WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste products foerbraenning

  1. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products; Foerbraenning av flytande animaliska/vegetabiliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  2. Combustion of Waste Wood. Second phase of the collaboration project on waste wood combustion; Foerbraenning av returtraeflis. Etapp 2 av ramprojekt returtraeflis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Annika; Andersson, Christer; Eriksson, Jan; Hemstroem, Bengt; Jungstedt, Jenny; Kling, Aasa [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Bahr, Bo von; Ekvall, Annika; Eskilsson, David; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Harnevie, Henrik; Sieurin, Jan [SwedPower AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Keihaes, Juha; Mueller, Christian [Aabo Akademi (Finland); Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Combustion of waste wood has during the last decade increased dramatically and this has resulted in a number of Swedish plants using this fuel, e.g. Handeloe P11 (Norrkoeping) and ldbaecken P3 (Nykoeping), and yet other plants that are under construction (e.g. Nynaeshamn). The experience from these plants are that waste wood combustion results in a number of operational problems. To some extent these problems are different compared with the problems related to combustion of other biofuels but the situation is not directly comparable to waste incinerators. The problems are mainly related to slagging and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces and accelerated corrosion at relatively low temperature compared to the situation for ordinary biofuels. In some cases an increase in the emissions of specific substances can also result in difficulties to fulfil the EC-directive on waste combustion. Within previous projects the main problems related to combustion of waste wood have been identified and to some extent the cause of these problems has been clarified. One result of this reported investigation is a deeper understanding of the actual causes of these problems. However, the most important result is a number of recommendations for different measures on how to achieve disturbance-free combustion of waste wood. These recommendations actually summarises the most important possible solutions on how to achieve a disturbance-free operation and a lower maintenance cost for boilers combusting waste wood and can thereby be regarded as a short summery of the whole project: 1) Improving fuel quality by Improved sorting at the source and Sieving of the fuel -> Reducing the amount of metals and chlorine and Separation of fines and thereby reducing the amount of metals. 2) Combustion modifications by Avoiding reducing conditions at the heat exchanger surfaces -> Minimising slagging, fouling and corrosion. 3) Additives or co-combustion by Addition of sulphur with the fuel; Injection of

  3. Measurements of emissions during waste wood combustion to identify refurbishment needs; Maetning av emissioner vid foerbraenning av RT-flis foer att identifiera eventuella ombyggnadsaatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The background to this project is the new EU directive 2000/76/EG regarding incineration of waste. This directive may have an effect on emission limits for Swedish plants firing waste wood. It may lead to needs of refurbishment in e.g. the area of flue gas cleaning equipment. In order to produce a basis to evaluate the need for such upgrading, measurement of metals, HCI, SO{sub 2} , CO, TOC and dioxin have been carried out on three plants firing wood waste: a grate boiler (Handeloeverket P11), one circulating fluid bed boiler (Aaterbruket in Lomma), and a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (Johannes in Gaevle, firing 50% waste wood). The measurements have mainly been carried out after boiler, equivalent to upstream flue gas cleaning. The results are that the demands of the EU directive on most points can be managed with existing equipment if this consists of electrostatic precipitator or bag filter with good performance and flue gas condensor. Without flue gas condensor, there is a need for other measures for 1-10 and for grate boilers, SO{sub 2} as well. The requirements in the directive for TOC is weaker than the demand on CO, and correspondingly, the demand on CO is driving. The level of dioxin from the boiler (upstream filter) exceeds allowed emission, and is in the range of 0,1-2 ng TE/Nm{sup 3} tg, 6 % O{sub 2} . Existing equipment will meet the emission limit for the lower levels (0,1-0,3) , but not safely for the higher levels (1,5-2). Correspondingly, there may be a need for equipment upgrading, e.g. in the form of activated carbon injection upstream flue gas filter.

  4. Combustion of a fuel mix containing animal waste, industry and household waste in FB-boilers; Foerbraenning av en braenslemix bestaaende av animaliskt avfall, industri- och hushaallsavfall i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Moradian, Farzad

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this project is to evaluate how the operation conditions and the combustion chemistry is changed in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler when adding approx. 20 wt-% Biomal into the fuel mixture. The following issues were addressed in the project: 1. How does the new chemical composition of the fuel mix influence bed agglomeration, deposit growth, ash flows, flue gases and particle size distribution? 2. Is it possible to run the boiler at a reduced bed temperature of about 750 deg C due to the increased moisture content originating from the biomal fuel? The project is based on combustion tests in the two Waste to Energy boilers at 20 MWth each owned by Boraas Energy and Environment AB (BEM). Furthermore, results from the Waste Refinery Project 'Reduced bed temperature in FB-boilers burning waste - part II' has been used as reference in some cases. At normal conditions the boilers are run on a fuel mixture containing 80 % sorted industrial waste and 20 % household waste. This fuel mixture consists mainly of paper, plastics and wood. In Boraas the organic part of the household waste is sorted out and used for biogas production. With the addition of biomal, which consists of animal by-products crushed to a pumpable fuel, the chemical composition of the fuel mixture is changed to some extent. The results from the combustion tests shows that biomal influences the chemical fuel composition, but also that there are large variations in the ordinary waste fuel composition as well. The most evident changes with addition of biomal are: 1. Increased moisture. 2. Reduced heat value. 3. Increased amount nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. 4. Decreased amount lead due to the low concentration in biomal. However, there were no changes in sodium, potassium, sulphur and chlorine, elements important for increased/reduced fuel related problems, derived from biomal. The increase of calcium and phosphorus with biomal derive from bone and the calcium

  5. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  6. Biological production of products from waste gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  7. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  8. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Biogas , including anaerobic digester gas, can be reformed to produce hydrogen and used in a fuel cell to produce significant amounts of electricity...Waste/By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...and heat. � When biogas is produced and used on‐site in a fuel cell, fuel utilization or overall energy efficiency can reach 90% and can reduce

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production from waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Aslan, A. K. H.; Ali, M. D. Muhd; Morad, N. A.; Tamunaidu, P.

    2016-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is a group of biopolymers that are extensively researched for such purpose due to the biocompatibility with mammal tissue and similar properties with conventional plastic. However, commercialization of PHA is impended by its high total production cost, which half of it are from the cost of pure carbon source feedstock. Thus, cheap and sustainable feedstocks are preferred where waste materials from various industries are looked into. This paper will highlight recent studies done on PHA production by utilizing crop and agro waste material and review its potential as alternative feedstock.

  10. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  11. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  12. Utilizing waste products from the food production and processing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Winfried; Meyer-Pittroff, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Waste in the food industry is characterized by a high ratio of product-specific waste. Not only does this mean that the generation of this waste is unavoidable, but also that the amount and kind of waste produced, which consists primarily of the organic residue of processed raw materials, can scarcely be altered if the quality of the finished product is to remain consistent. The utilization and disposal of product-specific waste is difficult, due to its inadequate biological stability, potentially pathogenic nature, high water content, potential for rapid autoxidation, and high level of enzymatic activity. The diverse types of waste generated by various branches of the food industry can be quantified based on each branches' respective level of production. Moreover; the origins of each type of waste and a tabulated overview of the traditional agricultural methods for reusing the waste are discussed. Additionally, alternative methods of waste management have emerged, which target the most important contents of the waste. In conclusion, new possibilities for the utilization of food industry waste are described.

  13. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Suruceanu; Sonia Socaci; Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura

    2013-01-01

    Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, ident...

  14. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuels; Foerbraenning av utsorterade avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Myringer, Aase; Helgesson, Anna [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David; Ekvall, Annika [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the understanding of opportunities and problems connected with combustion of sorted waste fractions containing paper, wood and plastics (PWP-fuel) in fluidized bed boilers. An evaluation of the effect of sulphur containing additives in a PWP-fuel fired boiler was also performed within the project since this is not previously reported in open literature. The experience from two boilers at different plants, Johannes (BFB) and Hoegdalen P6 (CFB) during the firing season 2003/2004 was documented. In the Johannes boiler the main fuel is bark while Hoegdalen P6 combusts 100 % PWP-fuel. Analysis of the fuels shows that there are large differences between the two boilers. At Johannes the PWP-fuel contained low amounts of elements (chlorine, alkali and other metals) that are expected to result in increased operational problems or emissions. A large proportion of these unwanted elements came from the wood and paper fractions. The plastic fraction in Johannes had very low levels of unwanted elements. The fuel at Hoegdalen contained large amounts of elements such as chlorine, alkali and other metals that can cause operational problems. First of all the plastic fraction contained large amounts of chlorine, most likely from PVC, which results in a more corrosive atmosphere in the boiler. The fraction of fines in the Hoegdalen fuel contained larger concentrations of potassium and sodium compared with the other fuel fractions, substances that also are related to the formation of deposits. The fraction of fines in the fuel probably also results in combustion taking place high up in the boiler and to some extent continuing in the cyclones. The characterisation of the combustion behaviour performed in Johannes identified a maldistribution in O{sub 2}, CO and gas temperature over a cross-section of the furnace. This was not depending on the fuel mixture but is more likely depending on uneven fuel feeding or air distribution. A comparison between

  15. Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

  16. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  17. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Sze Ki Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA production via solid state fermentation (SSF was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd 2.20 × 10−3minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes.

  18. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective August...

  19. Chemicals and Allied Products Waste Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature published from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to chemicals and allied products is presented. The review considered several sections such as waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment, air emissions, soils and groundwater, and reuse.

  20. Production of hydrogen from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes gasification and the process for producing a gasificable slurry from raw MSW by using high pressures of steam. A potential energy source, MSW is a composite of organic materials such as: paper, wood, food waste, etc. There are different paper grades producing different results with low-quality paper forming better slurries than high-quality papers; making MSW a difficult feedstock for gasification. The objective of the bench-scale laboratory work has been to establish operating conditions for a hydrothermal pre-processing scheme for municipal solid waste (MSW) that produces a good slurry product that can be pumped and atomized to the gasifier for the production of hydrogen. Batch reactors are used to determine product yields as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Various ratios of water-to-paper were used to find out solid product, gas product, and soluble product yields of MSW. Experimental conditions covered were temperature, time, and water to feed ratio. Temperature had the strongest effect on product yields.

  1. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Suruceanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, identification and quantification of xanthohumol by HPLC method. Waste yeast from brewery pilot plant of USAMV Cluj Napoca it was dried by atomization and the powder was analyzed on xanthohumol content by HPLC method. For quantification a calibration curve it was used. The process of drying by atomisation lead to a powder product. It was used malt dextrin powder for stabilisation. The final product it was encapsulated. The xanthohumol content of powdered yeast it was 1.94 µg/ml. In conclusion the slurry yeast from beer production it is an important source of prenylflavonoids compounds.

  2. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  3. Plywood production wastes to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Popov, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    Wood and by-products of its processing are a renewable energy source with carbon neutral and may be used in solving energy problems. ZAO «Arkhangelsk plywood factory» installed and put into operation the boiler with capacity of 22 MW (saturated steam of 1.2 MPa) to reduce the cost of thermal energy, the impact of environmental factors on stability of the company’s development and for reduction of harmful emissions into the environment. Fuel for boiler is the mixture consists of chip plywood, birch bark, wood sanding dust (WSD) and sawdust of the plywood processing. The components of the fuel mixture significantly differ in thermotechnical characteristics and technological parameters but especially in size composition. Particle dimensions in the fuel mixture differ by more than a thousand times which makes it «unique» and very difficult to ensure the effective and non-explosive use. WSD and sawdust from line of cutting of plywood are small fraction material and relate to IV group of explosion. Criterion of explosive for them has great values (КfWSD=10.85 Кfsaw=9.66). Boiler’s furnace equipped with reciprocating grate where implemented a three-stage scheme of combustion. For a comprehensive survey of the effectiveness of installed equipment was analyzed the design features of the boiler, defined the components of thermal balance, studied nitrogen oxide emissions, carbon and particulate matter with the determination of soot emissions. Amount of solid particles depending on their shape and size was analyzed.

  4. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  5. Evaluation of Biohydrogen Production Potential of Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevim Genç

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, types of potential biomass that could be the source for biohydrogen generation such as energy crops, lignocellulosic residues, waste and wastewaters are discussed. The major criteria that have to be met for the selection of substrates suitable for fermentative biohydrogen production are availability, cost, carbohydrate content (high proportion of readily fermentable compounds such as sugars and carbohydrates and biodegradability (a high concentration of degradable organic compounds and low concentration of inhibitory to microbiological activity compounds. Although starchy and sugar based biomass and wastes are readily fermentable by microorganisms for hydrogen generation, lignocellulosic biomass needs to be pretreated. Pretreatment is carry out for altering the structural features of biomass which are classified as psysical or chemical. In general, pretreatment methods of lignocellulosic biomass can be divided into three main types, according to the means used for altering its structural features: mechanical, physicochemical and biological.

  6. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.

  7. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  8. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  9. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products.

  10. Converting citrus waste to ethanol and other co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of citrus processing waste (CPW) generated during juice production into value added co-products is an important aspect of the juice industry as it offers a solution to waste disposal issues. Currently the practice of drying citrus waste to produce citrus pulp pellets (CPP) for use as catt...

  11. Studies on biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that the highest weekly individual production rate is recorded for the cow dung (control) slurry with average production of 1554 cm3, followed by pineapple waste which had 965 cm3 of biogas, then by orange waste which had 612cm3 of biogas, lastly, pumpkin and spinach wastes had 373 cm3 and ...

  12. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratasida, D.L. [BAPEDAL, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  14. Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalin Chaiyaomporn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research palm fiber and palm shell were used as raw materials to produce pelletised fuel, and waste glycerol were used as adhesive to reduce biodiesel production waste. The aim of this research is to find optimum ratio of raw material (ratio of palm fiber and palm shell, raw material size distribution, adhesive temperature, and ratio of ingredients (ratio of raw material, waste glycerol, and water. The optimum ratio of pelletized fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated. From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339% which was higher than the standard. Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247% which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard. At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N. Pelletized fuel cost at optimum condition was 1.14 baht/kg.

  15. Thermophilic methane production from cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Isaacson, H R; Bryant, M P

    1977-02-01

    Methane production from waste of cattle fed a finishing diet was investigated, using four 3-liter-working volume anaerobic digestors at 60 degrees C. At 55 degrees C a start-up culture, in which waste was the only source of bacteria, was generated within 8 days and readily adapted to 60 degrees C, where efficiency of methanogenesis was greater. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 65 degrees C tended to drastically lower efficiency. When feed concentrations of volatile solids (VS, organic matter) were increased in steps of 2% after holding for 1 months at a given concentration, the maximum concentrations for efficient fermentation were 8.2, 10.0, 11.6, and 11.6% for the retention times (RT) of 3, 6, 9, and 12 days, respectively. The VS destructions for these and lower feed concentrations were 31 to 37, 36 to 40, 47 to 49 and 51 to 53% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-day RT digestors, respectively, and the corresponding methane production rates were about 0.16, 0.18, 0.20, and 0.22 liters/day per g of VS in the feed. Gas contained 52 to 57% methane. At the above RT and feed concentrations, alkalinity rose to 5,000 to 7,700 mg of CaCo3 per liter (pH to 7.5 to 7.8), NH3 plus NH4+ to 64 to 90 mM, and total volatile acids to 850 to 2,050 mg/liter as acetate. The 3-day RT digestor was quite stable up to 8.2% feed VS and at this feed concentration produced methane at the very high rate of 4.5 liters/day per liter of digestor. Increasing the percentage of feed VS beyond those values indicated above resulted in greatly decreased organic matter destruction and methane production, variable decrease in pH, and increased alkalinity, ammonia, and total volatile acid concentrations, with propionate being the first to accumulate in large amounts. In a second experiment with another lot of waste, the results were similar. These studies indicate that loading rates can be much higher than those previously thought useful for maximizing methanogenesis from cattle waste.

  16. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... from true landfills. Hence, the computer tool is verified in terms of mass balances and sensitivity analyses. The mass balances agree exactly and the sensitivity analyses show that different types of waste product components behave differently in different types of landfills. Emission of e.g. toluene...

  17. Equilibrium Temperature Profiles within Fission Product Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We studied waste form strategies for advanced fuel cycle schemes. Several options were considered for three waste streams with the following fission products: cesium and strontium, transition metals, and lanthanides. These three waste streams may be combined or disposed separately. The decay of several isotopes will generate heat that must be accommodated by the waste form, and this heat will affect the waste loadings. To help make an informed decision on the best option, we present computational data on the equilibrium temperature of glass waste forms containing a combination of these three streams.

  18. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-02-13

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

  19. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  20. Waste to wealth: Production of oxytetracycline using streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces speibonae OXS1 in solid-state fermentation from cocoyam peels (household kitchen wastes of agricultural ... This application also offers an alternative waste management option for this class of household kitchen wastes of agricultural produce that is usually present in ...

  1. Ethanol and other products from citrus processing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 80 percent of citrus produced in Florida is processed for juice production. The bulk of this waste material is dried as citrus pulp and sold as a cattle feed by-product, often at a price lower than the cost of production. While not profitable, this does solve the problem of waste dispos...

  2. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High Value Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population calls for an increasing demand for food production and processing industry associated with it, and consequently generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is further intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies, and less measure for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commerci...

  3. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... is significantly reduced in the presence of landfill top-cover, landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units. Generally, the sensitivity analysis shows good agreement between the relative proportions of various types of emissions (based on properties of the waste and properties of landfills) and good......This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...

  4. Use of waste materials for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, R.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Napoli Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche; Buonerba, A.; Grassi, A. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Waste raw materials obtained by several sources of both food and agro industries could be considered for biofuel production. In the last years, this topic has growing in interest. At this purpose, our research, has been focused on the development of new technologies to obtain biodiesel from the mentioned wastes feedstock. In particular from oleins, that are mixtures of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides. Therefore, we are studying the way to produce biodiesel in two steps: an esterification reaction of FFAs with glycerol and a transesterification with methanol of the whole mixture. The esterification of FFAs with glycerol has the advantage of using a relatively high temperature favouring the stripping of water formed during the esterification. In this way esterification equilibrium is shifted to the right. Then, the mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides, obtained by esterification with glycerol, can be submitted to transesterification with methanol, in the usual way, to produce biodiesel Catalysts promoting esterification, normally, are mineral acids or heterogeneous Bronsted acid catalysts. At this purpose, the classical sulphonated polystyrene acid resins cannot be used at temperature greater than 120 C. Therefore, a new class of sulfonated polymers, with enhanced temperature resistance, has been developed by selective and quantitative sulfonation of olefinic butadiene units in multiblock copolymers syndiotactic polystyrene-co-1,4-cis-polybutadiene. This catalytic system has been successfully tested in the above mentioned esterification reaction and compared to classic commercial strong acid catalysts like Amberlyst {sup registered}, Nafion {sup registered} and sulfuric acid. (orig.)

  5. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  6. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  7. Bio gas oil production from waste lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancsók, Jeno; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280-380°C, P = 20-80 bar, LHSV = 0.75-3.0  h(-1) and H(2)/lard ratio: 600  Nm(3)/m(3)). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360-370°C, P = 40-50 bar, LHSV = 1.0  h(-1) and H(2)/hydrocarbon ratio: 400  Nm(3)/m(3)) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms.

  8. Optimization of phytase production from potato waste using Aspergillus ficuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Mengmeng; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) can divert food waste from landfills and produce high-value products. This study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of using SSF and optimize the conditions of production of phytase by Aspergillus ficuum from potato waste. Different parameters including pH of the potato waste, inoculum level, moisture content, incubation period, temperature, and supplementary nitrogen and carbon sources were evaluated. The results indicated that pH, inoculum level, and moi...

  9. THE USE OF POLYMER WASTE FOR NANOCOMPOSITES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Tomaszewska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of accumulation of waste containing plastics reaches alarming levels as products of polymeric materials are present in every area of life. These products represent a growing percentage of impurities and waste in Europe and the World. The paper is a short description of the phenomenon and proposes a method for the use of waste plastic obtained from recycling to receive nanomaterials and composites with a simple and economic technologies.

  10. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of biogas production from coffee production waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Federico; Fino, Debora; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical pretreatments on biogas production from coffee waste. After the preparation of a mixture of coffee waste with a TS concentration of 10%w/w, basic and acid pretreatments were conducted in batch mode and their performances were compared with the biogas produced from a mixture without any pretreatment stage. The basic pretreatment demonstrated a very good action on the hydrolysis of the lignin and cellulose, and permitted a biogas production of about 18NL/L with a methane content of almost 80%v/v. Thus, the basic pretreatment has been used to scale-up the process. The coffee refuse was has been carried out in a 45L anaerobic reactor working in continuous mode and in a mesophilic condition (35°C) with a Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of about 40days. A high biogas production of 1.14NL/Ld, with a methane percentage of 65%v/v was obtained, thus permitting a process yield of about 83% to be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Docket, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460. The Public Reading... telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the RCRA Docket... defined as PCB bulk product waste in 40 CFR 761.3. The definition of PCB bulk product waste includes ``non...

  13. Waste Management Strategies for Production of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-31

    Production of Mo-99 for medical isotope use is being investigated using dissolved low enriched uranium (LEU) fissioned using an accelerator driven process. With the production and separation of Mo-99, a low level waste stream will be generated. Since the production facility is a commercial endeavor, waste disposition paths normally available for federally generated radioactive waste may not be available. Disposal sites for commercially generated low level waste are available, and consideration to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the disposal site should be integral in flowsheet development for the Mo-99 production. Pending implementation of the “Uranium Lease and Take-Back Program for Irradiation for Production of Molybdenum-99 for Medical Use” as directed by the American Medical Isotopes Production Act of 2012, there are limited options for disposing of the waste generated by the production of Mo-99 using an accelerator. The commission of a trade study to assist in the determination of the most favorable balance of production throughput and waste management should be undertaken. The use of a waste broker during initial operations of a facility has several benefits that can offset the cost associated with using a subcontractor. As the facility matures, the development of in-house capabilities can be expanded to incrementally reduce the dependence on a subcontractor.

  14. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  15. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Rob Aj; Hill, David J; Kenward, Melvin A; Williams, Craig D; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Radecka, Iza K

    2011-06-10

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration.Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils.It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production.

  17. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  18. Towards zero waste production in the minerals and metals sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William J.

    The production of mineral and metal commodities results in large quantities of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous) at each stage of value-adding — from mining to manufacturing. Waste production (both consumer and non-consumer) is a major contributor to environmental degradation. Approaches to waste management in the minerals industry are largely `after the event'. These have moved progressively from foul-and-flee to dilute-and-disperse to end end-of-pipe treatments. There is now a need to move to approaches which aim to reduce or eliminate waste production at source. Modern waste management strategies include the application of cleaner production principles, the use of wastes as raw materials, the reengineering of process flowsheets to minimise waste production, and use of industrial symbioses through industrial ecology to convert wastes into useful by-products. This paper examines how these can be adopted by the minerals industry, with some recent examples. The financial, technical, systemic and regulatory drivers and barriers are also examined.

  19. Hydrogen production from agricultural waste by dark fermentation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xin Mei; Trably, Eric; Latrille, Eric; Carrere, Helene; Steyer, Jean-Philippe [INRA, UR050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, F-11100 Narbonne (France)

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of the natural environment and the energy crisis are two vital issues for sustainable development worldwide. Hydrogen is considered as one of the most promising candidates as a substitute for fossil fuels. In this context, biological processes are considered as the most environmentally friendly alternatives for satisfying future hydrogen demands. In particular, biohydrogen production from agricultural waste is very advantageous since agri-wastes are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. Considering that such wastes are complex substrates and can be degraded biologically by complex microbial ecosystems, the present paper focuses on dark fermentation as a key technology for producing hydrogen from crop residues, livestock waste and food waste. In this review, recent findings on biohydrogen production from agricultural wastes by dark fermentation are reported. Key operational parameters such as pH, partial pressure, temperature and microbial actors are discussed to facilitate further research in this domain. (author)

  20. Urban solid waste in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Alan H. M. de; Marzola, Leticia B.; Melo, Lucas A. de; Leles, Paulo S. dos S.; Abel, Elton L. S.; Alonso, Jorge M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the potential of urban solid wastes as substrate for production of seedlings of Lafoensia pacari. Five treatments were tested, four with solid wastes and one standard substrate, namely: sewage sludge from Alegria Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP); sewage sludge from Ilha do Governador WTP; sewage sludge from Sarapuí WTP; domestic garbage compost (Fertlurb); and a commercial substrate made of biostabilized pine bark (standard substrate). The wastes received 2...

  1. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Uçkun Kiran; Antoine P. Trzcinski; Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly aff...

  2. Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of

  3. Enhancement of organic acids production from model kitchen waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for organic acids production from anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste using response surface methodology (RSM). Fermentation was carried out using 250 ml shake flask which was incubated using an orbital shaker set at 200 rpm. Fermented kitchen wastes were ...

  4. Commercial production of fish meal from fish waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of fish meal production as a means of reducing fish waste currently being experienced in the fisheries subsector is discussed. Cost estimate for Nigeria establishing a fish meal manufacturing plant and suggestions on rational execution of the project are presented. If properly located and well managed, the project will serve to convert fish waste to cash in the industrial fishery

  5. Biogas production from livestock waste anaerobic digesters: evaluation and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. However, feedstocks from livestock re...

  6. Production of bioethanol from agricultural waste | Braide | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark) and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk) was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin ...

