, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the national proliferation of technical assistance as a driver for school reform and as a model for embedded and sustained professional development, very little is known about the organizational structures and processes needed to support technical assistance. The purpose of this paper is to describe a structured needs assessment process…

  4. Integration of Photovoltaics in Buildings—Support Policies Addressing Technical and Formal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of photovoltaic (PV generators in the envelope of a building by means of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV offers an immense potential, both in market development and the production of renewable electric energy that is close to the point of electricity consumption. In Germany, for example, by integrating photovoltaics in buildings up to 50% of the electricity demand can be covered. The political support of BIPV would contribute to the development and installation of BIPV components and therefore also promote the development of new business areas for industries dealing with components used in building envelopes and photovoltaic generators. BIPV can be separated into three different integration types: “technical”, “formal” and “technical & formal”. Political instruments for the support of PV-installations, particularly BIPV are discussed in this paper using Germany and France as examples. Due to successful financial support policies, PV became the most powerful electricity production technology in Germany. In France, the unique financial support of BIPV is resulting in an exemplary development and growth of certified BIPV components available on the market and, from a technical, aesthetic architectural and legal certainty point of view, facilitating the easy and widespread integration of photovoltaic generators in buildings.

  5. Life support systems analysis and technical trades for a lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Ganapathi, G. B.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Seshan, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/JPL life support systems analysis (LISSA) software tool was used to perform life support system analysis and technology trades for a Lunar Outpost. The life support system was modeled using a chemical process simulation program on a steady-state, one-person, daily basis. Inputs to the LiSSA model include metabolic balance load data, hygiene load data, technology selection, process operational assumptions and mission parameter assumptions. A baseline set of technologies has been used against which comparisons have been made by running twenty-two cases with technology substitutions. System, subsystem, and technology weights and powers are compared for a crew of 4 and missions of 90 and 600 days. By assigning a weight value to power, equivalent system weights are compared. Several less-developed technologies show potential advantages over the baseline. Solid waste treatment technologies show weight and power disadvantages but one could have benefits associated with the reduction of hazardous wastes and very long missions. Technology development towards reducing the weight of resupplies and lighter materials of construction was recommended. It was also recommended that as technologies are funded for development, contractors should be required to generate and report data useful for quantitative technology comparisons.

  6. Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

    1999-11-19

    SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

  7. Preliminary technical data summary No. 3 for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, L.F. (comp.)

    1980-05-01

    This document presents an update on the best information presently available for the purpose of establishing the basis for the design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility. Objective of this project is to provide a facility to fix the radionuclides present in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste in a high-integrity form (glass). Flowsheets and material balances reflect the alternate CAB case including the incorporation of low-level supernate in concrete. (DLC)

  8. Wastewater Characterization and Hazardous Waste Technical Assistance Survey, Bergstrom AFB Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    EXCHNGE OWS - OIL/WATER SEPARATOR REC - RECYCLED NDD - NEUTRALIZED THEN DOWN DRAIN DNH - DRUMMED NONHAZ WASTE SRDD - SILVER RECOVERY THEN DOWN DRAIN 84...LINEN EXCHANGE OWS - OIL/WATER SEPARATOR REC - RECYCLED NDD - NEUTRALIZED THEN DOWN DRAIN DNH - DRUMMED NONHAZ WASTE SRDD - SILVER RECOVERY THEN...ro.’eciittl qaantttieo ro, R Ca vISo’ios or vjste weee determinel (Oeo Table 51. From rabie ’#, colutxn r the maJivity or the hazardous wases

  9. Waste isolation safety assessment program. Technical progress report for FY-77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Greenborg, J.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    Purpose of WISAP is to evaluate the post-closure effectiveness of deep geologic nuclear waste repository systems. The work conducted centered in four subject areas: (1) the analysis of potential repository release scenarios, (2) the analysis of potential release consequences, (3) the measurement of waste form leaching rates, and (4) the measurement of the interactions of dissolved radionuclides with geologic media. 12 figures, 24 tables.

  10. From waste biomass to solid support: lignosulfonate as a cost-effective and renewable supporting material for catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaohuan; Bai, Rongxian; Gu, Yanlong

    2014-01-01

    Lignosulfonate (LS) is an organic waste generated as a byproduct of the cooking process in sulfite pulping in the manufacture of paper. In this paper, LS was used as an anionic supporting material for immobilizing cationic species, which can then be used as heterogeneous catalysts in some organic transformations. With this strategy, three lignin-supported catalysts were prepared including 1) lignin-SO3 Sc(OTf)2 , 2) lignin-SO3 Cu(OTf), and 3) lignin-IL@NH2 (IL=ionic liquid). These solid materials were then examined in many organic transformations. It was finally found that, compared with its homogeneous counterpart as well as some other solid catalysts that are prepared by using different supports with the same metal or catalytically active species, the lignin-supported catalysts showed better performance in these reactions not only in terms of activity but also with regard to recyclability.

  11. LCA-IWM: a decision support tool for sustainability assessment of waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, J; den Boer, E; Jager, J

    2007-01-01

    The paper outlines the most significant result of the project 'The use of life cycle assessment tools for the development of integrated waste management strategies for cities and regions with rapid growing economies', which was the development of two decision-support tools: a municipal waste prognostic tool and a waste management system assessment tool. The article focuses on the assessment tool, which supports the adequate decision making in the planning of urban waste management systems by allowing the creation and comparison of different scenarios, considering three basic subsystems: (i) temporary storage; (ii) collection and transport and (iii) treatment, disposal and recycling. The design and analysis options, as well as the assumptions made for each subsystem, are shortly introduced, providing an overview of the applied methodologies and technologies. The sustainability assessment methodology used in the project to support the selection of the most adequate scenario is presented with a brief explanation of the procedures, criteria and indicators applied on the evaluation of each of the three sustainability pillars.

  12. 78 FR 22554 - Document to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document-Specifications for File...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Document to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document--Specifications for File Format Types Using Electronic Common Technical Document...

  13. Effects of Demographic Characteristics, Educational Background, and Supporting Factors on ICT Readiness of Technical and Vocational Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzam, Abu-Obaideh; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Hamzah, Ramlah; Asimiran, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ICT readiness and the effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and support factors on the ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia. The questionnaire was administered to 329 technical and vocational teachers who are teaching engineering subjects in Malaysian…

  14. Technical Basis Document No. 6: Waste Package and Drip Shield Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Pasupathi, V; Nair, P; Gordon, G; McCright, D; Gdowski, G; Carroll, S; Steinborn, T; Summers, T; Wong, F; Rebak, R; Lian, T; Ilevbare, G; Lee, J; Hua, F; Payer, J

    2003-08-01

    The waste package and drip shield will experience a wide range of interactive environmental conditions and degradation modes that will determine the overall performance of the waste package and repository. The operable modes of degradation are determined by the temperature regime of operation (region), and are summarized here. Dry-Out Region (T {ge} 120 C; 50 to 400 Years): During the pre-closure period, the waste package will be kept dry by ventilation air. During the thermal pulse, heat generated by radioactive decay will eventually increase the temperature of the waste package, drip shield and drift wall to a level above the boiling point, where the probability of seepage into drifts will become insignificant. Further heating will push the waste package surface temperature above the deliquescence point of expected salt mixtures, thereby preventing the formation of deliquescence brines from dust deposits and humid air. Phase and time-temperature-transformation diagrams predicted for Alloy 22, and validated with experimental data, indicates no significant phase instabilities (LRO and TCP precipitation) at temperatures below 300 C for 10,000 years. Neither will dry oxidation at these elevated temperatures limit waste package life. After the peak temperature is reached, the waste package will begin to cool, eventually reaching a point where deliquescence brine formation may occur. However, corrosion testing of Alloy 22 underneath such films has shown no evidence of life-limiting localized corrosion. Transition Region (120 C {ge} T {ge} 100 C; 400 to 1,000 Years): During continued cooling, the temperature of the drift wall will drop to a level close to the boiling point of the seepage brine, thus permitting the onset of seepage. Corrosion in a concentrated, possibly aggressive, liquid-phase brine, evolved through evaporative concentration, is possible while in this region. However, based upon chemical divide theory, most ({ge} 99%) of the seepage water entering the

  15. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  16. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  17. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  18. Critical analysis of pyrolysis process with cellulosic based municipal waste as renewable source in energy and technical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2013-11-01

    To understand the potential of cellulosic based municipal waste as a renewable feed-stock, application of pyrolysis by biorefinery approach was comprehensively studied for its practicable application towards technical and environmental viability in Indian context. In India, where the energy requirements are high, the pyrolysis of the cellulosic waste shows numerous advantages for its applicability as a potential waste-to-energy technology. The multiple energy outputs of the process viz., bio-gas, bio-oil and bio-char can serve the two major energy sectors, viz., electricity and transportation. The process suits best for high bio-gas and electrical energy production when energy input is satisfied from bio-char in form of steam (scheme-1). The bio-gas generated through the process shows its direct utility as a transportation fuel while the bio-oil produced can serve as fuel or raw material to chemical synthesis. On a commercial scale the process is a potent technology towards sustainable development. The process is self-sustained when operated on a continuous mode.

  19. Technical assessment of the CLEERGAS moving grate-based process for energy generation from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Marcella R; Kohn, McKenzie; Themelis, Nickolas J; Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-08-01

    A technical analysis has been completed for a commercial-scale two-stage gasification-combustion system. The CLEERGAS (Covanta Low Emissions Energy Recovery GASification) process consists of partial combustion and gasification of as-received municipal solid waste (MSW) on a moving grate producing syngas followed by full combustion of the generated syngas in an adjoining chamber and boiler. This process has been in operation since 2009 on a modified 330-tonne day(-1) waste-to-energy (WTE) line in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Material balances determined that the syngas composition is 12.8% H2 and 11.4% CO, the heating value of the gas in the gasifier section is 4098 kJ Nm(-3), and an aggregate molecular formula for the waste is C6H14.5O5. The analysis of gas measurements sampled from the Tulsa unit showed that the gasification-combustion mode fully processed the MSW at an excess air input of only 20% as compared to the 80-100% typically found in conventional WTE moving grate plants. Other important attributes of the CLEERGAS gasification-combustion process are that it has operated on a commercial scale for a period of over two years with 93% availability and utilizes a moving grate technology that is currently used in hundreds of WTE plants around the world. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SIMULATED HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES TO SUPPORT SULFATE SOLUBILITY MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2014-08-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms both within the DOE complex and to some extent at U.K. sites. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerated cleanup missions. Much of the previous work on improving sulfate retention in waste glasses has been done on an empirical basis, making it difficult to apply the findings to future waste compositions despite the large number of glass systems studied. A more fundamental, rather than empirical, model of sulfate solubility in glass, under development at Sheffield Hallam University (SHU), could provide a solution to the issues of sulfate solubility. The model uses the normalized cation field strength index as a function of glass composition to predict sulfate capacity, and has shown early success for some glass systems. The objective of the current scope is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DOE waste vitrification efforts, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the current model. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for simulated waste glasses fabricated SHU in support of sulfate solubility model development. A review of the measured compositions revealed that there are issues with the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations

  1. Technologies and decision support systems to aid solid-waste management: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino de Souza Melaré, Angelina; Montenegro González, Sahudy; Faceli, Katti; Casadei, Vitor

    2017-01-01

    Population growth associated with population migration to urban areas and industrial development have led to a consumption relation that results in environmental, social, and economic problems. With respect to the environment, a critical concern is the lack of control and the inadequate management of the solid waste generated in urban centers. Among the challenges are proper waste-collection management, treatment, and disposal, with an emphasis on sustainable management. This paper presents a systematic review on scientific publications concerning decision support systems applied to Solid Waste Management (SWM) using ICTs and OR in the period of 2010-2013. A statistical analysis of the eighty-seven most relevant publications is presented, encompassing the ICTs and OR methods adopted in SWM, the processes of solid-waste management where they were adopted, and which countries are investigating solutions for the management of solid waste. A detailed discussion on how the ICTs and OR methods have been combined in the solutions was also presented. The analysis and discussion provided aims to help researchers and managers to gather insights on technologies/methods suitable the SWM challenges they have at hand, and on gaps that can be explored regarding technologies/methods that could be useful as well as the processes in SWM that currently do not benefit from using ICTs and OR methods.

  2. Proposal P-94129 : Technical Support to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Argonne National Laboratory proposed, in this document, to provide the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service technical support in establishing a National Wildlife Refuge at...

  3. Development of computerized support system for the emergency technical advisory body in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kensuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    As a part of perfecting nuclear power disaster prevention in Japan, the measures to be taken for the countermeasures to prevent disasters in nuclear power stations and others for the time being were decided in July, 1979. For making these matters concrete, the Nuclear Safety Commission has decided ``the countermeasures for disaster prevention around nuclear power stations and others`` and ``the operation of Emergency Technical Advisory Body``: The advisory Body comprises about 20 experts on the response at the time of emergency in nuclear power stations and others who make technical advice to the state. The emergency technical advice response system (COSTA) is the support system utilizing a computer for offering the useful information for the advisory activities of the Advisory Body. The SPEEDI network system for forecasting the effect of environmental radiation at the time of emergency has been in operation. The information useful for advice, the computer system, the functions of the COSTA, the preconditions for making the system ready, the constitution of the system, and the example of the utilizing method at the time of emergency are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Feasibility of space disposal of radioactive nuclear waste. 2: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of transporting radioactive waste produced in the process of generating electricity in nuclear powerplants into space for ultimate disposal was investigated at the request of the AEC as a NASA in-house effort. The investigation is part of a broad AEC study of methods for long-term storage or disposal of radioactive waste. The results of the study indicate that transporting specific radioactive wastes, particularly the actinides with very long half-lives, into space using the space shuttle/tug as the launch system, appears feasible from the engineering and safety viewpoints. The space transportation costs for ejecting the actinides out of the solar system would represent less than a 5-percent increase in the average consumer's electric bill.

  5. FSILP: fuzzy-stochastic-interval linear programming for supporting municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Chen, Bing

    2011-04-01

    Although many studies on municipal solid waste management (MSW management) were conducted under uncertain conditions of fuzzy, stochastic, and interval coexistence, the solution to the conventional linear programming problems of integrating fuzzy method with the other two was inefficient. In this study, a fuzzy-stochastic-interval linear programming (FSILP) method is developed by integrating Nguyen's method with conventional linear programming for supporting municipal solid waste management. The Nguyen's method was used to convert the fuzzy and fuzzy-stochastic linear programming problems into the conventional linear programs, by measuring the attainment values of fuzzy numbers and/or fuzzy random variables, as well as superiority and inferiority between triangular fuzzy numbers/triangular fuzzy-stochastic variables. The developed method can effectively tackle uncertainties described in terms of probability density functions, fuzzy membership functions, and discrete intervals. Moreover, the method can also improve upon the conventional interval fuzzy programming and two-stage stochastic programming approaches, with advantageous capabilities that are easily achieved with fewer constraints and significantly reduces consumption time. The developed model was applied to a case study of municipal solid waste management system in a city. The results indicated that reasonable solutions had been generated. The solution can help quantify the relationship between the change of system cost and the uncertainties, which could support further analysis of tradeoffs between the waste management cost and the system failure risk.

  6. Summary of Conceptual Models and Data Needs to Support the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter; Arthur S. Rood

    2010-09-01

    An overview of the technical approach and data required to support development of the performance assessment, and composite analysis are presented for the remote handled low-level waste disposal facility on-site alternative being considered at Idaho National Laboratory. Previous analyses and available data that meet requirements are identified and discussed. Outstanding data and analysis needs are also identified and summarized. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of facility performance and of the composite performance are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE Order 435.1, 2001) which stipulate that operation and closure of the disposal facility will be managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. The corresponding established procedures to ensure these protections are contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1 2001). Requirements include assessment of (1) all-exposure pathways, (2) air pathway, (3) radon, and (4) groundwater pathway doses. Doses are computed from radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The performance assessment and composite analysis are being prepared to assess compliance with performance objectives and to establish limits on concentrations and inventories of radionuclides at the facility and to support specification of design, construction, operation and closure requirements. Technical objectives of the PA and CA are primarily accomplished through the development of an establish inventory, and through the use of predictive environmental transport models implementing an overarching conceptual framework. This document reviews the conceptual model, inherent assumptions, and data required to implement the conceptual model in a numerical framework. Available site-specific data and data sources

  7. ERTS-1 DCS technical support provided by Wallops Station. [ground truth stations and DCP repair depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.

    1975-01-01

    Wallops Station accepted the tasks of providing ground truth to several ERTS investigators, operating a DCP repair depot, designing and building an airborne DCP Data Acquisition System, and providing aircraft underflight support for several other investigators. Additionally, the data bank is generally available for use by ERTS and other investigators that have a scientific interest in data pertaining to the Chesapeake Bay area. Working with DCS has provided a means of evaluating the system as a data collection device possibly applicable to ongoing Earth Resources Program activities in the Chesapeake Bay area as well as providing useful data and services to other ERTS investigators. The two areas of technical support provided by Wallops, ground truth stations and repair for DCPs, are briefly discussed.

  8. Technical and analytical support to the ARPA Artificial Neural Network Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-16

    Strategic Analysis (SA) has provided ongoing work for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technology program. This effort provides technical and analytical support to the ARPA ANN technology program in support of the following information areas of interest: (1) Alternative approaches for application of ANN technology, hardware approaches that utilize the inherent massive parallelism of ANN technology, and novel ANN theory and modeling analyses. (2) Promising military applications for ANN technology. (3) Measures to use in judging success of ANN technology research and development. (4) Alternative strategies for ARPA involvement in ANN technology R&D. These objectives were accomplished through the development of novel information management tools, strong SA knowledge base, and effective communication with contractors, agents, and other program participants. These goals have been realized. Through enhanced tracking and coordination of research, the ANN program is healthy and recharged for future technological breakthroughs.

  9. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF FUZZY METAGRAPH BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbalagan Thirunavukarasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a Fuzzy Metagraph based Decision Support System (DSS for short term and long term investment in share market. This rule base decision system will help traders to make correct decision at very low risk. Relative Strength Index (RSI, Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD and WILLIAM- %R are some of the Technical Indicators which are used as input to train the system which is integrated with Fuzzy Metagraph. This approach of incorporating Fuzzy Metagraph with RSI, MACD and WILLIAM-%R would be a new attempt in decision making on share market investment. Stocks listed in Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE in India are used to evaluate the performance of the system. The results obtained from the proposed Fuzzy Metagraph based model are found to be satisfactory with very low risk. Three most used technical indicators MACD, RSI and WILLIAM-%R integrated with Fuzzy Metagraph are used to support the system. This method reduces the risk factor considerably for both short term and long term investors.

  10. Technical assessment of the bedrock waste storage at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.F.; Corey, J.C.

    1976-11-01

    An assessment of the safety and feasibility of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes produced at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in horizontal tunnels excavated in the bedrock beneath the plant site is presented. Results indicate that a cavern with an excavated volume of 130 million gallons could contain 80 million gallons of concentrated radioactive SRP wastes with minimal risks if the cavern is located in the impermeable Triassic Basin underlying the Savannah River site. The cavern could be placed so that it would lie wholly within the boundaries of the plantsite. The document summarizes the general geological, hydrological, and chemical knowledge of the geological structures beneath the plantsite; develops evaluation guidelines; and utilizes mathematical models to conduct risk analyses. The risk models are developed from known soil and salt solution mechanics; from past, present, and future geological behavior of the onsite rock formations; and from known waste handling technology. The greatest risk is assessed to exist during transfer of the radioactive wastes to the cavern. When the cavern is filled and sealed, further population risks are asessed to be very low.

  11. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  12. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-06-03

    CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  13. Technical Note: Updated durability/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, G.F.; Hartley, S.A.; Redgate, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    This technical note presents empirical models developed in FYI 995 to predict durability as functions of glass composition. Models are presented for normalized releases of B, Li, Na, and Si from the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) applied to quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses as well as from the 28-day Materials Characterization Center-1 (MCC-1) test applied to quenched glasses. Models are presented for Composition Variation Study (CVS) data from low temperature melter (LTM) studies (Hrma, Piepel, et al. 1994) and high temperature melter (HTM) studies (Vienna et al. 1995). The data used for modeling in this technical note are listed in Appendix A.

  14. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  15. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  16. Technical standard: Management of radioactive waste at the SRS storage/disposal facilities, 643-7G, 643-29G, 709-2G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    This Standard applies to the storage or disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Transuranic Waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Radioactive Waste Storage/Disposal Facility 643-7G, and to the storage of Mixed Waste at facilities 643-29G and 709-2G. This Standard applies only to current operations. The objective for prescribing the requirements in this Standard is to provide for storage and disposal of radioactive waste at SRS in a manner that will ensure the safety and health of employees and of the public, and that will protect the environment. The Technical Standards and Operational Safety Requirements are the formal instruments for setting boundaries for administrative control of all processes.

  17. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    performance requirements, waste composition, preliminary waste form screening, waste form development, process design and support, and validation. The regulatory and performance requirements activity will provide the secondary waste-form performance requirements. The waste-composition activity will provide workable ranges of secondary waste compositions and formulations for simulants and surrogates. Preliminary waste form screening will identify candidate waste forms for immobilizing the secondary wastes. The waste form development activity will mature the waste forms, leading to a selected waste form(s) with a defensible understanding of the long-term release rate and input into the critical decision process for a secondary waste treatment process/facility. The process and design support activity will provide a reliable process flowsheet and input to support a robust facility design. The validation effort will confirm that the selected waste form meets regulatory requirements. The final outcome of the implementation of the secondary waste roadmap is the compliant, effective, timely, and cost-effective disposal of the secondary wastes. The work necessary to address the programmatic, regulatory, and technical risks and uncertainties identified through the Secondary Waste Roadmap Workshop are assembled into several program needs elements. Programmatic/Regulatory needs include: • Select and deploy Hanford tank waste supplemental treatment technology • Provide treatment capability for secondary waste streams from tank waste treatment • Develop consensus on secondary waste form acceptance. Technology needs include: • Define secondary waste composition ranges and uncertainties • Identify and develop waste forms for secondary waste immobilization and disposal • Develop test methods to characterize secondary waste form performance. Details for each of these program elements are provided.

  18. Field-simulation analysis for disposal of liquefaction solid waste. Third quarterly technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-27

    The tasks to be performed in this study are: (1) review applicable RCRA documents; (2) select waste and site-related parameters of interest; (3) compare and recommend leachate test methods; (4) review predictive simulation models and select one or more for further development; (5) identify required field verification data; and (6) develop a field monitoring program to obtain these data. This report represents the third quarterly progress report and contains the text prepared to date under Task 4.

  19. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  20. Index of hazard for radioactive waste (revised). Interim technical report PR 78-10-80R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S.R.

    1978-06-01

    This is an interim report of a study to establish a risk measure for radioactive waste repositories and to generate radiological performance objectives. The problem of regulating radioactive waste repositories is reviewed, and the difficulties associated with this activity are discussed. Risk-benefit analysis as a tool for regulation has been suggested, and its contribution is assessed. Decision analysis as a development of risk-benefit analysis is suggested as an alternative approach, in particular, employing the concept of expected utility. A utility function which describes the possible consequences of a radioactive waste repository is discussed in some detail, paying particular attention to the public concerns which must be addressable through such a function and how it is recommended to capture them. A specific utility function is developed, and its elicitation from a particular subject is described. The representation of public values in a decision-analytic approach presents some problems and these are fully discussed; recommendations are made as to appropriate methods to carry this out. The vexed question of determining an acceptable safety limit is studied and recommendations are made concerning the most suitable way to determine ''how safe is safe enough.'' Finally a brief discussion is given of how these concepts may be employed to generate radiological performance objectives.

  1. 76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ``Roadmap.'' Other issues that will be discussed at the meeting include a preliminary report by the Blue... issues related to nuclear waste management and to review the technical validity of DOE activities related... information on lodging or logistics, contact Linda Coultry. They can be reached at 2300 Clarendon Boulevard...

  2. Technical Support Document: Strategies for 50% Energy Savings in Large Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.; Lobato, C.; Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) documents technical analysis that informs design guidance for designing and constructing large office buildings that achieve 50% net site energy savings over baseline buildings defined by minimal compliance with respect to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This report also represents a step toward developing a methodology for using energy modeling in the design process to achieve aggressive energy savings targets. This report documents the modeling and analysis methods used to identify design recommendations for six climate zones that capture the range of U.S. climate variability; demonstrates how energy savings change between ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 and Standard 90.1-2004 to determine baseline energy use; uses a four-story 'low-rise' prototype to analyze the effect of building aspect ratio on energy use intensity; explores comparisons between baseline and low-energy building energy use for alternate energy metrics (net source energy, energy emissions, and energy cost); and examines the extent to which glass curtain construction limits achieve energy savings by using a 12-story 'high-rise' prototype.

  3. Waste management issues and their potential impact on technical specifications of CANDU fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.C.; Johnson, L.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The technical specifications for the composition of nuclear fuels and materials used in Canada's CANDU reactors have been developed by AECL and materials manufacturers, taking into account considerations specific to their manufacture and the effect of minor impurities on fuel behaviour in reactor. Nitrogen and chlorine are examples of UO{sub 2} impurities, however, where there is no technical specification limit. These impurities are present in the source materials or introduced in the fabrication process and are neutron activated to {sup 14}C and {sup 36}C1, which after {sup 129}I , are the two most significant contributors to dose in safety assessments for the disposal of used fuel. For certain impurities, environmental factors, particularly the safety of the disposal of used fuels, should be taken into consideration when deriving 'allowable' impurity limits for nuclear fuel materials. (author)

  4. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Gowri, Krishnan; McBride, M.; Liu, Bing

    2008-09-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodgings (AEDG-HL or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in highway lodging properties over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-HL is the fifth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  5. The Main Content,Technical Support and Enforcement Strategy of Digital Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the content,purpose and significance of digital agriculture,and gives a brief introduction to digital earth,digital China and digital agriculture abroad.The main content of digital agriculture includes the construction of database,Metadata standard,monitoring system,forecasting and decision-making system,information-releasing system.The main technical supports of digital agriculture are 3S technology,Metadata management technology,fast-handling technology of remote sensing,the technology of computer wide-band network and virtual reality,intelligent agriculture machinery and field real-time information collecting technology.The advantages of implementing digital agriculture in China and the problems worthy of attention are pointed out as well.

  6. Technical support for the EPA cleanup rule on radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, H.B.; Newman, A.; Wolbarst, A.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a radiation site cleanup regulation for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The regulation will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. The agency is therefore conducting a comprehensive technical analysis aimed at developing information that will be used to support the rule. This presentation describes the regulation and the approach developed to determine how radiological health impacts and volumes of soil requiring remediation vary as functions of the possible cleanup dose or risk level.

  7. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  8. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  9. Beneficial use of waste heat in municipal water supply. Technical report TR-79-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.W.

    1979-08-01

    The relatively low temperature of thermal discharges from steam-electric power plants makes waste-heat utilization difficult without modification of the power cycle and attendant reduction in electrical energy generated. In situ beneficial use of waste heat by direct once-through condenser discharge into a municipal water supply is discussed. Computations are presented regarding the matching of flow rates, heat losses in distribution and energy savings. A number of benefits and penalties are also assessed qualitatively including legal and operational aspects and reliability. Especially attractive are improvements in electrical generating efficiency, and savings in water-heater energy. Secondary advantages include alleviation of pipe freeze up in winter and improved efficiency of slightly heated waste-water treatment. Penalties include additional pumping power for distribution in the water supply due to increased back pressure on the steam turbines which employ condensers cooled by the water they pump. Additional chlorine is also required to maintain a residual concentration in the distribution system. There may also be difficulties with public acceptance of water preheated by up to about 24/sup 0/F, especially in summer. The water supply of greater Chicago and 4880 MW(e) of colocated fossil-fired load-following generating capacity were analyzed as a hypothetical test case. It was concluded that the net annual energy savings is 23 x 10/sup 12/B, equivalent to 4 million bbl of oil, with a net savings in cost of $12./capita for the population of 4.66 m. While not developed for energy conservation purposes, three actual systems with operating experience are summarized. In order to determine feasibility of application, site-specific systems analysis is required.

  10. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  11. Combination of material flow analysis and substance flow analysis: a powerful approach for decision support in waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-08-01

    The novelty of this paper is the demonstration of the effectiveness of combining material flow analysis (MFA) with substance flow analysis (SFA) for decision making in waste management. Both MFA and SFA are based on the mass balance principle. While MFA alone has been applied often for analysing material flows quantitatively and hence to determine the capacities of waste treatment processes, SFA is more demanding but instrumental in evaluating the performance of a waste management system regarding the goals "resource conservation" and "environmental protection". SFA focuses on the transformations of wastes during waste treatment: valuable as well as hazardous substances and their transformations are followed through the entire waste management system. A substance-based approach is required because the economic and environmental properties of the products of waste management - recycling goods, residues and emissions - are primarily determined by the content of specific precious or harmful substances. To support the case that MFA and SFA should be combined, a case study of waste management scenarios is presented. For three scenarios, total material flows are quantified by MFA, and the mass flows of six indicator substances (C, N, Cl, Cd, Pb, Hg) are determined by SFA. The combined results are compared to the status quo in view of fulfilling the goals of waste management. They clearly point out specific differences between the chosen scenarios, demonstrating potentials for improvement and the value of the combination of MFA/SFA for decision making in waste management.

  12. Application of MFA as a decision support tool for waste management in small municipalities--case study of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Vujovic, Svjetlana; Zivancev, Miodrag; Batinic, Bojan; Tot, Bojana; Ubavin, Dejan

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, attention is shifted from larger cities and regions to the important role of small municipalities in large-scale capacity waste management systems. The motivation of this analysis is to understand how small municipalities can be prepared for future inclusion in regional waste management. For the first time, solutions that include integrated treatment of municipal, agricultural, and industrial waste generated by small-scale municipalities are developed and assessed. For this purpose, five small Serbian municipalities with populations up to 30,000 inhabitants were chosen as case studies. The methodology integrates field data with material flow analysis (MFA) to analyze and evaluate future scenarios. A set of indicators which reflect the goals of waste management, including the total costs, was chosen for scenario comparison and evaluation. It was found that delivering generated waste to regional waste management centers can result in the most affordable environmental benefits for the representative municipalities. More advanced solutions, which include composting and joint treatment of municipal, agricultural, and industrial waste, can contribute to reaching waste management goals, but are more costly (217% and 652% comparing to delivering generated waste to regions). These results can be regarded as a representative for similar municipalities and can serve to support pre-planning decisions in other countries with problems in establishing regional waste management systems.

  13. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  14. Technical changes that would contribute to success in the civilian radioactive waste management program; Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1993-10-01

    This paper briefly reviews the history of the United States program for high-level waste disposal. It then describes the current DOE strategy for licensing and safety for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Changes that have occurred since the origin of the program and since publication of the Site Characterization Plan are reviewed. These include changes in external circumstances, changes in technology and new understanding of Yucca Mountain. An alternative approach is then described, based on four key concepts: a simple safety case, reversibility, demonstrability, and decompling operation of a repository from the operation of reactors.

  15. Summary of Remediated and Unremediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Testing in Support of the Waste Treatment Permit Application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report briefly summarizes the surrogate testing that was done in support of our understanding of this waste form.

  16. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Coolside waste management research. Quarterly technical report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report consists of 3 monthly progress reports. The first represents a summary of results from mineralogical studies of the field lysimeter samples. This part of the project is an ongoing task to understand the long term mineralogical reactions that occur in the lysimeters as a function of static loading (compaction) and moisture content. The data is congruent with results obtained from geotechnical characterization of pre-aged and non-aged Coolside samples with and without surcharge. The investigations are expected to aid in the understanding of the processes that control permeability and leaching potential of the materials and to produce sufficient information on the physical and chemical nature of Coolside waste to design and construct physically stable and environmentally safe landfills. The capacity of various FGD wastes to absorb CO{sub 2} has been recently investigated with the results summarized in the second monthly. The potential usage is for the removal of CO{sub 2} from multi-component gas streams, in particular, natural-gas streams. The third comprises results from ongoing geotechnical testing. The results are concurrent with mineralogical findings that suggest that ettringite, gypsum and calcium-alumino-silicate hydrate phases proceed to form within the aging materials. In specimens with higher degrees of static loading, minerals are forced to grow within available pore space and fractures, which causes less swell. This report also summarizes results from a study of the effects of Coolside leachate on natural clay liners.

  18. Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

  19. Trade study of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies to support Hanford single-shell waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System to safely manage and dispose of low-level, high-level, and transuranic wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Eastern Washington. This report supports the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone No. M-45-08-T01 and addresses additional issues regarding single-shell tank leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies and provide an indication of the scope of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation activities necessary to support the Tank Waste Remedial System Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project.

  20. 78 FR 10181 - Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... versions of technical documentation in the Federal Register of August 6, 2012 (77 FR 46763). FDA has... Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD) specifications: ``The eCTD Backbone Files Specification...

  1. 77 FR 46763 - Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... available draft technical documentation for public comment in a Federal Register notice dated October 26... Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Technical Document (eCTD) specifications: ``The eCTD Backbone Files Specification for Module 1, version...

  2. 78 FR 52776 - Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... final versions of technical documentation in a Federal Register notice dated February 13, 2013 (Docket... Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... format using the electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD) specifications: ``The eCTD Backbone...

  3. Technical changes that would contribute to success in the civilian radioactive waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1993-10-01

    Many changes have taken place since the SCP safety strategy was formulated; it needs to be revised or replaced. Four concepts would aid in the shift from a rigid, ecelctic, schedule-driven, all-or-nothing program to an incremental, evolving, and experimental but integrated program. These are a simple safety case, reversability, demonstrability, and decoupling operations of a repository from operation of reactors. A simple safety case based on containment can be made for a repository at Yucca Mountain. This containment strategy is based on the dryness of openings at Yucca Mountain, Extended Dry heat management, and long-lived containers. Reversibility is technically believable at Yucca Mountain because of extended retrievability and drift emplacement, if an MRS were co-located with the repository. Because the rock is unsaturated, extended retrievability is technically feasible at Yucca Mountain. Demonstrability could be improved at Yucca Mountain by planning for incremental progression toward operation and closure of a repository, possibly including a shift to underground retrievable storage. Demonstrability can also be improved by using natural analogs. Repository operation can be decoupled from reactor operation by use of an unconstrained MRS facility or at-reactor dry storage and multipurpose storage canister/casks.

  4. Technical elements for the performance assessment of a high-level waste geologic repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, William Bradley

    Techniques for predicting various performance elements of a high level radioactive waste repository are developed and demonstrated. In the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository site gaseous radionuclides traveling through open fractures will be retarded by absorption into pore-bound liquid. For small values of the modified Peclet number the fractured porous medium can be modeled as an equivalent continuum as demonstrated by discrete fracture analysis. The travel time for C-14(O2) from failed containers to the accessible environment is predicted to be hundreds to thousands of years and doses from above ground concentrations to be much lower than background radiation at sea level. A spent fuel source term is developed for episodic flooding of a partially-failed container. Solubility-limited, congruent, preferential and alteration-rate based release modes are considered. Transport is by advection with the mostly-intact container being credited with effectively blocking diffusive pathways. The possible benefits of limited oxygen entry into the container is also discussed. Calculated releases in response to assumed major flooding episodes are comparable to those of wet-drip models. A weapons-plutonium glass waste form might be driven to supercriticality by a flooding episode in the distant future if neutron poisons are first washed away as shown by a preliminary hydrodynamics-coupled reactor model. Criticality is approached from the undermoderated side as water enters the degraded waste form. Point neutronics equations track the event through self-shutdown by water expulsion. Calculated event magnitudes are comparable to those of documented criticality accidents. The fundamental problem of diffusion from a circular disc source at constant concentration located in the boundary of a semi-infinite media is solved numerically using coordinate transformation, grid scaling, and intelligent finite difference algorithms. The resulting time-dependent mass-transfer rate is

  5. Multi-function waste tank facility path forward engineering analysis technical task 3.3, single-shell tank liquid contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.G.; Mattichak, R.W.

    1995-04-28

    Results are reported on actions taken to determine the quantity of liquid wastes in the single shell tanks that still need stabilization, and to determine the amount of flush water needed to support the stabilization effort.

  6. Methane from biomass and waste. Annual report for 1984. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The report summarizes the research conducted in several projects by a wide array of faculty at the University of Florida, researching the production of methane from biomass and waste. Growth and yield data on a wide variety of plant species and varieties in eight plant resource groups are reported on promising species selected from extensive screening trials of over 150 species. Focused intensive research results are summarized for water hyacinth and Napier grass--model species showing yields in excess of 20 dry tons/acre/year. Over 1000 samples were bioassayed for methane yields and the variables affecting conversion to methane were defined. Methanogenesis results covering the spectrum from factors of cellular biology to operating parameters for large digesters. Results emphasize the multiphase Anaerobic Digestion System (MADS) an innovative design that employs leached/packed beds. A comprehensive information management system and an integrated methane form biomass system model (BIOMET) used for research evaluation and program management are described.

  7. The UK LOCKSS Pilot Programme: A Perspective from the LOCKSS Technical Support Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rusbridge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade libraries have increasingly shifted journal access from print to digital. The preference of users for online content, the demand of readers for a broader range of content, and the rising costs of library shelf space all contributed to bringing about this change. A variety of approaches has emerged to support access to these digital journals. The common ones require libraries to access content through publishers, which invariably means libraries lose long-term control of the journals to which they have subscribed. As an alternative, the Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe (LOCKSS approach enables libraries to regain custody of journal assets while maintaining the access and licence terms stipulated by the publisher. This article describes the UK LOCKSS Pilot Programme; a two-year JISC/CURL (Joint Information Systems Committee/Consortium of Research Libraries in the British Isles-funded initiative to explore issues associated with the practical implementation of LOCKSS in the UK Higher Education institutions. It examines the pilot from the perspective of the LOCKSS Technical Support Service, a core component of the Pilot Programme.

  8. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Winiarski, David W.; Jiang, Wei; McBride, Merle F.; Crall, C.

    2006-09-30

    The Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Retail Buildings (AEDG-SR) was developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the Department of Energy (DOE). The guide is intended to offer recommendations to achieve 30% energy savings and thus to encourage steady progress towards net-zero energy buildings. The baseline level energy use was set at buildings built at the turn of the millennium, which are assumed to be based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (refer to as the ?Standard? in this report). ASHRAE and its partners are engaged in the development of a series of guides for small commercial buildings, with the AEDG-SR being the second in the series. Previously the partnership developed the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings: Achieving 30% Energy Savings Over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, which was published in late 2004. The technical support document prepared by PNNL details how the energy analysis performed in support of the Guide and documents development of recommendation criteria.

  9. Summary technical report on the electrochemical treatment of alkaline nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1994-07-30

    This report summarizes the laboratory studies investigating the electrolytic treatment of alkaline solutions carried out under the direction of the Savannah River Technology Center from 1985-1992. Electrolytic treatment has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale to be feasible for the destruction of nitrate and nitrite and the removal of radioactive species such as {sup 99}Tc and {sup 106}Ru from Savannah River Site (SRS) decontaminated salt solution and other alkaline wastes. The reaction rate and current efficiency for the removal of these species are dependent on cell configuration, electrode material, nature of electrode surface, waste composition, current density, and temperature. Nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide have been identified as the nitrogen-containing reaction products from the electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite under alkaline conditions. The reaction mechanism for the reduction is very complex. Voltammetric studies indicated that the electrode reactions involve surface phenomena and are not necessarily mass transfer controlled. In an undivided cell, results suggest an electrocatalytic role for oxygen via the generation of the superoxide anion. In general, more efficient reduction of nitrite and nitrate occurs at cathode materials with higher overpotentials for hydrogen evolution. Nitrate and nitrite destruction has also been demonstrated in engineering-scale flow reactors. In flow reactors, the nitrate/nitrite destruction efficiency is improved with an increase in the current density, temperature, and when the cell is operated in a divided cell configuration. Nafion{reg_sign} cation exchange membranes have exhibited good stability and consistent performance as separators in the divided-cell tests. The membranes were also shown to be unaffected by radiation at doses approximating four years of cell operation in treating decontaminated salt solution.

  10. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Nutt, Mark (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cotton, Tom (Complex Systems Group, Washington DC)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

  12. Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottom-Waste Streams Formulation and Waste Form Qualification Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A.; Um, Wooyong; Russell, Renee L.

    2017-08-02

    This report describes the results from grout formulation and cementitious waste form qualification testing performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). These results are part of a screening test that investigates three grout formulations proposed for wide-range treatment of different waste stream compositions expected for the Hanford Effluent Management Facility (EMF) evaporator bottom waste. This work supports the technical development need for alternative disposition paths for the EMF evaporator bottom wastes and future direct feed low-activity waste (DFLAW) operations at the Hanford Site. High-priority activities included simulant production, grout formulation, and cementitious waste form qualification testing. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY 2017 and future waste form development efforts. The provided results and data should be used by (1) cementitious waste form scientists to further the understanding of cementitious leach behavior of contaminants of concern (COCs), (2) decision makers interested in off-site waste form disposal, and (3) the U.S. Department of Energy, their Hanford Site contractors and stakeholders as they assess the IDF PA program at the Hanford Site. The results reported help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a cementitious waste form for the EMF evaporator bottom waste, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form risk estimates.