  7. Optimization of phytase production from potato waste using Aspergillus ficuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengmeng; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2016-12-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) can divert food waste from landfills and produce high-value products. This study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of using SSF and optimize the conditions of production of phytase by Aspergillus ficuum from potato waste. Different parameters including pH of the potato waste, inoculum level, moisture content, incubation period, temperature, and supplementary nitrogen and carbon sources were evaluated. The results indicated that pH, inoculum level, and moisture content did not significantly vary phytase production. However, different incubation periods, incubation temperatures, nitrogen sources, and carbon sources changed the phytase production significantly. The ideal and economic conditions for phytase production consisted of a normal moisture content (79%) of potato waste, 1.0 ml inoculum size, and normal pH 6.1 at room temperature for 144 h incubation time. The highest phytase activity (5.17 ± 0.82 U/g ds) was obtained under the aforementioned optimized conditions. When (NH4)2SO4 was used as a nitrogen source in the substrate, the phytase activity increased to 12.93 ± 0.47 U/g ds, which was a 2.5-fold increase compared to the control treatment. This study proposed a novel and economical way to convert food processing waste to highly valuable products and investigated the optimal conditions of the production of phytase during SSF in potato waste.

  8. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste by mutant Enterobacter aerogenes. Thalisa Yuwa-amornpitak* and Kannika Chookietwatana. Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Maha.

  9. The production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial gypsum wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial gypsum wastes M. de Beer Thesis submitted for the degree Doctor Philosophiae in Chemical Engineering at the Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University Abstract Precipitated...

  10. Introduction to Energy Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper, prepared by EPA's Engineering Forum under the Technical Support Project, provides an overview on the considerations for energy conservation and production during the design and (O&M) phases of waste cleanup projects.

  11. studies on biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste 115

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    , 2008. Accepted: February, 2009. STUDIES ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM FRUITS AND VEGETABLE. WASTE. 1*Sagagi, B. S., B. Garba and N. S. Usman. Department of Chemistry, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil.

  12. Productive efficiency of public and private solid waste logistics and its implications for waste management policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ichinose

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the productive efficiency of municipal solid waste (MSW logistics by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA to cross-sectional data of prefectures in Japan. Either through public operations or by outsourcing to private waste collection operators, prefectural governments possess the fundamental authority over waste processing operations in Japan. Therefore, we estimate a multi-input multi-output production efficiency at the prefectural level via DEA, employing several different model settings. Our data classify the MSW into household solid waste (HSW and business solid waste (BSW collected by both private and public operators as separate outputs, while the numbers of trucks and workers used by private and public operators are used as inputs. The results consistently show that geographical characteristics, such as the number of inhabited remote islands, are relatively more dominant factors for determining inefficiency. While the implication that a minimum efficient scale is not achieved in these small islands is in line with the literature suggesting that waste logistics has increasing returns at the municipal level, our results indicate that waste collection efficiency in Japan is well described by CRS technology at the prefectural level. The results also show that prefectures with higher private-sector participation, measured in terms of HSW collection, are more efficient, whereas a higher private–labor ratio negatively affects efficiency. We also provide evidence that prefectures with inefficient MSW logistics have a higher tendency of suffering from the illegal dumping of industrial waste.

  13. Hazardous wastes and waste generation factors for plastic products manufacturing industries in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salim Öncel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A project titled “Hazardous Waste Management in Compliance with European Union Environmental Regulations in Turkey” was carried out with the support of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey on behalf of the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning in Turkey. In this project, several industries were examined for improving an internet based system called “Hazardous Waste Declaration System” (HWDS and meeting the requirements of Turkey. Hazardous waste lists and hazardous waste generation quantities per unit manufacturing (hazardous waste generation factors, HWGFs for the plastic product manufacturing industry were determined based on the data obtained from these studies. At the same time, declarations of hazardous waste generation quantity made by the organizations in this industry in 2009 and 2010 to HWDS and the literature data were evaluated and the range of HWGFs was created by assessing possible minimum and maximum quantities for each waste. This paper presents the results of the studies conducted in plastic product manufacturing industry in Turkey. The waste lists determined along with the HWGF ranges are presented. HWGFs for manufacturing processes in the plastic industries were calculated in the range of 11.5–100 kg t−1 in this study and can be used to calculate the amount of hazardous waste for other similar process in the plastic industries. Therefore, it is believed that the results of the study will be useful for determining the types and quantities and the management of hazardous wastes generated by similar plastic product manufacturing industries in the developing world.

  14. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separating fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.

  15. Coffee husk waste for fermentation production of mosquitocidal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Abidha, S

    2011-12-01

    Coffee husk waste (CHW) discarded as bio-organic waste, from coffee industries, is rich in carbohydrates. The current study emphasizes the management of solid waste from agro-industrial residues for the production of biopesticides (Bacillus sphaericus, and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis), to control disease transmitting mosquito vectors. An experimental culture medium was prepared by extracting the filtrates from coffee husk. A conventional culture medium (NYSM) also was prepared. The studies revealed that the quantity of mosquitocidal toxins produced from CHW is at par with NYSM. The bacteria produced in these media, were bioassayed against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti) and it was found that the toxic effect was statistically comparable. Cost-effective analysis have revealed that, production of biopesticides from CHW is highly economical. Therefore, the utilization of CHW provides dual benefits of effective utilization of environmental waste and efficient production of mosquitocidal toxins.

  16. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  17. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  18. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-01

    As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. WASTE-FREE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DRY MASHED POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. According to data on norms of consumption of vegetable production of scientific research institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, potatoes win first place with norm of 120 kg a year on the person. In this regard much attention is paid to processing of potatoes that allows to prolong the term of its validity, and also to reduce the capacity of storages and to reduce transport transportations as 1 kg of a dry potatoes produсt is equivalent 7-8 kg of fresh potatoes. Thus industrial processing of potatoes on dry mashed potatoes allows to reduce losses of potatoes at storage and transportation, there is a possibility of enrichment of products vitamins and other useful components, its nutrition value remains better, conditions for complex processing of raw materials with full recycling and creations of stocks of products from potatoes on a crop failure case are created. Dry mashed potatoes are a product of long storage. On the basis of studying of the production technology of mashed potatoes the analysis of technological processes as sources of creation of waste, and the directions of recovery of secondary raw materials for complex waste-free technology of processing of potatoes are defined is provided. The waste-free technological scheme of processing of potatoes and production of dry instant mashed potatoes on the basis of dehydration and moisture thermal treatment a component providing recovery of secondary carbohydrate content raw materials in the form of waste of the main production is developed. The main stages of production of dry instant mashed potatoes are described. It is offered the technological scheme of a production line of mashed potatoes on the basis of waste-free technology. Advantages of the offered waste-free production technology of dry instant mashed potatoes with processing of secondary starch-containing raw materials are given.

  20. Continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Huang, Jingang; Zhao, Hongting; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge was performed. The waste bread was first hydrolyzed by the crude enzymes which were generated by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae via solid-state fermentation. It was observed that 49.78g/L glucose and 284.12mg/L free amino nitrogen could be produced with waste bread mass ratio of 15% (w/v). The waste bread hydrolysate was then used for biohydrogen production by anaerobic sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The optimal hydrogen production rate of 7.4L/(Ld) was achieved at chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6000mg/L. According to the results obtained from this study, 1g waste bread could generate 0.332g glucose which could be further utilized to produce 109.5mL hydrogen. This is the first study which reports continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  2. Assessment of application of selected waste for production of biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlita-Posmyk, Monika; Wzorek, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the idea of biogas production has become a popular topic in Poland. Biogas is a valuable source of renewable energy with a potential application in electricity and heat production. Numerous types of technological solutions of biogas production are closely linked to the availability of substrates in the area, as well as their quantity and their properties. The paper presents the assessment of application in biogas production selected wastes such as communal and household sewage sludge and waste from a paper production in Opole region (Poland). The annual productions of methane, biogas and electricity were estimated. Chosen physico-chemical properties important in fermentation process were taken into consideration in the assessment. The highest value of potential energy was obtained using waste from the paper industry but the most appropriate parameters for this process has sewage sludge from the municipal sewage treatment plant. The use of sewage sludge from domestic and municipal sewage and waste from the paper industry creates the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste materials.

  3. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  4. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model that incorporates LCA methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. The most attractive waste management options are in the model identified as part the optimization. The model renders it possible to apply different...... optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...... for biogas production for either CHP generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates, that what is the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – here illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article...

  5. PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS FROM DAIRY WASTE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Karthiyayini; A. Sivabharathy; Sreehari, C; M. Sreepoorani; V. Vinjth

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by dairy effluents is a serious problem throughout the world. The major source of waste water is from dairy industry. The effluent from dairy processing unit affects the environment. As a solution our aim is to produce bio-gas from diary wastewater. There are various treatment technologies, among them anaerobic treatment technology is simple and encouraged due to the following advantages such as low cost of construction, pH stability, low maintenance and repair. The biogas is...

  6. Scheduling Production Orders, Taking into Account Delays and Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylewski Robert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of determining the sequence of entering orders for production in a flexible manufacturing system implementing technological operations of cutting sheet metal. Adopting a specific ranking of production orders gives rise to the vector of delays and waste in the form of incompletely used sheets. A new method was postulated for determining the optimal sequence of orders in terms of two criteria: the total cost of delays and the amount of production waste. The examples illustrate the advantages of the proposed method compared with the popular heuristic principles.

  7. Effect of abdominal waste on biogas production from cow dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been carried out on the production of biogas from mixture of cow abdominal waste and its dung. The rate of biogas production and cumulative volume of the gas produced was compared with that of pure cow dung under the same experimental conditions. The result shows that the mixture of the cow abdominal ...

  8. MODIFICATION OLIGOMER DERIVED FROM BY-PRODUCTS OF POLYBUTADIENE USING WASTE OF PRODUCTION OF PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the oligomer synthesized from polybutadiene waste byproducts formed during the production of phthalic anhydride comprising as a main component maleic acid was studied. The influence of temperature, duration of the process and content of the waste on the properties of the resulting product was considered.

  9. Production and degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Choi, J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are energy/carbon storage materials accumulated under unfavorable growth condition in the presence of excess carbon source. PHAs are attracting much attention as substitute for non-degradable petrochemically derived plastics because of their similar material properties to conventional plastics and complete biodegradability under natural environment upon disposal. In this paper, PHA production and degradation in waste environment as well as its role in biological phosphorus removal are reviewed. In biological phosphorus removal process, bacteria accumulating polyphosphate (poly P) uptake carbon substrates and accumulate these as PHA by utilizing energy from breaking down poly P under anaerobic conditions. In the following aerobic condition, accumulated PHA is utilized for energy generation and for the regeneration of poly P. PHA production from waste has been investigated in order to utilize abundant organic compounds in waste water. Since PHA content and PHA productivity that can be obtained are rather low, PHA production from waste product should be considered as a coupled process for reducing the amount of organic waste. PHAs can be rapidly degraded to completion in municipal anaerobic sludge by various microorganisms.

  10. Combustion of manure; Foerbraenning av goedsel. En orienterande litteraturstudie med kommentarer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, R.; Stroemberg, B. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    District heating owners have been offered quantities of manure for combustion. Race tracks and riding schools have surplus amounts and could be the major suppliers. The question among district heating plant owners has been `is it suitable to use the manure as a fuel or not`? The conclusion is that there are in general no technical problems to burn the manure with high efficiency and low emissions if modern technology is used. There are however secondary problems which must be considered. The main problem is the risk of very low ash softening/melting temperatures. A second problem is the high sulphur and chloride levels that can be found in manure, which can give serious corrosion problems. It can therefore be concluded that one should not use pure manure in existing district heating plants designed for wood fuels. Manure is more suited for waste plants designed for sintering and corrosive fuels. There is however a risk of increased NO{sub x} emissions. Cofiring with wood fuel is however a possibility in existing wood bio fired plants, especially if the economic benefit is high. The properties of wood fuel together with minor quantities of manure could minimize the risk of sintering and corrosion. Manure is however a very heterogeneous product and it could not in general be recommended to use manure without having it analyzed and without having knowledge of the plant. 20 refs, 11 tabs

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF THE FERROCHROME PRODUCTION OUT OF WASTE OF TANNING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the solving of the actual problem — production in conditions of Belarus of ferrochrome of the leather production wastes, that allows to solve several technological problems and to reduse import of expensive ferroallows.

  12. Value chains for biorefineries of wastes from food production and services (ValueWaste)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahiluoto, H.; Kuisma, M. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Helsinki (Finland)); Horttanainen, M.; Karttunen, P.; Luoranen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)); Virtanen, M.; Pellikka, J. (Helsinki School of Economics, Small Business Centre (Finland)); Groenroos, J.; Myllymaa, T. (Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    ValueWaste considers business opportunities presented by the processing of biowastes of the food supply chain, as well as household wastes, in a socially responsible manner. Increases in energy prices, emissions and waste regulations and the trend toward responsible consumption are, together with innovative business models, enhancing relative competitiveness of waste-based energy and fertiliser production, and can create new business opportunities. Waste biomass provides bioenergy with high energy efficiency which does not contribute to increased food prices. Bioenergy and waste-based nutrients can replace non-renewable energy sources and fertilisers, helping to mitigate climate change and reduce eutrophication. The return of biomass from watercourses to fields also contributes to recovery of eutrophied water ecosystems. Biomass potentials, appropriate technologies and business models are analysed. Alternative biorefinery models are developed, and their overall sustainability is assessed: environmental impacts using life cycle assessment, impacts on regional economy, partnership in actor chains, as well as business opportunities and possibilities for commercialisation are considered. South Savo provides the main case study region for the three year project (2008-2010), but the project also provides tools for generalisation and contributes to national solutions. MTT Agrifood Research Finland coordinates the ValueWaste project. Other research partners are Helsinki School of Economics, Small Business Centre, Lappeenranta University of Technology and Finnish Environment Institute. Eight enterprises representing all parts of the food supply chain also participate the project. (orig.)

  13. Waste composting and proving fish for production the organic fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda San Martins Sanes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The volumes of waste generated in the fishing activity are increasing due to the increase in demand for these products. This implies the need for fast processing and cycling of these materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of waste generated in the fishing activity as a source of organic fertilizers in agricultural production systems familiar ecological basis. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station Cascade / Embrapa Temperate Climate was assessed throughout the composting process and the fermentation of fish waste, identifying the main points that enable the use of these fertilizers in farming systems ecological base. The composting process of rice husk revealed be incomplete during the experiment. The compound prepared with fish waste and exhausted bark of acacia presents itself as a good source of nutrients for crops, which may be suitable as organic fertilizer for production of ecologically-based systems. For liquid organic fertilizer, the conditions under which the experiment was conducted, it is concluded that the compound resulting from aerobic or anaerobic fermentation of fish waste, present themselves as a viable source of nutrients for productive systems of ecological base. However, further studies need to be conducted to better understanding and qualification of both processes.

  14. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  16. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  17. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  18. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...... into five groups of components: general organic matter (e.g. paper), specific organic compounds (e.g. organic solvents), inert components (e.g. PVC), metals (e.g. cadmium), and inorganic non-metals (e.g. chlorine,) which are considered individually. The assumptions and approximations used in the model...

  19. The Assessment of Alumina Production Waste Impact on Natural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the issue of assessment of alumina (red mud production waste on natural water. The growth of the number of aluminium-producing facilities leads to the expansion of exclusion areas to store the production waste – sludge dumps. A considerable part of research on red mud utilisation is focused on its use in the iron-and-steel industry. Furthermore, the technologies of red mud usage in the construction industry gain substantial significance for land reclamation, isolation of polluted industrial and agricultural lands as well as the effluent and industrial emissions treatment.

  20. Screening of Acetic Acid Bacteria from Pineapple Waste for Bacterial Cellulose Production using Sago Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arfa Yanti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose is a biopolymer produced by fermentation process with the help of bacteria. It has numerous applications in industrial sector with its characteristic as a biodegradable and nontoxic compound in nature. The potential application of BC is limited by its production costs, because BC is produced from expensive culture media. The use of cheap carbon and nutrient sources such as sago liquid waste is an interesting strategy to overcome this limitation. The objective of this study was to obtain the AAB strain that capable to produce bacterial cellulose from sago liquid waste. Isolation of AAB strains was conducted using CARR media and the screening of BC production was performed on Hestrin-Schramm (HS media with glucose as a carbon source. The strains of AAB then were evaluated for their cellulose-producing capability using sago liquid waste as a substrate. Thirteen strains of AAB producing BC were isolated from pineapple waste (pineapple core and peel and seven of them were capable to produce BC using sago liquid waste substrate. One of the AAB strains produced a relatively high BC, i.e. isolate LKN6. The result of morphological and biochemical test was proven that the bacteria was Acetobacter xylinum. The result of this study showed that A. xylinum LKN6 can produce a high yield of BC, therefore this strain is potentially useful for its utilization as a starter in bacterial cellulose production

  1. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood (Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase (Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem (Musa paradisiaca. They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: 70.00, 39.59, 55.40, 86.00, 84.60, 80.00, 40.84, 81.67, 35.70, 69.11, 4.54, 47.19, 31.70 and 52.44% respectively. The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives (Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were 41.20, 17.85, 23.13, 20.80, 20.23, 20.00, 39.00, 44.00, 18.80, 20.75, 20.03, 41.20, 44.00, and 39.00% respectively while the results obtained as average of four determinations for cellulose triacetate yields were: 52.00, 51.00, 43.10, 46.60, 49.00, 35.00, 40.60, 54.00, 57.50, 62.52, 35.70. 52.00, 53.00 and 38.70% respectively for all the agricultural wastes utilized. The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

  2. TENORM: Fertilizer and Fertilizer Production Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate rock is used in the production of phosphate fertilizers. Due to its chemical properties, phosphate rock may contain significant quantities of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

  3. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Paweł P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH and acidic (H2SO4 electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  4. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Włodarczyk, Barbara; Kalinichenko, Antonina

    2017-10-01

    Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH) and acidic (H2SO4) electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  5. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H2 production from food waste: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H2 production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H2 production compared to that in FW only, reaching H2-production yields of 145 and 109 ml g VS 0(-1), respectively, which are 1.5-2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H2 production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalytic dry reforming of waste plastics from different waste treatment plants for production of synthesis gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Juniza Md; Williams, Paul T

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of mixed waste plastics, from a range of different municipal, commercial and industrial sources, were processed in a two-stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the plastics took place in the first stage and dry (CO2) reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases took place in the second stage in the presence of Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Co/Al2O3 catalysts in order to improve the production of syngas from the dry reforming process. The results showed that the highest amount of syngas yield was obtained from the dry reforming of plastic waste from the agricultural industry with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, producing 153.67mmolsyngasg-1waste. The addition of cobalt metal as a promoter to the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst did not have a major influence on syngas yield. Overall, the catalytic-dry reforming of waste plastics from various waste treatment plants showed great potential towards the production of synthesis gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. COMPLEX PROCESSING OF CELLULOSE WASTE FROM POULTRY AND SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sklyadnev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.To solve the problem of disposing of huge volumes of cellulose waste from sugar production in the form of beet pulp and waste of poultry farms in the form of poultry manure is proposed to use the joint use of two methods of thermal processing of waste - pyrolysis and gasification. The possibility of using pyrolysis applied to the waste are confirmed by experimental results. Based on the results of laboratory studies of the properties of by-products resulting from the thermal processing of the feedstock, it is proposed complex processing to produce useful products, to be implemented in the form of marketable products, and the organization's own process energy utilization. Developed flow diagram of an integrated processing said waste comprises 3 sections, which successively carried out: pyrolytic decomposition of the feedstock to obtain a secondary product in the form of solid, liquid and gas fractions, the gasification of solids to obtain combustible gas and separating the liquid fraction by distillation to obtain valuable products. The main equipment in the first region is the pyrolysis reactor cascade condensers; the second section - gasifiers layers and stream type; the third - one or more distillation columns with the necessary strapping. Proper power supply installation is organized by the use of the heat produced during combustion of the synthesis gas for heating and gasification reactor. For the developed scheme presents calculations of the heat balance of the installation, supporting the energy efficiency of the proposed disposal process. Developments carried out in the framework of the project the winner of the Youth Prize Competition Government of Voronezh region to support youth programs in the 2014-2015.

  8. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial strains, capable of producing ethanol by using cooking oil glycerol waste (derived from biodiesel production) as sole C-source were screened from soil samples. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, the selected strain was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes G2WG. The sequence was submitted to GenBank and the ...

  9. Biogas Production from Food Wastes and Algae | Jeetah | University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Mauritius Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Biogas Production from Food Wastes and Algae.

  10. Hydrolysis of proteinaceous tannery solid waste for the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrolysis of proteinaceous tannery solid waste for the production of extracellular acidic protease by Selenomonas ruminantium. ... The enzyme had good stability in the presence of non-ionic surfactants like tween 20, tween 40, tween 80 and triton X100 and also in the presence of solvents like methanol, ethanol and ...

  11. Silica from Ash-A Valuable Product from Waste Material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. Silica from Ash - A Valuable Product from Waste Material. Davinder Mittal. General Article Volume 2 ... Author Affiliations. Davinder Mittal1. Chemical Technology Dept. Sont Longowal Institute of Engg. & Tech. Longowal 148 106, Distt.Sangrur, Punjab, India ...

  12. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...... the textile industry and demonstrates the results that have been achieved....

  13. production of particleboards using polystyrene and bamboo wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    PRODUCTION OF PARTICLEBOARDS USING POLYSTYRENE AND BAMBOO WASTES. S. A. Abdulkareem & A. G. Adeniyi. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 36, No. 3, July 2017 793. Properties of resin bonded particleboards; Maderas. Ciencia y Tecnología,:13(1) 49-58, 2011. [13] Laemsak, N., & Kungsuwan, ...

  14. Toward zero waste production in the paint industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Two of these will be discussed in this paper, namely recycling wash water and the way in which effluent ... The thinking around the re-using or recycling of the sludge waste into a product that is useful to the paint or .... ers and polymers, and is therefore prone to microbiological attack. There is an inherent risk that if the water ...

  15. Enhancement of organic acids production from model kitchen waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for organic acids production from anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste using ... for its treatment in comparison with alternative treatments such as incineration, landfill and ... degradable plastic (Horiuchi et al., 2002). Organic acids such as lactic acid ...

  16. REUSE OF WOOD BASED SOLID WASTE IN PANEL PRODUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Demirkır

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood, a material with high value and useful, is used in many areas. Therefore, wood based waste has a high ratio in total waste in terms of quantity and variety. Increasing demand on the raw material parallel to the rise of wood usage area has cause to decrease in the forest area of the world. Therefore, raw material for wood panel industries is being more serious problem. When the contribution in environment is taken into consideration, recycling researches of wood wastes among the raw materials alternatives for particleboard and fibreboard production is attracted attention. It is generally agreed that the landfill of wood waste materials is not the best option both from a socio-political and environmental viewpoint. This is the primary reasoning behind countries introducing a landfill tax to discourage this option.This study was focused on the studies related to the recycling methods towards the usage of wood based waste materials in panel production sector to resolve environmental and raw material problems.

  17. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  18. New Fission-Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandra Navrotsky

    2010-07-30

    Research performed on the program “New Fission Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization,” in the last three years has fulfilled the objectives of the proposal which were to 1) establish ceramic waste forms for disposing of Cs, Sr and minor actinides, 2) fully characterize the phase relationships, structures and thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of promising waste forms, 3) establish a sound technical basis for understanding key waste form properties, such as melting temperatures and aqueous durability, based on an in-depth understanding of waste form structures and thermochemistry, and 4) establish synthesis, testing, scaleup and commercialization routes for wasteform implementation through out in-kind collaborations. In addition, since Cs and Sr form new elements by radioactive decay, the behavior and thermodynamics of waste forms containing different proportions of Cs, Sr and their decay products were discovered using non-radioactive analogues. Collaborations among researchers from three institutions, UC Davis, Sandia National Laboratories, and Shott Inc., were formed to perform the primary work on the program. The unique expertise of each of the members in the areas of waste form development, structure/property relationships, hydrothermal and high temperature synthesis, crystal/glass production, and thermochemistry was critical to program success. In addition, collaborations with the Brigham Young Univeristy, Ben Gurion University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, were established for standard entropies of ceramic waste forms, sol-gel synthesis, and high temperature synthesis. This work has had a significant impact in a number of areas. First, the studies of the thermodynamic stability of the mineral analogues provided an important technical foundation for assessment the viability of multicomponent oxide phases for Cs and Sr removal. Moreover, the thermodynamic data discovered in this program established information on the reaction

  19. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    %. Proteins of Biobardins are inhomogeneous by their molecular mass and solubility in water and salt solutions. Both Biobardins are characterized by the mineral composition identical to the composition of relative distillers grains phase. During the experiments on animals practical nontoxicity and hepatotoxicity absence of Biobardins were established. Using prednisole stomach ulcers of rats as a model a signified gastroprotective influence of Biobardin BM was established. It was shown in a reduction of the number of ulcerative and hemorrhagic blennoses, secretory and proteolytic functions of stomach. Models of electroreduction, peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL of oleic acid, POL of egg yolk, and rats' hepatitis proved signified antioxidant activity of Biobardin UL which exceeds comparable substances by 8,3-30,1%; absence of fatty degeneration of rats' lever was shown under the influence of Biobardin UL. Composition of Biobardin BM and Biobardin UL pills as rational medicine form was justified and designed. Distillers grains processing allows reduction of industrial waste toxicity index – chemical consumption of oxygen (CCO by 74%, making distillers grains ecologically-friendly waste water.