  13. Life cycle inventory and mass-balance of municipal food waste management systems: Decision support methods beyond the waste hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2017-08-14

    When assessing the environmental and human health impact of a municipal food waste (FW) management system waste managers typically rely on the principles of the waste hierarchy; using metrics such as the mass or rate of waste that is 'prepared for recycling,' 'recovered for energy,' or 'sent to landfill.' These metrics measure the collection and sorting efficiency of a waste system but are incapable of determining the efficiency of a system to turn waste into a valuable resource. In this study a life cycle approach was employed using a system boundary that includes the entire waste service provision from collection to safe end-use or disposal. A life cycle inventory of seven waste management systems was calculated, including the first service wide inventory of FW management through kitchen in-sink disposal (food waste disposer). Results describe the mass, energy and water balance of each system along with key emissions profile. It was demonstrated that the energy balance can differ significantly from its' energy generation, exemplified by mechanical biological treatment, which was the best system for generating energy from waste but only 5(th) best for net-energy generation. Furthermore, the energy balance of kitchen in-sink disposal was shown to be reduced because 31% of volatile solids were lost in pre-treatment. The study also confirmed that higher FW landfill diversion rates were critical for reducing many harmful emissions to air and water. Although, mass-balance analysis showed that the alternative end-use of the FW material may still contain high impact pollutants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LITIGATION TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND SERVICES, ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (BASIS F WASTES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report consists of 5 documents which cover incineration tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, CO, ranging from a labor- atory test plan and bench-scale test to full-scale testing. This abstract reports only on the results of bench-scale incineration test...

  16. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: LITIGATION TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND SERVICES, ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL (BASIS F WASTES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report consists of 5 documents which cover incineration tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA), Denver, CO, ranging from a labor- atory test plan and bench-scale test to full-scale testing. This abstract reports only on the results of bench-scale incineration test...

  17. Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, Gordon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE.

  18. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  19. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ``demonstration technologies.`` Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria.

  20. Development and application of the decision support system for municipal solid waste management in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Lin, Min-Der

    2013-05-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an important, practical and challenging environmental subject. The processes of a MSWM system include household collection, transportation, treatment, material recycling, compost and disposal. A regional program of MSWM is more complicated owing to the involvement of multi-municipality and multi-facility issues. Therefore, an effective decision support system capable of solving regional MSWM problems is necessary for decision-makers. This article employs linear programming techniques to establish a MSWM decision support system (MSWM-DSS) that is able to determine the least costs of regional MSWM strategies. The results of investigating a real-world case in central Taiwan indicate that a regional program is more economical and efficient. For the redeployment of MSW streams, the relatively least cost of operation for the MSWM system can still be achieved through the re-estimation of the MSWM-DSS. This tool and results are useful for MSWM policy-making in central Taiwan.

  1. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  2. Technical Progress Report on Single Pass Flow Through Tests of Ceramic Waste Forms for Plutonium Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P; Roberts, S; Bourcier, W

    2000-12-01

    This report updates work on measurements of the dissolution rates of single-phase and multi-phase ceramic waste forms in flow-through reactors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Previous results were reported in Bourcier (1999). Two types of tests are in progress: (1) tests of baseline pyrochlore-based multiphase ceramics; and (2) tests of single-phase pyrochlore, zirconolite, and brannerite (the three phases that will contain most of the actinides). Tests of the multi-phase material are all being run at 25 C. The single-phase tests are being run at 25, 50, and 75 C. All tests are being performed at ambient pressure. The as-made bulk compositions of the ceramics are given in Table 1. The single pass flow-through test procedure [Knauss, 1986 No.140] allows the powdered ceramic to react with pH buffer solutions traveling upward vertically through the powder. Gentle rocking during the course of the experiment keeps the powder suspended and avoids clumping, and allows the system to behave as a continuously stirred reactor. For each test, a cell is loaded with approximately one gram of the appropriate size fraction of powdered ceramic and reacted with a buffer solution of the desired pH. The buffer solution compositions are given in Table 2. All the ceramics tested were cold pressed and sintered at 1350 C in air, except brannerite, which was sintered at 1350 C in a CO/CO{sub 2} gas mixture. They were then crushed, sieved, rinsed repeatedly in alcohol and distilled water, and the desired particle size fraction collected for the single pass flow-through tests (SPFT). The surface area of the ceramics measured by BET ranged from 0.1-0.35 m{sup 2}/g. The measured surface area values, average particle size, and sample weights for each ceramic test are given in the Appendices.

  3. A conservation ontology and knowledge base to support delivery of technical assistance to agricultural producers in the united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information systems supporting the delivery of conservation technical assistance by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to agricultural producers on working lands have become increasingly complex over the past 25 years. They are constrained by inconsistent coordination of domain knowl...

  4. U.S. EPA’s Technical Support for the Reich Farm (Toms River, NJ) Superfund Site Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    PowerPoint slide file that gives a brief history of the SAN Trimer contamination in Toms River, NJ as well as the EPA's provided technical support, specifically the development and application of the Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Value (PPRTV) assessment for SAN Trimer.

  5. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  6. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the

  7. Multi-criteria decision making to support waste management: A critical review of current practices and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart Coelho, Lineker M; Lange, Liséte C; Coelho, Hosmanny Mg

    2017-01-01

    Solid waste management is a complex domain involving the interaction of several dimensions; thus, its analysis and control impose continuous challenges for decision makers. In this context, multi-criteria decision-making models have become important and convenient supporting tools for solid waste management because they can handle problems involving multiple dimensions and conflicting criteria. However, the selection of the multi-criteria decision-making method is a hard task since there are several multi-criteria decision-making approaches, each one with a large number of variants whose applicability depends on information availability and the aim of the study. Therefore, to support researchers and decision makers, the objectives of this article are to present a literature review of multi-criteria decision-making applications used in solid waste management, offer a critical assessment of the current practices, and provide suggestions for future works. A brief review of fundamental concepts on this topic is first provided, followed by the analysis of 260 articles related to the application of multi-criteria decision making in solid waste management. These studies were investigated in terms of the methodology, including specific steps such as normalisation, weighting, and sensitivity analysis. In addition, information related to waste type, the study objective, and aspects considered was recorded. From the articles analysed it is noted that studies using multi-criteria decision making in solid waste management are predominantly addressed to problems related to municipal solid waste involving facility location or management strategy.

  8. Analysis of stresses on the 1st phase support of the monitoring drifts of the radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatala Jozef

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the stability analysis of the radioactive waste repository monitoring drifts’ support by means of the numerical modelling - finite element method is described. The aim of this analysis was to judge to what extent the designed 1st phase support’s parameters correspond with the geomechanical conditions determined by the engineering-geological survey.

  9. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  10. Nitrogen cycling in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems: Challenges for waste refinery and food production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauwaert, Peter; Muys, Maarten; Alloul, Abbas; De Paepe, Jolien; Luther, Amanda; Sun, Xiaoyan; Ilgrande, Chiara; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Hu, Xiaona; Zhang, Dongdong; Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Sas, Benedikt; Rabaey, Korneel; Boon, Nico; Ronsse, Frederik; Geelen, Danny; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.

    2017-05-01

    In order to sustain human life in an isolated environment, an efficient conversion of wasted nutrients to food might become mandatory. This is particularly the case for space missions where resupply from earth or in-situ resource utilization is not possible or desirable. A combination of different technologies is needed to allow full recycling of e.g. nitrogenous compounds in space. In this review, an overview is given of the different essential processes and technologies that enable closure of the nitrogen cycle in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS). Firstly, a set of biological and physicochemical refinery stages ensures efficient conversion of waste products into the building blocks, followed by the production of food with a range of biological methods. For each technology, bottlenecks are identified. Furthermore, challenges and outlooks are presented at the integrated system level. Space adaptation and integration deserve key attention to enable the recovery of nitrogen for the production of nutritional food in space, but also in closed loop systems on earth.

  11. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2007-05-23

    This report was revised in May 2007 to correct values in Section 3.4.1.7, second paragraph, last sentence; 90Sr values in Tables 3.22 and 3.32; and 99Tc values Table 4.3 and in Chapter 5. In addition, the tables in Appendix F were updated to reflect corrections to the 90Sr values. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in May 2005. CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contam¬inants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  12. Alumina supported carbon composite material with exceptionally high defluoridation property from eggshell waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunge, Sneha; Thakre, Dilip; Kamble, Sanjay; Labhsetwar, Nitin; Rayalu, Sadhana

    2012-10-30

    A new alumina supported carbon composite material called "Eggshell Composite" (EC) was synthesized from eggshell waste as calcium source for selective fluoride adsorption from water. The effect of various synthesis parameters like eggshell (ES): Eggshell membrane (ESM) ratio, aluminium loading, mixing time and calcinations temperature to optimize the synthesis conditions for selective fluoride removal has been studied. It was observed that the synthesis parameters have significant influence on development of EC and in turn on fluoride removal capacity. EC synthesized was characterized for elemental composition, morphology, functionality and textural properties. Results showed that EC obtained from eggshell modified with alumina precursor is more selective and efficient for fluoride removal. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm were used to obtain ultimate fluoride removal capacity. The calcium and alumina species in EC shows synergistic effect in fluoride adsorption process. Fluoride sorption studies were carried out in synthetic, groundwater and wastewater. EC proved to be a potential, indigenous and economic adsorbent for fluoride removal.

  13. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical report, 30 September 1996--30 March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 27 January through 30 September 1996 through 30 March 1997 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described. This report is organized by program task structure: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds).

  14. Use and Production of Digital Information and Knowledge in Technical University Education - Co-operation of Faculty and Support Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaarina Kairamo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly changing educational landscape is of increasing importance in university teaching. Universities in Finland are responsible for research and education based on research. Traditionally information and support services related to using and producing knowledge, support research, and education has mostly been seen purely from the students´ perspective. Teaching in universities is still a hidden individual activity, and, as such, challenges the support units to reach and interact with the academic community. This paper will review the aspects influencing the use and production of digital information and knowledge in technical university education; examples illustrating the experiences will be given.

  15. Nutrient retention capabilities of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support system (BLSS) waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    Nile tilapia were evaluated as a bio-regenerative sub-process for reducing solid waste potentially encountered in bio-regenerative life support systems. Ten juvenile Nile tilapia (mean weight = 2.05 g) were stocked into triplicate aquaria and fed one of seven experimental diets consisting of vegetable, bacterial, or food waste for a period of seven weeks. Weight gain (g), specific growth rate (mg/d), and daily consumption (g) was significantly higher ( p tilapia's ability to utilize these residues as a food source in bio-regenerative support systems.

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  17. Humic substances in performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal: Actinide and iodine migration in the far-field. Third technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckau, G.

    2005-04-01

    The present report describes progress within the third and final year of the EC-project 'Humic Substances in Performance Assessment of Nuclear Waste Disposal: Actinide and Iodine Migration in the Far-Field'. The work conducted within the present project builds on a number of previous activities/project supported by the Commission. It finds its continuation within different EC FP 6 instruments and also provides for additional continued cooperation through network structures resulting from the broad cooperation within the project. Without being a formal requirement of the Commission or co-funding bodies, this report documents results in great technical detail and makes the results available to a broad scientific community. The report contains an executive summary written by the coordinator. More detailed results are given as individual contributions in the form of 12 annexes. Not all results are discussed or referred to in the executive summary report and thus readers with a deeper interest also need to consult the annexes. The overall objectives were to generate knowledge about the impact of humic substances on the migration of actinides and iodine in the far-field of a nuclear waste repository. In the beginning, focus was rather on the potential enhancement due to humic colloid mediated radionuclide transport. Thereby, sources, inventory, stability and mobility of dissolved humic substances in their colloidal form formed a key topic. Other key topics were the interaction with actinides and iodine, transport studies under near-natural conditions in the laboratory, rationalization of knowledge in models and application to three migration cases for visualization of the overall outcome. Changes relative to the original objectives were given by moving emphasis of natural chemical analogue studies from the question of kinetic exchange constants for different inventories in natural and laboratory systems to the study of anthropogenic actinide contaminants in the

  18. Technical evaluation of a tank-connected food waste disposer system for biogas production and nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Å; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Magnusson, N; Bissmont, M

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a tank-connected food waste disposer system with the objective to optimise biogas production and nutrient recovery from food waste in Malmö was evaluated. The project investigated the source-separation ratio of food waste through waste composition analyses, determined the potential biogas production in ground food waste, analysed the organic matter content and the limiting components in ground food waste and analysed outlet samples to calculate food waste losses from the separation tank. It can be concluded that the tank-connected food waste disposer system in Malmö can be used for energy recovery and optimisation of biogas production. The organic content of the collected waste is very high and contains a lot of energy rich fat and protein, and the methane potential is high. The results showed that approximately 38% of the food waste dry matter is collected in the tank. The remaining food waste is either found in residual waste (34% of the dry matter) or passes the tank and goes through the outlet to the sewer (28%). The relatively high dry matter content in the collected fraction (3-5% DM) indicates that the separation tank can thicken the waste substantially. The potential for nutrient recovery is rather limited considering the tank content. Only small fractions of the phosphorus (15%) and nitrogen (21%) are recyclable by the collected waste in the tank. The quality of the outlet indicates a satisfactory separation of particulate organic matter and fat. The organic content and nutrients, which are in dissolved form, cannot be retained in the tank and are rather led to the sewage via the outlet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential for low fracture toughness and lamellar tearing on PWR steam generator and reactor coolant pump supports. Resolution of generic technical activity A-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snaider, R.P.; Hodge, J.M.; Levin, H.A.; Zudans, J.J.

    1979-10-01

    This report summarizes work performed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff and its contractor, Sandia Laboratories, in the resolution of Generic Technical Activity A-12, ''Potential for Low Fracture Toughness and Lamellar Tearing in PWR Steam Generator and Reactor Coolant Pump Supports.'' The report describes the technical issues, the technical studies performed by Sandia describes the technical issues, the technical studies performed by Sandia Laboratories, the NRC staff's technical positions based on these studies, and the staff's plan for implementing its technical positions. It also provides recommendations for further work. The complete technical input from Sandia Laboratories is appended to the report.

  20. Trade study for water and waste management concepts. Task 7: Support special analysis. [cost analysis of life support systems for waste utilization during space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.

  1. A modified method for COD determination of solid waste, using a commercial COD kit and an adapted disposable weighing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2017-03-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an essential parameter in waste management, particularly when monitoring wet anaerobic digestion processes. An adapted method to determine COD was developed for solid waste (total solids >15%). This method used commercial COD tubes and did not require sample dilution. A homemade plastic weighing support was used to transfer the solid sample into COD tubes. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and glucose used as standards showed an excellent repeatability. A small underestimation of the theoretical COD value (standard values around 5% lower than theoretical values) was also observed, mainly due to the intrinsic COD of the weighing support and to measurement uncertainties. The adapted COD method was tested using various solid wastes in the range of 1-8 mgCOD, determining the COD of dried and ground cellulose, cattle manure, straw and a mixed-substrate sample. This new adapted method could be used to monitor and design dry anaerobic digestion processes.

  2. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. V - Mars expedition technology trade study for solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, Joe; Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Seshan, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    A model has been developed for NASA to quantitatively compare and select life support systems and technology options. The model consists of a modular, top-down hierarchical breakdown of the life support system into subsystems, and further breakdown of subsystems into functional elements representing individual processing technologies. This paper includes the technology trades for a Mars mission, using solid waste treatment technologies to recover water from selected liquid and solid waste streams. Technologies include freeze drying, thermal drying, wet oxidation, combustion, and supercritical-water oxidation. The use of these technologies does not have any significant advantages with respect to weight; however, significant power penalties are incurred. A benefit is the ability to convert hazardous waste into a useful resource, namely water.

  3. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Liu, Bing; Winiarski, David W.; McBride, Merle F.; Suharli, L.; Walden, D.

    2006-11-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings (AEDG-SO), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in small office buildings over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-SO is the first in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the New Buildings Institute (NBI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Each of the guides in the AEDG series will provide recommendations and user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers and owners of small commercial buildings that will encourage steady progress towards net-zero energy buildings. The guides will provide prescriptive recommendation packages that are capable of reaching the energy savings target for each climate zone in order to ease the burden of the design and construction of energy-efficient small commercial buildings The AEDG-SO was developed by an ASHRAE Special Project committee (SP-102) made up of representatives of each of the partner organizations in eight months. This TSD describes the charge given to the committee in developing the office guide and outlines the schedule of the development effort. The project committee developed two prototype office buildings (5,000 ft2 frame building and 20,000 ft2 two-story mass building) to represent the class of small office buildings and performed an energy simulation scoping study to determine the preliminary levels of efficiency necessary to meet the energy savings target. The simulation approach used by the project committee is documented in this TSD along with

  4. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some of the conclusions reached as a result of this study are summarized. Waste form parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. The billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit the packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume. The effect of this packing inefficiency in reducing the net waste form per waste payload can be seen graphically. The cermet waste form mass per unit mass of waste payload is lower than that of the iodine waste form even though the cermet has a higher density (6.5 versus 5.5). This is because the lead iodide is cast achieving almost 100% efficiency in packing. This inefficiency in the packing of the cermet results in a 20% increase in number of flights which increases both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low flight rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A comprehensive trade study would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This study was not conducted as part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. Several candidates look attractive for both single- and dual-launch systems (see sec. 4.4), but due to the relatively small number of missions, a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs including DDT and E would be required to select the best system. The reference system described in sections 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development efforts for disposal of the reference cermet waste form.

  5. Treatment of leachate from the anaerobic fermentation of solid wastes using two biofilm support media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comett, I; González-Martinez, S; Wilderer, P

    2004-01-01

    Biofilms growing on different carrier media have a different response to the nutrients contained in wastewater. Biofilms have proven to be an alternative to the treatment of wastewater containing higher concentrations of contaminants. The main objective of this research was to compare two biofilm support media for the treatment of leachate from the anaerobic fermentation of solid wastes. The removal of organic matter and ammonia was achieved in two fixed bed biofilm reactors containing Kaldnes and Linpor support materials with specific surface areas of 490 and 270 m2/m3, respectively, and operating under the sequencing batch procedure during 204 days. The Linpor reactor achieved higher total COD removal than the Kaldnes reactor (47% and 39%, respectively). Linpor was shown to be less sensitive to influent COD changes than Kaldnes. The effluent total COD values of Kaldnes were higher than Linpor. The dissolved COD removal was 21% for both reactors. The average ammonia removal for Linpor was 72% and 42% for Kaldnes. The matrix of Linpor allows higher concentrations of microorganisms (as dry mass) than Kaldnes. The dry mass concentration was related to the "active" exposed surface area of the biofilm. This is considered to be the cause for the better performance of Linpor when compared with Kaldnes.

  6. Basalt Waste Isolation Project Reclamation Support Project:. 1991--1992 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1992-06-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Reclamation Support Project began in the spring of 1988 by categorizing sites distributed during operations of the BWIP into those requiring revegetation and those to be abandoned or transferred to other programs. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s role in this project was to develop plans for reestablishing native vegetation on the first category of sites, to monitor the implementation of these plans, to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, and to identify remediation methods where necessary. The Reclamation Support Project focused on three major areas: geologic hydrologic boreholes, the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF). A number of BWIP reclamation sites seeded between 1989 and 1990 were found to be far below reclamation objectives. These sites were remediated in 1991 using various seedbed treatments designed to rectify problems with water-holding capacity, herbicide activity, surficial crust formation, and nutrient imbalances. Remediation was conducted during November and early December 1991. Sites were examined on a monthly basis thereafter to evaluate plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites early plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites, early plant growth far exceeded any previously obtained using other methods and seedbed treatments. Seeded plants did best where amendments consisted of soil-plus-compost or fertilizer-only. Vegetation growth on Gable Mountain was less than that found on other areas nearby, but this difference is attributed primarily to the site`s altitude and north-facing orientation.

  7. Baseline Risk Assessment Supporting Closure at Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Kristin M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    contamination impacts on groundwater. Waste Management Area C is the first of the Hanford tank farms to begin the closure planning process. The current baseline risk assessment will provide valuable information for making corrective actions and closure decisions for WMA C, and will also support the planning for future tank farm soil investigation and baseline risk assessments.