  20. Utilization of cellulosic waste for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, V.; Mishra, C.; Rao, M.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M. C.; Jagannathan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Bioconversion of cellulose for the production of food or alcohol is of importance for the utilization of a renewable and abundant resource. The hydrolysis of different cellulosic materials by the cellulolytic enzymes produced by Penicillium funiculosum was studied. Fifty to 70% saccharification was obtained from pretreated bagasse, cotton and wood. The effect of different pretreatments to make the cellulose more susceptible to enzyme breakdown was also studied. Alkali pretreatment was found to be effective for most of the substrates. The production of alcohol from the hydrolysates by yeast fermentation without isolation of glucose was studied.

  1. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. USBI Booster Production Company's Hazardous Waste Management Program at the Kennedy Space Center, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuto, Charles

    1987-01-01

    In response to the hazardous-waste generating processes associated with the launch of the Space Shuttle, a hazardous waste management plan has been developed. It includes waste recycling, product substitution, waste treatment, and waste minimization at the source. Waste material resulting from the preparation of the nonmotor segments of the solid rocket boosters include waste paints (primer, topcoats), waste solvents (methylene chloride, freon, acetone, toluene), waste inorganic compounds (aluminum anodizing compound, fixer), and others. Ways in which these materials are contended with at the Kennedy Space Center are discussed.

  3. Waste-to-biofuel: production of biobutanol from sago waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnravindar, Davidraj; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Wong, Jonathan W C; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2017-07-01

    The main concern of extensive production of biobutanol has been associated with the high cost of the substrate and the relatively low tolerance of Clostridia to biobutanol production. In this study, the use of fermentable cassava waste residue (CWR) as substrate for biobutanol production was investigated using solvent-tolerant Clostridium sp. Four of obligatory, solvent-producing bacteria were isolated from sago industry waste sites. The NSW, PNAS1, SB5 and SBI4 strains showed identical profiles of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of Bacillus coagulans, Clostridium bifermentans and Clostridium sp. (97% similarity) and a wide range of carbohydrate substrate; however, the CWR was found to be suitable for the production of biobutanol considerably. Batch culture study was carried out using parameters such as time and temperature and carbon sources have been studied and optimized. Using pre-optimized CWR medium, significant amount of solvent production was observed in NSW, PNAS1, SB5 and SBI4 with 1.53, 3.36, 1.56 and 2.5 g L -1 of butanol yield and 6.84, 9.012, 8.32 and 8.22 g L -1 of total solvents, respectively. On the basis of these studies, NSW is proposed to represent the B. coagulans for butanol production directly from sago waste residues.

  4. BIOHUMUS PRODUCTION BY WORMS’ COMPOSTING OF SOME FOOD WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA SUTEU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory set-up scale application of a simple worms’ composting technology is presented together with the waste and biohumus characterization, description of technological process and operational conditions. The laboratory application is not a complicated one, when the optimum conditions necessary for the digestion process are accomplished and is recommended in the farms where the biodegradable wastes are produced and accumulated in moderate quantities. The main product, biohumus, can be used as fertilizer for the soil, in agriculture or flower cropping.

  5. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  6. Production of a High-Level Waste Glass from Hanford Waste Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Farrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1998-09-01

    The HLW glass was produced from a HLW sludge slurry (Envelope D Waste), eluate waste streams containing high levels of Cs-137 and Tc-99, solids containing both Sr-90 and transuranics (TRU), and glass-forming chemicals. The eluates and Sr-90/TRU solids were obtained from ion-exchange and precipitation pretreatments, respectively, of other Hanford supernate samples (Envelopes A, B and C Waste). The glass was vitrified by mixing the different waste streams with glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to 1150 degree C. Resulting glass analyses indicated that the HLW glass waste form composition was close to the target composition. The targeted waste loading of Envelope D sludge solids in the HLW glass was 30.7 wt percent, exclusive of Na and Si oxides. Condensate samples from the off-gas condenser and off-gas dry-ice trap indicated that very little of the radionuclides were volatilized during vitrification. Microstructure analysis of the HLW glass using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) showed what appeared to be iron spinel in the HLW glass. Further X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of nickel spinel trevorite (NiFe2O4). These crystals did not degrade the leaching characteristics of the glass. The HLW glass waste form passed leach tests that included a standard 90 degree C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  7. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  8. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experiences with waste incineration for energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences wi...... with waste incineration for energy production use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by COWI DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement.......The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...

  10. Chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic agroindustrial waste for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of different chemical pretreatments on the solubilization and the degradability of different solid agroindustrial waste, namely winery waste, cotton gin waste, olive pomace and juice industry waste. Eight different reagents were investigated, i.e. sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ), sodium chloride (NaCl), citric acid (H 3 Cit), acetic acid (AcOH), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), acetone (Me 2 CO) and ethanol (EtOH), under three condition sets resulting in treatments of varying intensity, depending on process duration, reagent dosage and temperature. Results indicated that chemical pretreatment under more severe conditions is more effective on the solubilization of lignocellulosic substrates, such as those of the present study and among the investigated reagents, H 3 Cit, H 2 O 2 and EtOH appeared to be the most effective to this regard. At the same time, although chemical pretreatment in general did not improve the methane potential of the substrates, moderate to high severity conditions were found to generally be the most satisfactory in terms of methane production from pretreated materials. In fact, moderate severity treatments using EtOH for winery waste, H 3 Cit for olive pomace and H 2 O 2 for juice industry waste and a high severity treatment with EtOH for cotton gin waste, resulted in maximum specific methane yield values. Ultimately, the impact of pretreatment parameters on the different substrates seems to be dependent on their characteristics, in combination with the specific mode of action of each reagent. The overall energy balance of such a system could probably be improved by using lower operating powers and higher solid to liquid ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of waste from nanoenabled products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov

    to characterise the nanoproducts. The case studies represented two different types of ENMs and product matrices: self-cleaning ceramic tiles with a nano-TiO2 coating and wood painted with nano-CuO wood protection paint. Different environmental conditions were mimicked i.e. high ionic strength (added CaCl2...... interference from calcium. For wood painted with nano-CuO paint, presence of nano-Cu particles, of approximately 60-80nm in size, was confirmed using sp-ICP-MS. However, these findings are associated with uncertainty, and so additional tests are needed to assess quantitatively the nano-CuO release in terms...

  12. Composition, production rate and characterization of Greek dental solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalidis, Alexandros; Topalidis, Antonios; Voudrias, Evangelos A; Iosifidis, Nikolaos

    2018-02-01

    The overall objective of this work is to determine the composition, characterization and production rate of Greek dental solid waste (DSW). This information is important to design and cost management systems for DSW, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 141 kg of DSW produced by a total of 2542 patients in 20 dental practices from Xanthi, Greece was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of four working weeks. The waste was separated in 19 sub fractions, which were classified in 2 major categories, according to Greek regulations: Domestic-type waste comprising 8% and hazardous waste comprising 92% by weight of total DSW. The latter was further classified in infectious waste, toxic waste and mixed type waste (infectious and toxic together), accounting for 88.5%, 3.5% and 0.03% of total DSW by weight, respectively. The overall unit production rates (mean ± standard error of the mean) were 381 ± 15 g/practice/d and 53.3 ± 1.4 g/patient/d for total DSW, 337 ± 14 g/practice/d and 46.6 ± 1.2 g/patient/d for total infectious DSW, 13.4 ± 0.7 g/practice/d and 2.1 ± 0.1 g/patient/d for total toxic DSW and 30.4 ± 2.5 g/practice/d and 4.6 ± 0.4 g/patient/d for domestic-type waste. Daily DSW production was correlated with daily number of patients and regression correlations were produced. DSW was subject to laboratory characterization in terms of bulk density, calorific value, moisture, ash and volatile solids content. Measured calorific values were compared to predictions from empirical models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Urban solid waste in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. M. de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the potential of urban solid wastes as substrate for production of seedlings of Lafoensia pacari. Five treatments were tested, four with solid wastes and one standard substrate, namely: sewage sludge from Alegria Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP; sewage sludge from Ilha do Governador WTP; sewage sludge from Sarapuí WTP; domestic garbage compost (Fertlurb; and a commercial substrate made of biostabilized pine bark (standard substrate. The wastes received 20% (in volume of shredded coconut fiber. At 105 days after sowing, the seedlings were evaluated for different quality parameters. Seedlings produced with Sarapuí WTP sewage sludge showed the best results in all the parameters, followed by seedlings produced with sewage sludge from Alegria and Ilha do Governador WTPs, which did not differ. Seedlings produced with domestic garbage compost showed satisfactory results, higher than the ones observed for seedlings produced with commercial substrate. The urban solid wastes with 20% of coconut fiber showed high potential and can be recommended for the composition of substrate in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings.

  14. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  15. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  17. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  18. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of bioethanol and biodiesel using instant noodle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yoo, Hah Young; Shin, Hyun Yong; Thapa, Laxmi Prasad; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-08-01

    Instant noodle manufacturing waste was used as feedstock to convert it into two products, bioethanol and biodiesel. The raw material was pretreated to separate it into two potential feedstocks, starch residues and palm oil, for conversion to bioethanol and biodiesel, respectively. For the production of bioethanol, starch residues were converted into glucose by α-amylase and glucoamylase. To investigate the saccharification process of the pretreated starch residues, the optimal pretreatment conditions were determined. The bioethanol conversion reached 98.5 % of the theoretical maximum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 fermentation after saccharification under optimized pretreatment conditions. Moreover, palm oil, isolated from the instant noodle waste, was converted into valuable biodiesel by use of immobilized lipase (Novozym 435). The effects of four categories of alcohol, oil-to-methanol ratio, reaction time, lipase concentration and water content on the conversion process were investigated. The maximum biodiesel conversion was 95.4 %.

  20. Production of Citric Acid by Aspergillus niger Using Pineapple Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid state fermentation was developed for citric acid production from pineapple waste by Aspergillus niger KS-7. The medium was supplemented with different concentration of glucose, sucrose, ammonium nitrate and ammonium phosphate. It was found that pineapple waste with 15% (w/v sucrose and ammonium nitrate (0.25% w/v gave the optimum citric acid secretion (60.61 g/kg in the presence of methanol (2% v/v when fermented for 5 days at 30 °C with the initial moisture content of 65%. The yield was more than 90% based on the amount of fermentable sugar consumed. These results present the use of pineapple peel as a cheap medium for the production of commercially valuable organic acid by A. niger.

  1. Electrodialytic Removal of Heavy Metals from Different Solid Waste Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2003-01-01

    A variety of heavy metal polluted waste products must be handled today. Electrochemical methods have been developed for remediation of polluted soil. One of the methods is the electrodialytic remediation method that is based on electromigration of heavy metal ions and ionic species within the soil...... matrix, and a separation of the soil and the process solutions, where the heavy metals are concentrated, with ion exchange membranes. For remediation of some soils, such as calcareous soils, it is necessary to add an enhancement solution. It was shown in a laboratory experiment that ammonium citrate...... could be used when removing Cu and Cr from a soil with 25% carbonates. The final concentrations of the elements were below the target values after the remediation. A question of whether the electrodialytic remediation method can be used for other waste products arose. Preliminary experiments showed...

  2. The use KPI's to determine the waste in production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsos, G.; Iacob, C. C.; Calefariu, G.

    2016-11-01

    In theory and practice of management is well-known Lean approach about forms of waste from production processes (Muda) and the method VSM (Value Stream Map), one of the most effective methods for determining the activities generating value within industrial companies. It is also obvious concern of the specialists for performance measurement regardless of purview of the organizations. The literature review has shown that the link between performance indicators and the objectives of the companies is researched in detail. However, the correlation between indicators and the forms of waste that generate deviations from the setpoints is rather nature practical and it depends on the talent and managerial skills of those directing production processes. The paper presents the results of a applied study, performed by the authors, through which it was has sought to will create a system of performance indicators specific to manufacturing activity that to be a useful tool to quantify the losses and to determining ways to improve default losses.

  3. Substrates Preparation from Woody Tropical Waste Biomass for Biohydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilaningsih

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Addressing to the global warming problem, energy crisis and pollution, hydrogen production by micro-organisms using biotechnological approach should be considered, since it fulfils the recent society requirement to safely produce, renewable and environmental friendly energy. Hydrogen is one of the most promising green energy sources, because it is easily converted to electricity and cleanly combustible. There are three types of micro-organisms for hydrogen production, the first is cyanobacteria through the photosynthesis process, the second is anaerobic bacteria, which use organic substances as electron donor and energy and convert them to hydrogen, the third is photosynthetic bacteria, somewhat between photosynthetic and anaerobic bacteria, which are capable of converting the organic substances to hydrogen at a fairly high rate. We propose to use the abundant waste biomasses in Indonesia for hydrogen production by the microbial system. Our focus research is the production of hydrogen from waste biomasses by two-stage fermentation systems, which combine the conversion process of monomer biomasses to lactic acid by Lactobacillus sp. and the conversion process of lactic acid to hydrogen by photosynthetic bacteria. In this research, two kind substrates preparation were apply for woody waste biomass such as chemical hydrolysis and biological methods with several treatments. The results of the substrate preparation state showed that hydrolyses process of biomasses using strong acid are yielded total sugar about 70-90% of previous original content. Moreover, hydrolyses process using weak/diluted acid are yielded total sugar about 4-30% of original sugar. Furthermore, the biological treatments of degradation of woody waste biomasses are yielded total sugar about 0-10% (by single culture and 10-50% (by consortium. Those hydrolysates substrates will use for fermentation two stages of lactate fermentation and conversion by photosynthetic bacteria in order

  4. Usage of Farm Animal Waste for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankina, O. V.; Chernysh, A. P.; Sankin, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The article considers problems connecting with the development of cattle breeding in Russia, especially the utilization of animals and poultry waste products. Basing on the foreign scientists’ experience, it has been proposed different solutions to this problem in terms of the Russian Federation, conducted the study, and presented the results of the undertaken experiments. Recommendations on the use of substances, that speed up fermentation processes at certain temperatures, has been developed.

  5. Waste vinegar residue as substrate for phytase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Tong, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Shang-Zhong

    2011-12-01

    Waste vinegar residue, the by-product of vinegar processing, was used as substrate for phytase production from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 in solid-state fermentation to investigate the potential for the efficient re-utilization or recycling of waste vinegar residue. Statistical designs were applied in the processing of phytase production. First, a Plackett-Burman (PB) design was used to evaluate eleven parameters: glucose, starch, wheat bran, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NH(4)NO(3), tryptone, soybean meal, MgSO(4)·7H(2)O, CaCl(2)·7H(2)O, FeSO(4)·7H(2)O, incubation time. The PB experiments showed that there were three significant factors: glucose, soybean meal and incubation time. The closest values to the optimum point were then derived by steepest ascent path. Finally, a mathematical model was created and validated to explain the behavioural process after these three significant factors were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The best phytase activity was attained using the following conditions: glucose (7.2%), soybean meal (5.1%), and incubation time (271 h). The phytase activity was 7.34-fold higher due to optimization by PB design, steepest ascent path design and RSM. The phytase activity was enhanced 0.26-fold in comparison with the results by the second step of steepest ascent path design. The results indicate that with waste vinegar residue as a substrate higher production of phytase from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 could be obtained through an optimization process and that this method might be applied to an integrated system for recycling of the waste vinegar residue.

  6. Production of Chitosan from Amusium sp Scallop Shell Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhati, Nur; Istirokhatun, Titik; Titik Apriyanti, Dwi; Susanto, Heru

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan is one of the natural polysaccharides, which is produced from chitin by deacetylation process. In this study, chitosan was produced from Amusium sp scallop shell waste. First, chitin was isolated by extraction via deproteinization using alkaline solution followed by demineralization using acid solution. Thereafter, chitosan was resulted from deacetylation of chitin using a high concentration of alkaline solution. The chemical structure of chitin and chitosan products was characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  7. Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ho Choi; Yun Hee Park [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology

    2003-08-01

    The possibility of using waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for microbial biomass production was investigated. Cell mass and the protein content of four species of yeast, Candida utilis, Pichia stipitis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were determined when cultured in juice extracted from cabbage waste. Compared to YM broth containing the same level of sugar, all the strains except C. utilis showed higher total protein production in cabbage juice medium (CJM). Cell mass production was lower for all four strains in heat-treated CJM than in membrane-filtered medium, and this adverse effect was pronounced when the CJM was autoclaved at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. As a source of inorganic nitrogen, only ammonium sulfate added at a concentration of 0.5 g nitrogen per liter of CJM increased cell growth. Of the seven organic nitrogen sources tested, only corn steep powder was effective in increasing cell mass (by about 11%). As a micronutrient, the addition of 0.5 mM zinc increased cell mass. The results suggest that juice from waste Chinese cabbages can be used to produce microbial biomass protein without substantial modification, after preliminary heat treatment at temperatures below those required for sterilization. (Author)

  8. Performance of sand-lime products made with plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowek Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the studies on the sand-lime (silicate masonry units modified with recycled plastics in various forms: regranulate, regrind and powder. The following materials were examined: high impact polystyrene (HIPS and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS. The results of the functional properties tests, such as compressive strength, softening behavior, bulk density and water absorption are presented in the article. The microstructure of the products was analyzed using SEM and XRD methods.Obtained results show that the properties of modified product largely depend on the type, form and amount of used polymer. The highest compressive strength was achieved with 15% of HIPS regranulate in the product (by weight. ABS does not improve the strength of the sample, however, it does block the capillary action in the sand-lime product. The lowest softening coefficient was obtained in the sample modified with HIPS regranulate. The examined polymers contributed to decrease in bulk density of the samples as well as lowered their water absorption. The samples with pulverized polymer have the worst properties. All the results are compared with those of the traditional sand-lime bricks and sand-lime product modified with other additives. The analysis indicate that silicate masonry units with post-production and post-consumption plastic waste can possess interesting functional properties what brings a new potential possibility to dispose of still growing number of plastic waste.

  9. Assessment of Waste Production and Heavy Metal Emission from Energy Production Sector of Zahedan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyere Poormollae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Due to the lack of accurate statistics on the amount of waste generated in the energy production sector in Zahedan, before any planning, one should identify all waste producing centers associated with the energy sector and also the quantity and quality of their waste in Zahedan. Materials and methods: This research is a cross-sectional descriptive study. It examined the produced wastes in the electrical energy generation sector. A questionnaire was prepared and completed for each unit that possibility produces these wastes. Moreover, in the studied units, the weigh percent per unit was determined by separating production waste, and collecting and weighing them. Results: In gas power plant of Zahedan, production of burned oil was approximately 480 liters and the annual consumption of turbine oil and compressor oil was 40 liters. In the diesel power plant, 2,200 liters of burned oil is produced for each generator after 1,500 hours of work. Concentration of heavy metals of Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni in the burned oil sample of the gas power plant was 43.2, 0.01, 0.20, 1.3, 2.7, 0.2 mg/l, respectively and in the diesel power plant were 36.3, 0.08, 0.09, 0.9, 4.7, 1.1 mg/l. Conclusion: In the studied samples, several cases of heavy metal pollution were identified. Therefore, proper planning for appropriate management of these units is necessary for any possible leakage and environmental pollution transport. Furthermore, in order to minimize the adverse impacts of hazardous wastes on the environment and people in Zahedan, integrated hazardous wastes management should be practices in electrical energy generation plants. Moreover, one must consider the measures required to exposure, transport, and safe maintenance before managing or eliminating this type of waste.

  10. Product family approach in e-waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    functionality. However, the diversity of product types, design features, and material compositions pose serious challenges for the EoL managers and legislators alike. In order to address these challenges, we propose a framework that is based on the ‘product family’ philosophy, which has been used...... in the manufacturing sector for a long time. For this, the product families can be built based on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of e-products as well as of the EoL management system. Such an approach has the potential to improve the current EoL practices and to support designers in making EoL thinking operational...... during the product design stage. If supported by a better EoL collection, presorting and testing platform, and a family-centric approach for material recovery, such a framework carries the potential to avoid the losses occurring in today’s e-waste management system. This, in turn, could facilitate...

  11. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M. C.; Hagengruber, R. L.; Zuppero, A. C.

    1974-06-01

    The hazards to public health associated with the application of municipal sewage sludge to land usage are reviewed to establish the need for disinfection of sludge prior to its distribution as a fertilizer, especially in the production of food and fodder. The use of ionizing radiation in conjunction with mild heating is shown to be an effective disinfection treatment and an economical one when reactor waste fission products are utilized. A program for researching and experimental demonstration of the process on sludges is also outlined.

  12. Bio-hydrogen Production Potential from Market Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna Jaitalee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied bio-hydrogen production from vegetable waste from a fresh market in order to recover energy. A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial volatile solids concentration on the bio-hydrogen production process. Lab bench scale anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR were used to study the effect of substrate and sludge inoculation on hydrogen production. Three different concentrations of initial total volatile solids (TVS of organic waste were varied from 2%, 3% and 5% respectively. The pH was controlled at 5.5 for all batches in the experiment. The results showed that bio-hydrogen production depended on feed-substrate concentration. At initial TVS content of 3%, the highest hydrogen production was achieved at a level of 0.59 L-H2/L at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen yield was 15.3 ml H2/g TVS or 8.5 ml H2/g COD. The composition of H2 in the biogas ranged from 28.1-30.9% and no CH4 was detected in all batch tests.

  13. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Hamdy, A.; Abu Amr, Salem S.

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  14. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  15. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp. in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  16. Mathematical Modelling of Leachate Production from Waste Contained Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojolo S. Joshua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mathematical models of leachate production from Waste Contained Site (WCS was developed and validated using the existing experimental data with aid of MATLAB, 2007a. When the leachate generation potentials (Lo were 100m3, 80m3 and 50m3, the maximum amount of leachate generated were about 2920m3, 2338m3 and 1461m3 for about 130 days respectively. It was noted that as the leachate percolates through a selected distance, the concentration keeps decreasing for one-dimensional flow in all the cases considered. Decreasing in concentration continues until a point was reached when the concentration was almost zero and later constant. The effects of diffusivity, amount of organic content present within the waste and gravity, as cases, were also considered in various occasions during the percolation. Comparison of their effects was also taken into account. In case of gravity at constant diffusivity, decrease in concentration was not rapid but gradually while much organic content in the waste caused the rate of leachate production to be rapid; hence, giving rise to a sharp sloped curve. It can be concluded that gravity influences the rate of change in the concentration of the leachate generation as the leachate percolate downward to the underground water. When the diffusivity and gravity are put into consideration, the concentration of the leachate decreases gradually and slowly.

  17. “A Step Towards Environmental Waste Management And Sustainable Biofuel (Ethanol) Production From Waste Banana Peelings”

    OpenAIRE

    Nazim Ali; Pravin Ubhrani; Mohit Tagotra; Manohar Ahire

    2016-01-01

    Most nations, whether economically advanced or at different stages of development are facing two major challenges, energy crisis and proper waste disposal. In this paper a study has been done on environmental waste management and sustainable biofuel (ethanol) production from waste banana peelings. The peels of BASRAI variety of bananas are taken as they are rich in cellulose and are kept in hot oven at 338K and dried sample is taken and is dissolved in hot water for starch extract...

  18. The Self-Reducing Pellet Production from Organic Household Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Alberto; Takano, Cyro; Mourão, Marcelo; Pillihuaman, Adolfo

    The organic household waste has a growing disposal problem, requiring costly disposal systems. It is necessary to find new applications for these materials; one could be the steelmaking raw material production. In this paper is studied the development of self-reducing pellets from the organic waste pyrolysis, where is generated carbon and condensable and non-condensable volatiles. Non-condensable volatiles were burned and condensable volatiles were recovered. The resulting tar was mixed with iron ore, coal powder and flux (CaO), to then be pelletized together. Compression, falls and tumbler tests were conducted to characterize the pellets before and after heat treatment and reduction processes. The reduction curve and their physical and morphological characterization were measured. The results were as was expected, the fluidized coal create sufficient adhesion that pellets earned resistance with an equivalent resistance of common pellets, showing a good feasibility of this process.

  19. Energy efficient way of processing waste of milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilova Julija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aim is the search of practical application of biotechnological waste processing of dairy production plants. The result of the study is the development of a process with biogas production by using anaerobic Biomar reactor. Scale of laboratory installation has been conducted based on laboratory studies. Moreover, principal technological scheme of production has been composed, and the appropriate material and technical and economic calculations have been carried out. In addition, major production facilities have been picked up. We found that using the produced biogas as a fuel for the boiler system allows you to reduce the natural gas consumption and reduce the cost of the recycling process at the dairy industry plants.

  20. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  1. Nitrogen Sources Screening for Ethanol Production Using Carob Industrial Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Rodrigues, F; Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity. In STR batch fermentation, urea has proved to be a very promising nitrogen source in large-scale production of bioethanol, reaching an ethanol yield of 44 % (w/w), close to theoretical maximum yield value and an ethanol production of 115 g/l. Urea at 3 g/l as nitrogen source could be an economical alternative with a great advantage in the sustainability of ethanol production from carbohydrates extracted from carob. Simulation studies, with experimental data using SuperPro Design software, have shown that the bioethanol production biorefinery from carob wastes could be a very promising way to the valorization of an endogenous resource, with a competitive cost.

  2. Let’s limit our waste production and let’s’ sort it!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Let’s limit our waste production! – Why ? Preventing the production of waste is the best solution to avoid environmental issues, economic impacts and technical constraints. So, whenever you are involved in the design, manufacturing, distribution, use or dismantling of a product or an activity in general, always remember that the best waste is that which is not produced. The limitation of waste production being an HSE objective declared in 2013 by the CERN Director-General, we encourage everyone to help limit the amount of waste produced through CERN activities. Let’s sort it! – Why ? Since the 90s, CERN has implemented a policy to promote recovery of the waste* generated by its activities. Nowadays, CERN is committed to continuously improving its sorting and recovery and therefore various initiatives have been started by GS-IS to improve the recovery of waste (e.g. recovery of organic waste from restaurants; implementation of solar trash compactors - see Bulletin 27-...

  3. Ethanol Production from Waste Potato Mash by Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Izmirlioglu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-ethanol is one of the energy sources that can be produced by renewable sources. Waste potato mash was chosen as a renewable carbon source for ethanol fermentation because it is relatively inexpensive compared with other feedstock considered as food sources. However, a pretreatment process is needed: specifically, liquefaction and saccharification processes are needed to convert starch of potato into fermentable sugars before ethanol fermentation. In this study, hydrolysis of waste potato mash and growth parameters of the ethanol fermentation were optimized to obtain maximum ethanol production. In order to obtain maximum glucose conversions, the relationship among parameters of the liquefaction and saccharification process was investigated by a response surface method. The optimum combination of temperature, dose of enzyme (α-amylase and amount of waste potato mash was 95 °C, 1 mL of enzyme (18.8 mg protein/mL and 4.04 g dry-weight/100 mL DI water, with a 68.86% loss in dry weight for liquefaction. For saccharification, temperature, dose of enzyme and saccharification time were optimized and optimum condition was determined as 60 °C-72 h-0.8 mL (300 Unit/mL of amyloglucosidase combination, yielded 34.9 g/L glucose. After optimization of hydrolysis of the waste potato mash, ethanol fermentation was studied. Effects of pH and inoculum size were evaluated to obtain maximum ethanol. Results showed that pH of 5.5 and 3% inolculum size were optimum pH and inoculum size, respectively for maximum ethanol concentration and production rate. The maximum bio-ethanol production rate was obtained at the optimum conditions of 30.99 g/L ethanol. Since yeast extract is not the most economical nitrogen source, four animal-based substitutes (poultry meal, hull and fines mix, feather meal, and meat and bone meal were evaluated to determine an economical alternative nitrogen source to yeast extract. Poultry meal and feather meal were able to produce 35 g/L and

  4. Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

    2013-08-01

    Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated.

  5. Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S.; Liew, F.M.; Daniell, J.; Koepke, M. [LanzaTech, Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2012-07-01

    LanzaTech has developed a gas fermentation platform for the production of alter native transport fuels and commodity chemicals from carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing gases. LanzaTech technology uses these gases in place of sugars as the carbon and energy source for fermentation thereby allowing a broad spectrum of resources to be considered as an input for product synthesis. At the core of the Lanzatech process is a proprietary microbe capable of using gases as the only carbon and energy input for product synthesis. To harness this capability for the manufacture of a diverse range of commercially valuable products, the company has developed a robust synthetic biology platform to enable a variety of novel molecules to be synthesised via gas fermentation. LanzaTech initially focused on the fermentation of industrial waste gases for fuel ethanol production. The company has been operating pilot plant that uses direct feeds of steel making off gas for ethanol production for over 24 months. This platform technology has been further successfully demonstrated using a broad range of gas inputs including gasified biomass and reformed natural gas. LanzaTech has developed the fermentation, engineering and control systems necessary to efficiently convert gases to valuable products. A precommercial demonstration scale unit processing steel mill waste gases was commissioned in China during the 2{sup nd} quarter of 2012. Subsequent scale-up of this facility is projected for the 2013 and will represent the first world scale non-food based low carbon ethanol project. More recently LanzaTech has developed proprietary microbial catalysts capable of converting carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen directly to value added chemicals, where-in CO{sub 2} is the sole source of carbon for product synthesis. Integrating the LanzaTech technology into a number of industrial facilities, such as steel mills, oil refineries and other industries that emit Carbon bearing

  6. Production and Characterization of Biomass Briquettes from Tannery Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imeh E. Onukak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The tannery industry is renowned for the huge amount of toxic solid and liquid waste generated from the cleaning, fleshing, splitting, tanning, shaving and buffing of raw materials. Biomass briquettes are a proven way of generating energy from waste. This study investigates the development and characterization of biomass briquettes from tannery solid wastes (TSWs. TSWs, which comprise hair, flesh, chrome shavings and buffing dust, were collected from a tannery in Kano, Nigeria, to formulate and characterize six briquettes. Scanning electron microscopy and proximate analysis were carried out on the samples. The six briquettes, comprising varying ratios of hair, flesh, chrome shavings and buffing dust, were molded and characterized. Thermal efficiency, durability and compressive strength, among other properties, were determined for the six briquette formulations. The briquettes developed had calorific values between 18.632 and 24.101 MJ/kg. Durability of the briquettes ranged from 98.12% to 99.77%. The energy values were within the range of 17.462–24.101 MJ/kg, which was comparable to other fuel sources such as sub-bituminous coal (20.000–24.730 MJ/kg. This study shows that TSWs can be used for fuel briquette production, which is a source of sustainable energy generation. It is environmentally friendly, cost effective and affordable compared to fossil fuel.

  7. Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda-Aguilar, María; García-Vidal, Lidia; González-Castañeda, Fayiny Del Pilar; López-Gómez, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perspectives of flax processing wastes in building materials production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of using the flax boons for thermal insulation materials. The solution for systematization of materials based on flax boon is suggested. It based on the principle of building materials production using the flax waste with different types of binders. The purpose of the research is to obtain heat-insulating materials with different structure based on agricultural production waste - flax boon, mineral and organic binders. The composition and properties of organic filler - flax boons - are defined using infrared spectroscopy and standard techniques. Using the method of multivariate analysis the optimal ratio of flax boons and binders in production of pressed, porous and granular materials are determined. The effect of particles size distribution of flax boons on the strength of samples with the different composition is studied. As a result, the optimized compositions of pressed, porous and granular materials based on flax boons are obtained. Data on the physical and mechanical properties of these materials are given in the paper.

  9. Microbial production of hydrogen from starch-manufacturing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Maki, R.; Hirose, J.; Hayashi, S. [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2002-05-01

    Effective hydrogen production from starch-manufacturing wastes by microorganisms was investigated. Continuous hydrogen production in high yield of 2.7 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was attained by a mixed culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes HO-39 in the starch waste medium consisting of sweet potato starch residue as a carbon source and corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in a repeated batch culture. Rhodobacter sp. M-19 could produce hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture broth obtained in the repeated batch culture of C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39. Hydrogen yield of 4.5 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was obtained by culturing Rhodobacter sp. M-19 in the supernatant supplemented with 20{mu}gl{sup -1} Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O and 10mgl{sup -1} EDTA in a repeated batch culture with pH control at 7.5. Therefore, continuous hydrogen production with total hydrogen yield of 7.2 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose from the starch remaining in the starch residue was attained by the repeated batch culture with C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39 and by the successive repeated batch culture with Rhodobacter sp. M-19. (Author)

  10. Green fuel production from saffron waste by dilute acid hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ArastehNodeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dilute acid Hydrolysis of saffron waste as a lignocellulose biomass for fermentable sugar production as a green fuel is investigated. Saffron plant waste was collected, washed with distilled water, dried by being exposed to air and sunlight, milled by a disk mill up to 50 micrometers and kept in plastic at room temperature. The prepared biomass was heated in a specified acidic solution for a predetermined time period in the autoclave. The influences of 3 major parameters including temperature, acid concentration and time on the produced fermentable sugar is investigated by the response surface method. According to previous studies, the levels for pretreatment were: temperature (116, 124, 132, and 140oC, process time (20, 30, 40, and 50 minute and sulfuric acid concentration (0, 1, 2, and 3%. To determine the type and quantity of products, the filtered solution was analyzed by HPLC and the results (glucose, xylose and furfural were modeled by a quadratic equation. This model showed that glucose concentration was influenced by the quadratic power of acid concentration and time while xylose concentration was influenced by time and furfural depends on time alone. It may be concluded that high acid concentration, low temperature and medium time could produce maximum products (glucose and xylose with minimum inhibitor (furfural.

  11. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  12. International mobility of hazardous products, industries, and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, B I; Navarro, V

    1987-01-01

    The export of hazards to developing countries, frequently associated with the transfer of technology, is an increasing public health problem. It may arise from the export of hazardous products and wastes, or from the transfer of hazardous industries in the absence of appropriate safeguards. Multinational corporations bear a major responsibility for having lower standards of health protection in manufacturing and marketing in the developing countries than in home-country operations. These firms are coming under growing international pressure from concerned citizens, unions, environmental groups, national governments and international organizations, religious groups, the media, and public health professionals.

  13. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  14. Composition, Production Rate and Management of Dental Solid Waste in 2017 in Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Momeni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of toxic and pathogenic agents in the dental waste products has made it to be classified as “hazardous waste.” Objective: To assess dental waste production rate and composition and approaches used to manage these waste products in 2017 in Birjand, Iran. Methods: 48 dental clinics were evaluated in two months of 2017. Sampling was performed from each clinic 3 times a week. Samples were manually divided into 5 categories of chemical-pharmaceutical, infectious, semi-household, sharp and cutting materials, and toxic waste products, and weighed. A checklist containing 25 questions was used to evaluate the aspects of waste management in dental clinics. Results: The total amount of waste products generated in dental clinics was 7848.02 kg/ year in which semi-household waste had the highest quantity (4263.411 kg/year and toxic waste had the lowest quantity (9.275 kg/year. Components with the highest amounts in dentistry waste products were nylon gloves (16.7%, paper and cardboard (13.4%, latex gloves (10.8%, and pharmaceuticals (10.2%. Waste separation was restricted to sharp and cutting waste. More than half (57% of dental units were equipped with amalgam filter. Fixing solutions were directly discharged to sewage in 48.6% of clinics. There was no program to reduce waste generation in 54% of the clinics. Autoclave was the main tool for sterilizing dental instruments. Conclusion: This study showed a remarkable share of recyclable materials in the composition of dental waste and lack of special approach to manage waste in dental clinics. It is necessary to plan for minimizing generation of, separating, and recycling waste at source.

  15. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  16. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leather industry is characterized as an industry that uses many chemicals and large quantity of water. From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many leather industries discharge wastes into the ...

  17. Pretreatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Gergely; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with the utilization of chicken feather waste as a substrate for anaerobic digestion and improving biogas production by degradation of the compact structure of the feather keratin. In order to increase the digestibility of the feather, different pretreatments were investigated, including thermal pretreatment at 120 °C for 10 min, enzymatic hydrolysis with an alkaline endopeptidase [0.53-2.66 mL/g volatile solids (VS) feathers] for 0, 2, or 24 h at 55 °C, as well as a combination of these pretreatments. The effects of the treatments were then evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion assays at 55 °C. The enzymatic pretreatment increased the methane yield to 0.40 Nm(3)/kg VS(added), which is 122 % improvement compared to the yield of the untreated feathers. The other treatment conditions were less effective, increasing the methane yield by 11-50 %. The long-term effects of anaerobic digestion of feathers were examined by co-digestion of the feather with organic fraction of municipal solid waste performed with and without the addition of enzyme. When enzyme was added together with the feed, CH(4) yield of 0.485 Nm(3)/kg VS(-1) d(-1) was achieved together with a stable reactor performance, while in the control reactor, a decrease in methane production, together with accumulation of undegraded feather, was observed.

  18. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR, the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor.

  19. Biogas production from citrus waste by membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-27

    Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor.

  20. THE USE OF PRODUCTION WASTES FRACTIONS FOR PRODUCTION OF FUNCTIONAL COATINGS BY WELDING OF HFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Panteleenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility and reasonability of application of self-fluxing diffusion- alloyed powders from the fraction production wastes for obtaining of coverings by welding method by currents of high frequency are considered. The structure and properties of the received coverings is investigated.

  1. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  2. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K.A.; Mamta; Rao, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste. PMID:23961230

  3. An integrated approach for efficient biomethane production from solid bio-wastes in a compact system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Tao, Y.; Temudo, M.; Schooneveld, M.; Bijl, H.; Ren, N.; Wolf, M.; Heine, C.; Foerster, A.; Pelenc, V.; Kloek, J.; Van Lier, J.B.; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Solid bio-wastes (or organic residues) are worldwide produced in high amount and increasingly considered bioenergy containers rather than waste products. A complete bioprocess from recalcitrant solid wastes to methane (SW2M) via anaerobic digestion (AD) is believed to be a sustainable way

  4. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    .... In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol...

  5. Value added eco-friendly products from tannery solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, T P; Sehgal, R K; Ramasami, T

    2005-10-01

    Chrome shavings are the prominent solid wastes in tanning industry. Since chromium is known for its toxicity, the disposal of chrome shavings has been identified as a serious problem from the environmental point of view. At present, the popular utilization mode for chrome shavings is the manufacture of leather boards and related products. But this does not offer complete utilization of chrome shavings. Moreover, return per ton of chrome shavings is low if used for leather board production. In view of this, two processes have been developed to offer an alternative and better solution for the disposal of chrome shavings. The first process is preparation of parchment like membrane and the second process is related to development of leather like material. These products are analyzed for their mechanical behavior and other physicochemical properties. Parchment membrane can be used in the preparation of lampshades, chandeliers, wall hangers, table tops etc. and leather like material can be used in the preparation of chappal uppers, hand bags, purses, valets etc. The utilization of the chrome shavings in preparation of those two products not only reduces the environmental pollution but at the same time value added products can also be obtained.

  6. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uçkun Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly affected by the initial pH and incubation time. The highest glucoamylase activity of 108.47 U/gds was achieved at initial pH of 7.9, moisture content of 69.6% wt., inoculum loading of 5.2×105 cells/gram substrate (gs and incubation time of 6 d. The enzyme preparation could effectively digest 50% suspension of domestic food waste in 24 h with an almost complete saccharification using an enzyme dose of only 2U/g food waste at 60°C.

  7. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or

  8. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  9. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  10. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  11. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  12. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  13. Production of struvite from beverage waste as phosphorus source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work was investigated the influence of pH on the synthesis of struvite using cola beverage waste as source of phosphorus. The process was operated in a batch reactor. The reaction time was 20 minutes, and the chemicals MgCl2.6H2O and NH4Cl were used in the experiment, with a molar ratio of Mg+2:NH4+:PO4(3- = 1:1:1. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, surface area (BET, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and infra-red (IR. From the results was verified the formation of a crystalline phase at pH 9.5, with a surface area of 6.59 m² g-1 and a particle size of about 0.25 µm.

  14. Waste with chrome in the Portland cement clinker production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezza, M A; Scian, A N

    2007-08-17

    Hazardous wastes, coming from industries are usually used in the Portland cement production in order to save energy, costs and/or stabilize toxic substances and heavy metals inside the clinker. This work focuses on the effect produced on the Portland cement clinker when it is obtained using tanned leather shavings whit chrome salts as part of the process. The raw materials were clinkered in laboratory with different percentages of shavings, which contained 2% of Cr(2)O(3). DTA-TG of the raw mixtures was performed to evaluate the thermal behavior changes that can take place during the clinkering process, analyzing the crystalline phases obtained by XRD. The milling behavior of clinkers was studied, analyzing also the refractoriness variation on those clinkers. The chrome retention was evaluated by leaching tests. The structural modification determined by the chrome presence in the silicate structure brought consequences in the hydration speed, mechanical resistance and pore distribution.

  15. Waste shells of mollusk and egg as biodiesel production catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriya-Empikul, N; Krasae, P; Puttasawat, B; Yoosuk, B; Chollacoop, N; Faungnawakij, K

    2010-05-01

    The solid oxide catalysts derived from waste shells of egg, golden apple snail, and meretrix venus were employed to produce biodiesel from transesterification of palm olein oil. The shell materials were calcined in air at 800 degrees C with optimum time of 2-4h to transform calcium species in the shells into active CaO catalysts. All catalysts showed the high biodiesel production activity over 90% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in 2h, whilst the eggshell-derived catalyst showed comparable activity to the one derived from commercial CaCO(3). The catalytic activity was in accordance with the surface area of and the Ca content in the catalysts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scintillation gamma spectrometer for analysis of hydraulic fracturing waste products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Leong; O'Connor, Frank; Stolz, John F

    2015-01-01

    Flowback and produced wastewaters from unconventional hydraulic fracturing during oil and gas explorations typically brings to the surface Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), predominantly radioisotopes from the U238 and Th232 decay chains. Traditionally, radiological sampling are performed by sending collected small samples for laboratory tests either by radiochemical analysis or measurements by a high-resolution High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. One of the main isotopes of concern is Ra226 which requires an extended 21-days quantification period to allow for full secular equilibrium to be established for the alpha counting of its progeny daughter Rn222. Field trials of a sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector offers a more economic solution for rapid screenings of radiological samples. To achieve the quantification accuracy, this gamma spectrometer must be efficiency calibrated with known standard sources prior to field deployments to analyze the radioactivity concentrations in hydraulic fracturing waste products.

  17. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is pro...

  18. Ethanol production from cotton-based waste textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihanipour, Azam; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol production from cotton linter and waste of blue jeans textiles was investigated. In the best case, alkali pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in almost complete conversion of the cotton and jeans to glucose, which was then fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol. If no pretreatment applied, hydrolyses of the textiles by cellulase and beta-glucosidase for 24 h followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in 4 days, resulted in 0.140-0.145 g ethanol/g textiles, which was 25-26% of the corresponding theoretical yield. A pretreatment with concentrated phosphoric acid prior to the hydrolysis improved ethanol production from the textiles up to 66% of the theoretical yield. However, the best results obtained from alkali pretreatment of the materials by NaOH. The alkaline pretreatment of cotton fibers were carried out with 0-20% NaOH at 0 degrees C, 23 degrees C and 100 degrees C, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis up to 4 days. In general, higher concentration of NaOH resulted in a better yield of the hydrolysis, whereas temperature had a reverse effect and better results were obtained at lower temperature. The best conditions for the alkali pretreatment of the cotton were obtained in this study at 12% NaOH and 0 degrees C and 3 h. In this condition, the materials with 3% solid content were enzymatically hydrolyzed at 85.1% of the theoretical yield in 24 h and 99.1% in 4 days. The alkali pretreatment of the waste textiles at these conditions and subsequent SSF resulted in 0.48 g ethanol/g pretreated textiles used.

  19. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving Soil Productivity Through Agro-Industrial Waste Recycling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disposal of enormous waste has been a source of worry since the introduction of intensive agriculture. Poor organic waste management is often associated with carcinogenic nitrosamines and in other cases methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). It is therefore suggested waste high in nitrogen and phosphorus be ...

  1. Investigating the process of Prikarpattya potash production plants’ waste recycling into marketable products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia V. Ivanchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing technology of potash fertilizer production based on the polymineral ores leaching with chloride solutions is inevitably accompanied by the large-tonnage wastes accumulation, with the loss of up to 50% of low-soluble potassium and other minerals. The developed cyclic process of ore leaching with sulphate solutions provides opportunities for an integrated processing of ore into marketable products using all ore’s components. The results of production researches on model samples of halite-langbeinite residue give evidence of the appropriateness of applying the stoichiometric normal value of the leaching sulphate solution, which, on the one hand, is sufficient for dissolved minerals complete to the liquid phase and on other does provide a complete recovery of the sulphate solution returned to the leaching process. This maintains the hydrodynamic regime stability. The implementation of the sulphate leaching technology allows to recycle the accumulated solid waste of potash production and to eliminate new waste formation in the processing of freshly mined polymineral ore.

  2. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H{sub 2} production from food waste: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia, E-mail: letizia.tuccinardi@uniroma1.it

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Co-digestion process finalized to bio-H{sub 2} production was tested in batch tests. • Slaughterhouse waste (SHW) and food waste (FW) were co-digested in different proportions. • The presence of SHW affected the H{sub 2} production from FW. • When SHW ranging between 50% and 70% the H{sub 2} production is improved. • SHW percentages above 70%, led to a depletion in H{sub 2} production. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H{sub 2} production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H{sub 2} production compared to that in FW only, reaching H{sub 2}-production yields of 145 and 109 ml gVS{sub 0}{sup -1}, respectively, which are 1.5–2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H{sub 2} production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process.

  3. Conversion of waste polystyrene through catalytic degradation into valuable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Adnan [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-08-15

    Waste expanded polystyrene (EPS) represents a source of valuable chemical products like styrene and other aromatics. The catalytic degradation was carried out in a batch reactor with a mixture of polystyrene (PS) and catalyst at 450 .deg. C for 30 min in case of Mg and at 400 .deg. C for 2 h both for MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts. At optimum degradation conditions, EPS was degraded into 82.20±3.80 wt%, 91.60±0.20 wt% and 81.80±0.53 wt% liquid with Mg, MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts, respectively. The liquid products obtained were separated into different fractions by fractional distillation. The liquid fractions obtained with three catalysts were compared, and characterized using GC-MS. Maximum conversion of EPS into styrene monomer (66.6 wt%) was achieved with Mg catalyst, and an increase in selectivity of compounds was also observed. The major fraction at 145 .deg. C showed the properties of styrene monomer. The results showed that among the catalysts used, Mg was found to be the most effective catalyst for selective conversion into styrene monomer as value added product.

  4. Hydrogen production: two stage processes for waste degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, X; Fernández, C; Fierro, J; Sánchez, M E; Escapa, A; Morán, A

    2011-09-01

    The dark fermentation process generates hydrogen by biological means. It presents two main advantages: fulfilling requirements for mild operational conditions and gaining benefit from the residual biomass. The process itself may be seen as a pre-treatment step in a complete stabilisation chain, with the aim of attaining the valorisation of residual biomass. However, increasing the yield of H2 production is an imperative task. In this manuscript, a review of recent work in the field of fermentative hydrogen production is presented. As dark fermentation has a maximum yield of 33% (on sugars), a description is also presented of possible second stage processes for the degradation of dark fermentation effluents. Alternatives considered were photofermentation and bioelectrochemical systems (BES) as processes capable of converting fermentation sub-products into H2. Anaerobic digestion as a final stabilisation stage was also considered owing to the wide application of this technology in the treatment of bio-wastes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration

  6. Research Progress of Hydrogen Production fromOrganic Wastes in Microbial Electrolysis Cell(MEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yin-sheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrolysis cell(MECtechnology as an emerging technology, has achieved the target of hydrogen production from different substrates such as waste water, forestry wastes, activated sludge by simultaneous enzymolysis and fermentation, which can effectively improve the efficiency of resource utilization. This paper described the working principle of MEC and analyzed these factors influencing the process of hydrogen production from organic waste in MEC.

  7. PRODUCTION OF BIOFUELS AND BIOBASED COMPOUNDS IN URBAN BIOREFINERIES: A STRATEGY TO MANAGE WASTE IN WALLONIA?

    OpenAIRE

    Richel, Aurore; Haubruge, Eric; Jacquet, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    “Urban biorefining” is an original concept aiming at using urban wastes (household wastes, municipal wastes, industrial liquid and/or solid residues and side-products, etc.), mainly of vegetal origin, for the production of an array of biofuels and bioproducts. This “urban biorefining” concept fits particularly with the economic, geographic and politic contexts and constraints of the Walloon Region (south part of Belgium). Indeed, Walloon Region is a very small territory (area of about 6,...

  8. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  9. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  10. Utilization of various industrial wastes for the production of poly-b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the industrial interest of poly-b-hydroxy butyrate (PHB) and its high production cost, work has been undertaken for the production of PHB by Alcaligenes eutrophus. Different industrial wastes (malt, soya, sesame, molasses, bagasse and pharmaceutical waste) were used as a cheap substrate to minimize the ...

  11. Biodiesel waste products as soil amendments : evaluation of microbial, biological, and plant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-22

    During biodiesel production, about 200 lbs of glycerol, commonly called glycerin, is produced for every 1 ton of biodiesel. As the : biodiesel industry grows, so does the need to dispose of this waste product. While potential uses for glycerin exist,...

  12. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment was perf...

  13. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lin, Carol S.K. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hui, Chi-Wai [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon, E-mail: kemckayg@ust.hk [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • There is a major environmental issue about the printed circuit boards throughout the world. • Different physical and chemical recycling techniques have been reviewed. • Nonmetallic fraction of PCBs is the unwanted face of this waste stream. • Several applications of the nonmetallic fraction of waste PCBs have been introduced. - Abstract: E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly “recycling” has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined.

  15. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohamed A; Abed, Raeid M M

    2017-07-10

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4±77.1ml CH4/g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6±0.25g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9±0.08wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of surfactin by bacillus subtilis mtcc 2423 from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedaraman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the obstacles in the way of wide scale industrial application of biosurfactants is the high production cost coupled with a low production rate. In order to lower the production cost surfactin production by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 was studied in submerged batch cultivation using waste frying oils. It was observed that the decrease in surface tension was 56.32%, 48.5% and 46.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Biomass formation was 4.36 g/L, 3.67 g/L and 4.67 g/L for glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Product yield (g product/g substrate was 2.1%, 1.49% and 1.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil as substrates. This process facilitates safe disposal of waste frying oil, as well reducing the production cost of surfactin.