  8. Practical Considerations of Waste Heat Reuse for a Mars Mission Advanced Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy conservation is a key issue in design optimization of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) for long-term space missions. By considering designs for conservation at the system level, energy saving opportunities arise that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper builds on a steady-state investigation of system-level waste heat reuse in an ALSS with a low degree of crop growth for a Mars mission. In past studies, such a system has been defined in terms of technology types, hot and cold stream identification and stream energy content. The maximum steady-state potential for power and cooling savings within the system was computed via the Pinch Method. In this paper, several practical issues are considered for achieving a pragmatic estimate of total system savings in terms of equivalent system mass (ESM), rather than savings solely in terms of power and cooling. In this paper, more realistic ESM savings are computed by considering heat transfer inefficiencies during material transfer. An estimate of the steady-state mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with heat exchange equipment is made by considering heat exchange equipment material type and configuration, stream flow characteristics and associated energy losses during the heat exchange process. Also, previously estimated power and cooling savings are adjusted to reflect the impact of such energy losses. This paper goes one step further than the traditional Pinch Method of considering waste heat reuse in heat exchangers to include ESM savings that occur with direct reuse of a stream. For example, rather than exchanging heat between crop growth lamp cooling air and air going to a clothes dryer, air used to cool crop lamps might be reused directly for clothes drying purposes. When thermodynamically feasible, such an approach may increase ESM savings by minimizing the mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with stream routing equipment.

  9. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ``Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.`` Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming.

  10. Development of a 2nd Generation Decision Support Tool to Optimize Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, EPA’s Office of Research and Development released the MSW decision support tool (MSW-DST) to help identify strategies for more sustainable MSW management. Depending upon local infrastructure, energy grid mix, population density, and waste composition and quantity, the m...

  11. Development of a 2nd Generation Decision Support Tool to Optimize Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, EPA’s Office of Research and Development released the MSW decision support tool (MSW-DST) to help identify strategies for more sustainable MSW management. Depending upon local infrastructure, energy grid mix, population density, and waste composition and quantity, the m...

  12. Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Determining Uranium and Plutonium Solubility in Actual Tank Waste Supernates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D.

    2005-06-28

    Savannah River Site tank waste supernates contain small quantities of dissolved uranium and plutonium. Due to the large volume of supernates, significant quantities of dissolved uranium and plutonium are managed as part of waste transfers, evaporation and pretreatment at the Savannah River Site in tank farm operations, the Actinide Removal Project (ARP), and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Previous SRNL studies have investigated the effect of temperature and major supernate components on the solubility of uranium and plutonium. Based on these studies, equations were developed for the prediction of U and Pu solubility in tank waste supernates. The majority of the previous tests were conducted with simulated waste solutions. The current testing is intended to determine solubility in actual tank waste samples (as-received, diluted, and combinations of tank samples) as a function of composition and temperature. Results will be used to validate and build on the existing solubility equations.

  13. Proposed Draft Military Handbook for Preparation of View Packages in Support of Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    and Charles S. Sawyer, "Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results," DTRC-88/035 (Sep...and Charles S. Sawyer, "Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results," DTRC-88/035 (Sep...F. Tittle 1 NOSC 1 EER Systems R. Smillie N. Bukowski 1 NUSC 1 EG&G A. Valm L. Snodgrass 2 NTSC I General Dynamics W. Rizzo Electronic Division IL

  14. Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Bryce, Robert W.; Buck, John W.

    2004-07-09

    A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all other sources from radioactive contamination that could interact with the low-level waste disposal facility to affect the dose to future members of the public''. At the Hanford Site, a composite analysis is required for continued disposal authorization for the immobilized low-activity waste, tank waste vitrification plant melters, low level waste in the 200 East and 200 West Solid Waste Burial Grounds, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste in the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The 2004 Composite Analysis will be a site-wide analysis, considering final remedial actions for the Columbia River corridor and the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The river corridor includes waste sites and facilities in each of the 100 Areas as well as the 300, 400, and 600 Areas. The remedial actions for the river corridor are being conducted to meet residential land use standards with the vision of the river corridor being devoted to a combination of recreation and preservation. The ''Central Plateau'' describes the region associated with operations and waste sites of the 200 Areas. DOE is developing a strategy for closure of the Central Plateau area by 2035. At the time of closure, waste management activities will shrink to a Core Zone within the Central Plateau. The Core Zone will contain the majority of Hanford's permanently disposed waste

  15. Participatory health impact assessment used to support decision-making in waste management planning: A replicable experience from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Coi, Alessio; Lauriola, Paolo; Luise, Daniela; Pedone, Alessandra; Romizi, Roberto; Sallese, Domenico; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The lack of participatory tools in Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to support decision-makers is a critical factor that negatively affects the impacts of waste policies. This study describes the participatory HIA used in deciding on the possible doubling of the municipal solid waste incinerating plant located near the city of Arezzo, Italy. Within the framework of the new waste management plan, a methodology for the democratic participation of stakeholders was designed adopting the Local Agenda 21 methodology. Communication and participation events with the stakeholders were set up from the plan's development to its implementation. Eleven different categories of stakeholders including individual citizens were involved in 21 local events, reaching over 500 participants in three years. Actions were performed to build the commitment and ownership of the local administrators. Then, together with the environment and health agencies and a representative from the local committees, the local administrators collaborated with scientists and technicians in the knowledge-building and scoping stages. Focus groups of voluntary citizens worked together with the researchers to provide qualitative and quantitative evidence in the assessment stage. Periodic public forums were held to discuss processes, methods and findings. The local government authority considered the HIA results in the final decision and a new waste strategy was adopted both in the short term (increased curbside collection, waste sustainability program) and in the long term (limited repowering of the incinerator, new targets for separate collection). In conclusion, an effective participatory HIA was carried out at the municipal level to support decision makers in the waste management plan. The HIA21 study contributed to evidence-based decisions and to make a broadly participatory experience. The authors are confident that these achievements may improve the governance of the waste cycle and the trust in the public

  16. SOLID WASTE INTEGRATED FORECAST TECHNICAL (SWIFT) REPORT FY2005 THRU FY2035 2005.0 VOLUME 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2005-08-17

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: (1) an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; (2) multi-level and waste class-specific estimates; (3) background information on waste sources; and (4) comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. The focus of this report is low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and transuranic waste, both non-mixed and mixed (TRU(M)). Some details on hazardous waste are also provided, however, this information is not considered comprehensive. This report includes data requested in December, 2004 with updates through March 31,2005. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY2005 through the end of each program's life cycle and are an update of the previous FY2004.1 data version.

  17. Low-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyette, M.L.; Dolak, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides technical support information for use in analyzing environmental impacts associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management alternatives in the Waste-Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Waste loads treated and disposed of for each of the LLW alternatives considered in the DOE WM PEIS are presented. Waste loads are presented for DOE Waste Management (WM) wastes, which are generated from routine operations. Radioactivity concentrations and waste quantities for treatment and disposal under the different LLW alternatives are described for WM waste. 76 refs., 14 figs., 42 tabs.

  18. Electron beam-induced immobilization of laccase on porous supports for waste water treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Elham; Reichelt, Senta; Thomas, Isabell; Hausmann, Kristin; Schlosser, Dietmar; Schulze, Agnes

    2014-08-08

    The versatile oxidase enzyme laccase was immobilized on porous supports such as polymer membranes and cryogels with a view of using such biocatalysts in bioreactors aiming at the degradation of environmental pollutants in wastewater. Besides a large surface area for supporting the biocatalyst, the aforementioned porous systems also offer the possibility for simultaneous filtration applications in wastewater treatment. Herein a "green" water-based, initiator-free, and straightforward route to highly reactive membrane and cryogel-based bioreactors is presented, where laccase was immobilized onto the porous polymer supports using a water-based electron beam-initiated grafting reaction. In a second approach, the laccase redox mediators 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and syringaldehyde were cross-linked instead of the enzyme via electron irradiation in a frozen aqueous poly(acrylate) mixture in a one pot set-up, yielding a mechanical stable macroporous cryogel with interconnected pores ranging from 10 to 50 µm in size. The membranes as well as the cryogels were characterized regarding their morphology, chemical composition, and catalytic activity. The reactivity towards waste- water pollutants was demonstrated by the degradation of the model compound bisphenol A (BPA). Both membrane- and cryogel-immobilized laccase remained highly active after electron beam irradiation. Apparent specific BPA removal rates were higher for cryogel- than for membrane-immobilized and free laccase, whereas membrane-immobilized laccase was more stable with respect to maintenance of enzymatic activity and prevention of enzyme leakage from the carrier than cryogel-immobilized laccase. Cryogel-immobilized redox mediators remained functional in accelerating the laccase-catalyzed BPA degradation, and especially ABTS was found to act more efficiently in immobilized than in freely dissolved state.

  19. Electron Beam-Induced Immobilization of Laccase on Porous Supports for Waste Water Treatment Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The versatile oxidase enzyme laccase was immobilized on porous supports such as polymer membranes and cryogels with a view of using such biocatalysts in bioreactors aiming at the degradation of environmental pollutants in wastewater. Besides a large surface area for supporting the biocatalyst, the aforementioned porous systems also offer the possibility for simultaneous filtration applications in wastewater treatment. Herein a “green” water-based, initiator-free, and straightforward route to highly reactive membrane and cryogel-based bioreactors is presented, where laccase was immobilized onto the porous polymer supports using a water-based electron beam-initiated grafting reaction. In a second approach, the laccase redox mediators 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and syringaldehyde were cross-linked instead of the enzyme via electron irradiation in a frozen aqueous poly(acrylate mixture in a one pot set-up, yielding a mechanical stable macroporous cryogel with interconnected pores ranging from 10 to 50 µm in size. The membranes as well as the cryogels were characterized regarding their morphology, chemical composition, and catalytic activity. The reactivity towards waste- water pollutants was demonstrated by the degradation of the model compound bisphenol A (BPA. Both membrane- and cryogel-immobilized laccase remained highly active after electron beam irradiation. Apparent specific BPA removal rates were higher for cryogel- than for membrane-immobilized and free laccase, whereas membrane-immobilized laccase was more stable with respect to maintenance of enzymatic activity and prevention of enzyme leakage from the carrier than cryogel-immobilized laccase. Cryogel-immobilized redox mediators remained functional in accelerating the laccase-catalyzed BPA degradation, and especially ABTS was found to act more efficiently in immobilized than in freely dissolved state.

  20. UK University and College Technical Support for "Second Life" Developers and Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirriemuir, John

    2010-01-01

    Background: Numerous surveys, articles, ephemera and online information sources indicate that "Second Life" has been the predominant virtual world, for educational purposes, in UK universities for the latter half of the 2000s. However, the infrastructure required to operate "Second Life" presents a number of technical concerns…

  1. Developments in radiological assessment and biosphere modelling studies to support radioactive waste disposal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, D. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Thorne, M. [Mike Thorne and Associates Limited (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term safety assessments for the disposal of radioactive waste in Spain involve the demonstration that annual radiation doses to humans due to potential releases of radionuclides from the waste disposal facility into the biosphere will satisfy the regulatory criteria. For several years, CIEMAT has been developing, for ENRESA, a conceptual approach and tool to support modelling of the migration and accumulation of radionuclides within environmental media once those radionuclides have been released to some component of the biosphere (atmosphere, water bodies or soils). The CIEMAT modelling approach calculates the concentrations of radionuclides in different components of the biosphere and then the calculated radionuclide concentrations are used to estimate the radiation doses to humans due to various exposure paths. In this paper, we not only describe the methodology and modelling approach, we also describe recent developments of that approach to better quantify the resultant doses to humans. First, we present recent developments in the mathematical model for the behaviour of {sup 79}Se and {sup 238}U-series radionuclides in soils and their uptake by plants, taking into account seasonal variations in soil hydrology in Spain. Initial studies with the model that are reported here demonstrate that it is a powerful tool for exploring the behaviour of redox-sensitive radionuclides and {sup 238}U decay chain members in soil-plant systems under different hydrological regimes. In particular, it permits studies of the degree to which secular equilibrium assumptions are appropriate when modelling the {sup 238}U decay chain. Further studies are currently being undertaken examining sensitivities of model results to input parameter values and also applying the model to sites contaminated with {sup 238}U-series radionuclides. It is anticipated that results from these studies will also be reported. A particular interest in biosphere safety assessment is how environmental

  2. Study of the Technical Feasibility of Increasing the Amount of Recycled Concrete Waste Used in Ready-Mix Concrete Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban; Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier; López-Ochoa, Luis M; López-González, Luis M

    2017-07-18

    The construction industry generates a considerable amount of waste. Faced with this undesirable situation, the ready-mix concrete sector, in particular, has invested energy and resources into reusing its own waste in its production process as it works towards the goal of more sustainable construction. This study examines the feasibility of incorporating two types of concrete waste, which currently end up in landfill, into the production process of ready-mix concrete: the waste generated during the initial production stage (ready-mix concrete waste), and waste created when demolition waste is treated to obtain artificial aggregate. The first phase of the study's methodology corroborates the suitability of the recycled aggregate through characterization tests. After this phase, the impact of incorporating different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate is evaluated by examining the performance of the produced concrete. The replacement rate varied between 15% and 50%. The results indicate that recycled aggregates are, indeed, suitable to be incorporated into ready-mix concrete production. The impact on the final product's performance is different for the two cases examined herein. Incorporating aggregates from generic concrete blocks led to a 20% decrease in the produced concrete's strength performance. On the other hand, using recycled aggregates made from the demolition waste led to a smaller decrease in the concrete's performance: about 8%. The results indicate that with adequate management and prior treatment, the waste from these plants can be re-incorporated into their production processes. If concrete waste is re-used, concrete production, in general, becomes more sustainable for two reasons: less waste ends up as landfill and the consumption of natural aggregates is also reduced.

  3. Hanford Site Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2010-06-18

    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization, testing, and analysis for a composite sample (designated 20578) of residual waste collected from single-shell tank C-108 during the waste retrieval process after modified sluicing. These studies were completed to characterize concentration and form of contaminant of interest in the residual waste; assess the leachability of contaminants from the solids; and develop release models for contaminants of interest. Because modified sluicing did not achieve 99% removal of the waste, it is expected that additional retrieval processing will take place. As a result, the sample analyzed here is not expected to represent final retrieval sample.

  4. Technical Work Plan For: Calculation of Waste Packave and Drip Shield Response to Vibratory Ground Motion and Revision of the Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2006-12-08

    The overall objective of the work scope covered by this technical work plan (TWP) is to develop new damage abstractions for the seismic scenario class in total system performance assessment (TSPA). The new abstractions will be based on a new set of waste package and drip shield damage calculations in response to vibratory ground motion and fault displacement. The new damage calculations, which are collectively referred to as damage models in this TWP, are required to represent recent changes in waste form packaging and in the regulatory time frame. The new damage models also respond to comments from the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT) postvalidation review of the draft TSPA model regarding performance of the drip shield and to an Additional Information Need (AIN) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  5. Technical and economic feasibility of a solar-bio-powered waste utilization and treatment system in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Alvarez, Ronald Esteban; Bustamante Roman, Mauricio; Kirk, Dana; Miranda Chavarria, Jose Alberto; Baudrit, Daniel; Aguilar Pereira, Jose Francisco; Rodriguez Montero, Werner; Reinhold, Dawn; Liao, Wei

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a pilot-scale and closed-loop system that synergistically combines solar thermal collector, anaerobic digester, and constructed treatment wetland to simultaneously treat and utilize organic wastes. The system utilizes 863 kg of mixed animal and food wastes to generate 263 MJ renewable energy, produced 28 kg nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, and reclaimed 550 kg water per day. The net revenue considering electricity and fertilizer was $2436 annually. The payback period for the system is estimated to be 17.8 years for a relatively dilute waste stream (i.e., 2% total solids). The implemented system has successfully demonstrated a self-efficient and flexible waste utilization and treatment system. It creates a win-win solution to satisfy the energy needs of the community and address environmental concerns of organic wastes disposal in the region.

  6. Supporting calculations and assumptions for use in WESF safetyanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, B.E.

    1997-03-07

    This document provides a single location for calculations and assumptions used in support of Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) safety analyses. It also provides the technical details and bases necessary to justify the contained results.

  7. Technical support and delegation to practice staff – status quo and (possible future perspectives for primary health care in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Elisabeth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care in industrialized countries faces major challenges due to demographic changes, an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and a shortage of primary care physicians. One approach to counteract these developments might be to reduce primary care physicians’ workload supported by the use of health information technology (HIT and non-physician practice staff. In 2009, the U.S. Commonwealth Fund (CWF conducted an international survey of primary care physicians which the present secondary descriptive analysis is based on. The aim of this analysis was twofold: First, to explore to what extend German primary care physicians already get support by HIT and non-physician practice staff, and second, to show possible future perspectives. Methods The CWF questionnaire was sent to a representative random sample of 1,500 primary care physicians all over Germany. The data was descriptively analyzed. Group comparisons regarding differences in gender and age groups were made by means of Chi Square Tests for categorical variables. An alpha-level of p Results Altogether 715 primary care physicians answered the questionnaire (response rate 49%. Seventy percent of the physicians use electronic medical records. Technical features such as electronic ordering and access to laboratory parameters are mainly used. However, the majority does not routinely use technical functions for drug prescribing, reminder-systems for guideline-based interventions or recall of patients. Six percent of surveyed physicians are able to transfer prescriptions electronically to a pharmacy, 1% use email communication with patients regularly. Seventy-two percent of primary care physicians get support by non-physician practice staff in patient care, mostly in administrative tasks or routine preventive services. One fourth of physicians is supported in telephone calls to the patient or in patient education and counseling. Conclusion Within this sample the

  8. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, C.F. [ed.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media.

  9. Support for teaching technical subjects at high schools using an open robotic platform

    OpenAIRE

    PRŮCHA, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the use of robotic kits in teaching technical subject at high schools in the Czech Republic. The theoretical part describes the concepts of robotics and pedagogy. It deals with the history, types of robots, describes its components and provides an overview of the available robotic kits. It also examines the concepts and approaches in teaching, goals and activation methods. The results of research among students, alumni and teachers of high schools are summarized...

  10. Technical documentation to support the evaluation of handling of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOPER, T.D.

    1999-08-31

    In 1997, a can containing a plutonium metal ingot was opened. The sides of the inner storage can had collapsed. As the inner can was opened, an apparent flame appeared to issue from the opening. Based on the reaction and possible pressurization of the glovebox, a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening was issued. This document contains some of the technical documents to resolve the screening.

  11. Nuss procedure: Technical modifications to ease bending of the support bar and lateral stabilizer placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Zeki Karakus

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative bending of the support bar according to anthropometric measurements and fixation of the lateral stabilizers to the support bar in inverted position facilitates bar shaping and lateral stabilizer placement.

  12. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  13. Technical assessment of Mir-1 life support hardware for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Bagdigian, R. M.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Carter, D. L.; Franks, G. D.; Holder, D. W., Jr.; Hutchens, C. F.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Ray, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has been progressively learning the design and performance of the Russian life support systems utilized in their Mir space station. In 1992, a plan was implemented to assess the benefits of the Mir-1 life support systems to the Freedom program. Three primary tasks focused on: evaluating the operational Mir-1 support technologies and understanding if specific Russian systems could be directly utilized on the American space station and if Russian technology design information could prove useful in improving the current design of the planned American life support equipment; evaluating the ongoing Russian life support technology development activities to determine areas of potential long-term application to the U.S. space station; and utilizing the expertise of their space station life support systems to evaluate the benefits to the current U.S. space station program which included the integration of the Russian Mir-1 designs with the U.S. designs to support a crew of six.

  14. International technology catalogue: Foreign technologies to support the environmental restoration and waste management needs of the DOE complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Programs Dept.; Jimenez, R.D.; Esparza-Baca, C. [ed.] [Applied Sciences Lab., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This document represents a summary of 27 foreign-based environmental restoration and waste management technologies that have been screened and technically evaluated for application to the cleanup problems of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. The evaluation of these technologies was initiated in 1992 and completed in 1995 under the DOE`s International Technology Coordination Program of the Office of Technology Development. A methodology was developed for conducting a country-by-country survey of several regions of the world where specific environmental technology capabilities and market potential were investigated. The countries that were selected from a rank-ordering process for the survey included: then West Germany, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Taiwan, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and the Former Soviet Union. The notably innovative foreign technologies included in this document were screened initially from a list of several hundred, and then evaluated based on criteria that examined for level of maturity, suitability to the DOE needs, and for potential cost effective application at a DOE site. Each of the selected foreign technologies that were evaluated in this effort for DOE application were subsequently matched with site-specific environmental problem units across the DOE complex using the Technology Needs Assessment CROSSWALK Report. For ease of tracking these technologies to site problem units, and to facilitate their input into the DOE EnviroTRADE Information System, they were categorized into the following three areas: (1) characterization, monitoring and sensors, (2) waste treatment and separations, and (3) waste containment. Technical data profiles regarding these technologies include title and description, performance information, development status, key regulatory considerations, intellectual property rights, institute and contact personnel, and references.