  17. Safety evaluation of the leaching of metals from the printed graphic product wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Savka Adamović; Miljana Prica; Jelena Radonić; Maja Turk Sekulić; Szabolcs Pap

    2015-01-01

    Due to the technological development of the graphic production, the environment is being faced with a large amount of printed graphic product wastes, especially packaging materials (paper, cardboard, paper and plastic bags, films, etc), but it is also being faced with the problem of their disposal. Many printing inks and coatings used in the production of the printed graphic product contain metals which, after the disposal of graphic waste, can migrate to different systems and have a negative...

  18. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery: Using slaughtering waste streams as starting material for biopolyester production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Shahid; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Koller, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co-products biodiesel (0.97 €/L) and MBM (350 €/t), respectively. The effect of fluctuating market prices for offal materials, biodiesel, and MBM on the final PHA production cost as well as the investment payback time have been evaluated. Depending on the current market situation, the calculated investment payback time varies from 3.25 to 4.5years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  20. Investigation of biogas production and its residue with fertilization effect from municipal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Nithiyaa, Manikam; Sin, Lee Tin; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Rahmat, A R

    2013-10-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the production of methane gas from three different types of food waste (vegetables waste, fruit waste and grain waste) using batch type anaerobic digestion method. The digestion process was conducted by using temperature range of 27 to 36 degrees C and pH 6.5 to 7.5 to yield an optimum condition for the digestion process. The digestion was continued for a period of two weeks with the aid of cow dung as the inoculums. It was found that the grain waste yielded the highest methane 2546 mL due to the high content of carbohydrate. At the mean time, the fruit waste produced the second highest methane gas with 2000 mL as well as the vegetable waste generated the lowest methane gas with volume of 1468 mL. The vegetable waste produced the lowest methane gas because the vegetables waste contains high fibres and cellulose walls but low in glucose amount. For the fertilization test, fruit waste demonstrated the best observation for the growth of plant due to high content of potassium and followed by vegetable waste. The least effective fertilizer was grain waste due to less content of nutrients essential for plants growth.

  1. A Study Identifying Causes of Construction Waste Production and Applying Safety Management on Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In a recent century, the amount of construction waste has increased significantly. Although the building industry has a considerable role in the development of a society, it is regarded as an environmentally destructive. Source reduction is the highest goal in the waste management hierarchy and is in priority. It also has economic benefits by reducing costs associated with transportation, disposal or recycling of wastes. The present study is aimed to identify activities generating the wastes in design, transportation and storage and procurement of building materials. Materials and Methods: This was questionnaire survey. A total of 94 professionals in the construction industry were attended in this study. To determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, content validity method and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.79 were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were determined in this research. Results: The results showed that handling and storage have been chosen as the most causative factor of waste production in construction activity. Improper material storage was identified major factor in producing waste in handling and storage phase. Usage of low-quality material in design stage and material price changes in procurement were recognized as major causes of waste production in these stages. Conclusion: All studied phases in this research were identified as causative factors in producing of waste. Identifying causes of construction waste production will help us decide better how to control this sort of wastes.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste for energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Nayono, Satoto Endar

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of anaerobic reactors treating OFMSW (organic fraction of municipal solid waste), especially in terms of its energy recovery, either by investigating the maximum organic loading rate or by co-digestion with other types of wastes for energy recovery. In order to reach the research purpose, several experiments such as characteristics examination of different organic solid wastes, which are potential substrates for anaerobic digestion.

  3. Production of fuels and chemicals from waste by microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christopher W; LaBelle, Edward V; May, Harold D

    2013-06-01

    The demand for chemicals and fuels will continue to grow simultaneously with the costly requirement to treat solid waste, wastewater, and regarding climate change, carbon dioxide. A dual benefit is at hand if waste could be converted to valuable chemicals. The application of stable chemical producing microbiomes adapted to these waste streams may turn this challenge into an opportunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainable transition of electronic products through waste policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    The European Union's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directive makes a challenging case for transition theory and its different aspects, as it represents an ongoing and still open-ended case. At present the objectives of the directive are not met: the amount of electronic waste...... is increasing, and the resulting waste is poorly managed. With its starting point in the multi-level perspective of transition theory, this case study analyzes how the outcome of the WEEE directive is constituted in the interplay between the somewhat detached regimes of electronics and waste management. The two...

  5. Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2).

  6. Waste-to-Chemicals for a Circular Economy: The Case of Urea Production (Waste-to-Urea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Elena; Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Salladini, Annarita; Spadaccini, Luca; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2017-03-09

    The economics and environmental impact of a new technology for the production of urea from municipal solid waste, particularly the residue-derived fuel (RdF) fraction, is analyzed. Estimates indicate a cost of production of approximately €135 per ton of urea (internal rate of return more than 10 %) and savings of approximately 0.113 tons of CH4 and approximately 0.78 tons of CO2 per ton of urea produced. Thus, the results show that this waste-to-urea (WtU) technology is both economically valuable and environmentally advantageous (in terms of saving resources and limiting carbon footprint) for the production of chemicals from municipal solid waste in comparison with both the production of urea with conventional technology (starting from natural gas) and the use of RdF to produce electrical energy (waste-to-energy). A further benefit is the lower environmental impact of the solid residue produced from RdF conversion. The further benefit of this technology is the possibility to realize distributed fertilizer production. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Mapping ENM from consumer products in solid waste flows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    To address the challenges regarding management of waste from ENM-enabled consumer products, we mapped the flow of these products available online in Denmark and the EU. To do this, we used the Nanodatabase (www.nanodb.dk). A representative sample of products from the database was analyzed...... and silicon) were only present in one or two fractions. Furthermore, the waste material fraction "dirty plastic" was the most diversified, containing five different ENMs. To our knowledge this type of analysis has not previously been performed, and the results hold promise for gaining a better understanding......, and placed into suitable waste material fractions. Subsequently, the distribution of ENM in the individual waste fractions, by number of products, was found. Overall, the results showed that nanosilver was present in seven of the eight identified waste material fractions, whereas other ENMs (e.g. CNTs...

  8. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy Danielsen, Svein; Alnæs, Lisbeth; Azrague, Kamal; Suleng, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway Svein Willy Danielsen1), Lisbeth Alnæs2), Kamal Azrague2), Jon Suleng3) 1) Geomaterials Consultant, Trondheim Norway, 2) SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 3) AF Gruppen AS, Oppdal, Norway A significant amount of aggregate research in Norway has been focused on the recovery and use of surplus sizes from hard rock aggregate quarries. The use of sand sized quarry waste (QW) from crushing/processing has been motivated by the rapid depletion of traditional sand/gravel resources, increasing land-use conflicts, and the need to minimise QW deposits which for some quarries are becoming a critical factor for economy as well as for environmental reasons. With an annual aggregate production of 77 million tons, out of which approximately 83 % comes from hard rock, the annual volume of size strict requirements to the finished products, both regarding processing and the character of the parent rock. The need to deposit large amounts of QW is a serious setback for the quarry economy. Within a limited time horizon the volumes of QW can threaten the further exploitation by merely choking the quarry. On the opposite side - any process that can convert the QW into sellable products will give a tremendous added value for the producer. Besides, the area in question is about to drain out its available aggregate resources, having to rely on long-transported sand and gravel. This has consequences not only for the economy, but also for the environment since heavy lorry transport will not be sustainable. An on-going project is now looking into converting the QW into quality aggregate both for road construction and concrete. Novel crusher technology and processing strategy is being applied and adapted, and the finished products will be tested in laboratories to establish the relevant application parameters and obtainable quality. By producing coarse aggregates for primarily road purpose, it is estimated that the QW can be reduced

  10. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B) Production as Landfill Liner

    OpenAIRE

    Müfide Banar; Yücel Güney; Aysun Özkan; Zerrin Günkaya; Eren Bayrakcı; Derya Ulutaş

    2016-01-01

    Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW) was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded...

  11. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  12. Production and characterisation of biochar from different farm wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three different carbon-rich materials called biochars were produced from three different agricultural wastes using slow pyrolysis technique. The abundance of these wastes (maize cobs, maize stovers and cocoa pod husks) in most farms in Nigeria informed their choice. In this study, the biochars produced were ...

  13. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeki, H.; Evans, N.; Czervinski, K.; Bruggeman, Ch.; Poineau, F.; Breynaert, A.; Reiler, P.; Pablo, J. de; Pipon, Y.; Molnar, M.; Nishimura, T.; Kienzler, B.; Van Iseghem, P.; Crovisier, J.L.; Wieland, E.; Mace, N.; Pablo, J. de; Spahiu, K.; Cui, D.; Lida, Y.; Charlet, L.; Liu, X.; Sato, H.; Goutelard, F.; Savoye, S.; Glaus, M.; Poinssot, C.; Seby, F.; Sato, H.; Tournassat, Ch.; Montavon, G.; Rotenberg, B.; Spahiu, K.; Smith, G.; Marivoet, J.; Landais, P.; Bruno, J.; Johnson, H.; Umeki, L.; Geckeis, H.; Giffaut, E.; Grambow, B.; Dierckx, A

    2007-07-01

    This document gathers 33 oral presentations that were made at this workshop dedicated to the mobility of some radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal. The workshop was organized into 6 sessions: 1) performance assessment, 2) speciation/interaction in aqueous media, 3) radioactive wastes, 4) redox processes at interfaces, 5) diffusion processes, and 6) retention processes.

  14. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S K; Hui, Chi-Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly "recycling" has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenstrauha, I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50% of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminiumborosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 ºC. In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90% was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15–35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45–65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 ºC in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090–1100 ºC with the most optimal properties - porosity 38-52%, water absorption 39–47% and bulk density 1.35–1.67 g/cm3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35–1.1%, water absorption 0.7–2.6 % and bulk density 2.1–2.3 g/cm3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM. By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected.Durante la obtención de ciertas fibras de vidrio se generan dos subproductos o residuos principalmente: Lodo de arcilla montmorillonítica capaz de adsorber el 50 % de materia orgánica y un vidrio silicato alumínico con temperatura de reblandecimiento relativamente alta (> 600 ºC. Con el fin de elaborar nuevos

  16. Production, Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Protease from Streptomyces sp. MAB18 Using Poultry Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan Manivasagan; Jayachandran Venkatesan; Kannan Sivakumar; Se-Kwon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Poultry waste is an abundant renewable source for the recovery of several value-added metabolites with potential industrial applications. This study describes the production of protease on poultry waste, with the subsequent use of the same poultry waste for the extraction of antioxidants. An extracellular protease-producing strain was isolated from Cuddalore coast, India, and identified as Streptomyces sp. MAB18. Its protease was purified 17.13-fold with 21.62% yield with a specific activity ...

  17. Waste Utilization and Biodiesel Production by the Green Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shovon; Mallick, Nirupama

    2011-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus was cultivated in three types of waste discharges to couple waste treatment with biodiesel production. The lipid pool accumulation was boosted to 1.0 g liter−1 against 0.1 g liter−1 for the control. The waste-grown S. obliquus showed an increase in the content of the saturated fatty acid pool, which is desirable for good-quality biodiesel. PMID:21057012

  18. The management of hospital waste products in hospitals of Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kamran Mirzaie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital waste contains a large quantity of dangerous pathogenic agents, which are hazardous to the health of man, animal, plant and the environment. In Iran, like many other developing countries, not enough attention is paid to this matter and available information regarding the generation and disposal of medical wastes are low. The existing information about production and disposal of wastes in our hospitals is little and incomplete. In this study, a survey on hospital waste management system in Bushehr province hospitals was conducted. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 8 hospitals in Bushehr province were investigated during a period of 6 months using a questionnaire, interviews and direct observations. The questionnaire had 93 questions (open and closed about general information on the hospitals and about various systems of managing hospital waste according to the World Health Organization suggested survey questionnaire for hospital waste management in developing countries. Results: In hospitals of bushehr province, waste generation rate was 2615 kg/day, including domestic waste (51.7%, infectious waste (20.8%, sharps (15.2% and chemical and drugs wastes (12.3%. In almost all hospitals, segregation of infectious waste from domestic waste at the place of origin and putting them in special containers had been done but this segregation wasn’t complete and sometimes some hazardous waste were disposed of in domestic waste containers. All hospitals used a color coding system for waste containers, 75 % of hospitals had incinerators. In others, waste was carried out by municipal service daily. In all hospitals, all workers were trained about hospital waste management. In none of the surveyed hospitals, there was an obvious policy and plan for purchasing equipment and necessary facilities in order to dispose hospital waste correctly and also no clear budget was allocated for hospital waste management. In none of these hospitals

  19. The model relationship of wastes for parameter design with green lean production of fresh water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastiadi Tamjidillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is about eliminating waste including the seven traditional, this writing suggested an observation on no value added of seven wastes influencing the process of fresh water production. The relationship value among waste was statistically verified to create an approach for continuous improvement action. Thus, the main goal of this research is to develop a methodology of relationship among wastes and eliminate them. In relationship among wastes, it could be known that the high value indicating how often it happened in the production process gave direct cause in the system of fresh water treatment. A recommendation to reduce the highest value of waste is by doing improvement on parameter setting to obtain an optimum mixing model between water supply, alum and stroke pump with Taguchi method. The interaction of relationship among these seven types of waste can be portrayed using fishbone diagram and a relationship model among wastes using PLS smart (partial least squares. The final relationship model with the highest value of waste was analyzed using off-line quality control to upgrade the quality of fresh water used as the basis to eliminate waste and find out the optimal parameter of mixing process in accordance with the health standard.

  20. Waste-to-Energy biofuel production potential for selected feedstocks in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaggs, Richard L.; Coleman, André M.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Milbrandt, Anelia R.

    2017-10-01

    Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies offer the promise of diverting organic wastes, including wastewater sludge, livestock waste, and food waste, for beneficial energy use while reducing the quantities of waste that are disposed or released to the environment. To ensure economic and environmental viability of WtE feedstocks, it is critical to gain an understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of waste production. Detailed information about waste characteristics, capture/diversion, transport requirements, available conversion technologies, and overall energy conversion efficiency is also required. Building on the development of a comprehensive WtE feedstock database that includes municipal wastewater sludge; animal manure; food processing waste; and fats, oils, and grease for the conterminous United States, we conducted a detailed analysis of the wastes' potential for biofuel production on a site-specific basis. Our analysis indicates that with conversion by hydrothermal liquefaction, these wastes have the potential to produce up to 22.3 GL/y (5.9 Bgal/y) of a biocrude oil intermediate that can be upgraded and refined into a variety of liquid fuels, in particular renewable diesel and aviation kerosene. Conversion to aviation kerosene can potentially meet 23.9% of current U.S. demand.

  1. Upgrading of organic waste : production of the copolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate by Ralstonia eutrophus with organic waste as sole carbon source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, Klaassien J.; Hagen, Annechien van; Agteren, Martin H. van; Koning, Wim de; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two types of fermented organic waste (trade and industry waste and fruit and vegetable waste) were successfully used as a sole carbon source to produce poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) by Ralstonia eutrophus (formerly Alcaligenes eutrophus) via oxygen limitation. The production of PHBV

  2. Conceptual and economic foundations of strategic management of solid waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Borisovna Leonova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews existing global concept in the field of waste production and consumption.The purpose of this investigation is the development of a new hierarchy of waste mana-gement and adjustment of the existing waste management strategy, acceptable to Russia. To analyze the current situation of waste production and consumption there was studied foreign experience in waste management and considered the situation of waste in the Russian Federation and Sverdlovsk region. Analytical, statistical and theoretical methods of work were used.The new hierarchy of desirable waste management is based on the following order: selective collection of waste, particularly household, their recycling and thereby minimize them, and then their treatment and further disposal. This new hierarchy will significantly reduce the burden on the environment and land resources.The revised strategy for solid waste management should consist of 6 blocks, ranked in a logical sequence: organizational, legal, science and research, economic, controlling, educational. Each of them includes a list of activities. Term strategy implementation is 5 years, followed by a possible prolongation.To improve the efficiency of work in the field of solid waste management in Russia must be created a new waste recycling industry, which can be provided by necessary infrastructure for the collection, transportation, recycling and disposal of solid waste products. It is also required to monitor environmental pollution waste using geographic information systems and provide educational work among population and the leaders of the industrial and communal enterprises.In the article in addition to the world concept the authors took into account an economic component, which includes analysis of the costs of environmental protection measures and economic damage caused by waste disposal. The paper also provides an industry deformed structure of the Russian economy, which explains the inability to

  3. Modelling temperature-dependent heat production over decades in High Arctic coal waste rock piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface heat production from oxidation of pyrite is an important process that may increase subsurface temperatures within coal waste rock piles and increase the release of acid mine drainage, AMD. Waste rock piles in the Arctic are especially vulnerable to changes in subsurface temperatures...... as the release of AMD normally is limited by permafrost. Here we show that temperatures within a 20 year old heat-producing waste rock pile in Svalbard (78°N) can be modelled by the one-dimensional heat and water flow model (CoupModel) with a new temperature-dependent heat-production module that includes both...... biological and chemical oxidation processes and heat source depletion over time. Inputs to the model are meteorological measurements, physical properties of the waste rock material and measured subsurface heat-production rates. Measured mean annual subsurface temperatures within the waste rock pile are up...

  4. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-11-15

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mei, E-mail: msun8@uncc.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sun, Wenjie, E-mail: wsun@smu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750340, Dallas, TX (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H{sub 2}S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H{sub 2}S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H{sub 2}S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H{sub 2}S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H{sub 2}S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H{sub 2}S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H{sub 2}S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H{sub 2}S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H{sub 2}S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating

  6. Microbial biodegradation of proteinaceous tannery solid waste and production of a novel value added product - Metalloprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Balasubramani; Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Thirunavukarasu, Kathirvel; Sekaran, Ganesan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, animal fleshing (ANFL) was utilized as a substrate for the production of extracellular protease by Clostridium limosum through central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Optimum protease production of 433U/ml was achieved and the purified enzyme was identified as acidic metalloprotease, a monomeric protein. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 71kDa, whose activity was enhanced by bivalent metals such as Zn(2+) and Mg(2+). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination also revealed the hydrolysis/microbial degradation of ANFL through protease activity in the anaerobic fermentation process. Simultaneous hydrolysis of ANFL and production of an enzyme with the potential for different industrial applications provide an attractive methodology for the disposal of tannery solid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for sustainable energy production and product recovery from organic wastes and industrial wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Van Bogaert, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    ) respectively, or other products formed at the cathode by an electrochemical reduction process. As compared to conventional fuel cells, BESs operate under relatively mild conditions, use a wide variety of organic substrates and mostly do not use expensive precious metals as catalysts. The recently discovered......Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are unique systems capable of converting the chemical energy of organic waste including low-strength wastewaters and lignocellulosic biomass into electricity or hydrogen/chemical products in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or microbial electrolysis cells (MECs...... use of BES for product synthesis via microbial electrosynthesis have greatly expanded the horizon for these systems. Newer concepts in application as well as development of alternative materials for electrodes, separators, and catalysts, along with innovative designs have made BESs very promising...

  8. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  9. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  10. The effect of system parameters on the biogas production from anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  11. Evaluation of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane ...

  12. Effect of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane...

  13. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a feedstock for the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... interested in the improvement of fermentation process for the production of biopolymer from biodiesel wastes due to the current situation about global environment and solid waste management problems. Among various classes of biopolymer, polyhydro- xyalkanoates (PHAs) have played much attention.

  14. Recyclable Materials (Waste) Management in Enterprise’s Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevskaia-Malevich, E. D.; Demidenko, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    Currently, in view of the increasing garbage crisis, the notion of a “new lease of life” for waste becomes even more relevant. Waste recycling makes it possible not only to solve obvious environmental problems, but also to offer new resource opportunities for industries. Among the obvious economic, social and environmental advantages, however, waste recycling meets various problems. These problems and solutions for them, as well as the problems of economic efficiency improvement and recycling activities’ appeal for industrial companies in Leningrad region, are discussed in the present study.

  15. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.; Grandjean, A.; Ledieu, A.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Barre, Y.; Tronche, E. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LDMC, Batiment 208 BP17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear industry produces a wide range of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes which can include different radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr. In La Hague reprocessing plant and in the nuclear research centers of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), the coprecipitation of strontium with barium sulphate is the technique used to treat selectively these contaminated streams with the best efficiency. After the decontamination process, low and intermediate level activity wastes incorporating significant quantities of sulphate are obtained. The challenge is to find a matrix easy to form and with a good chemical durability which is able to confine this kind of nuclear waste. The current process used to contain sulphate-rich nuclear wastes is bituminization. However, in order to improve properties of containment matrices and simplify the process, CEA has chosen to supervise researches on other materials such as cements or glasses. Indeed, cements are widely used for the immobilization of a variety of wastes (low and intermediate level wastes) and they may be an alternative matrix to bitumen. Even if Portland cement, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry, presents some disadvantages for the containment of sulphate-rich nuclear wastes (risk of swelling and cracking due to delayed ettringite formation), other cement systems, such as calcium sulfo-aluminate binders, may be valuable candidates. Another matrix to confine sulphate-rich waste could be the glass. One of the advantages of this material is that it could also immobilize sulphate containing high level nuclear waste which is present in some countries. This waste comes from the use of ferrous sulfamate as a reducing agent for the conversion of Pu{sup 4+} to Pu{sup 3+} in the partitioning stage of the actinides during reprocessing. Sulphate solubility in borosilicate glasses has already been studied in CEA at laboratory and pilot scales. At a pilot scale, low level liquid waste has been

  16. Techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Zhixiang; Tang, Junhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess based on solid state fermentation for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was carried out. The hydrogen production plant was assumed to be built in Hangzhou and designed for converting 3 ton food waste per day into hydrogen. The total capital cost (TCC) and the annual production cost (APC) were US$583092 and US$88298.1/year, respectively. The overall revenue after the tax was US$146473.6/year. The return on investment (ROI), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) of the plant were 26.75%, 5 years and 24.07%, respectively. The results exhibited that the combined bioprocess for hydrogen production from food waste was feasible. This is an important study for attracting investment and industrialization interest for hydrogen production from food waste in the industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochemical methane production potential from different components of fraction of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrés Pérez de Rada, Mª Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    - Issues of management of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (biogas production in landfills, leachates with high concentrations of organics, odour problems). - Porribility of energy production from this fraction by mean of Anaerobic digestion. - Evaluation of the biogas and methane potential productions from single components of the organic fraction of MSW by mean of lab test. - Modelling of cumulative production.

  18. Microbial Conversion of Waste Glycerol from Biodiesel Production into Value-Added Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel that is capable of being utilized by a conventional diesel engine. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated a surplus of glycerol. A value-added opportunity is needed in order to compensate for disposal-associated costs. Microbial conversions from glycerol to valuable chemicals performed by various bacteria, yeast, fungi, and microalgae are discussed in this review paper, as well as the possibility of extending these conversions to microbial electrochemical technologies.

  19. Integration of Cleaner Production and Waste Water Treatment on Tofu Small Industry for Biogas Production using AnSBR Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyowati Rahayu Suparni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A research on developing a system that integrates clean production and waste water treatment for biogas production in tofu small industry has been conducted. In this research, tofu waste water was turned into biogas using an AnSBR reactor. Mud from the sewage system serves as the inoculums. This research involved: (1 workshop; (2 supervising; (3 technical meeting; (4 network meeting, and (5 technical application. Implementation of clean production integrated with waste water treatment reduced the amount of waste water to be treated in a treatment plant. This means less cost for construction and operation of waste water treatment plants, as inherent limitations associated with such plants like lack of fund, limited area, and technological issues are inevitable. Implementation of clean production prior to waste water treatment reduces pollution figures down to certain levels that limitations in waste water treatment plants can be covered. Results show that biogas in 16 days HRT in an AnSBR reactor contains CH4(78.26 % and CO2 (20.16 %. Meanwhile, treatments using a conventional bio-digester result in biogas with 72.16 % CH4 and 18.12 % CO2. Hence, biogas efficiency for the AnSBR system is 2.14 times greater than that of a conventional bio-digester.

  20. Production of ethanol from a mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste via a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Kira, Noriko; Tomiyama, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Efficient ethanol production from waste paper requires the addition of expensive nutrients. To reduce the production cost of ethanol from waste paper, a study on how to produce ethanol efficiently by adding kitchen waste (potentially as a carbon source, nutrient source, and acidity regulator) to waste paper was performed and a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (L+PSSF) was developed. The individual saccharification performances of waste paper and kitchen waste were not influenced by their mixture. Liquefaction of kitchen waste at 90°C prior to presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) was essential for efficient ethanol fermentation. Ethanol at concentrations of 46.6 or 43.6g/l was obtained at the laboratory scale after fermentation for 96h, even without pH adjustment and/or the addition of extra nutrients. Similarly, ethanol at a concentration of 45.5g/l was obtained at the pilot scale after fermentation for 48h. The ethanol concentration of L+PSSF of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste was comparable to that of PSSF of waste paper with added nutrients (yeast extract and peptone) and pH adjustment using H 2 SO 4 , indicating that kitchen waste is not only a carbon source but also an excellent nutrient source and acidity regulator for fermentation of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  2. Concrete Production Using Technogenical, Constructional and Domestic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vaičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes investigations carried out by the scientists from various countries in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. The grained rubber of tyres, modified sawdust, crushed ceramic bricks, plastic waste and remains of glass are utilised to produce concrete mixtures. The results of research conducted by the scientists show that in the process of producing concrete we can use different types of waste to change natural aggregates and to get concrete with specific properties. Currently, waste handling and utilization are burning ecological problems. Therefore, intensive investigations are carried out in order to utilise technogenical, constructional and domestic waste for concrete mixtures. Article in Lithuanian

  3. Clinker Production from Wastes of Cellulose and Granite Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassoni, Délio Porto; de Cássia, Alvarenga Rita; Pedrotti, Leonardo; Mendes, Beatryz

    This work present a belite cement based made from two industrial waste types. Binary mixtures were prepares using waste from rock cutting and polishing industries and waste from cellulose industry (named grits), in diferente proportions. The mixed raw materials were burned at a temperature of 950 °C in an electric oven for 30 minutes and then cooled at a rate of 70 °C per minute. The mineralogical composition of the material obtained was studied by means of XRD techniques, confirming the dominance of dicalcium silicate. Mixed mortars produced with the new material, in full replacement of Portland cement, showed satisfactory performance for use in construction works. This research shows that it is possible to obtain hydraulic binders from industrial waste, at lower temperatures than the required for the consumption of non-renewable resources and energy.

  4. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    Optimal utilization of biomass and waste for energy purposes offers great potentials for reducing fossil fuel dependency and resource consumption. The common understanding is that bioenergy decreases greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as the carbon released during energy conversion has previously been...... impacts. Waste, such as municipal solid waste, does not involve land use change impacts. However, existing and emerging waste treatment technologies offer different environmental benefits and drawbacks which should be evaluated in order to recommend appropriate technologies in selected scenarios....... To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and wasteto-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide...

  5. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  6. Integrated systems for biopolymers and bioenergy production from organic waste and by-products: a review of microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Giorgia; Ventorino, Valeria; Panico, Antonio; Pepe, Olimpia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, issues concerning the sustainable and harmless disposal of organic solid waste have generated interest in microbial biotechnologies aimed at converting waste materials into bioenergy and biomaterials, thus contributing to a reduction in economic dependence on fossil fuels. To valorize biomass, waste materials derived from agriculture, food processing factories, and municipal organic waste can be used to produce biopolymers, such as biohydrogen and biogas, through different microbial processes. In fact, different bacterial strains can synthesize biopolymers to convert waste materials into valuable intracellular (e.g., polyhydroxyalkanoates) and extracellular (e.g., exopolysaccharides) bioproducts, which are useful for biochemical production. In particular, large numbers of bacteria, including Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter beijerincki, methylotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Rhizobium spp., Nocardia spp., and recombinant Escherichia coli, have been successfully used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates on an industrial scale from different types of organic by-products. Therefore, the development of high-performance microbial strains and the use of by-products and waste as substrates could reasonably make the production costs of biodegradable polymers comparable to those required by petrochemical-derived plastics and promote their use. Many studies have reported use of the same organic substrates as alternative energy sources to produce biogas and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion as well as dark and photofermentation processes under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, concurrently obtaining bioenergy and biopolymers at a reasonable cost through an integrated system is becoming feasible using by-products and waste as organic carbon sources. An overview of the suitable substrates and microbial strains used in low-cost polyhydroxyalkanoates for biohydrogen and biogas production is

  7. Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district heating sector: a production function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtenback, Orjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

  8. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  9. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  10. Solid Waste Production and Its Management in Dental Clinics in Gorgan, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nabizadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waste produced in dental clinics has been the topic of investigations for many years. These waste materials have important health impacts and are hazardous to humans and the environment. Objective: To investigating solid waste production and its management in dental clinics in Gorgan, northern Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 45 of 143 public dental practices and 5 of 25 private dental practices were selected and studied. From each clinic, 3 samples were taken and analyzed at the end of successive working days (Tuesday and Wednesday. Samples were manually sorted into 50 components. The measured components were then classified on the basis of their characteristics, hazard potentials, and WHO classification. Results: The total annual amount of dental waste produced in public and private dental practices in Gorgan was 12 015.1 and 3135.0 kg, respectively. Production percentages of infectious, domestic, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic waste in public dental practices were 38.4%, 33.7%, 6.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. The percentages for private practices were 8.7%, 10.6%, 1.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Dental waste management in Gorgan is inadequate; dental waste is not properly segregated, collected, and disposed, as demanded by the WHO. Employees in dentist offices must be trained in correct handling of waste products and the associated risks.

  11. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand. Copyright © 2013

  12. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield. PMID:27910937

  13. Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Usage of Oil Industry Products and Wastes as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek BOLAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for oil industry products has been increasing in parallel to the rapid population growth and industrialization. Physical and chemical properties of these products change after usage based on the media and operating conditions. Then, these products lose the eligibility and turn into the form of waste. The most commonly used method for the disposal of waste oils is combustion due to its high calorific value. In this study, the possible effects on the environment and human health of combustion of oil industry products and wastes are evaluated. Poor combustion conditions lead emissions from the process depending on the ingredients of wastes in addition to incomplete combustion products such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic chemicals polyaromatic hydrocarbons, metals etc. that may occur according to the type of waste. These emissions are released into the environment and partition between soil, water and air media related to their physicochemical characteristics. In addition to environmental problems, these emissions are a risk factor for human health in terms of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Regulations and control measures should be put into practice in order to get rid of the effects of non-standard diesel like product named number 10 lube on human health and environment. In this context, emission measurements should be done simultaneously to determine the effects of combustion of these wastes and products of oil industry.

  14. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-12-02

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield.

  15. Safety evaluation of the leaching of metals from the printed graphic product wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka Adamović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the technological development of the graphic production, the environment is being faced with a large amount of printed graphic product wastes, especially packaging materials (paper, cardboard, paper and plastic bags, films, etc, but it is also being faced with the problem of their disposal. Many printing inks and coatings used in the production of the printed graphic product contain metals which, after the disposal of graphic waste, can migrate to different systems and have a negative influence on the environment. Because of that, the concentration levels of metals (zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, and nickel in the printed graphic product wastes have firstly been determined, and then the impact of those metals, through their migration from the printed graphic product wastes to the simulated environmental mediums with different pH values (acidic and neutral, has been estimated. Based on the experimentally obtained concentrations of metals that have migrated from the printed graphic product wastes to the neutral solution and based on the theoretical distribution coefficient, the concentration of metals in the soil of illegal and municipal landfills, which represents the contribution to the overall metal concentration in the soil due to the migration from the waste printed graphic materials, has been calculated. Also, a comparison between the experimentally obtained metal concentrations and the literature values has been conducted, and an evaluation of their influence on the quality of soil has been given.

  16. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  18. Production of bioethanol from papaya and pineapple wastes using marine associated microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayaprakashvel, M.; Akila, S.; Venkatramani, M.; Vinothini, S.; Bhagat, J.; Hussain, A. J.

    alginate. A total of 12 set of fermentation experiments were carried out by immobilized fungus and commercial baker’s yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae using papaya and pineapple wastes as substrates for ethanol production. The combination of pineapple fruit...

  19. Methods for genetic optimization of biocatalysts for biofuel production from dairy waste through synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasotti, Lorenzo; Zucca, Susanna; Casanova, Michela; Politi, Nicolo; Massaiu, Ilaria; Mazzini, Giuliano; Micoli, Giuseppina; Calvio, Cinzia; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Magni, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Whey is an abundant by-product of cheese production process and it is considered a special waste due to its high nutritional load and hypertrophic potential. Technologies for whey valorization are available. They can convert such waste into high-value products, like whey proteins. However, the remaining liquid (called permeate) is still considered as a polluting waste due to its high lactose concentration. The alcoholic fermentation of lactose into ethanol will simultaneously achieve two important goals: safe disposal of a pollutant waste and green energy production. This methodology paper illustrates the workflow carried out to design and realize an optimized microorganism that can efficiently perform the lactose-to-ethanol conversion, engineered via synthetic biology experimental and computational approaches.

  20. Investigating the Effect of Waste Process of Halva Ardeh Production on Vermicompost Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Khatebasreh

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Based on our findings, the compost quality of this study confirms to the standards of compost class A. This method can be used to convert the waste from Halva Ardeh production on vermicompost qulity.

  1. Utilization possibilites of waste products from fishing and hunting to biogas and bio-oil production in Uummannaq County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jørgensen, Marianne Willemoes

    2008-01-01

    the specific conditions that apply in Uummannaq County. The best alternatives were evaluated to be biogas production and utilization of fat from the fish waste to produce bio-oil. The results showed that with the price of energy in Greenland in 2009 of 3,71 DKR per kWh, the waste in Uummannaq County would...... amount to approximately 6 million DKR when using biogas production and 5,7 million DKR when using bio-oil. Compared with the energy used in Uummannaq County today, the biogas production would be able to supply 17 percent of the energy and bio-oil production would cover approximately 16 percent....

  2. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM COW WASTE AND UTILIZATION OF BIOGAS WASTE AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology activities for cattle ranchers and salacca farmers was done with the aim to utilize added-value of cattle waste to energy needs and use of biogas waste as organic fertilizer on salacca crops. Implementation of activities have been done at cattle ranchers in the village of Mlambangan, one of village on Berbah Sub-district at Sleman district in the form of demonstration plots and the salacca of the farmer’s crop in the village of Margososno, one of village on Srumbung Sub-district, at Magelang District, in the form of training and implementation in the field. Results of Demonstration Plot creation digester quite successful, because the material is available in sufficient and sustainable as well as the active force. The results of laboratory tests on the levels of N, P, and K from the waste produced biogas respectively 0.07 percent, 0.29 percent, and 3.21 percent, while for solid waste cow respectively 1.64 percent, 0, 99 percent, and 4.38 percent. Utilization of waste at biogas plants responded positively salacca by farmers, given the limited supply of organic fertilizer in the planting location of salacca, this is due to the limited cattle in the planting location of salacca.

  3. Co-composting of eggshell waste in self-heating reactors: monitoring and end product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Micaela A. R.; Quina, Margarida M. J.; Rosa M. Quinta-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Industrial eggshell waste (ES) is classified as an animal by-product not intended to human consumption. For reducing pathogen spreading risk due to soil incorporation of ES, sanitation by composting is a pre-treatment option. This work aims to evaluate eggshell waste recycling in self-heating composting reactors and investigate ES effect on process evolution and end product quality. Potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks were the starting organic materials considered. The incorporati...

  4. Evaluation of Quality of Output Product in the Technology Group for Pyrolisis of Organic Waste Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav HONUS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ecological removal of organic polymer materials and wastes polluting the environment is very much alive and it is clear that it will take on ever greater importance. a promising and innovative technology for environmentally friendly disposal of waste organic matter is pyrolysis. This method of thermal processing of waste for its degradation as well as a source of valuable energy products using the new system Pyromatic. This paper presents its technical description and evaluation of the quality of output product from the pyrolysis of tires, plastics and coal.

  5. Evaluation of waste mushroom logs as a potential biomass resource for the production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Koo, Bon-Wook; Choi, Joon-Weon; Choi, Don-Ha; Choi, In-Gyu

    2008-05-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of using waste mushroom logs as a biomass resource for alternative energy production, the chemical and physical characteristics of normal wood and waste mushroom logs were examined. Size reduction of normal wood (145 kW h/tone) required significantly higher energy consumption than waste mushroom logs (70 kW h/tone). The crystallinity value of waste mushroom logs was dramatically lower (33%) than normal wood (49%) after cultivation by Lentinus edodes as spawn. Lignin, an enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitor in sugar production, decreased from 21.07% to 18.78% after inoculation of L. edodes. Total sugar yields obtained by enzyme and acid hydrolysis were higher in waste mushroom logs than in normal wood. After 24h fermentation, 12 g/L ethanol was produced on waste mushroom logs, while normal wood produced 8 g/L ethanol. These results indicate that waste mushroom logs are economically suitable lignocellulosic material for the production of fermentable sugars related to bioethanol production.

  6. Ozone pretreatment of process waste water generated in course of fluoroquinolone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Fares; Pelzer, David; Zuehlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    During production of active pharmaceutical ingredients, process waste water is generated at several stages of manufacturing. Whenever possible, the resulting waste water will be processed by conventional waste water treatment plants. Currently, incineration of the process waste water is the method to eliminate compounds with high biological activity. Thus, ozone treatment followed by biological waste water treatment was tested as an alternative method. Two prominent representatives of the large group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin) were investigated, focussing on waste water of the bulk production. Elimination of the target compounds and generation of their main transformation products were determined by liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The obtained results demonstrated, that the concentration of moxifloxacin and its metabolites can be effectively reduced (>99.7%) prior entering the receiving water. On the contrary, the concentration of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites remained too high for safe discharge, necessitating application of prolonged ozonation for its further degradation. The required ozonation time can be estimated based on the determined kinetics. To assure a low biological activity the ecotoxicity of the ozonated waste water was investigated using three trophic levels. By means of multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MSn) experiments several new transformation products of the fluoroquinolones were identified. Thus, previously published proposed structures could be corrected or confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority

  8. Enzymatical hydrolysis of food waste and ethanol production from the hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shoubao; Yao, Jianming [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering of Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Jun; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao; Ye, Jianfeng [Hefei Research Center of Ion Beam Engineering and Technology, Hefei 230088 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The aim of present paper was to investigate the prospect for the use of food waste, an important municipal waste, as a potential substrate to generate hydrolysates for fuel ethanol production. The critical variables that affected reducing sugar production from food waste were identified by Plackett-Burman design (glucoamylase loud, time, temperature and pH) and further optimized by using a four factor central composite design of response surface methodology. According to the results of response surface analysis, the optimum conditions for reducing sugar production were determined to be glucoamylase loud of 142.2 u/g, saccharification pH of 4.82, enzyme reaction temperature of 55 C, enzyme reaction time of 2.48 h. Reducing sugar production (164.8 g/L) in the optimized condition was in good agreement with the value predicted by the quadratic model (164.3 g/L), thereby confirming its validity. Furthermore, the obtained liquid phase of food waste hydrolysate was utilized for production of ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058 fermentation. In order to develop an economical process for transforming food waste hydrolysates to ethanol, non-sterilized and sterilized processes were compared in the experiments. The result shows non-sterilized fermentation without undergoing heat treatment was better due to the unspoiled nutrients inside. These results helped to find the effective strategies to utilize food waste for ethanol production. (author)

  9. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Waste Eggshell as a Base Catalyst under a Microwave Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the most affordable and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of biodiesel. Substitute fuel is presently a significant topic all over the world, attributable to the efforts of reducing global warming, which is the result arising from the combustion of petroleum or petrol diesel fuel. Due to its advantages of being renewable and environmentally friendly, biodiesel production has the potential to become the major substitute of petrol diesel fuel. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, is produced from renewable sources, and contributes a small amount of greenhouse gas (e.g., CO2 and SO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Research has established that one of the key obstacles to the commercialization of biodiesel is the high price of biodiesel production due to the shortage of suitable raw materials. However, waste-cooking-oil (WCO is one of the most cost-effective sources of biodiesel synthesis, and can practically minimize the raw material cost. The research was carried out to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil in order to reduce the cost, waste, and pollution associated with biodiesel production. The application of a microwave heating system towards enhancing the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil has been given little consideration in the preceding research, particularly with the application of eggshell as a heterogeneous catalyst. However, the tentative results in this study show significant performance in terms of biodiesel production, as follows: (1 the increasing of the reaction time from 120 to 165 min considerably increased the biodiesel production, which declined with a further rise to 210 min; (2 the results of this study reveal that a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of nine is appropriate and can be used for the best production of biodiesel; (3 the production of biodiesel in this study demonstrated a significant increase in response to the further increasing of power; (4 a 120 min

  10. UTILIZATION OF POULTRY, COW AND KITCHEN WASTES FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Animasahun

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of solid wastes generated in developing countries such as Nigeria has steadily increased over the last two decades as a result of population explosion and continuous growth of industries and agricultural practices. In agriculture, particularly cattle rearing, large quantities of cow wastes are generated, which could be used as biogas inputs to compliment the fuel usage alternative. In addition, a large number of families generate heavy wastes in the kitchen on a daily basis, which could be converted to economic benefits. In this work, a comparative study of biogas production from poultry droppings, cattle dung, and kitchen wastes was conducted under the same operating conditions. 3kg of each waste was mixed with 9L of water and loaded into the three waste reactors. Biogas production was measured for a period of 40 days and at an average temperature of 30.5oC. Biogas production started on the 7th day, and attained maximum value on the 14th days for reactor 1. Production reached its peak on the 14th day with 85´10-3dm3 of gas produced in reactor 2. For reactor 3, biogas production started on the 8th day and production reached a peak value on the 14th day. The average biogas production from poultry droppings, cow dung and kitchen waste was 0.0318dm3/day, 0.0230dm3/day and 0.0143dm3/day, respectively. It is concluded that the wastes can be managed through conversion into biogas, which is a source of income generation for the society.

  11. Effect of Waste Paper on Biogas Production from Co-digestion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    addition was varied for a fixed amount of cow dung and water hyacinth until maximum biogas production was achieved. Biogas production was measured indirectly by water displacement method. The production of biogas showed a parabolic relationship as the amount of waste paper (g) increased with a goodness of fit of ...

  12. Utilization of ash products from combustion of shredded solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, P.F.; Mullen, J.F. (Energy Answers Corp, Albany, NY (US))

    1988-01-01

    One of the major problems with the siting, permitting, construction, and operation of a municipal solid waste-to- energy facility is the disposal of residues. As resource recovery increasingly becomes the disposal option of choice and necessity for municipalities across the country, the foci of environmental concerns has switched from groundwater contamination and inappropriate land use issues associated with landfilling, to air pollution control and residue disposal issues associated with waste combustion. It is suggested that the two separate ash streams can no longer reasonably be considered one and should be analyzed and treated separately, thereby increasing and enhancing the opportunity to recycle from the bottom ash (75 percent) and to focus on a reduced quantity of fly ash material (25 percent) for fixation and reuse or disposal. Such action would conform to the principles of, and the present regulatory trend towards waste minimization. However, there are many regulatory, institutional, and logistical barriers to such promising and seemingly simple waste reduction strategies. While the spirit of solid and hazardous waste legislation may emphasize waste minimization, ambiguities in the regulations have undermined the actual intent, creating an environment of confusion and indecisiveness with respect to treatment and disposal of ash from resource recovery facilities. This book reports on a research and development program to assess the feasibility and possible environmental impacts of utilizing a selected fraction of the bottom ash stream from processed refuse fuel-fired boilers as an aggregate substitute. The purpose of the research program is to develop data on the characteristics of bottom ash during exposure to rain and weathering in proposed applications.

  13. Biopolymers production with carbon source from the wastes of a beer brewery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoeby Ai Ling

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential and feasibility of malt wastes, and other food wastes, such as soy wastes, ice-cream wastes, confectionery wastes, vinegar wastes, milk waste and sesame oil, in the induction of biosynthesis of PHA, in the cellular assembly of novel PHA with improved physical and chemical properties, and in the reduction of the cost of PHA production. In the first part of the experiments, a specific culture of Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 was selected to ferment several types of food wastes as carbon sources into biopolymers. In addition, the biopolymer production, by way of using malt waste, of microorganisms from municipal activated sludge was also investigated. In the second part, the experiments focused on the synthesis of biopolymer with a higher molecular mass via the bacterial strain, which was selected and isolated from sesame oil, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PHB were studied by GPC. Molecular weight of PHB produced from various types of food wastes by Alcaligenes latus was higher than using synthetic sucrose medium as nutrient, however, it resulted in the reverse by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thermal properties of biopolymers were studied by DSC and TG. Using malt wastes as nutrients by Alcaligenes latus gave a higher melting temperature. Using sucrose, confectionery and sesame oil as nutrients by Staphylococcus epidermidis gave higher melting temperature. Optimization was carried out for the recovery of microbial PHB from Alcaligenes latus. Results showed that molecular weight can be controlled by changing the hypochlorite concentration, the ratio of chloroform to hypochlorite solution and the extraction time. In addition, the determination of PHB content by thermogravimetric analysis method with wet cell was the first report in our study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Batch dark fermentation from enzymatic hydrolyzed food waste for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Ye, Min; Zhu, Ai Jun; Zhao, Hong Ting; Li, Yong Feng

    2015-09-01

    A combination bioprocess of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and dark fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was developed. Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were utilized in SSF from food waste to generate glucoamylase and protease which were used to hydrolyze the food waste suspension to get the nutrients-rich (glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN)) hydrolysate. Both glucose and FAN increased with increasing of food waste mass ratio from 4% to 10% (w/v) and the highest glucose (36.9 g/L) and FAN (361.3mg/L) were observed at food waste mass ratio of 10%. The food waste hydrolysates were then used as the feedstock for dark fermentative hydrogen production by heat pretreated sludge. The best hydrogen yield of 39.14 ml H2/g food waste (219.91 ml H2/VSadded) was achieved at food waste mass ratio of 4%. The proposed combination bioprocess could effectively accelerate the hydrolysis rate, improve raw material utilization and enhance hydrogen yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  17. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  18. Production of Biogas through Anaerobic Cofermentation of Cattle Slurry with Biscuit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamrádová K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the model of anaerobic co-fermentation of cattle slurry with biscuit waste. It was confirmed that the waste from the food industry is a valuable biogas substrate. The highest specific production of methane (0.49 mN3·kgVS-1 was achieved in the co-fermentation of 20 wt% biscuit waste with cattle slurry. The feed mixture contained 22 wt% of total solids. The biscuit waste has the specific production of biogas 0.66 mN 3·kg-1 and the specific production of methane 0.38 mN 3·kg-1.

  19. Training on Utilization of Plastic Waste and Banana Bark Become an Economical Value Innovation Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corry Yohana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this community service is to provide training to communities around the TPA In South Tangerang regarding the utilization of waste to be a product of economic value as an innovative way to help the government in the management of waste as well as increase income for every family The method used is classical method with discussion / question and answer approach, simulation and practice of making the product, with the intention that the material can be accepted by the participants well. Guidance / consultation is done through the last session with participants, as well as by telephone or by mail. The results of the training show the participants so have the knowledge in managing waste and skills in utilizing waste to make products of economic value. It can be concluded that participants want continuous knowledge. It is desirable to provide knowledge in the form of regular training and sustainable.

  20. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  1. A novel bioconversion for value-added products from food waste using Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Zheng, Dong; Yao, Binghua; Cai, Zizhe; Zhao, Zhimin; Wu, Shengqing; Cong, Peiqing; Yang, Depo

    2017-03-01

    Food waste, as a major part of the municipal solid waste has been generated increasingly worldwide. Efficient and feasible utilization of this waste material for productivity process is significant for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study, Musca domestica larva was used as the carrier to conduct a bioconversion with food waste to get the value-added maggot protein, oil and organic fertilizers. Methods of adult flies rearing, culture medium adjuvant selection, maggot culture conditions, stocking density and the valorization of the waste have been explored. From the experimental results, every 1000g culture mediums (700g food waste and 300g adjuvant) could be disposed by 1.5g M. domestica eggs under proper culture conditions after emergence in just 4days, 42.95±0.25% of which had been consumed and the culture medium residues could be used as good organic fertilizers, accompanying with the food waste consumption, ∼53.08g dried maggots that contained 57.06±2.19% protein and 15.07±2.03% oil had been produced. The maggot protein for its outstanding pharmacological activities is regarded as a good raw material in the field of medicine and animal feeding. Meanwhile, the maggot oil represents a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In our study, the maggot biodiesel was obtained after the procedure of transesterification reaction with methanol and the productivity was 87.71%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waste of Felling and On-Site Production of Teak Squarewood of the Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major suppliers of teak wood for the raw material of furniture industry in Indonesia are Perum Perhutani, community forests, and private forests.  Community teak forest management produce roundwood or squarewood, in which squarewood is produced on the felling site by the use of chainsaw after felling and bucking activities. Utilization of teak wood from community forest has been practiced for decades, however information on the extent of utilization and the quantity of wood waste have not been published to a greater extent. The present research was intended to determine and analyze the extent of utilization and teak wood waste produced from felling and bucking, and on-site squarewood production of community forests.  Quantification of wood waste from felling and bucking was based on the whole tree method, while that of squarewood production was based on the percentage of yield. It was found that the quantity of teak felling and bucking wood waste in community forest was reaching 28% of felled wood volume that consisted of branch and twig (46.15%, upper trunk (30.77%, short cut off (15.38%, and stumps (7.69%. The largest part of the wood waste of teak felling and bucking satisfied the requirement as raw material of wood working industry according to Indonesian National Standard. On-site production of squarewood increased the quantity of wood waste in the forests (in the form of slabs and sawdust.Keywords: wood waste, felling, bucking, squarewood, community forest

  3. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  4. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  5. Biohydrogen production in the suspended and attached microbial growth systems from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Li, Feifei; Tang, Junhong

    2016-10-01

    Waste pastry was hydrolyzed by glucoamylase and protease which were obtained from solid state fermentation of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae to produce waste pastry hydrolysate. Then, the effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (4-12h) on hydrogen production rate (HPR) in the suspended microbial growth system (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and attached microbial growth system (continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor, CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate were investigated. The maximum HPRs of CSTR (201.8mL/(h·L)) and CMISR (255.3mL/(h·L)) were obtained at HRT of 6h and 4h, respectively. The first-order reaction could be used to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of waste pastry. The carbon content of the waste pastry remained 22.8% in the undigested waste pastry and consumed 77.2% for carbon dioxide and soluble microbial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study which reports biohydrogen production from waste pastry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Valorization of bakery waste for biocolorant and enzyme production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Ariful; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Koutinas, Apostolis; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-08-10

    A concept of utilizing bakery waste as a nutrient source for the fermentative production of bio-colorant by Monasucus purpureus has been developed. The proposed ideas provide an innovative approach to establish a system or method to reduce the bakery waste problem encountered by Hong Kong or other countries. Bakery waste collected from bakery store was used in submerged and solid-state fermentation of Monascus purpureus to produce bio-colorant, which could potentially be applied in food and textile industries. The feasibility of utilizing bakery waste hydrolysate deriving from hydrolytic reactions by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae for fermentative pigment production was investigated. Preliminary data from bakery waste hydrolysate experiment presented that the highest pigment yield (about 24AU/g glucose) was obtained with bakery waste hydrolysate containing 5g/L initial glucose. Results from the solid state fermentation studies presented that the highest activity of glucoamylase and protease achieved was 8U/g and 117U/g respectively, at an initial moisture content of 55% and 65% respectively at 30°C incubation temperature. The outcome from this study demonstrated that Monascus purpureus constitutes a promising host for bio-colorant and enzyme production using recovered sugars and amino acids from bakery waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical and mechanical properties of composite materials of different compositions based on waste products

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Burdonov; V.V. Barakhtenko; E.V. Zelinskaya; E.O. Suturina; A.V. Burdonova; A.V. Golovnina

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of mineral filler on the polymer composite material based on waste products of heat and power engineering - fly ash. This type of waste products has never been used for the production of polymer-mineral composites. Depending on the type of ash, its chemical composition and its quantity in the material, we can adjust the properties of the resulting composites. The use of fly ash as a filler will not only make a product less expensive, but it also will ...