  15. Finding urban waste management solutions and policies: Waste-to-energy development and livelihood support system in Payatas, Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrona, Kevin Roy; Yu, Jeong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    One of the potential solutions in social and environmental sustainability in municipal solid waste management (MSW) in Metro Manila is to combine community-based recycling and sound landfill management strategies. The marriage of the two puts importance on recycling as a source of livelihood while proper landfill management aims to improve the aesthetic and environmental quality of disposal facilities in urban areas. To do this, a social mapping of wastepickers, junkshops and local recycling practices needs to be undertaken and at the same time assess strategies of the national and local governments vis-à-vis existing laws on municipal solid waste. The case of Payatas controlled disposal facility was taken as a pilot study because it represents the general condition of disposal sites in Metro Manila and the social landscape that it currently has. In addition, a waste-to-energy (WTE) project has been established in Payatas to produce electricity from methane gas. Preliminary interviews with wastepickers show that development interventions in disposal sites such as WTE pose no opposition from host communities for as long as alternative livelihood opportunities are provided. Regulating the flow of wastepickers into the landfill has advantages like improved income and security. Felt needs were also articulated like provision of financial support or capital for junkshop operation and skills training. Overall, a smooth relationship between the local government and community associations pays well in a transitioning landfill management scheme such as Payatas.

  16. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  17. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The space option for disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geological repositories is studied. A brief overview of the study background, scope, objective, guidelines and assumptions, and contents is presented. The determination of the effects of variations in the waste mix on the space systems concept to allow determination of the space systems effect on total system risk benefits when used as a complement to the DOE reference mined geological repository is studied. The waste payload system, launch site, launch system, and orbit transfer system are all addressed. Rescue mission requirements are studied. The characteristics of waste forms suitable for space disposal are identified. Trajectories and performance requirements are discussed.

  18. Technical data for waste incineration - background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade....

  19. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  20. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  1. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Robert [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-04-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call

  2. Supporting the Josephson Interpretation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Stabilization of Nuclear Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Osman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brian Josephson appealed at the meeting of the Nobel Laureates July 2004 against the ignorance of physicist to the phenomenon of cold fusion. Though there are good reasons against many publications on this topic but not for all what was reported. It seems to be indicated to summarize the following serious, reproducible and confirmed observations on the reactions of protons or deuterons incorporated in host metals such as palladium, nickel and other metals. We underline the confusing discovery by Cockroft and Oliphant with the anomalous low energy for nuclear reactions which was hundred times lower than in the usual cases when smashing nuclei against their Coulomb potential. A similar unexpected result was that of Otto Hahn’s-the chemist!-Discovery of fission that had changed the world. A significant result of cold fusion was seen in gaseous atmosphere or discharges between palladium targets, rather significant and fully reproducible, e.g. From the “life after death” heat production of such high values per host atom that only nuclear reactions can be involved. This supports the earlier evaluation of neutron generation in fully reversible experiments with gas discharges hinting that a reasonable screening effect-preferably in the swimming electron layer-may lead to reactions at nuclear distances d of picometers with reaction probability times U off about mega seconds similar to the K-shell capture radioactivity. Further electrolytic experiments led to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR where the involvement of pollution could be excluded from the generation of very seldom rare earth elements. A basically new theory for DD cross sections is used to confirm the picometer-mega second reactions of cold fusion. Other theoretical aspects are given from measured heavy element distributions similar to the standard abundance distribution, SAD, in the Universe with consequences on endothermic heavy nucleus generation, magic numbers and to quark

  3. About stainless steel pickling waste water treatment technical analysis%关于不锈钢酸洗废水处理的技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳玲

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of social economy , stainless steel pickling waste water treatment technology as the current one of the most important technical parameters .This paper aims at the analysis of the current stainless steel pickling waste water related processing technology, the application of comprehensive from a variety of technology , based on the current industrial development around the actual need, multi-angle analysis stainless steel pickling waste water technology , to realize the overall technology comprehensive use .%  随着社会经济的快速发展,不锈钢酸洗废水处理技术成为了当前的一项重要技术参数。本文旨在分析当前不锈钢酸洗废水的相关处理技术,从多种技术综合的应用出发,围绕当前工业发展的实际需要,多角度的分析不锈钢酸洗废水的技术,实现整体技术的全面运用。

  4. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

  5. Technical support to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, R.E.

    1976-09-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted by Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) in FY 1975 to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer (BWR-BDHT) program. The support provided by ANC is that of an independent assessor of the program to ensure that the data obtained are adequate for verification of analytical models used for predicting reactor response to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The support included reviews of program plans, objectives, measurements, and actual data. Additional activity included analysis of experimental system performance and evaluation of the RELAP4 computer code as applied to the experiments.

  6. Technical and management support for the development of small wind systems. Annual report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    The FY 1978 Annual Report of the Rocky Flats Wind Systems Program describes the objectives, approach, and achievements of the program and each of its tasks areas during the period October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978. During this period, additional testing of ten small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) was conducted and the Test Center was expanded to accommodate up to 30 SWECS. Work on nine design and analysis projects for advanced prototypes in three size ranges progressed through a series of design reviews, with prototype delivery scheduled to begin in mid-1979. Supporting activities included a Systems Engineering project which analyzed the cost of SWECS components and fabrication, a task effort in technical support to standards development, and the dissemination of information.

  7. Supporting tobacco control: stimulating local newspaper coverage with a technical assistance website for local coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Helme, Donald; Young, Walter F; Borland, Ron; Maloy, Julie A; Cutter, Gary R; Andersen, Peter A; Walther, Joseph B

    2011-11-01

    A large and growing literature confirms that well-designed web-based programs can be effective in preventing or treating several chronic diseases. This study examined how the Internet can deliver information and train community activists and specifically tested the effects of web-based technical assistance on local tobacco control coalitions' efforts to use media advocacy to advance their agendas. The authors compared a highly interactive, Enhanced website (intervention) to a noninteractive, Basic text-based website (comparison) in Colorado communities. A total of 24 tobacco control coalitions led by local county health departments and nursing services were enrolled in the project and randomly assigned to use either the intervention or comparison website. A total of 73 local daily and weekly newspapers were identified in the service areas of 23 of the 24 coalitions. A posttest assessment of newspaper coverage was conducted to locate all newspaper articles with tobacco control information published between January 1 and April 9, 2004, the last 3 months of the intervention. Although there was no evidence of a treatment effect on the frequency of newspaper articles on tobacco-related issues, there was, however, evidence that newspapers in counties where the coalition had access to the Enhanced website printed more stories focused on local/regional issues and more anti-tobacco local/regional stories than in the counties where coalitions had access to the Basic website. Coalitions can improve their influence on local media for community tobacco control when high-quality online technical assistance, training, and resources are available to them.

  8. Information and Communications Technical Support Services to the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following tasks: development of safety publications, conference support, planning and reporting, MORT A/I video, print products, special graphics, and SAFE software development.

  9. Technical engineering services in support of the Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket vehicle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Task assignments in support of the Nike-Tomahawk vehicles, which were completed from May, 1970 through November 1972 are reported. The services reported include: analytical, design and drafting, fabrication and modification, and field engineering.

  10. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes. Technical report, January 1989--August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  11. Defense Information Systems Agency Technical Integration Support (DISA- TIS). MUMPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    programming language; it includes facilities for both high- and low-level programming . C supports low-level hardware control and bit manipulation in addition...purposes. Sup- porting structured programming C 1974 D. Ritchie ALGOL 68 Systems programming (Bell Labs) BCPL Ada 1979 J. lchbiah eta.. Pascal, General...requirements and has high de facto usage for scientific and mathematical programming . C also provides support for efficient array and matrix calculations

  12. An Investigation of Student Participation in Synchronous Online Tutorials and the Impact of a Technical Support Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Gavan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As schools, universities, retail stores and corporations flock to Online and eLearning, there are many compelling arguments to support their decision. Synchronous virtual classroom tools are used to support Online and eLearning interaction to mirror face-to-face learning. Martin (2012 identified that synchronous tools are a relatively new solution to supporting interaction in the virtual classroom. Ward et al. (2010 distinguished a strong, convincing body of literature which shows that synchronous online classrooms, enhanced by two-way audio, allow for real-time oral presentation, discourse, and checks for understanding among tutor and learners. Hrastinski (2008 determined the aural component of the synchronous virtual classroom as offering real time contact between teachers and students, mirroring faceto- face contact. Much of the research to date focuses on synchronous online resources and their link with participation while there is little or no research on the use of a resource to assist with technical issues inhibiting learners from participating. The aim of the study was to address this gap through means of an exploratory case study. The research included investigating, creating and assessing the usefulness of a resource to assist with technological issues impacting learners’ ability to participate. The learners were students undertaking a post graduate qualification at Hibernia College. Data was collected through observations and surveys from 46 sstudents and tutors. This research concluded that audio is particularly important for both knowledge construction and learning but also in creating a social atmosphere. While the technical support resource provided a useful aid to learners in this study, further study will need to be conducted over a prolonged period to investigate the full extent of its usefulness. External factors do effect participation and poses a case for extending Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance to include

  13. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Introductory part and summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan and comprises seven chapters. Chapter I briefly describes the importance of HLW management in promoting nuclear energy utilization. According to the long-term program, the HLW separated from spent fuels at reprocessing plants is to be vitrified and stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, then be disposed of in a deep geological formation. Chapter II mainly explains the concepts of geological disposal in Japan. Chapters III to V are devoted to discussions on three important technical elements (the geological environment of Japan, engineering technology and safety assessment of the geological disposal system) which are necessary for reliable realization of the geological disposal concept. Chapter VI demonstrates the technical ground for site selection and for setup of safety standards of the disposal. Chapter VII summarizes together with plans for future research and development. (Ohno, S.)

  14. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  15. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  16. Hanford Tanks 241-C-202 and 241-C-203 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2007-09-13

    As directed by Congress, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of River Protection in 1998 to manage DOE's largest, most complex environmental cleanup project – retrieval of radioactive waste from Hanford tanks for treatment and eventual disposal. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored at Hanford in aging deteriorating tanks. If not cleaned up, this waste is a threat to the Columbia River and the Pacific Northwest. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., is the Office of River Protection's prime contractor responsible for the storage, retrieval, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. As part of this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for DOE.

  17. Green Technical Methods for Treatment of Waste Water Using Microalgae and its Application in the Management of Natural Water Resources –A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna N. Nandeshwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life.But only 2.5% of the Earth's water is freshwater. Due to industrialization and Urbanization it is becoming more polluted and risk of this polluted water consumption and its sanitation problem is increasing day to day in most of the developing countries, so it has become anessential need for today’s environment to protect water from getting polluted or develop its cost effective remedial method for its protection. Literature survey was done to find out the new, low-cost waste water treatment methods in which we had found that Microalgae has the natural wastewater treatment properties. It has the self cleansing power due to which it abstracts Nitrate 99%, sulphate 84% and Phosphate 73% for its growth and development. During their growth they trap sun light and CO2 from the environment for their photosynthesis. In the mean time of review of literature we had found that waste water treatment using microalgae has number of positive applications over the conventional methods as it is useful in Wastewater treatment, CO2 sequestration, Cost effective, Sanitation and also in the production of renewable sources of energy such as Biodiesel, Biofuel, Glycerol, Methane gas, Hydrogen gas, Biofertilizers etc. The overall review has concluded that this Green technical method for treatment of municipal waste water using microalgae should be applied in all developing and developed countries for wastewater treatment so as to protect the environmental pollution causing due to waste water from industrial and Societies effluents.

  18. Radioactive waste storage: historical outlook and socio technical analysis; Le stockage des dechets radioactifs: perspective historique et analyse sociotechnique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    The radioactive waste storage remains, in most of the industrialized concerned countries, one extremely debated question. This problem may, if an acceptable socially answer is not found, to create obstacles to the whole nuclear path. This study aim was to analyze the controversy in an historical outlook. The large technological plans have always economical, political, sociological, psychological and so on aspects, that the experts may be inclined to neglect. ``Escape of radioactivity is unlikely, as long as surveillance of the waste is maintained, that is, as long as someone is present to check for leaks or corrosion or malfunctioning of and to take action, if any of these occur. 444 refs., 32 figs.

  19. Management support services to the Office of Utility Technologies. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    The Office of Utility Technologies works cooperatively with industry and the utility sector to realize the market potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Under this contract, BNF has provided management support services for OUT R&D activities for the following Program offices: (1) Office of Energy Management; (2) Office of Solar Energy Conversion; (3) Office of Renewable Energy Conversion; and (4) Deputy Assistant Secretary. During the period between 4/17/91 and 9/17/93, BNF furnished the necessary personnel, equipment, materials, facilities and travel required to provide management support services for each of the above Program Offices. From 9/18/93 to 12/17/93, BNF has been involved in closeout activities, including final product deliverables. Research efforts that have been supported in these Program Offices are: (1) for Energy Management -- Advanced Utility Concepts Division; Utility Systems Division; Integrated Planning; (2) for Solar Energy Conversion -- Photovoltaics Division; Solar Thermal and Biomass Power Division; (3) for Renewable Energy Conversion -- Geothermal Division; Wind, Hydroelectric and Ocean Systems Division; (4) for the Deputy Assistant Secretary -- support as required by the Supporting Staff. This final report contains summaries of the work accomplished for each of the Program Offices listed above.

  20. Technical support for open-cycle MHD program. Progress report, April-June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomkamp, D H [ed.

    1979-07-01

    The support program for open-cycle MHD at Argonne National Laboratory is developing the analytical tools needed to investigate the performance of the major components in the combined cycle MHD/steam power system. The analytical effort is centered on the primary components of the system that are unique to MHD and also on the integration of these analytical representations into a model of the entire power producing system. The project activities currently include modeling of the combustor, MHD channel, slag separator and the high temperature air heater. In addition, these models are combined into a complete system model which is presently capable of carrying out optimizations of the entire system on either thermodynamic efficiency or cost of electrical power. Also, in support of other aspects of the open-cycle program, test plans are developed and facility and program reviews are provided upon request to support the needs and requirements of the DOE/MHD Division.

  1. The private sector: A global pool of technical talent for remote sensing training and program support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. D.

    The growing global pool of highly trained, technical talent in the private sector throughout the world reflects the degree of maturation that remote sensing from air and space vehicles has undergone, especially during the past ten years. This has been further spawned by the US Government move to commercialize the Landsat system. The number of qualified technicians and scientists has grown in proportion to the amount of data that has become available for public and private use. Applications of the data have matured from research investigations to operational use in many disciplines and geographic areas. Private and public industry corporations have established their own image processing and analytical laboratories to ensure their competitive positions. This has been further enhanced by the simultaneous availability of lower cost, analytical computer systems. Training and operational project development remain prominent objectives. While these are all very positive aspects a note of caution must be raised. Concern has recently been expressed by representatives of developing nations that not enough attention is given by remote sensing specialists to spelling out the limitations of the sensing systems or qualifying the degree of accuracy of the results obtained. Such criticisms are probably justified and it is recommended that remote sensing workers be mindful of such concerns.

  2. Data development technical support document for the aircraft crash risk analysis methodology (ACRAM) standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, C.Y.; Glaser, R.E.; Mensing, R.W.; Lin, T.; Haley, T.A.; Barto, A.B.; Stutzke, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    The Aircraft Crash Risk Analysis Methodology (ACRAM) Panel has been formed by the US Department of Energy Office of Defense Programs (DOE/DP) for the purpose of developing a standard methodology for determining the risk from aircraft crashes onto DOE ground facilities. In order to accomplish this goal, the ACRAM panel has been divided into four teams, the data development team, the model evaluation team, the structural analysis team, and the consequence team. Each team, consisting of at least one member of the ACRAM plus additional DOE and DOE contractor personnel, specializes in the development of the methodology assigned to that team. This report documents the work performed by the data development team and provides the technical basis for the data used by the ACRAM Standard for determining the aircraft crash frequency. This report should be used to provide the generic data needed to calculate the aircraft crash frequency into the facility under consideration as part of the process for determining the aircraft crash risk to ground facilities as given by the DOE Standard Aircraft Crash Risk Assessment Methodology (ACRAM). Some broad guidance is presented on how to obtain the needed site-specific and facility specific data but this data is not provided by this document.

  3. Technological and hygiene-sanitary aspects of using biologically pure process waste watern in the systems of technical water supply

    OpenAIRE

    Ushakov, Vasily Yakovlevich; Solodov, G. А.

    2007-01-01

    According to sanitary-toxicological factors biologically purified waste water of chemical enterprise are referred to low-toxic substances, are not allergens, do not posses irritant action on mucous tunics and skin and are suitable for recycling water system makeup. Crucial factors of reusing these waters are their corrosive activity, susceptibility to mineral salt accumulation and bioaccretion.

  4. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, N.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form.

  5. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  6. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  7. Technical support for open-cycle MHD program. Progress report, January-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomkamp, D. H. [ed.

    1980-07-01

    The support program for open-cycle MHD at the Argonne National Laboratory consists of developing the analytical tools needed for investigation of the performance of the major components in the combined-cycle MHD/steam power system. The analytical effort is centered on the primary components of the system that are unique to MHD and, also, on the integration of these analytical models into a model of the entire power-producing system. The present project activities include modeling of the combustor, generator, seed deposition, and formation and decomposition of NO. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the performance of the U-25B generator and to support the design of the US U-25B generator. Refinements and improvements to the MHD systems code and executive program are described.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the 2009 and 2012 IECC Residential Provisions – Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Lucas, Robert G.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-12-04

    This analysis was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE supports the development and adoption of efficient residential and commercial building energy codes. These codes set the minimum requirements for energy efficient building design and construction and ensure energy savings on a national level. This analysis focuses on one and two family dwellings, townhomes, and low-rise multifamily residential buildings. For these buildings, the basis of the energy codes is the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report does not address commercial and high-rise residential buildings, which reference ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.

  9. Method to Select Technical Terms for Glossaries in Support of Joint Task Force Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    goals. While the present method underpins a capability that serves only one specific group, the foundation of the method explained here justifies...material that supports the bilingual work. Thus, physicians want to see medical terms, attorneys want to see legal terms, and Soldiers want to see...prepared for one document in particular, the first text in Stanford Law School’s Afghan Legal Education Project (ALEP), An Introduction to the Law of

  10. Participation in Training for Depression Care Quality Improvement: A Randomized Trial of Community Engagement or Technical Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bowen; Ngo, Victoria K; Ong, Michael K; Pulido, Esmeralda; Jones, Felica; Gilmore, James; Stoker-Mtume, Norma; Johnson, Megan; Tang, Lingqi; Wells, Kenneth Brooks; Sherbourne, Cathy; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Community engagement and planning (CEP) could improve dissemination of depression care quality improvement in underresourced communities, but whether its effects on provider training participation differ from those of standard technical assistance, or resources for services (RS), is unknown. This study compared program- and staff-level participation in depression care quality improvement training among programs enrolled in CEP, which trained networks of health care and social-community agencies jointly, and RS, which provided technical support to individual programs. Matched programs from health care and social-community service sectors in two communities were randomly assigned to RS or CEP. Data were from 1,622 eligible staff members from 95 enrolled programs. Primary outcomes were any staff trained (for programs) and total hours of training (for staff). Secondary staff-level outcomes were hours of training in specific depression collaborative care components. CEP programs were more likely than RS programs to participate in any training (p=.006). Within health care sectors, CEP programs were more likely than RS programs to participate in training (p=.016), but within social-community sectors, there was no difference in training by intervention. Among staff who participated in training, mean training hours were greater among CEP programs versus RS programs for any type of training (ptraining related to each component of depression care (pstaff participation in depression care improvement efforts in underresourced communities.