  8. Alkaline protease production on date waste by an alkalophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on isolation and characterization of a new strain of Bacillus sp. from alkaline soil, which was able to producing extracellular alkaline protease and amylase from date waste at pH ranging from 8 to 11 and temperatures of 20 to 50°C. Purification was conducted by fractionation, concentration, and cation ...

  9. Product waste in the automotive industry : Technology and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter; Hond, Frank Den

    1993-01-01

    In this article the changes in technology and industry structure forced by waste management in the automotive industry are explored. The analysis is based on (1) a characterisation of corporate response to environmental issues, and (2) the management of technology applied to the car manufacturing

  10. production of particle boards using polystyrene and bamboo wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was able to produce incredibly strong particleboards using bamboo and resinous material obtained from Polystyrene wastes. The particleboards were prepared by mixing the bamboo fibres and Polystyrene based resin (PBR) followed by flat press process at different ratio (v/v). Physical properties were ...

  11. Effect of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) on the productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six rates and a control of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Mg/ha) were used to evaluate the effect of municipal compost on cowpea growth parameters (Plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields and tissue heavy metal concentrations). Plant height, leaf area and heavy metal concentration ...

  12. Shrimp Waste Meal Supplementation Of Cassava Products Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of investigating shrimp waste (SWM) and cassava leaf (CLM) meals as cheap alternatives and protein source mixtures that would best complement cassava root-soybean ration in total replacement for maize in broiler diets, six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were evaluated using two weeks old ...

  13. Production of Caproic Acid from Mixed Organic Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei Shan; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Kroeze, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Caproic acid is an emerging platform chemical with diverse applications. Recently, a novel biorefinery process, that is, chain elongation, was developed to convert mixed organic waste and ethanol into renewable caproic acids. In the coming years, this process may become commercialized, and

  14. The production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of municipal solid wastes and slaughterhouse waste: A two-phase process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, X.; Moran, A.; Cuetos, M.J.; Sanchez, M.E. [Institute of Natural Resources, Avda de Portugal 41, University of Leon, Leon 24071 (Spain)

    2006-07-03

    A two-phase fermentation process for the treatment of waste, intended for the recovery of hydrogen for energy use, was investigated in its initial fermentation phase. Hydrogen production was obtained from a mixed culture based on an active mesophilic inoculum without any selective treatment being applied. The liquid stream generated by the hydrogen fermentation process was stabilized in the following, methanogenic, phase for the recovery of methane and further breaking down of the waste stream. The whole process was carried out at a temperature in the mesophilic range (34{sup o}C). The substrate used was an unsterilized mixture of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and slaughterhouse waste from a poultry-processing plant. The hydrogen-producing phase was capable of stable performance under the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) evaluated (3 and 5 days). No methane was detected in the first phase at any point during the whole period of the experiment and the hydrogen yield showed no symptoms of declining as time elapsed. The amount of hydrogen obtained from the fermentation process was in the range of 52.5-71.3NLkg{sup -1}VS{sub rem}. (author)

  15. The production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of municipal solid wastes and slaughterhouse waste: A two-phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, X.; Morán, A.; Cuetos, M. J.; Sánchez, M. E.

    A two-phase fermentation process for the treatment of waste, intended for the recovery of hydrogen for energy use, was investigated in its initial fermentation phase. Hydrogen production was obtained from a mixed culture based on an active mesophilic inoculum without any selective treatment being applied. The liquid stream generated by the hydrogen fermentation process was stabilized in the following, methanogenic, phase for the recovery of methane and further breaking down of the waste stream. The whole process was carried out at a temperature in the mesophilic range (34 °C). The substrate used was an unsterilized mixture of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and slaughterhouse waste from a poultry-processing plant. The hydrogen-producing phase was capable of stable performance under the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) evaluated (3 and 5 days). No methane was detected in the first phase at any point during the whole period of the experiment and the hydrogen yield showed no symptoms of declining as time elapsed. The amount of hydrogen obtained from the fermentation process was in the range of 52.5-71.3 N L kg -1 VS rem.

  16. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Jing; Li, Yonghong; Zhang, Yongkui

    2013-05-01

    To reduce the cost of algal-based biodiesel, a waste material from oil industry, Cyperus esculentus waste, was used as the carbon source of the oleaginous microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. It demonstrated that C. vulgaris grew better in C. esculentus waste hydrolysate (CEWH(1)) than in glucose medium under the same reducing sugar concentration. CEWH concentration influenced the cell growth and lipid production significantly. The maximum lipid productivity 438.85 mg l(-1) d(-1) was achieved at 40 g l(-1). Fed-batch culture was performed to further enhance lipid production. The maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid productivity were 20.75 g l(-1), 36.52%, and 621.53 mg l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The produced biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS and the results suggested that lipids produced from CEWH could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Review of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste in the production of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Shahidan, Shahiron; Shamsuddin, Shamrul-mar

    2017-11-01

    High demand for cement in the concrete production has been increased which become the problems in the industry. Thus, this problem will increase the production cost of construction material and the demand for affordable houses. Moreover, the production of Portland cement leads to the release of a significant amount of CO2 and other gases leading to the effect on global warming. The need for a sustainable and green construction building material is required in the construction industry. Hence, this paper presents utilization of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste as partial cement replacement in the production of concrete. Using both of this waste in the concrete production would benefit in many ways. It is able to save cost and energy other than protecting the environment. In short, 20% usage of palm oil fuel ash and 30% replacement of ceramic waste as cement replacement show the acceptable and satisfactory strength of concrete.

  18. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an environmental management tool used to examine and evaluate the environmental impactsassociated with the existence of products. The focus of LCA is on the entire life cycle of the product, i.e. from the extraction of theraw materials through the production...... of materials and components and the manufacture, transportation and use of the product to thefinal disposal and possible recycling of the product. Although LCA has developed significantly during recent years, product specific emissions from disposed waste have only got minorattention in the literature leaving...... for the model are e.g. distribution of the wasteproduct in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components.Output data of the model are product specific estimates of 1) emissions to atmosphere 2) emissions to aquatic recipients 3) remainsin...

  20. Energetic Efficiency of the Vegetable Waste Used as Substrate for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janczak Damian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different vegetable waste materials (beetroot leaves, turnip leaves, yellow beans, onion waste, commonly found in Central Poland were tested for estimation of energy efficiency while methane fermentation process. The results showed that the biggest green mass of vegetable waste harvested from field was related to the highest water content. In contrary, the higher methane production from 1 Mg of tested biowaste was obtained in case of the materials with the highest dry mass content (yellow beans and onion waste, 28.03 and 44.33 m3 Mg-1. Although the onion waste was the lowest fermented substrate, however the energy yield for this material is visibly the highest (4435 kWh ha-1 among all tested ones.

  1. Initial demonstration of DWPF process and product control strategy using actual radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will vitrify high-level nuclear waste into borosilicate glass. The waste will be mixed with properly formulated glass-making frit and fed to a melter at 1150{degrees}C. Process control and product quality are ensured by proper control of the melter feed composition. Algorithms have been developed to predict the processability of the melt and the durability of the final glass based on this feed composition. To test these algorithms, an actual radioactive waste contained in a shielded facility at SRS was analyzed and a frit composition formulated using a simple computer spreadsheet which contained the algorithms. This frit was then mixed with the waste and the resulting slurry fed to a research scale joule-heated melter operated remotely. Approximately 24 kg of glass were successfully prepared. This paper will describe the frit formulation, the vitrification process, and the glass durability.

  2. Initial demonstration of DWPF process and product control strategy using actual radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.; Beam, D.C.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will vitrify high-level nuclear waste into borosilicate glass. The waste will be mixed with properly formulated glass-making frit and fed to a melter at 1150{degrees}C. Process control and product quality are ensured by proper control of the melter feed composition. Algorithms have been developed to predict the processability of the melt and the durability of the final glass based on this feed composition. To test these algorithms, an actual radioactive waste contained in a shielded facility at SRS was analyzed and a frit composition formulated using a simple computer spreadsheet which contained the algorithms. This frit was then mixed with the waste and the resulting slurry fed to a research scale joule-heated melter operated remotely. Approximately 24 kg of glass were successfully prepared. This paper will describe the frit formulation, the vitrification process, and the glass durability.

  3. Food waste quantification in primary production - The Nordic countries as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Svanes, Erik; Franke, Ulrika

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of food waste in the food supply chain has increased, but very few studies have been published on food waste in primary production. The overall aims of this study were to quantify the total amount of food waste in primary production in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and to create a framework for how to define and quantify food waste in primary production. The quantification of food waste was based on case studies conducted in the present study and estimates published in scientific literature. The chosen scope of the study was to quantify the amount of edible food (excluding inedible parts like peels and bones) produced for human consumption that did not end up as food. As a result, the quantification was different from the existing guidelines. One of the main differences is that food that ends up as animal feed is included in the present study, whereas this is not the case for the recently launched food waste definition of the FUSIONS project. To distinguish the 'food waste' definition of the present study from the existing definitions and to avoid confusion with established usage of the term, a new term 'side flow' (SF) was introduced as a synonym for food waste in primary production. A rough estimate of the total amount of food waste in primary production in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark was made using SF and 'FUSIONS Food Waste' (FFW) definitions. The SFs in primary production in the four Nordic countries were an estimated 800,000 tonnes per year with an additional 100,000 tonnes per year from the rearing phase of animals. The 900,000 tonnes per year of SF corresponds to 3.7% of the total production of 24,000,000 tonnes per year of edible primary products. When using the FFW definition proposed by the FUSIONS project, the FFW amount was estimated at 330,000 tonnes per year, or 1% of the total production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing the Cost of RLS: Waste Heat from Crop Production Can Be Used for Waste Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparter, Richard; Flynn, Michael; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of plant-based life support systems has traditionally suffered from the limitations imposed by the high energy demand of controlled environment growth chambers. Theme types of systems are typically less than 2% efficient at converting electrical energy into biomass. The remaining 98% of supplied energy is converted to thermal energy. Traditionally this thermal energy is discharged to the ambient environment as waste heat. This paper describes an energy efficient plant-based life support system which has been designed for use at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. At the South Pole energy is not lost to the environment. What is lost is the ability to extract useful work from it. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Program (CAAP) has developed a system which is designed to extract useful work from the waste thermal energy generated from plant growth lighting systems. In the CAAP system this energy is used to purify Station Sewage.

  5. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Plan 96 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power reactors. The cost calculations include costs for R,D and D as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. The following facilities and systems are already in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products, Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, Final repository for radioactive operational wastes. Plans exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel, Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste, Final repository for decommissioning waste. The total future costs, in Jan 1996 prices, for the Swedish waste system from 1997 have been calculated to be 42.2 billion SEK (about 6.4 billion USD). The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. It is estimated that 10.6 billion SEK in current money has been spent through 1996. Costs based on waste quantities from operation of the reactors for 40 years are also reported. 6 refs.

  7. Production and characterization of activated carbon from wood wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A. P.; Giraldo, S.; Ulloa, M.; Flórez, E.; Y Acelas, N.

    2017-12-01

    Cedarwood (Cedrela Angustifolia) and teak (Tectona Grandis) woods are typically used for furniture manufacture because they have high durability, are light and easy to work. During these manufacturing process, large amount of these wastes is generated causing disposal environmental problems. In this paper, the residual wastes (sawdust) of Cedar (C) and Teak (T) are transformed into an activated material. The chemical composition of both biomass (C and T) was determinate by TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis). Activated materials were characterized in surface area following the BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) method, morphology using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and to know their functional groups a FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) analysis was done. Their adsorption capacity was evaluated by removal of Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solutions.

  8. Compositional and physicochemical changes in waste materials and biogas production across 7 landfill sites in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R R; Cipullo, S; Garcia, J; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the paper and fines across seven landfill sites (LFS) and assess the relationship between waste physicochemical properties and biogas production. Physicochemical analysis of the waste samples demonstrated that there were no clear trends in the spatial distribution of total solids (TS), moisture content (MC) and waste organic strength (VS) across all LFS. There was however noticeable difference between samples from the same landfill site. The effect of landfill age on waste physicochemical properties showed no clear relationship, thus, providing evidence that waste remains dormant and non-degraded for long periods of time. Landfill age was however directly correlated with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste; with the highest BMP obtained from the most recent LFS. BMP was also correlated with depth as the average methane production decreased linearly with increasing depth. There was also a high degree of correlation between the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Test (EHT) and BMP test results, which motivates its potential use as an alternative to the BMP test method. Further to this, there were also positive correlations between MC and VS, VS and biogas volume and biogas volume and CH 4 content. Outcomes of this work can be used to inform waste degradation and methane enhancement strategies for improving recovery of methane from landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  10. Treatment of copper industry waste and production of sintered glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2006-06-01

    Copper waste is iron-rich hazardous waste containing heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the Turkish and EPA regulatory limits. Consequently, this waste cannot be disposed of in its present form and therefore requires treatment to stabilize it or make it inert prior to disposal. Vitrification was selected as the technology for the treatment of the toxic waste under investigation. During the vitrification process significant amounts of the toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds could be destroyed, and at the same time, the metal species are immobilized as they become an integral part of the glass matrix. The copper flotation waste samples used in this research were obtained from the Black Sea Copper Works of Samsun, Turkey. The samples were vitrified after being mixed with other inorganic waste and materials. The copper flotation waste and their glass-ceramic products were characterized by X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. The products showed very good chemical durability. The glass-ceramics fabricated at 850 degrees C/2 h have a large application potential especially as construction and building materials.

  11. Biogas Production from Rice Husk Waste by using Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawali Abdul Matin Hashfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effort to obtain alternative energy is still interesting subject to be studied, especially production of biogas from agriculture waste. This paper was an overview of the latest development of biogas researches from rice husk waste by Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD. The main obstacle of biogas production from rice husk waste was the lignin content which is very difficult degraded by microbes. Various pretreatments have been conducted, either physically, chemically as well as biologically. The SSAD method was an attractive option because of the low water content of rice husk waste. The biogas yield by SSAD method gave more attractive result compared to Liquid Anaerobic Digestion (LAD method. Various studies were still conducted in batch mode laboratory scale and also has not found optimum operating conditions. Research on a larger scale such as bench and pilot scale with continuous systems will be an increase trend in the future research.

  12. Gas production in anaerobic dark-fermentation processes from agriculture solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, L.; Priantoro, E. A.; Sintawardani, N.

    2017-03-01

    Approximately, Bandung produces agricultural solid waste of 1549 ton/day. This wastes consist of wet-organic matter and can be used for bio-gas production. The research aimed to apply the available agricultural solid waste for bio-hydrogen. Biogas production was done by a serial of batches anaerobic fermentation using mix-culture bacteria as the active microorganism. Fermentation was carried out inside a 30 L bioreactor at room temperature. The analyzed parameters were of pH, total gas, temperature, and COD. Result showed that from 3 kg/day of organic wastes, various total gases of O2, CH4, H2, CO2, and CnHn,O2 was produced.

  13. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhman, Yuanita Budiman; Putra, Zulfan Adi; Bilad, Muhammad Roil

    2017-10-01

    Pollution and shortage of clean energy supply are among major problems that are caused by rapid population growth. Due to this growth, waste cooking oil is one of the pollution sources. On the other hand, biodiesel appears to be one of the most promising and feasible energy sources as it emits less toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases than petroleum diesel. Thus, biodiesel production using waste cooking oil offers a two-in-one solution to cater pollution and energy issues. However, the conventional biodiesel production process using homogeneous base catalyst and stirred tank reactor is unable to produce high purity of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. It is due its sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) content in waste cooking oil and purification difficulties. Therefore, biodiesel production using heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor is suggested. The product of this process is fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel with glycerol as by-product. This project is aimed to study techno-economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor. Aspen HYSYS is used to accomplish this aim. Several cases, such as considering different residence times and the production of pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol, are evaluated and compared. Economic potential of these cases is calculated by considering capital expenditure, utilities cost, product and by-product sales, as well as raw material costs. Waste cooking oil, inorganic pressure-driven membrane and WAl is used as raw material, type of membrane and heterogeneous acid catalyst respectively. Based on literature data, FAME yield formulation is developed and used in the reactor simulation. Simulation results shows that economic potential increases by 30% if pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol is produced regardless the residence time of the reactor. In addition, there is no significant effect of residence time on the economic potential.

  14. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere.

  15. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  16. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Background Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Results In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE wit...

  17. Renewable Energy Production from DoD Installation Solid Wastes by Anaerobic Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    energy efficiency; biogas purification; digester capacity and stability; waste sludge generation and characteristics; operational reliability, safety...50 per wet ton and composting costs range from $29 to $52 per wet ton. Renewable Energy Production From DoD Installation Solid Wastes by...provides an approach toward meeting these requirements which includes a focus on: 1) reducing energy needs and reliance on fossil fuels; and 2) water

  18. Radiochemical separation of actinides for their determination in environmental samples and waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleisberg, B. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The determination of low level activities of actinides in environmental samples and waste products makes high demands on radiochemical separation methods. Artificial and natural actinides were analyzed in samples form the surrounding areas of NPP and of uranium mines, incorporation samples, solutions containing radioactive fuel, solutions and solids resutling from the process, and in wastes. The activities are measured by {alpha}-spectrometry and {gamma}-spectrometry. (DG)

  19. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi; Peng Li; Maromu Otaka; Hisao Makino

    2016-01-01

    The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs) in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan) has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME), which is an environmentally friendly s...

  20. Organic Fertilizer Production From Cattle Waste Vermicomposting Assisted By Lumbricus Rubellus

    OpenAIRE

    Siswo Sumardiono; R.P. Djoko Murwono; Amin Nugroho

    2011-01-01

    Composting is decomposition of compound in organic waste by specific treatment using microorganism aerobically. Natural composting for producing organic fertilizer from manure and market waste utilize long time processing and less equal to the market demand. Vermicomposting is a technique to produce high quality compos fertilizer from biodegradable garbage and mixture of red worm (Lumbricus Rubellus). In conventional compos production took 8 weeks of processing time, in vermicomposting only t...

  1. Biohydrogen production from waste bread in a continuous stirred tank reactor: A techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yun Yi; Li, Shi Yi; Li, Fei Fei; Tang, Jun Hong

    2016-12-01

    Biohydrogen production from waste bread in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was techno-economically assessed. The treating capacity of the H2-producing plant was assumed to be 2 ton waste bread per day with lifetime of 10years. Aspen Plus was used to simulate the mass and energy balance of the plant. The total capital investment (TCI), total annual production cost (TAPC) and annual revenue of the plant were USD931020, USD299746/year and USD639920/year, respectively. The unit hydrogen production cost was USD1.34/m3 H2 (or USD14.89/kg H2). The payback period and net present value (NPV) of the plant were 4.8years and USD1266654, respectively. Hydrogen price and operators cost were the most important variables on the NPV. It was concluded that biohydrogen production from waste bread in the CSTR was feasible for practical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H2S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H2S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30days) and inexpensive (125mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H2S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H2S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H2S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8mLH2S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H2S yield. A 60day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39-86% additional sulfide production. H2S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H2S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating the importance of assays to estimate the microbial sulfide production

  3. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from waste materials and by-products by submerged and solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Leda R; Mitchell, David A; Freire, Denise M G

    2009-12-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates are biodegradable polymers produced by prokaryotic organisms from renewable resources. The production of PHAs by submerged fermentation processes has been intensively studied over the last 30 years. In recent years, alternative strategies have been proposed, such as the use of solid-state fermentation or the production of PHAs in transgenic plants. This paper gives an overview of submerged and solid-state fermentation processes used to produce PHAs from waste materials and by-products. The use of these low-cost raw materials has the potential to reduce PHA production costs, because the raw material costs contribute a significant part of production costs in traditional PHA production processes.

  4. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased...

  5. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Farcas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain (BGS is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  6. Minimisation and utilisation of waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilc, Viktor; Jersan, Rok

    2002-10-01

    Various approaches to waste minimisation, waste treatment and recycling or safe disposal of the waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production are presented and critically discussed. Some most promising actions for waste (or its harmful potential) reduction on the production level are identified. These include: a) use of better raw materials (richer boron ore), b) improvement of the ore leaching process, and c) intensification of sludge washing and dewatering. These source reduction measures have already resulted in 50% reduction of boron content in the sludge. Utilisation of the raw or treated (e.g. dried, compacted) waste sludge could be found in agriculture, civil engineering and construction material production. Agricultural use (as a lime substitute) is based on favourable content of calcium-magnesium minerals and alkali pH value of the sludge, and simultaneous absence of heavy metals. Application in civil engineering (as an aggregate) is possible after calcination, which is costly, or as a cement kiln additive. Stabilisation of sludge before disposal, when no utilisation is available, is possible by small addition of commercial binders (e.g. Portland cement) or larger amounts of pozzolanic wastes (e.g. coal fly ash).

  7. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosurfactant production by Mucor circinelloides on waste frying oil and possible uses in crude oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanizadeh, Parvin; Moghimi, Hamid; Hamedi, Javad

    2017-10-01

    Biosurfactants are biocompatible surface active agents which many microorganisms produce. This study investigated the production of biosurfactants by Mucor circinelloides. The effects of different factors on biosurfactant production, including carbon sources and concentrations, nitrogen sources, and iron (II) concentration, were studied and the optimum condition determined. Finally, the strain's ability to remove the crude oil and its relationship with biosurfactant production was evaluated. The results showed that M. circinelloides could reduce the surface tension of the culture medium to 26.6 mN/m and create a clear zone of 12.9 cm diameter in an oil-spreading test. The maximum surface tension reduction was recorded 3 days after incubation. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved in the presence of 8% waste frying oil as a carbon source, 2 g/L yeast extract as a nitrogen source, and 0.01 mM FeSO4. M. circinelloides could consume 8% waste frying oil in 5 days of incubation, and 87.6% crude oil in 12 days of incubation. A direct correlation was observed between oil degradation and surface tension reduction in the first 3 days of fungal growth. The results showed that the waste frying oil could be recommended as an inexpensive oily waste substance for biosurfactant production, and M. circinelloides could have the potential to treat waste frying oil. According to the results, the produced crude biosurfactant or fungal strain could be directly used for the mycoremediation of crude oil contamination in oil fields.

  9. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  10. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  11. The Potential Environmental Impact of Waste from Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing production of ethanol has been established as an important contributor to future energy independence. A trend in decreasing profitability and resource conflicts has given grain based ethanol production a limited and difficult future. Growing emphasis is being place...

  12. Converting citrus wastes into value-added products: Economic and environmently friendly approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-02-01

    Citrus fruits, including oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, tangerines, and mandarins, are among the most widely cultivated fruits around the globe. Its production is increasing every year due to rising consumer demand. Citrus-processing industries generate huge amounts of wastes every year, and citrus peel waste alone accounts for almost 50% of the wet fruit mass. Citrus waste is of immense economic value as it contains an abundance of various flavonoids, carotenoids, dietary fiber, sugars, polyphenols, essential oils, and ascorbic acid, as well as considerable amounts of some trace elements. Citrus waste also contains high levels of sugars suitable for fermentation for bioethanol production. However, compounds such as D-limonene must be removed for efficient bioethanol production. The aim of the present article was to review the latest advances in various popular methods of extraction for obtaining value-added products from citrus waste/byproducts and their potential utility as a source of various functional compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee grounds with different waste feedstocks for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Hakchan; Baek, Gahyun; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-02-01

    Proper management of spent coffee grounds has become a challenging problem as the production of this waste residue has increased rapidly worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee ground with various organic wastes, i.e., food waste, Ulva, waste activated sludge, and whey, for biomethanation. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated for each tested co-substrate in batch biochemical methane potential tests by varying the substrate mixing ratio. Co-digestion with waste activated sludge had an apparent negative effect on both the yield and production rate of methane. Meanwhile, the other co-substrates enhanced the reaction rate while maintaining methane production at a comparable or higher level to that of the mono-digestion of spent coffee ground. The reaction rate increased with the proportion of co-substrates without a significant loss in methanation potential. These results suggest the potential to reduce the reaction time and thus the reactor capacity without compromising methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes.