  11. Continuing professional development: researching non-technical competencies can support cognitive reappraisal and reduced stress in clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; May, Stephen

    2017-09-09

    Generic professional capabilities (non-technical competencies) are increasingly valued for their links to patient outcomes and clinician well-being. This study explores the emotional change, and practice-related outcomes, of participants of a veterinary professional key skills (PKS) continuing professional development (CPD) module. Reflective summaries produced by participants were analysed. A change in emotion, from 'negative' to 'positive', was the focus of analysis. Sections regarding these emotions were thematically analysed. Analysis was performed on 46 summaries. Three themes were identified: 'the PKS module' (centred on reluctance becoming surprise and stimulation), 'developing non-technical competencies' (unease to confidence) and 'stress and coping through a reflective focus' (anxiety to harmony). The changing emotions were connected to positive cognitive reappraisal and often behaviour changes, benefitting self, practice, clients and patients. The PKS module teaches participants to reflect; a new and challenging concept. The consequences of this enabled participants to understand the importance of professional topics, to be appreciative as well as critical, and to enjoy their job. Importantly, the module stimulated coping responses. Better understanding of roles led to participants having more reasonable expectations of themselves, more appreciation of their work and reduced stress. This research supports more attention to professional skills CPD for health professions. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Semi annual technical progress report, September 26, 1994--April 2, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 26 September 1994 through 2 April 1995 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. Monthly technical activity for the period 27 February 1995 through 2 April 1995 is included in this progress report. The report addresses tasks, including: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG Fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds).

  13. The Design of a Portable Municipal Waste Incinerator With Fuzzy Logic Based Support for Emission Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Akpe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy logic interface system to estimate oxygen requirement for complete combustion as well as the level of pollution from incinerator gas flue in order to manage solid waste from domestic, institutional, medical and industrial sources was designed. The designed incinerator is double chambered operating with a maximum temperature of 760 °C in the lower chamber and 1000°C in the upper chamber.  The insulating wall is made up of a refractory brick of 55mm in thickness having a 2mm thickness low carbon steel as the outer wall.  Hydrogen Chloride (HCl and Nitrous oxides (NOx are the gases was used to demonstrate the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS model. The FIS was built with five input variables (Food, PVC, Polythene, Paper and Textile and three input variables with two membership functions. The FIS was developed to estimation the degree of possibility distribution of pollution that should be expected when a certain composition of waste is incinerated. The plots of composition of waste high in food against oxygen require for combustion gives a possibility distribution of about 0.9 which is high according to the fuzzy set definition while the plot of waste composition high in PVC against HCL shows linearity.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  15. Waste-to-Energy Decision Support Method for Forward Deployed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    values can be seen in Table 3 below. Based on the predominant plastic wastes of PET , HDPE, and LDPE/LLDPE, an average of these energy contents was...may be better suited for other roles including recycling (glass, metal) or construction filling materials (rocks, concrete, dirt, etc.) One category

  16. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  17. Humic substances in performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal: Actinide and iodine migration in the far-field. Second technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckau, G. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The present report describes progress within the second year of the EC-project ''Humic Substances in Performance Assessment of Nuclear Waste Disposal: Actinide and Iodine Migration in the Far-Field''. Without being a formal requirement of the commission or co-funding bodies, this report documents results in great technical detail. It is an open report and thus makes the detailed results available to a broad scientific community. The report contains an executive summary written by the coordinator. More detailed results are given as individual contributions in the form of 23 annexes. Not all results are discussed or referred to in the executive summary report and thus readers with a deeper interest also need to consult the annexes. (orig.)

  18. WIPP WAC Equivalence Support Measurements for Low-Level Sludge Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 12242

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lucero, Randy P. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) as an off-site disposal facility for low-level waste (LLW), including sludge waste. NNSS has issued a position paper that indicates that systems that are not certified by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste must demonstrate equivalent practices to the CBFO certified systems in order to assign activity concentration values to assayed items without adding in the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) when certifying waste for NNSS disposal. Efforts have been made to meet NNSS requirements to accept sludge waste for disposal at their facility. The LANL LLW Characterization Team uses portable high purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems for the nondestructive assay (NDA) of both debris and sludge LLW. A number of performance studies have been conducted historically by LANL to support the efficacy and quality of assay results generated by the LANL HPGe systems, and, while these detector systems are supported by these performance studies and used with LANL approved procedures and processes, they are not certified by CBFO for TRU waste disposal. Beginning in 2009, the LANL LLW Characterization Team undertook additional NDA measurements of both debris and sludge simulated waste containers to supplement existing studies and procedures to demonstrate full compliance with the NNSS position paper. Where possible, Performance Demonstration Project (PDP) drums were used for the waste matrix and PDP sources were used for the radioactive sources. Sludge drums are an example of a matrix with a uniform distribution of contaminants. When attempting to perform a gamma assay of a sludge drum, it is very important to adequately simulate this uniform distribution of radionuclides in order to accurately model the assay results. This was accomplished by using a spiral radial source tube placement in a sludge drum rather than the standard

  19. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leach, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Warehouse and Self-Storage Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan

    2007-12-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Warehouse and Self-storage Buildings (AEDG-WH or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in small warehouses over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-WH is the fourth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. 从炭载体废催化剂回收铂钯%Recovery of Palladium and Platinum from Carbon Supported Waste Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘时杰

    2014-01-01

    The carbon supported catalysts, Pd/C and Pt/C, are the very important chemical catalysts. The incineration technology is the most simple method for the recovery of platinum or palladium from the waste catalysts. The processes and technologies to prevent the loss of flying-ash during burning were introduced and some examples were listed. The principle of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and its technical processes were discussed, and its application prospect was reviewed.%Pd/C、Pt/C是非常重要的化工催化剂。最简单的从废催化剂中回收钯或铂的方法是焚烧法。介绍了工艺过程及防止焚烧时飞扬损失的各种技术措施,列举了应用实例。探讨了超临界水氧化法(SCWO)的原理,工艺过程及处理炭载体废催化剂的应用前景。

  3. Waste management technologies for the next millenium. Technical conference; Mit MBA-Technik ins naechste Jahrtausend. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Waste management on a federal and Laender level requires reorientation and new decisions in ever shorter intervals. In view of the fact that projecting phases are long and investment costs amount to tens of millions, communal decision-makers must constantly modify their current projects in order to optimise them. The papers in this conference report present theoretical information as well as practical experience in waste treatment plant operation. [German] Die abfallwirtschaftlichen Entwicklungen auf Bundes- und Landesebene erfordern in immer kuerzer werdenden Abstaenden neue Ueberlegungen und Weichenstellungen. Angesichts langer Planungszeitraeume und hoher Investitionskosten im zweistelligen Millionenbereich sind die Entscheidungstraeger auf kommunaler Ebene immer wieder gefordert auf Grundlage aktueller Erkenntnisse bisherige Planungen zu ueberdenken sowie anstehende Projekte zu modifizieren und zu optimieren. Die Vortraege in diesem Tagungsband weisen nicht nur theoretische Ansaetze auf, sondern beinhalten auch praktische Erfahrungen aus verschiedenen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen. (orig./SR)

  4. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    UK: In life cycle assessment (LCA) the environmental impacts from a product are assessed throughout the entire life-cycle of the product, i.e. from the extraction of the raw materials from which the product is made through manufacture and use of the product to the final disposal of the product...... and possible recycling hereof. The assessment is based on an inventory of inputs and outputs (resource/material consumption and generation of energy and emissions) for all the processes that occur as part of the product life-cycle. A model is developed to estimate the inputs and outputs associated...... with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...

  5. Technical data for waste incineration - background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    In life cycle assessment (LCA) the environmental impacts from a product are assessed throughout the entire life-cycle of the product, i.e. from the extraction of the raw materials from which the product is made through manufacture and use of the product to the final disposal of the product...... and possible recycling hereof. The assessment is based on an inventory of inputs and outputs (resource/material consumption and generation of energy and emissions) for all the processes that occur as part of the product life-cycle. A model is developed to estimate the inputs and outputs associated...... with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...

  6. Technical-Induced Hemolysis in Patients with Respiratory Failure Supported with Veno-Venous ECMO - Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lehle

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and risk factors for technical-induced hemolysis in adults supported with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vvECMO and to analyze the effect of hemolytic episodes on outcome. This was a retrospective, single-center study that included 318 adult patients (Regensburg ECMO Registry, 2009-2014 with acute respiratory failure treated with different modern miniaturized ECMO systems. Free plasma hemoglobin (fHb was used as indicator for hemolysis. Throughout a cumulative support duration of 4,142 days on ECMO only 1.7% of the fHb levels were above a critical value of 500 mg/l. A grave rise in fHb indicated pumphead thrombosis (n = 8, while acute oxygenator thrombosis (n = 15 did not affect fHb. Replacement of the pumphead normalized fHb within two days. Neither pump or cannula type nor duration on the first system was associated with hemolysis. Multiple trauma, need for kidney replacement therapy, increased daily red blood cell transfusion requirements, and high blood flow (3.0-4.5 L/min through small-sized cannulas significantly resulted in augmented blood cell trauma. Survivors were characterized by lower peak levels of fHb [90 (60, 142 mg/l] in comparison to non-survivors [148 (91, 256 mg/l, p≤0.001]. In conclusion, marked hemolysis is not common in vvECMO with modern devices. Clinically obvious hemolysis often is caused by pumphead thrombosis. High flow velocity through small cannulas may also cause technical-induced hemolysis. In patients who developed lung failure due to trauma, fHb was elevated independantly of ECMO. In our cohort, the occurance of hemolysis was associated with increased mortality.

  7. Influence of waste managemental and technical planning parameters on plant costs; Einfluss abfallwirtschaftlicher und technischer Plannungsgroessen auf die Anlagenkosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, R. [Inst. fuer Umwelt, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik e.V., Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The probable future costs of thermal waste treatment depend on a great number of influencing factors. One of the essential aims of the present contribution is to elaborate and present the sensitivity of costs to various parameters. [Deutsch] Die zukuenftig zu erwartenden Kosten der thermischen Abfallbehandlung haengen von einer Vielzahl von Einflussgroessen ab. Im Rahmen des Beitrags besteht daher ein wesentliches Ziel darin, die Sensitivitaet der Kosten hinsichtlich verschiedenster Parameter herauszuarbeiten und darzustellen. (orig./SR)

  8. Summary report of first and foreign high-level waste repository concepts; Technical report, working draft 001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, P.M.

    1987-11-04

    Reference repository concepts designs adopted by domestic and foreign waste disposal programs are reviewed. Designs fall into three basic categories: deep borehole from the surface; disposal in boreholes drilled from underground excavations; and disposal in horizontal tunnels or drifts. The repository concepts developed in Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Canada, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Denmark, West Germany and the United States are described. 140 refs., 315 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Multi-function Waste Tank Facility path forward engineering analysis -- Technical Task 3.6, Estimate of operational risk in 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.

    1995-04-28

    Project W-0236A has been proposed to provide additional waste tank storage in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. This project would construct two new waste tanks in the 200 West Area and four new tanks in the 200 East Area, and a related project (Project W-058) would construct a new cross-site line. These projects are intended to ensure sufficient space and flexibility for continued tank farm operations, including tank waste remediation and management of unforeseen contingencies. The objective of this operational risk assessment is to support determination of the adequacy of the free-volume capacity provided by Projects W-036A and W-058 and to determine related impacts. The scope of the assessment is the 200 West Area only and covers the time period from the present to the year 2005. Two different time periods were analyzed because the new cross-site tie line will not be available until 1999. The following are key insights: success of 200 West Area tank farm operations is highly correlated to the success of the cross-site transfer line and the ability of the 200 East Area to receive waste from 200 West; there is a high likelihood of a leak on a complexed single-shell tank in the next 4 years (sampling pending); there is a strong likelihood, in the next 4 years, that some combination of tank leaks, facility upsets, and cross-site line failure will require more free tank space than is currently available in Tank 241-SY-102; in the next 4 to 10 years, there is a strong likelihood that a combination of a cross-site line failure and the need to accommodate some unscheduled waste volume will require more free tank space than is presently available in Tank 241-SY-102; the inherent uncertainty in volume projections is in the range of 3 million gallons; new million-gallon tanks increase the ability to manage contingencies and unplanned events.

  10. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.

  11. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  12. Towards a zero-waste oxidative coupling of nonactivated aromatics by supported gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Pedro; Corma, Avelino

    2014-08-01

    We show that gold nanoparticles are able to perform the direct oxidative coupling of nonactivated aromatics with O2 as the only co-reagent. In this reaction, the aromatic acts both as reactant and solvent. Biphenyl, for example, can be obtained from benzene with high selectivity and a turnover number (TON) of 230 per pass. Similarly, several substituted biaryls can be prepared. Pd performs only one TON and even when a second catalytic functionality is introduced, together with strong acidic conditions, TON is always lower than 100. Other catalysts require iodine for performing the reaction, leading to 2 kg of waste for 1 kg of biphenyl formed, whereas no waste is created by the oxidative coupling with gold nanoparticles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Miron, Y. [Bureau of Mines (United States)

    1994-01-01

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  14. Review of the geological and structural setting near the site of the proposed Transuranic Waste Facility (TRUWF) Technical Area 52 (TA-52), Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Gardner, Jamie N.

    2007-10-01

    Because of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s proximal location to active geologic structures, assessment of seismic hazards, including the potential for seismic surface rupture, must occur before construction of any facilities housing nuclear or other hazardous materials. A transuranic waste facility (TRUWF) planned for construction at Technical Area 52 (TA-52) provides the impetus for this report. Although no single seismic hazards field investigation has focused specifically on TA-52, numerous studies at technical areas surrounding TA-52 have shown no significant, laterally continuous faults exhibiting activity in the last 10 ka within 3,000 ft of the proposed facility. A site-specific field study at the footprint of the proposed TRUWF would not yield further high-precision data on possible Holocene faulting at the site because post-Bandelier Tuff sediments are lacking and the shallowest subunit contacts of the Bandelier Tuff are gradational. Given the distal location of the proposed TRUWF to any mapped structures with demonstrable Holocene displacement, surface rupture potential appears minimal at TA-52.

  15. Developing a Decision Support Tool for Waste to Energy Calculations Using Energy Return on Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    that consume the waste and turn it into methane and carbon dioxide, the internal chemistry of the process described in Figure 2. Figure 2... decision about a WTE facility. Figure 5 is the generalized process model that will assist with further development of a formal economic model for WTE...that our model must meet to be an effective and useful tool from which to glean information for decision - making . B. DEVELOPING SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

  16. Implementing the Contingent Valuation Method for supporting decision making in the waste management sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglias, A; Mirasgedis, S; Tourkolias, C; Georgopoulou, E

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an application of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for valuing the environmental impacts associated with the operation of landfills for residues following waste treatment and depicts how the results of the analysis can be used for decision making in the field of waste management. The survey was conducted in Ikaria, Greece, a medium-sized island in the northern Aegean Sea, with a view to estimate the amount of compensatory benefits that are socially acceptable to be attributed to the hosting community of a new landfill for residues. The results showed that the mean willingness to pay per household to create a fund for financing social and environmental programs in the community that will host the landfill in question was estimated at €6.5-6.7 per 2-month and household taking into account all households of the sample. This estimate is at the same order of magnitude but at the lower band compared to the results of other relevant studies showing that the public in Ikaria is aware for the relatively limited environmental burdens associated with the operation of landfills for residues following an integrated waste management treatment.

  17. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  18. Final Technical Report: Supporting Wind Turbine Research and Testing - Gearbox Durability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Malkin

    2012-04-30

    The combination of premature failure of wind turbine gearboxes and the downtime caused by those failures leads to an increase in the cost of electricity produced by the wind. There is a need for guidance to asset managers regarding how to maximize the longevity of their gearboxes in order to help keep the cost of wind energy as low as possible. A low cost of energy supports the US Department of Energy's goal of achieving 20% of the electricity in the United States produced by wind by the year 2030. DNV KEMA has leveraged our unique position in the industry as an independent third party engineering organization to study the problem of gearbox health management and develop guidance to project operators. This report describes the study. The study was conducted in four tasks. In Task 1, data that may be related to gearbox health and are normally available to wind project operators were collected for analysis. Task 2 took a more in-depth look at a small number of gearboxes to gain insight in to relevant failure modes. Task 3 brought together the previous tasks by evaluating the available data in an effort to identify data that could provide early indications of impending gearbox failure. Last, the observations from the work were collected to develop recommendations regarding gearbox health management.

  19. The Sustainable Use of Water Resources: A Technical Support for Planning. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Torretta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents both the structure and application of a Decision Support System (DSS for an important river in Brazil—along with the sustainable management of its watershed. This DSS assesses both surface-water quality and riverine microhabitats in terms of future scenarios, taking into account regulation limits and appropriate quality indexes. Our future scenarios consider: (a population and climate change trends; (b upgrade of sewage systems and wastewater treatment plants; and (c withdrawal management from rivers and reservoirs. We use some main types of interrelated models, which can simulate different aspects of the responses of a basin, with respect to different modes of use of the water resource. In particular, the surface-water quality models simulate total phosphorus, BOD, dissolved oxygen concentration and thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria pollution. The riverine microhabitat models apply habitat suitability indexes of autochthonous fish species considering water depth, velocity, bottom substrate and dissolved oxygen. Both models are based on hydrologic and hydraulic models results and both were calibrated using discharge and water quality measurements collected over a 1.5-year monitoring period. Our pre- and post-processing are based on common spreadsheets and the output data are spatially analyzed using GIS software. Examples are also shown of how the DSS can contribute to developing a sustainable use of the basin resources, including a reservoir used to supply drinking water to the capital city (Salvador da Bahia.

  20. A two-stage support-vector-regression optimization model for municipal solid waste management - a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C; Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a two-stage support-vector-regression optimization model (TSOM) is developed for the planning of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the urban districts of Beijing, China. It represents a new effort to enhance the analysis accuracy in optimizing the MSW management system through coupling the support-vector-regression (SVR) model with an interval-parameter mixed integer linear programming (IMILP). The developed TSOM can not only predict the city's future waste generation amount, but also reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the MSW management system. Four kernel functions such as linear kernel, polynomial kernel, radial basis function, and multi-layer perception kernel are chosen based on three quantitative simulation performance criteria [i.e. prediction accuracy (PA), fitting accuracy (FA) and over all accuracy (OA)]. The SVR with polynomial kernel has accurate prediction performance for MSW generation rate, with all of the three quantitative simulation performance criteria being over 96%. Two cases are considered based on different waste management policies. The results are valuable for supporting the adjustment of the existing waste-allocation patterns to raise the city's waste diversion rate, as well as the capacity planning of waste management system to satisfy the city's increasing waste treatment/disposal demands.

  1. Human Factors and Technical Considerations for a Computerized Operator Support System Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lew, Roger Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medema, Heather Dawne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A prototype computerized operator support system (COSS) has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment. A COSS demonstration scenario has been developed for the prototype involving the Chemical & Volume Control System (CVCS) of the PWR simulator. It involves a primary coolant leak outside of containment that would require tripping the reactor if not mitigated in a very short timeframe. The COSS prototype presents a series of operator screens that provide the needed information and soft controls to successfully mitigate the event.

  2. Technical support for digital systems technology development. Task order 1: ISP contention analysis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Roy H.; Ogier, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    Alternatives for realizing a packet-based network switch for use on a frequency division multiple access/time division multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) geostationary communication satellite were investigated. Each of the eight downlink beams supports eight directed dwells. The design needed to accommodate multicast packets with very low probability of loss due to contention. Three switch architectures were designed and analyzed. An output-queued, shared bus system yielded a functionally simple system, utilizing a first-in, first-out (FIFO) memory per downlink dwell, but at the expense of a large total memory requirement. A shared memory architecture offered the most efficiency in memory requirements, requiring about half the memory of the shared bus design. The processing requirement for the shared-memory system adds system complexity that may offset the benefits of the smaller memory. An alternative design using a shared memory buffer per downlink beam decreases circuit complexity through a distributed design, and requires at most 1000 packets of memory more than the completely shared memory design. Modifications to the basic packet switch designs were proposed to accommodate circuit-switched traffic, which must be served on a periodic basis with minimal delay. Methods for dynamically controlling the downlink dwell lengths were developed and analyzed. These methods adapt quickly to changing traffic demands, and do not add significant complexity or cost to the satellite and ground station designs. Methods for reducing the memory requirement by not requiring the satellite to store full packets were also proposed and analyzed. In addition, optimal packet and dwell lengths were computed as functions of memory size for the three switch architectures.

  3. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Pad B Catenary Capability Analysis and Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert; Rakov, Vladimir; Kithil, Richard, Jr.; Sargent, Noel B.

    2009-01-01

    The existing lightning protection system at Pad 39B for the Space Shuttle is an outgrowth of a system that was put in place for the Apollo Program. Dr. Frank Fisher of Lightning Technologies was a key participant in the design and implementation of that system. He conveyed to the NESC team that the catenary wire provision was put in place quickly (as assurance against possible vehicle damage causing critical launch delays) rather than being implemented as a comprehensive system designed to provide a high degree of guaranteed protection. Also, the technology of lightning protection has evolved over time with considerable work being conducted by groups such as the electric utilities companies, aircraft manufacturers, universities, and others. Several accepted present-day methods for analysis of lightning protection were used by Drs. Medelius and Mata to study the expected lightning environment for the Pad 39B facility and to analyze the degree of protection against direct lightning attachment to the Space Shuttle. The specific physical configuration directly affects the vulnerability, so cases that were considered included the RSS next to and rolled back from the Space Shuttle, and the GOx Vent Arm both extended and withdrawn from the ET. Elements of the lightning protection system at Pad 39B are shown in Figure 6.0-1 and consist of an 80 foot insulating mast on top of the Fixed Support Structure (FSS), a catenary wire system that runs from the mast in a North/South direction to grounds 1000 feet away on each side of the mast, the RSS which can either be next to or away from the Space Shuttle, and a GOx vent that can either be extended or retracted from the top of the ET.

  4. Decision making technical support study for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.L.; Dobson, J.E.

    1990-08-01

    This report examines the adequacy of current command and control systems designed to make timely decisions that would enable sufficient warning and protective response to an accident at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, and at Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), Arkansas. Institutional procedures designed to facilitate rapid accident assessment, characterization, warning, notification, and response after the onset of an emergency and computer-assisted decision-making aids designed to provide salient information to on- and-off-post emergency responders are examined. The character of emergency decision making at APG and PBA, as well as potential needs for improvements to decision-making practices, procedures, and automated decision-support systems (ADSSs), are described and recommendations are offered to guide equipment acquisition and improve on- and off-post command and control relationships. We recommend that (1) a continued effort be made to integrate on- and off-post command control, and decision-making procedures to permit rapid decision making; (2) the pathways for alert and notification among on- and off-post officials be improved and that responsibilities and chain of command among off-post agencies be clarified; (3) greater attention be given to organizational and social context factors that affect the adequacy of response and the likelihood that decision-making systems will work as intended; and (4) faster improvements be made to on-post ADSSs being developed at APG and PBA, which hold considerable promise for depicting vast amounts of information. Phased development and procurement of computer-assisted decision-making tools should be undertaken to balance immediate needs against available resources and to ensure flexibility, equity among sites, and compatibility among on- and off-post systems. 112 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Technical solutions for individual and non-collective waste water treatment; Soluciones tecnicas al saneamiento individual o no colectivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado Lara, R.

    2008-07-01

    In 1991, the EEC issued a directive on urban waste water treatment (91/271/EEC) regulating and requiring the progressive introduction of sanitary infrastructure. This article describes the different on-site treatment techniques for villages of less than 2,000 inhabitants, with the possibility of soil infiltration or surface disposal where the construction of collectors for collective treatment is not justified due to the wide dispersal of the population. Criteria are set out for choosing among the different systems depending on the type of soil, gradients, phreatic level, etc. and bibliographical references on individual treatments are provided. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. Analysis of space systems study for the space disposal of nuclear waste study report. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Reasonable space systems concepts were systematically identified and defined and a total system was evaluated for the space disposal of nuclear wastes. Areas studied include space destinations, space transportation options, launch site options payload protection approaches, and payload rescue techniques. Systems level cost and performance trades defined four alternative space systems which deliver payloads to the selected 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit destination at least as economically as the reference system without requiring removal of the protective radiation shield container. No concepts significantly less costly than the reference concept were identified.

  7. Digital Media as Support for Technical Vocational Training: Expectations and Research Results of the Use of Web2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schulte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital media as support for Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET learning processes have been increasingly tested in recent times. In Germany, for example, the Ministry for Education and Research and others have been supporting projects that develop and evaluate innovative didactical and technological models focussing on “Virtual Learning”, “Learning with Web2.0” or “Mobile Learning”. Above all in vocational education and with regard to the target group of media-affine young people, teachers have high expectations regarding pedagogical purposes and learning efficiency. The present article describes a project on a learning and communication platform that combines the advantages of digital media with the special feature of a cooperation of learning environments within the German Dual TVET System by making use of innovative pedagogical approaches for the shaping of more sustainable occupational learning. The results show examples of how a different (often quite unexpected use of digital media for vocational learning processes by young people is justified.

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of organic municipal solid waste. Scientific and technical principles; Wissenschaftlich-technische Grundlagen der Hydrothermalen Carbonisierung organischer Siedlungsabfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramke, Hans-Guenter; Bloehse, Dennis [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Hoexter (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft und Deponietechnik; Lehmann, Hans-Joachim

    2012-09-15

    Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) is a process which converts biomass of vegetal origin into a material comparable to brown coal. The HTC process is performed with biomass suspensions in a pressure vessel under temperatures of 180-250 C and just needs some hours. Starting with an overview of the present state of knowledge about HTC reactions the paper presents the results of a research project funded by the DBU (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) which has shown the suitability of the HTC-process for a broad spectrum of organic municipal wastes. In particular wastes and residues of high water content are predestined for conversion via HTC. HTC-Biocoals show a high calorific value and can be energetically utilised accordingly. A basic advantage is seen in the excellent dewatering properties of these biocoals. Reaction temperature, reaction time and process management can determine yield and properties of HTC-Biocoals to a certain degree. Practical implementation of HTC has to consider aspects like utilisation of the exothermic nature of the process, process water treatment and concentration of contaminants in different HTC-product phases.

  9. Updated Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Preliminary Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sahajpal, Rahul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste grout (LSWG) formulation and cementitious waste form qualification tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). New formulations for preparing a cementitious waste form from a high-sulfate liquid secondary waste stream simulant, developed for Effluent Management Facility (EMF) process condensates merged with low activity waste (LAW) caustic scrubber, and the release of key constituents (e.g. 99Tc and 129I) from these monoliths were evaluated. This work supports a technology development program to address the technology needs for Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) liquid secondary waste (LSW) solidification and supports future Direct Feed Low-Activity Waste (DFLAW) operations. High-priority activities included simulant development, LSWG formulation, and waste form qualification. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY17, and for future waste form development efforts. The provided data should be used by (i) cementitious waste form scientists to further understanding of cementitious dissolution behavior, (ii) IDF PA modelers who use quantified constituent leachability, effective diffusivity, and partitioning coefficients to advance PA modeling efforts, and (iii) the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program. The results obtained help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a LSWG waste form, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form performance estimates.

  10. Municipal solid waste to energy plants - the best technical options; Termovalorizzazione dei rifiuti solidi urbani - le scelte tecnologiche ottimali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldasella, P.; Brivio, S.; Carminati, A.; Cavallari, G

    2005-04-01

    After years of stagnation the municipal solid waste to energy plants is reaffirming as a valid disposal solution. The sell of the electric energy produced at an economically rewarding value and the last regulations on flue gas emissions have strongly influenced the technological development. The article proposes a plant scheme considered complete and optimal and in particular illustrates the options that inspired it and the related justifications. [Italian] Dopo anni di stasi la termovalorizzazione dei rifiuti solidi urbani si sta affermando come una valida soluzione di smaltimento. La vendita dell'energia elettrica prodotta ad un valore economicamente remunerativo e le ultime regolamentazioni sulle emissioni gassose hanno fortemente influenzato lo sviluppo tecnologico. L'articolo propone uno schema di impianto di termovalorizzazione ritenuto completo ed ottimale ed in particolare illustra le scelte che lo hanno ispirato e le relative giustificazioni.

  11. Synthesis of Biomass and Utilization of Plant Wastes in a Physical Model of a Biological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Kudenko, Yu A.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gribovksaya, I. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Zolotukkhin, I. G.; Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    Biological life support systems (LSS) with highly closed intrasystem mass ex change mass ex change hold much promise for long-term human life support at planetary stations (Moon, Mars, etc.). The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotroph block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas ex change in such a system consists of respiratory gas ex change of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas ex change dynamics of high plants -SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas ex change and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and age of plants has been established. SLS fertility has been shown to depend on its thickness and phase of maturity. The biogenic elements (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen) in Liebig minimum have been found to include nitrogen which is the first to impair plants' growth in disruption of the process conditions. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances -products of ex change of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover. In multiple recycle of the mat ter (more than 5 cycles) under the irradiance intensity of 150 W/m2 PAR and the SLS mass (dry weight) of 17.7 -19.9 kg/m2 average total harvest of

  12. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.; Hansen, E.; Herman, C.; Marra, S.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-03-06

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project is currently transitioning its emphasis from an engineering design and construction phase toward facility completion, start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements that must be met during the actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program. In general, the waste qualification program involves testing and analysis to demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria, determine waste processability, and demonstrate laboratory-scale unit operations to support WTP operations. The testing and analysis are driven by data quality objectives (DQO) requirements necessary for meeting waste acceptance criteria for transfer of high-level wastes from the tank farms to the WTP, and for ensuring waste processability including proper glass formulations during processing within the WTP complex. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which were based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested subject matter experts (SMEs) from SRNL to support a technology exchange with respect to waste qualification programs in which a critical review of the WTP program could be initiated and lessons learned could be shared. The technology exchange was held on July 18-20, 2011 in Richland, Washington, and was the initial step in a multi-phased approach to support development and implementation of a successful waste qualification program at the WTP. The 3-day workshop was hosted by WTP with representatives from the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and SRNL in attendance as well as representatives from the US DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Site Representative office. The purpose of the

  13. LHCb support team - technical

    CERN Multimedia

    Rademakers, F

    2009-01-01

    Pictures 1-4: Cédric Fournier Pictures 5-7: Patrick Vallet Pictures 8-11: Franck Lamour, Patrick Vallet, Bernard Chadaj, Gérard Decreuse, Cédric Fournier and Bernard Corajod Pictures 12-15: Franck Lamour Pictures 16-18: Bernard Chadaj Pictures 19-22: Bernard Corajod and Gérard Decreuse

  14. Technical Support Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-02

    Office of Emergency Preparedness Department of Veterans Affairs Department of Interior US Bureau of Reclamation Other Intelligence Comunity ...Technician Course < WMD Virtual University Deliver accredited WMD response training via satellite and terrestrial distance learning networks to DOD, other...Distributed Learning Network (ADLNET) Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) standards. WMD-PIE Version 1.0 in final production. Initial

  15. Drawing together the knowledge of forestry and pastoralism experts in the construction of a technical support tool for silvopastoralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubron, Claire; Guérin, Gérard; Gallion, Bruno; Moulin, Charles-Henri

    2013-03-15

    A growing body of literature documents emphasizes the value of the hybridisation of different types of knowledge for environmental management. This is particularly true for silvopastoralism: although silvopastoralism appears to be a relevant way to manage large forests areas in the northern Mediterranean region, knowledge pertaining to silvopastoralism is distributed between foresters and pastoralists, with a lack of shared knowledge making joint action difficult. The consensus about the need of knowledge hybridisation, however, is not enough to make it happen and a whole field of research investigates the methods which can be used to create shared knowledge. This paper studies one of these methods - the participation of experts in modelling - used in a French research development program to design a technical support tool for silvopastoralism. After having described the modelling process conducted by forestry and pastoralists experts, it presents the conceptual silvopastoralism model they produced and analyses the shared knowledge - especially intermediary concepts and expert typologies - it contains. The paper finally outlines the conditions needed for the participation of experts in modelling to create shared knowledge, its limitations in generating quantitative expertise and discusses how the knowledge created can be shared with a wider audience.

  16. Technical basis for radiological release of Grand Junction Office Building 2. Volume 2, dose assessment supporting data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The second volume of the Grand Junction Office Action Program Technical Basis for Radiological Release of Grand Junction Office Building 2 report includes the data quality objectives (DQO), sampling plan, collected data, and analysis used to model future radiation doses to members of the public occupying Building 2 on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) site. This volume was assembled by extracting relevant components of the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project Building 2 Public Dose Evaluation (DOE 1996) and inserting recent additional data that was gathered and dose pathway modeling that was performed. The intent of this document is to provide all derived guidance decisions, assumptions, measured data, testing results, and pathway modeling software input and output data that supports the discussion and determinations presented in Volume 1 of this report. For constructive employment of this document, the reader is encouraged to closely follow Volume 1 for proper association with the segment of information being examined.

  17. Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The three tasks conducted in this research project were related to understanding the geochemistry and mineralogy of the co-disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, pyrite, other heavy minerals and rock fragments are separated from the coal and discharged in an aqueous slurry to an impoundment. After dewatering and closure of the impoundment, the pyrite can oxidize and produce acid that can migrate into the underlying groundwater system. The addition of FBC residue to the CSS will buffer the pore water pH to approximately 7.8. In Task 1, soluble components and acid-base react ion products from mixtures of FBC waste and CSS were extracted for 3 to 180 days in aqueous batch experiments. The results of these extractions showed that, eventually, the extracts would attain a pH between 7 and 8. That pH range is characteristic of an aqueous system in equilibrium with calcite, gypsum, and atmospheric carbon dioxide. After 180 days, the mean calcium concentration in all of the extracts was 566{+-}18 mg/L and sulfate concentrations averaged 2420{+-}70 mg/L. In Task 2, three extracts from CSS/FBC residue mixtures were prepared for use in experiments to determine the adsorption/desorption reactions that occur between solutes in the extracts and two common Illinois soils. Time constraints allowed the use of only two of the extracts for adsorption studies. The concentrations of most solutes were not significantly lowered by adsorption at the pH of the extract-soil suspension, nor over a wide range of pH. The results suggest that the type of solutes that were released by the CSS/FBC residue mixture would not be attenuated by adsorption. In a modified Task 3, the literature on the kinetics of pyrite oxidation in near-neutral to alkaline pH was reviewed in preparation for future development of a computer model of pyrite oxidation in CSS/FBC residue codisposal.

  18. Optimization of technical parameters for making mulch from waste cotton and rice straw fiber%废旧棉与水稻秸秆纤维混合地膜制造工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海涛; 明向兰; 刘爽; 张颖; 张鸿超

    2015-01-01

    The technology of plastic mulching was widely used, but its use depended on petroleum resources, which caused white pollution; straw was a rich resource in quantity, but large amount of waste straw was burned in the field, which caused the waste of resource and the environmental pollution at the same time. To solve the pollution of plastic film, plant fiber mulching has been developed, which was biodegradable mulching. There was lots of methyl cellulose in the biogas residue produced by anaerobic fermentation using ruminant feces. Crop residues, most often treated as waste material, could be used as raw material to produce biodegradable plastic membrane, and one technique may solve the white pollution brought by plastic mulching and the plant residue pollution. Waste cotton fiber came from human production and life with low price, so there was an urgent need to its re-utilization. Abandoned textiles were mostly disposed as garbage, and the recycle was very little, which resulted in serious waste of resource and environmental pollution. In abandoned textiles, cotton textiles were mostly confined, for cotton fiber was cut or broken, and through the re-processing, some low additional value products were produced, which hindered the establishment of the industrial chain of the waste textile recycling. In order to improve the utilization rate of waste cotton fabrics and crop straw, and provide technical support for making the biodegradable biogas residue fiber mulch, the processing and property of hybrid film produced by waste cotton and rice straw fiber were studied.The “skeleton” was waste cotton fiber, and filling material was rice straw fiber, with adding the additive that was environmental friendly. The method of four-factor and five-level quadratic regression orthogonal rotation center combination was applied. Beating degree, adding ratio, basis weight and wet strength agent were taken as influencing factors; dry tension strength and elongation, wet tension

  19. The evolution of the Italian EPR system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Technical and economic performance in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Marinella; Veit, Raphael; Massarutto, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the Italian collective system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), and its evolution over time, following the European Directives on WEEE, which include the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The analysis focuses on the technical and economic performance of WEEE compliance organisations (consortia), as they are the key players in the Italian EPR regime. Economic results have not usually been provided in previous studies, due to the lack of available data. This study overcomes this problem by accessing the financial statements for the years 2009-2014 of all consortia. The main conclusions of the study are: The Italian EPR system barely exceeded the technical target of the first WEEE Directive (4kg per capita). Improvements are necessary to achieve the target set for 2019 by the Recast Directive. The economic performance of the Italian EPR regime improved significantly over time. The fees charged per tonne of WEEE collected decreased by almost 43% from 652 Euro per tonne in 2009 to 374 Euro per tonne in 2014, while the fees per tonne put on the market (POM) were 134 Euro in 2009 and 104 Euro in 2014. The results prove the theory which states that, competing consortia use the learning effects to reduce the contribution fees for producers rather than to increase the quantity collected. Municipalities remain the most important actor in WEEE collection operations. Consortia compensate municipalities with a reimbursement that ranges between 28 and 38 Euros per tonne collected. These repayments cover only partially their costs. Additional studies should investigate their role.

  20. Technical assessment of processing plants as exemplified by the sorting of beverage cartons from lightweight packaging wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, A; Thoden van Velzen, E U; Jansen, M; Vitz, P; Go, N; Pretz, T

    2016-02-01

    The recovery of beverage cartons (BC) in three lightweight packaging waste processing plants (LP) was analyzed with different input materials and input masses in the area of 21-50Mg. The data was generated by gravimetric determination of the sorting products, sampling and sorting analysis. Since the particle size of beverage cartons is larger than 120mm, a modified sampling plan was implemented and targeted multiple sampling (3-11 individual samplings) and a total sample size of respectively 1200l (ca. 60kg) for the BC-products and of about 2400l (ca. 120kg) for material-heterogeneous mixed plastics (MP) and sorting residue products. The results infer that the quantification of the beverage carton yield in the process, i.e., by including all product-containing material streams, can be specified only with considerable fluctuation ranges. Consequently, the total assessment, regarding all product streams, is rather qualitative than quantitative. Irregular operation conditions as well as unfavorable sampling conditions and capacity overloads are likely causes for high confidence intervals. From the results of the current study, recommendations can basically be derived for a better sampling in LP-processing plants. Despite of the suboptimal statistical results, the results indicate very clear that the plants show definite optimisation potentials with regard to the yield of beverage cartons as well as the required product purity. Due to the test character of the sorting trials the plant parameterization was not ideal for this sorting task and consequently the results should be interpreted with care.

  1. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L(-1) for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  2. Decision support system for the optimal location of electrical and electronic waste treatment plants: a case study in greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Moussiopoulos, Nu; Banias, G

    2010-05-01

    Environmentally sound end-of-life management of Electrical and Electronic Equipment has been realised as a top priority issue internationally, both due to the waste stream's continuously increasing quantities, as well as its content in valuable and also hazardous materials. In an effort to manage Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), adequate infrastructure in treatment and recycling facilities is considered a prerequisite. A critical number of such plants are mandatory to be installed in order: (i) to accommodate legislative needs, (ii) decrease transportation cost, and (iii) expand reverse logistics network and cover more areas. However, WEEE recycling infrastructures require high expenditures and therefore the decision maker need to be most precautious. In this context, special care should be given on the viability of infrastructure which is heavily dependent on facilities' location. To this end, a methodology aiming towards optimal location of Units of Treatment and Recycling is developed, taking into consideration economical together with social criteria, in an effort to interlace local acceptance and financial viability. For the decision support system's needs, ELECTRE III is adopted as a multicriteria analysis technique. The methodology's applicability is demonstrated with a real-world case study in Greece.

  3. Nuclear safety assessment of nuclear power plants and nuclear risk in Eastern Europe and other regions. Scientific-technical cooperation with nuclear regulatory authorities and technical support organizations (TSOs); Einschaetzung der nuklearen Sicherheit von Kernkraftwerken sowie nuklearer Risiken in Osteuropa und anderen Regionen. Wissenschaftlich-technische Zusammenarbeit mit atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen (TSO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2014-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS project 3611I01512 formed the frame of the GRS for the scientifictechnical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety of NPPs and for the evaluation of nuclear risks in Eastern Europe and other regions for the period from September 2011 till June 2014. In the present final report main results of the project are described. The project comprised the following technical topics: - Record status of NPP modernisation programs, Monitoring and evaluation of modernisation programs; - Design basis and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000); - Cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3+ and on building NRA and safety evaluation capacities; - Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste; - Evaluation of new reactor concepts and their safety design; Panels at regulatory level. The work results are preceded by a summary on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  4. Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W. [ed.

    1995-03-14

    This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical wastes by alginate supported TiO2 nanoparticles in packed bed photo reactor (PBPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Santanu; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2015-11-01

    In recent years deposal of pharmaceutical wastes has become a major problem globally. Therefore, it is necessary to removes pharmaceutical waste from the municipal as well as industrial effluents before its discharge. The convectional wastewater and biological treatments are generally failed to separate different drugs from wastewater streams. Thus, heterogeneous photocatalysis process becomes lucrative method for reduction of detrimental effects of pharmaceutical compounds. The main disadvantage of the process is the reuse or recycle of photocatalysis is a tedious job. In this work, the degradation of aqueous solution of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHD), an antibiotic drug, by heterogeneous photocatalysis was study using supported TiO2 nanoparticle. The major concern of this study is to bring down the limitations of suspension mode heterogeneous photocatalysis by implementation of immobilized TiO2 with help of calcium alginate beads. The alginate supported catalyst beads was characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDAX) as well as the characteristic crystalline forms of TiO2 nanoparticle was confirmed by XRD. The degradation efficiency of TiO2 impregnated alginate beads (TIAB) was compared with the performance of free TiO2 suspension. Although, the degradation efficiency was reduced considerably using TIAB but the recycle and reuse of catalyst was increased quite appreciably. The kinetic parameters related to this work have also been measure. Moreover, to study the susceptibility of the present system photocatalysis of other three drugs ibuprofen (IBP), atenolol (ATL) and carbamazepine (CBZ) has been carried out using immobilized TiO2. The continuous mode operation in PBPR has ensured the applicability of alginate beads along with TiO2 in wastewater treatment. The variation of residence time has significant impact on the performance of PBPR.

  6. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 2. Engineering technology for geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the deep geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, part 2 of the progress report, concerns engineering aspect with reference to Japanese geological disposal plan, according to which the vitrified HLW will be disposed of into a deep, stable rock mass with thick containers and surrounding buffer materials at the depth of several hundred meters. It discusses on multi-barrier systems consisting of a series of engineered and natural barriers that will isolate radioactive nuclides effectively and retard their migrations to the biosphere environment. Performance of repository components, including specifications of containers for vitrified HLW and their overpacks under design as well as buffer material such as Japanese bentonite to be placed in between are described referring also to such possible problems as corrosion arising from the supposed system. It also presents plans and designs for underground disposal facilities, and the presumed management of the underground facilities. (Ohno, S.)

  7. Ecological Data in Support of the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement. Part 2: Results of Spring 2007 Field Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-05-31

    This review provides an evaluation of potential impacts of actions that have been proposed under various alternatives to support the closure of the high level waste tanks on the Hanford Site. This review provides a summary of data collected in the field during the spring of 2007 at all of the proposed project sites within 200 East and 200 West Areas, and at sites not previously surveyed. The primary purpose of this review is to provide biological data that can be incorporated into or used to support the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement.

  8. Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-26

    The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to

  9. Review Of Rheology Models For Hanford Waste Blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-26

    The area of rheological property prediction was identified as a technology need in the Hanford Tank Waste - waste feed acceptance initiative area during a series of technical meetings among the national laboratories, Department of Energy-Office of River Protection, and Hanford site contractors. Meacham et al. delivered a technical report in June 2012, RPP-RPT-51652 ''One System Evaluation of Waste Transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant'' that included estimating of single shell tank waste Bingham plastic rheological model constants along with a discussion of the issues inherent in predicting the rheological properties of blended wastes. This report was selected as the basis for moving forward during the technical meetings. The report does not provide an equation for predicting rheological properties of blended waste slurries. The attached technical report gives an independent review of the provided Hanford rheological data, Hanford rheological models for single tank wastes, and Hanford rheology after blending provided in the Meacham report. The attached report also compares Hanford to SRS waste rheology and discusses some SRS rheological model equations for single tank wastes, as well as discussing SRS experience with the blending of waste sludges with aqueous material, other waste sludges, and frit slurries. Some observations of note: Savannah River Site (SRS) waste samples from slurried tanks typically have yield stress >1 Pa at 10 wt.% undissolved solids (UDS), while core samples largely have little or no yield stress at 10 wt.% UDS. This could be due to how the waste has been processed, stored, retrieved, and sampled or simply in the differences in the speciation of the wastes. The equations described in Meacham's report are not recommended for extrapolation to wt.% UDS beyond the available data for several reasons; weak technical basis, insufficient data, and large data scatter. When limited data are available, for example two to

  10. Decision support tool for spatial planning and decision making; Technical support. Consultant report on the joint project mission held in SE Asia from 13th to 24th April 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.; Gerber, P.

    2007-01-01

    Together with delegations of the World Bank and FAO, who carried out a project supervision mission, the consultant Gerrit Carsjens and FAO-LEAD officer Pierre Gerber carried out a technical support mission to Vietnam, Thailand and Guangdong from April 13 to 24 2007. In each country the mission

  11. Decision support tool for spatial planning and decision making; Technical support. Consultant report on the joint project mission held in SE Asia from 13th to 24th April 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.; Gerber, P.

    2007-01-01

    Together with delegations of the World Bank and FAO, who carried out a project supervision mission, the consultant Gerrit Carsjens and FAO-LEAD officer Pierre Gerber carried out a technical support mission to Vietnam, Thailand and Guangdong from April 13 to 24 2007. In each country the mission compr

  12. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWEFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070 - Document number changed to HNF-0918 at revision 1 - 1/7/97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-10-03

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed at Hanford`s Solid Waste (SW) Program from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the SW Program; program- level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and Li comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. The focus of this web site is on low- level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this site is reporting data current as of 9/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program`s life cycle.

  13. Carbon nanotubes: A promising catalyst support material for supercritical water gasification of biomass waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, de D.J.M.; Thakur, D.B.; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical water (SCW) as a reaction medium is especially promising for the production of renewable chemicals from biomass. Stability issues of catalyst support materials in SCW are a major setback for these reactions and hinder the further development and industrial exploitation of this techniqu

  14. Hanford Tank 241-C-103 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2008-01-15

    This report tabulates data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of three samples collected from tank C-103. The data presented here will form the basis for a release model that will be developed for tank C-103. These release models are being developed to support the tank risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. for DOE.

  15. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-20

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996.

  16. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 2 October 1995--31 March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-20

    The technical progress achieved during the period 2 October 1995 through 31 March 1996 on Contract No. DE-AC03-91SF18852, Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. This report is organized by the program task structure as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contract acquired government-owned property (CAGO) acquisition; and program calendars.

  17. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-04-19

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  18. FY 2016 Grant Announcement: FY 2016 Technical Analysis and Programmatic Evaluation Support to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office is announcing a Request for Proposals for applicants to provide the Chesapeake Bay Program partners with a proposal(s) for providing technical analysis and programmatic evaluation

  19. Working towards a zero waste environment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chea-Yuan; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh

    2010-03-01

    It is essential to the achievement of zero waste that emphasis is concentrated on front-end preventions rather than end-of-pipe (EOP) treatment. Zero waste is primarily based on cleaner production, waste management, the reduction of unnecessary consumption and the effective utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study was to briefly review the tasks undertaken and future plans for achieving zero waste in Taiwan. Waste prevention, source reduction, waste to product, waste to energy, EOP treatment, and adequate disposal are the sequential principal procedures to achieve the goal of zero waste. Six strategies have been adopted to implement the zero waste policy in Taiwan. These are regulatory amendments, consumption education, financial incentives, technical support, public awareness, and tracking and reporting. Stepwise targets have been set for 2005, 2007, 2011, and 2020 for both the municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial waste to reach the goal of zero waste. The eventual aim is to achieve 70% MSW minimization and 85% industrial waste minimization by 2020. Although tools and measures have been established, some key programmes have higher priority. These include the establishment of a waste recycling programme, promotion of cleaner production, a green procurement programme, and promotion of public awareness. Since the implementation of the zero waste policy started in 2003, the volume of MSW for landfill and incineration has declined dramatically. The recycling and/or minimization of MSW quantity in 2007 was 37%, which is much higher than the goal of 25%. Industrial waste reached almost 76% minimization by the end of 2006, which is 1 year before the target year.

  20. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of organic, wet wastes for carbon cycling in regenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Lasseur, Christophe; Rebeyre, Pierre; Clauwaert, Peter; Luther, Amanda; Rabaey, Korneel; Zhang, Dong Dong; López Barreiro, Diego; Prins, Wolter; Brilman, Wim

    2016-07-01

    For long-term human spaceflight missions, one of the major requirements is the regenerative life support system which has to be capable of recycling carbon, nutrients and water from both solid and liquid wastes generated by the crew and by the local production of food through living organisms (higher plants, fungi, algae, bacteria, …). The European Space Agency's Life Support System, envisioned by the MELiSSA project, consists of a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem, in which the waste receiving compartment (so-called compartment I or briefly 'CI') is based on thermophilic fermentation. However, as the waste generated by the crew compartment and food production compartment contain typical plant fibres (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose), these recalcitrant fibres end up largely unaffected in the digestate (sludge) generated in the C-I compartment. Therefore, the C-I compartment has to be supplemented with a so-called fibre degradation unit (in short, FDU) for further oxidation or degradation of said plant fibres. A potential solution to degrading these plant fibres and other recalcitrant organics is their oxidation, by means of subcritical or supercritical water, into reusable CO2 while retaining the nutrients in an organic-free liquid effluent. By taking advantage of the altered physicochemical properties of water above or near its critical point (647 K, 22.1 MPa) - including increased solubility of non-polar compounds and oxygen, ion product and diffusivity - process conditions can be created for rapid oxidation of C into CO2. In this research, the oxidizer is provided as a hydrogen peroxide solution which, at elevated temperature, will dissociated into O2. The purpose of this study is to identify ideal process conditions which (a) ensure complete oxidation of carbon, (b) retaining the nutrients other than C in the liquid effluent and (c) require as little oxidizer as possible. Experiments were conducted on a continuous, tubular heated reactor and on batch

  1. E-Waste Supply Chain in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha E. Cruz-Sotelo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste is a widespread environmental problem. From all waste streams, e-waste is registering one of the largest growing rates (between 3% and 5%. In Mexico, the e-waste recovery system comprises a mix of formal and informal sectors not well known to date. The goal of this article was to analyze electronic waste in Mexico through the active actors in the recovery chain. This article presents the evolution of studies on electronic waste in Mexico. The legal regulations and public policies were analyzed, as were the existing practices of electronic waste handling, and some challenges facing this country for waste flow management. A management model is proposed which highlights components that must be considered in the model and the opportunities and challenges to transition from an unbundled handling, which still has practices that lack environmental and technical support, to sustainable management.

  2. Recent advancements in supporting materials for immobilised photocatalytic applications in waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, B; Goutham, R; Badri Narayan, R; Ramprasath, A; Gopinath, K P; Sankaranarayanan, A R

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review on the usage of different anchoring media (supports) for immobilising commonly employed photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants. The immobilisation of nano-sized photocatalysts can eliminate costly and impractical post-treatment recovery of spent photocatalysts in largescale operations. Some commonly employed immobilisation aids such as glass, carbonaceous substances, zeolites, clay and ceramics, polymers, cellulosic materials and metallic agents that have been previously discussed by various research groups have been reviewed. The study revealed that factors such as high durability, ease of availability, low density, chemical inertness and mechanical stability are primary factors responsible for the selection of suitable supports for catalysts. Common techniques for immobilisation namely, dip coating, cold plasma discharge, polymer assisted hydrothermal decomposition, RF magnetron sputtering, photoetching, solvent casting, electrophoretic deposition and spray pyrolysis have been discussed in detail. Finally, some common techniques adopted for the characterisation of the catalyst particles and their uses are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-02

    There are 177 waste storage tanks containing over 210,000 m{sup 3} (55 million gal) of mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The River Protection Project (RPP) has adopted the data quality objective (DQO) process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (EPA 1994a) and implemented by RPP internal procedure (Banning 1999a) to identify the information and data needed to address safety issues. This DQO document is based on several documents that provide the technical basis for inputs and decision/action levels used to develop the decision rules that evaluate the transfer of wastes. A number of these documents are presently in the process of being revised. This document will need to be revised if there are changes to the technical criteria in these supporting documents. This DQO process supports various documents, such as sampling and analysis plans and double-shell tank (DST) waste analysis plans. This document identifies the type, quality, and quantity of data needed to determine whether transfer of supernatant can be performed safely. The requirements in this document are designed to prevent the mixing of incompatible waste as defined in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040. Waste transfers which meet the requirements contained in this document and the Double-Shell Tank Waste Analysis Plan (Mulkey 1998) are considered to be compatible, and prevent the mixing of incompatible waste.

  4. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  5. Fact Sheet: Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet was designed to be used by technical staff responsible for identifying and implementing flow and transport models to support cleanup decisions at hazardous and radioactive waste sites.

  6. Guidelines for Local Governments on Solid Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Counties, Washington, DC. Research Foundation.

    This document consists of ten guides on Solid Waste Management to assist local elected and appointed policy-making officials. They are entitled: Areawide Approaches; Legal Authority, Planning, Organization Design and Operation, Financing, Technical and Financial Assistance, Citizen Support, Personnel, and Action Plan and Bibliography. The guides…

  7. Modeling and Field Test Planning Activities in Support of Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-09-26

    The modeling efforts in support of the field test planning conducted at LBNL leverage on recent developments of tools for modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. These are modeling capabilities that will be suitable for assisting in the design of field experiment, especially related to multiphase flow processes coupled with mechanical deformations, at high temperature. In this report, we first examine previous generic repository modeling results, focusing on the first 20 years to investigate the expected evolution of the different processes that could be monitored in a full-scale heater experiment, and then present new results from ongoing modeling of the Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement (TSDE) experiment, a heater experiment on the in-drift emplacement concept at the Asse Mine, Germany, and provide an update on the ongoing model developments for modeling brine migration. LBNL also supported field test planning activities via contributions to and technical review of framework documents and test plans, as well as participation in workshops associated with field test planning.

  8. Technical support and preparations for the response to radiological emergencies; Soporte tecnico y preparativos para la respuesta a emergencias radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas H, J.; Ramos V, E.O.; Fernandez G, I.M.; Capote F, E.; Zerquera J, T.; Garcia L, O.; Lopez B, G.; Molina P, D.; Lamdrid B, A.I.; Benitez N, J.C.; Salgado M, M. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113, e/41 y 47 Playa, CP 11300, La Habana (Cuba); Lopez F, Y.; Jerez V, P. [CNSN, Calle 28 e/5ta y 7ta, Playa, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: cardenas@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The work picks up the efforts directed to elevate the technical capacity of the answer in front of the radiological emergencies. Expressing them by means of the actions carried out as for teaching, research and development and intervention before accidental radiological events. The same one reflects the leading role of the participant institutions in those marks of the answer system to radiological emergencies that for its technical level it satisfies the national and international demands in the matter. In execution of the mentioned goals research projects guided to endow to the national system of methodologies and procedures for the administration of radiological emergencies have been executed that favor the improvement of its technical and organizational capacities. As well as the postulates of the National Plan of Measures for Case of Catastrophes in the corresponding to radiological accidents. (Author)

  9. Mathematical Analysis of a Novel Approach to Maximize Waste Recovery in a Life Support System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-02-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for waster recovery in a life support system. The first is a model INL co-electrolysis process combined with a methanol production process. The second is the INL co-electrolysis process combined with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than the PSA because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  10. THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL APPROACH TO MAXIMIZE WASTE RECOVERY IN A LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-11-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures that include carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam (H2O) co-electrolysis process is one of the reduction options that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for energy storage and resource recovery in a life support system. In the first model, products from the INL co-electrolysis process are combined to produce methanol fuel. In the second co-electrolysis, products are separated with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. In both models the fuels are burned with added oxygen to produce H2O and CO2, the original reactants. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than pressure swing adsorption, PSA, because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  11. The Electronic Delivery of Automated Technical Information for Logistics Support of Navy Weapon Systems: Potential, System Description and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Charles S. Sawyer. Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results. DTRC-88-035, September 1988...L. LeBeau; Anne S. Mavor; Theodore J. Post; and Charles S. Sawyer. Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentpl ier System (NTIPS...Karpovich 1 EER Systems 1 NPFC-100 H. Bukowski LCDR F. Harmer 2 EG&G 1 NOSC WASC L. Snodgrass R. Smillie WASCI R. Beckham 1 NOS Indianhead 4 Essex Corp. G

  12. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  13. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  14. Using a training-of-trainers approach and proactive technical assistance to bring evidence based programs to scale: an operationalization of the interactive systems framework's support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Marilyn L; Wilson, Mary Martha; Wandersman, Abraham; Meyers, Duncan C; Katz, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Bringing evidence based programs to scale was a major initial impetus for the development of the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF). The ISF demonstrates the importance of the Support System in facilitating the uptake of innovations in the community (the Delivery System). Two strategies that members of the Support System commonly use are training-of-trainers (TOT) models and technical assistance (TA). In this article, we focus on the role of the Support System in bringing evidence-based programs (EBPs) to scale in the Delivery System using a case example, with special attention on two strategies employed by Support Systems-training-of-trainers (TOT) and proactive technical assistance. We then report on findings from a case example from the Promoting Science Based Approaches to Teen Pregnancy Prevention project that furthers our conceptualization of these strategies and the evidence base for them. We also report on the limitations in the literature regarding research on TOTs and proactive TA and provide suggestions for future research on TOTs and proactive TA that will enhance the science and practice of support in the ISF.

  15. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Kinetic behaviour of waste tyre rubber as microorganism support in an anaerobic digester treating cane molasses distillery slops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja, R. [Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.), Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Departamento de Estudios sobre Contaminacion Ambiental (DECA-CNIC), La Habana (Cuba); Martin, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Cordoba (Portugal); Jimenez, A.M. [Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.), Sevilla (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic digestion of cane molasses distillery slops was investigated using a continuous-flow bioreactor which contained waste tyre rubber as support, to which the microorganisms became immobilized. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 1 to 10 days were investigated at an average influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 47.7 g/l. The maximum substrate utilization rate, k, and half saturation coefficient, K{sub L}, were determined to be 1.82 kg COD{sub removed}/kg VSS day and 0.33 kg COD/kg VSS day. The yield coefficient, Y, and sludge decay rate coefficient, K{sub d}, were also determined to be 0.06 kg VSS/kg COD{sub removed} and 0.05 day{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production was maximum (6.75 l/l day) at a 2 day HRT corresponding to a biomass loading rate of 2.578 kg COD/kg VSS day. Biogas yield ranged between 0.51 l/g COD (HRT=2 days) and 0.25 l/g COD (HRT=1 day). In addition, the methane percentage in the biogas varied between 70.5% (HRT=10 days) and 47.5% (HRT=1 day). The close relationship between biomass loading rate and specific substrate utilization rate supported the use of Monod equations. Finally, the experimental values of effluent substrate concentration were reproduced with deviations equal to or less than 10% in every case. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-14

    This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste.

  19. A Latent Class Model to discover Household Food Waste Patterns in Lisbon City in Support of Food Security, Public Health and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R.S. Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In the middle of a great world financial crisis that also affects food security, it is important to characterize the habits of households concerning the buying and wasting food. With this study we intend (1 to uncover the patterns of Portuguese citizens concerning food waste by using a mixed research approach and (2 to identify demographic factors that can influence the production of food waste and that may support initiatives towards the education of society on food waste. We used a random sample of 542 Portuguese citizens to identify consumer profiles and 18 in-depth interviews for better understanding the uncovered profiles in a mixed method research approach. Through a two-latent class model two clusters of consumers were identified: cluster 1, the Non food waste citizens with 65% of respondents, mainly 24 years or more, female and married or divorced and cluster 2, the Food waste citizens  with 35% of respondents, mainly up to 23 years old, male and single. Our findings may impact in two distinct ways: they may be used to educate Portuguese citizens concerning the issue of food waste and they may be useful in contributing to a less polluted world. Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  20. Devising a consensus definition and framework for non-technical skills in healthcare to support educational design: A modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Baker, Paul; Catchpole, Ken; Darbyshire, Daniel; Schocken, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Non-technical skills are a subset of human factors that focus on the individual and promote safety through teamwork and awareness. There is no widely adopted competency- or outcome-based framework for non-technical skills training in healthcare. The authors set out to devise such a framework using a modified Delphi approach. An exhaustive list of published and team suggested items was presented to the expert panel for ranking and to propose a definition. In the second round, a focused list was presented, as well as the proposed definition elements. The finalised framework was sent to the panel for review. Sixteen experts participated. The final framework consists of 16 competencies for all and eight specific competencies for team leaders. The consensus definition describes non-technical skills as "a set of social (communication and team work) and cognitive (analytical and personal behaviour) skills that support high quality, safe, effective and efficient inter-professional care within the complex healthcare system". The authors have produced a new competency framework, through the works of an International expert panel, which is not discipline specific that can be used by curriculum developers, educational innovators and clinical teachers to support developments in the field.