  15. Utilization of food industry wastes for the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, S; Grosso, J P; Nouws, H P A; Albergaria, J T; Delerue-Matos, C

    2014-10-15

    The proper disposal of the several types of wastes produced in industrial activities increases production costs. As a consequence, it is common to develop strategies to reuse these wastes in the same process and in different processes or to transform them for use in other processes. This work combines the needs for new synthesis methods of nanomaterials and the reduction of production cost using wastes from citrine juice (orange, lime, lemon and mandarin) to produce a new added value product, green zero-valent iron nanoparticles that can be used in several applications, including environmental remediation. The results indicate that extracts of the tested fruit wastes (peel, albedo and pulp fractions) can be used to produce zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs). This shows that these wastes can be an added value product. The resulting nZVIs had sizes ranging from 3 up to 300 nm and distinct reactivities (pulp>peel>albedo extracts). All the studied nanoparticles did not present a significant agglomeration/settling tendency when compared to similar nanoparticles, which indicates that they remain in suspension and retain their reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  17. Rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OG1 using waste frying oil and ram horn peptone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Murat; Gürkök, Sümeyra; Özdal, Özlem Gür; Kurbanoǧlu, Esabi Başaran

    2017-04-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are being explored as alternative low-cost nutrients for various bioprocesses. In this work, the applicability of ram horn peptone (RHP) and waste frying oil were investigated for rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the sole nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. The rhamnolipid yield was considerably influenced by the type of organic nitrogen source. Among the tested organic nitrogen sources, RHP proved to be the best nitrogen source for both biomass and rhamnolipid production. RHP was also tested at different concentrations and 10 g/L RHP resulted in the greatest yield of rhamnolipid (12.1 g/L) in the presence of waste frying oil as the sole carbon source. These results revealed that rhamnolipid could be produced efficiently and cost effectively by P. aeruginosa OG1 using RHP and waste frying oil.

  18. Valorisation of fish by-products against waste management treatments--Comparison of environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla; Antelo, Luis T; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Reuse and valorisation of fish by-products is a key process for marine resources conservation. Usually, fishmeal and oil processing factories collect the by-products generated by fishing port and industry processing activities, producing an economical benefit to both parts. In the same way, different added-value products can be recovered by the valorisation industries whereas fishing companies save the costs associated with the management of those wastes. However, it is important to estimate the advantages of valorisation processes not only in terms of economic income, but also considering the environmental impacts. This would help to know if the valorisation of a residue provokes higher impact than other waste management options, which means that its advantages are probably not enough for guarantying a sustainable waste reuse. To that purpose, there are several methodologies to evaluate the environmental impacts of processes, including those of waste management, providing different indicators which give information on relevant environmental aspects. In the current study, a comparative environmental assessment between a valorisation process (fishmeal and oil production) and different waste management scenarios (composting, incineration and landfilling) was developed. This comparison is a necessary step for the development and industrial implementation of these processes as the best alternative treatment for fish by-products. The obtained results showed that both valorisation process and waste management treatments presented similar impacts. However, a significant benefit can be achieved through valorisation of fish by-products. Additionally, the implications of the possible presence of pollutants were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peach and Cherry Agroindustrial Wastes: New and Economic Sources for the Production of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Merve; Urek, Raziye

    2017-06-01

    Pleurotus eryngii was incubated on both peach and cherry agroindustrial wastes by solid state fermentation for 30 days without/with pretreatment conditions. The lignocellulosic substrates were pretreated with dilute acid and alkaline solutions, hot water before incubation. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase and xylanase activities peaked on 3rd and 5th days under control conditions of both wastes, respectively. The highest laccase and manganese peroxidase activities reached to their maximum on 17th day as 2193.06 ± 50.4 UL-1 and 732.73 ± 19.8 UL-1, respectively. The highest aryl alcohol oxidase activity was obtained as 239.25 ± 7.3 UL-1 in control condition of peach cultures. The used pretreatment methods had generally negative effects on lignocellulolytic enzyme production. The highest lignocellulolytic activities were detected using peach wastes. To results, these wastes could.

  20. Productive utilization of pig farm wastes: A case study for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polprasert, Chongrak; Kongsricharoern, Noppadol; Kanjanaprapin, Wilai (Environmental Engineering Div., Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)); Yang, P.Y. (Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States))

    1994-06-30

    This paper presents a case study on pig farm waste management in which pig manure is stabilized in two-stage anaerobic reactors (to produce methane), while pig farm wastewater is treated in water hyacinth ponds from which the harvested water hyacinth plants are used in the production of silage (animal feed) or compost fertilizer. The results suggest the technical feasibility of applying these technologies to treat and recycle pig farm wastes. Cost/benefit analysis reveals the option to produce methane gas and silage to be financially viable after 15 years of operation. A management concept of waste recycling programs is presented, including relationships among objectives, constraints and implementation plan. Decision on a waste recycling program should not be based only on cost/benefit analysis, but also on the pollution control and public health improvement to be gained

  1. The influence of iron concentration on biohydrogen production from organic waste via anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, M R; Sbaffoni, S; Tuccinardi, L

    2014-01-01

    Different micronutrients are essential for bacterial fermentative metabolism. In particular, some metallic ions, like iron, are able to affect the biological H₂production. In this study, batch tests were carried out in stirred reactors to investigate the effects of Fe²⁺ concentration on fermentative H₂production from two different organic fractions of waste: source-separated organic waste (OW) from a composting plant including organic fraction of municipal solid waste and food waste (FW) from a refectory. Iron supplementation at 1000 mg/L caused twofold increment in the cumulative H₂production from OW (922 mL) compared with the control (without iron doping). The highest H₂production (1736 mL) from FW occurred when Fe²⁺ concentration was equal to 50 mg/L. In addition, the process production from OW was modelled through the modified Gompertz equation. For FW, a translated Gompertz equation was used by the authors, because the initial lag-time for H₂production from FW was almost negligible.

  2. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  3. Recovery of ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and bioenergy production via bipolar bioelectrodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    to recover ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and thereby counteracting their toxicity during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, hydrogen production and wastewater treatment were also accomplished. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, nitrogen and sulfate fluxes of 5.1 g View the MathML sourceNH4+-N/m2/d...... bioelectrodialysis was successfully demonstrated with cattle manure. The results provide new possibilities for development of cost-effective technologies, capable of waste resources recovery and renewable energy production....

  4. Pulsed-flow air classification for waste to energy production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, J.J.; Vesilind, P.A.

    1983-09-30

    The development and testing of pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production are discussed. Standard designs generally permit large amounts of combustible material to escape as reject while producing a fuel that is high in metal and glass contaminants. Pulsed-flow classification is presented as a concept which can avoid both pitfalls. Each aspect of theory and laboratory testing is summarized: particle characteristics, theory of pulsed-flow classification, laboratory testing, and pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production. Conclusions from the research are summarized.

  5. Organic Fertilizer Production From Cattle Waste Vermicomposting Assisted By Lumbricus Rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswo Sumardiono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting is decomposition of compound in organic waste by specific treatment using microorganism aerobically. Natural composting for producing organic fertilizer from manure and market waste utilize long time processing and less equal to the market demand. Vermicomposting is a technique to produce high quality compos fertilizer from biodegradable garbage and mixture of red worm (Lumbricus Rubellus. In conventional compos production took 8 weeks of processing time, in vermicomposting only took half processing time of conventional technique. It is occurred by red worm additional ease cellulose degradation contain in manure which is could not decomposed with composting bacteria. The purposes of this research are to investigate the effect of manure comparison to red worm growth and to evaluate the effect of comparison between manure and market waste to red worm growth. This research was conducted by vary the weight of red worm (100 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr, 400 gr, 500 gr and market waste addition (50 gr, 100 gr, 150 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr. Moreover, 3 kg of manure was mixed by various weight of red worm, while variation of market waste addition was involved 500 gr red worm and 3 kg manure mixture. Optimum increasing weight of red worm that was obtained by 100 gr red worm addition is 160 gr within 2 weeks. In added market waste variation, the highest increasing of red worm was resulted by 50 gr market waste addition, with 60 gr increasing weight of red worm. Production of casting fertilizer was highly effected by composition of used materials such as medium, manure and red worm comparison as well as market waste additional

  6. Production and application of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Saha, M.; Mustafi, N. N.; Sarker, M. R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel has been identified as an alternative and promising fuel source to reduce the dependency on conventional fossil fuel in particular diesel. In this work, waste cooking oil (WCO) of restaurants is considered to produce biodiesel. A well-established transesterification reaction by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol (CH3OH) methods are applied to obtain biodiesel. In the catalytic transesterification process, biodiesel and glycerine are simultaneously produced. The impact of temperature, methanol/WCO molar ratio and sodium hydroxide concentration on the biodiesel formation were analysed and presented. It was found that the optimum 95% of biodiesel was obtained when methanol/WCO molar ratio was 1:6 under 873 K temperature with the presence of 0.2% NaOH as a catalyst. The waste cooking oil blend proportions were 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and named as bio-diesel blends B-10, B-15, B-20, and B-25, respectively. Quality of biodiesel was examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others were also investigated. A four-stroke single cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine was operated using in both pure form and as a diesel blend to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and others were measured. It was measured that the amount of CO2 increases and CO decreases both for pure diesel and biodiesel blends with increasing engine load. However, for same load, a higher emission of CO2 from biodiesel blends was recorded than pure diesel.

  7. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective VFA production potential from organic waste streams: Assessing temperature and pH influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aguirre, Jon; Aymerich, Enrique; González-Mtnez de Goñi, Jaime; Esteban-Gutiérrez, Myriam

    2017-11-01

    This study explored the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production potential of seven waste streams from urban and agroindustrial sources. For that purpose, batch assays were performed under acidic (pH 5.5) and alkaline (pH 10) conditions at both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperature. Overall, the VFA yield was influenced by temperature, and it was positively affected by pH, ranging between 220 and 677mgCODg-1CODfed for liquid waste streams and between 127 and 611mgCODg-1CODfed for solid waste streams and urban sludge. The highest VFA concentration and highest VFA/sCOD ratio was obtained during the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) fermentation, with 8,320mgCODL-1 and 94% at alkaline pH and mesophilic temperature. The results of this study suggest that selective VFA production, i.e. via propionic, butyric and acetic acid production, might be feasible for scaling-up purposes with specific waste streams by adjusting the process parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsala, T.P., E-mail: tpvalsala@gmail.com [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur 401 502 (India); Sonavane, M.S.; Kore, S.G.; Sonar, N.L.; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y.; Chattopadyaya, S.; Dani, U.; Kulkarni, Y.; Changrani, R.D. [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur 401 502 (India)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low Level radioactive liquid waste is decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation of TBP degraded products from the waste by acidification provided very good DF with respect to different radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reductive co-precipitation of {sup 106}Ru and {sup 99}Tc effectively removed these radio nuclides from the waste stream. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of the separated organic mass is of concern due to its organic nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fixation of organic mass in cement matrix can be adopted for its conditioning and shallow land disposal. - Abstract: The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like {sup 106}Ru and {sup 99}Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 {mu}Ci/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m{sup 3} of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived {sup 90}Y isotope

  10. Utilization of papaya waste and oil production by Chlorella protothecoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae derived oils have outstanding potential for use in biodiesel production. Chlorella protothecoides has been shown to accumulate lipid up to 60% of its cellular dry weight with glucose supplementation under heterotrophic growth conditions. To reduce production costs, alternative carbon feedstock...

  11. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  12. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  13. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. with livestock waste compost for lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L-D; Li, Z-H; Guo, D-B; Huang, F; Nugroho, Y; Xia, K

    2017-01-01

    Cultivation of microalgae Chlorella sp. with livestock waste compost as an alternative nutrient source was investigated in this present study. Five culture media with different nutrient concentrations were prepared. The characteristics of algal growth and lipid production were examined. The results showed that the specific growth rate together with biomass and lipid productivities was different among all the cultures. As the initial nutrient concentration decreased, the lipid content of Chlorella sp. increased. The variations in lipid productivity of Chlorella sp. among all the cultures were mainly due to the deviations in biomass productivity. The livestock waste compost medium with 2000mgL-1COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for Chlorella sp. cultivation, where the highest productivities of biomass (288.84mgL-1day-1) and lipid (104.89mgL-1day-1) were presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  15. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M.; Fink, J.K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  16. Utilization of ethyl cellulose polymer and waste materials for roofing tile production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Suubitaa Spencer; Ng, ChoonAun; Chee, Swee Yong; Habib, NoorZainab; Nadeem, Humayon; Teoh, Wei Ping

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to utilize ethyl cellulose, mixture of waste engine oil and waste vegetable oil as a binder in the environmental friendly roofing tile production. The waste engine-vegetable oil wasmix together with ethyl cellulose, fly ash, coarse aggregates, fine aggregatesand a catalyst. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that the oil mixture added with ethyl cellulose has the relatively high binding effect due to the presence of strong carbonyl group especially after being heat cured at 1900C for 24 hours. The mixed proportion of materials with different amount of ethyl cellulose used was studied in the production of tile specimen. The results showed that the ethyl cellulose composed roofing tile specimens passed the transverse breaking strength, durability, permeabilityand the ultraviolet accelerated test. The shrinkage on the tile can be overcome by adding temperature resistance polymer on the exterior of the tile.

  17. Screening for Direct Production of Lactic Acid from Rice Starch Waste by Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunasundari Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid recently became an important chemical where it is widely used in many industries such as food, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The present study focuses on the screening for lactic acid production from rice starch waste using a thermophilic amylolytic bacterium, Geobacillus stearothermophilus. There is no information available on direct fermentation of lactic acid from rice starch waste using G. stearothermophilus. The effects of different parameters such as temperature, pH, incubation time, agitation speed, concentration of nitrogen and carbon sources on the lactic acid production were assessed. The highest concentration of lactic acid produced was 5.65 ± 0.07 g/L at operating conditions of 60°C, pH 5.5, 48 h, 200 rpm of agitation speed with 5% concentrations of both carbon and nitrogen source. The findings indicated that rice starch waste can be successfully converted to lactic acid by G. stearothermophilus.

  18. Brewery Waste Reuse for Protease Production by Lactic Acid Fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiago Rocha dos Santos Mathias; Paula Fernandes de Aguiar; João Batista de Almeida e Silva; Pedro Paulo Moretzsohn de Mello; Eliana Flávia Camporese Sérvulo

    2017-01-01

    ... of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for proteolytic enzyme production. Initially, a mixture experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of each residue, as well as different mixtures...

  19. Production of Caproic Acid from Mixed Organic Waste: An Environmental Life Cycle Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Caproic acid is an emerging platform chemical with diverse applications. Recently, a novel biorefinery process, that is, chain elongation, was developed to convert mixed organic waste and ethanol into renewable caproic acids. In the coming years, this process may become commercialized, and continuing to improve on the basis of numerous ongoing technological and microbiological studies. This study aims to analyze the environmental performance of caproic acid production from mixed organic waste via chain elongation at this current, early stage of technological development. To this end, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate the environmental impact of producing 1 kg caproic acid from organic waste via chain elongation, in both a lab-scale and a pilot-scale system. Two mixed organic waste were used as substrates: the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and supermarket food waste (SFW). Ethanol use was found to be the dominant cause of environmental impact over the life cycle. Extraction solvent recovery was found to be a crucial uncertainty that may have a substantial influence on the life-cycle impacts. We recommend that future research and industrial producers focus on the reduction of ethanol use in chain elongation and improve the recovery efficiency of the extraction solvent. PMID:28513150

  20. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Biogas Production from Kitchen Waste Mixed with Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mousa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ogas produced from solid kitchen waste (KW mixed with chicken manure (M at different mass ratios was investigated. The effect of the ratio of the amount of water to the mixed solid waste on the amount of biogas produced was studied. The results showed that at a fixed ratio of water-to-solid waste, the amount of biogas increased as the amount of chicken M increased. At a fixed M-to-KW ratio, the amount of biogas produced increased as the solid content increased and then decreased, reaching its maximum value at a solid waste-to-water ratio of 1:1. The pH of the bioreactor containing the KW-M mixture dropped with time, resulting in a decrease in the amount of biogas produced. Controlling the pH value by titrating with NaOH solution improved the production of biogas. Investigating biogas produced from sludge showed that the pH of the reactor slightly decreased and then increased slightly. The results also showed that the amount of biogas produced from sludge containing 3% solid waste was larger than the amount produced from sludge containing 6% solid waste.

  2. Microbial conversion of food wastes for biofertilizer production with thermophilic lipolytic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Shu-Hsien; Yang, Shang-Shyng [Institute of Microbiology and Biochemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, (Taiwan); Liu, Ching-Piao [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Meiho Institute of Technology, Pingtung 91201, (Taiwan)

    2007-05-15

    Food waste is approximately one quarter of the total garbage in Taiwan. To investigate the feasibility of microbial conversion of food waste to multiple functional biofertilizer, food waste was mixed with bulking materials, inoculated with thermophilic and lipolytic microbes and incubated at 50{sup o}C in a mechanical composter. Microbial inoculation enhanced the degradation of food wastes, increased the total nitrogen and the germination rate of alfalfa seed, shortened the maturity period and improved the quality of biofertilizer. In food waste inoculated with thermophilic and lipolytic Brevibacillus borstelensis SH168 for 28 days, total nitrogen increased from 2.01% to 2.10%, ash increased from 24.94% to 29.21%, crude fat decreased from 4.88% to 1.34% and the C/N ratio decreased from 18.02 to 17.65. Each gram of final product had a higher population of thermophilic microbes than mesophilic microbes. Microbial conversion of food waste to biofertilizer is a feasible and potential technology in the future to maintain the natural resources and to reduce the impact on environmental quality. (author)

  3. Production of High-Value Nanoparticles via Biogenic Processes Using Aquacultural and Horticultural Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.; Poinern, Gerrard E. J.

    2017-01-01

    The quantities of organic waste produced globally by aquacultural and horticulture are extremely large and offer an attractive renewable source of biomolecules and bioactive compounds. The availability of such large and diverse sources of waste materials creates a unique opportunity to develop new recycling and food waste utilisation strategies. The aim of this review is to report the current status of research in the emerging field of producing high-value nanoparticles from food waste. Eco-friendly biogenic processes are quite rapid, and are usually carried out at normal room temperature and pressure. These alternative clean technologies do not rely on the use of the toxic chemicals and solvents commonly associated with traditional nanoparticle manufacturing processes. The relatively small number of research articles in the field have been surveyed and evaluated. Among the diversity of waste types, promising candidates and their ability to produce various high-value nanoparticles are discussed. Experimental parameters, nanoparticle characteristics and potential applications for nanoparticles in pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications are discussed. In spite of the advantages, there are a number of challenges, including nanoparticle reproducibility and understanding the formation mechanisms between different food waste products. Thus, there is considerable scope and opportunity for further research in this emerging field. PMID:28773212

  4. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  5. Production of Caproic Acid from Mixed Organic Waste: An Environmental Life Cycle Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Shan; Strik, David P B T B; Buisman, Cees J N; Kroeze, Carolien

    2017-06-20

    Caproic acid is an emerging platform chemical with diverse applications. Recently, a novel biorefinery process, that is, chain elongation, was developed to convert mixed organic waste and ethanol into renewable caproic acids. In the coming years, this process may become commercialized, and continuing to improve on the basis of numerous ongoing technological and microbiological studies. This study aims to analyze the environmental performance of caproic acid production from mixed organic waste via chain elongation at this current, early stage of technological development. To this end, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate the environmental impact of producing 1 kg caproic acid from organic waste via chain elongation, in both a lab-scale and a pilot-scale system. Two mixed organic waste were used as substrates: the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and supermarket food waste (SFW). Ethanol use was found to be the dominant cause of environmental impact over the life cycle. Extraction solvent recovery was found to be a crucial uncertainty that may have a substantial influence on the life-cycle impacts. We recommend that future research and industrial producers focus on the reduction of ethanol use in chain elongation and improve the recovery efficiency of the extraction solvent.

  6. Biohythane production from organic wastes: present state of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shantonu; Das, Debabrata

    2016-05-01

    The economy of an industrialized country is greatly dependent on fossil fuels. However, these nonrenewable sources of energy are nearing the brink of extinction. Moreover, the reliance on these fuels has led to increased levels of pollution which have caused serious adverse impacts on the environment. Hydrogen has emerged as a promising alternative since it does not produce CO2 during combustion and also has the highest calorific value. The biohythane process comprises of biohydrogen production followed by biomethanation. Biological H2 production has an edge over its chemical counterpart mainly because it is environmentally benign. Maximization of gaseous energy recovery could be achieved by integrating dark fermentative hydrogen production followed by biomethanation. Intensive research work has already been carried out on the advancement of biohydrogen production processes, such as the development of suitable microbial consortium (mesophiles or thermophiles), genetically modified microorganism, improvement of the reactor designs, use of different solid matrices for the immobilization of whole cells, and development of two-stage process for higher rate of H2 production. Scale-up studies of the dark fermentation process was successfully carried out in 20- and 800-L reactors. However, the total gaseous energy recovery for two stage process was found to be 53.6 %. From single-stage H2 production, gaseous energy recovery was only 28 %. Thus, two-stage systems not only help in improving gaseous energy recovery but also can make biohythane (mixture of H2 and CH4) concept commercially feasible.

  7. Evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for production of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, P; Kalyani, N; Prathiba, K

    2008-12-01

    The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55-65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%) for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, together with the content of cellulose, lignin, and phenols, was studied in spent substrates on seventh, 17th, and 27th days of spawning, and these values were used as indicators of the extent of lignocellulosic degradation by mushroom. Both the mushroom species proved to be efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass of paddy straw and sorghum stalk, and the extent of cellulose degradation was 63-72% of dry weight (d.w.), and lignin degradation was 23-30% of the d.w. In banana pseudostem, the extent of the degradation was observed to be only 15-22% of the d.w. for both lignin and cellulose. Preferential removal of cellulose during initial growth period and delayed degradation of lignin were observed in all three substrates. This is associated with decrease in activity of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase and increase in laccase activity with spawn aging in spent substrates. Thus, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. eous and L. connotus offers a promising way to convert low-quality biomass into an improved human food.

  8. Biodiesel production potential from fat fraction of municipal waste in Makkah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shahzad

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, millions of Muslims come to perform Pilgrimage every year. Around one million ton of municipal solid waste (MSW is generated in Makkah city annually. The collected MSW is disposed of in the landfills without any treatment or energy recovery. As a result, greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and contamination of the soil and water bodies along with leachate and odors are occurring in waste disposal vicinities. The composition of MSW shows that food waste is the largest waste stream (up to 51% of the total generated MSW. About 13% of the food waste consists of fat content that is equivalent to about 64 thousand tons per year. This study aims to estimate the production potential of biodiesel first time in Makkah city from fat/oil fractions of MSW and highlight its economic and environmental benefits. It has been estimated that 62.53, 117.15 and 6.38 thousand tons of biodiesel, meat and bone meal (MBM and glycerol respectively could be produced in 2014. A total electricity potential of 852 Gigawatt hour (GWh from all three sources based on their energy contents, Higher Heating Value (HHV of 40.17, 18.33 and 19 MJ/kg, was estimated for 2014 that will increase up to 1777 GWh in 2050. The cumulative net savings from landfill waste diversion (256 to 533 million Saudi Riyal (SAR, carbon credits (46 to 96 million SAR, fuel savings (146 to 303 million SAR and electricity generation (273 to 569 million SAR have a potential to add a total net revenue of 611 to 1274 million SAR every year to the Saudi economy, from 2014 to 2050 respectively. However, further studies including real-time data about annual slaughtering activities and the amount of waste generation and its management are critical to decide optimum waste management practices based on life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle costing (LCC methodologies.

  9. Biodiesel production potential from fat fraction of municipal waste in Makkah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, K; Nizami, A S; Sagir, M; Rehan, M; Maier, S; Khan, M Z; Ouda, O K M; Ismail, I M I; BaFail, A O

    2017-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), millions of Muslims come to perform Pilgrimage every year. Around one million ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated in Makkah city annually. The collected MSW is disposed of in the landfills without any treatment or energy recovery. As a result, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contamination of the soil and water bodies along with leachate and odors are occurring in waste disposal vicinities. The composition of MSW shows that food waste is the largest waste stream (up to 51%) of the total generated MSW. About 13% of the food waste consists of fat content that is equivalent to about 64 thousand tons per year. This study aims to estimate the production potential of biodiesel first time in Makkah city from fat/oil fractions of MSW and highlight its economic and environmental benefits. It has been estimated that 62.53, 117.15 and 6.38 thousand tons of biodiesel, meat and bone meal (MBM) and glycerol respectively could be produced in 2014. A total electricity potential of 852 Gigawatt hour (GWh) from all three sources based on their energy contents, Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 40.17, 18.33 and 19 MJ/kg, was estimated for 2014 that will increase up to 1777 GWh in 2050. The cumulative net savings from landfill waste diversion (256 to 533 million Saudi Riyal (SAR)), carbon credits (46 to 96 million SAR), fuel savings (146 to 303 million SAR) and electricity generation (273 to 569 million SAR) have a potential to add a total net revenue of 611 to 1274 million SAR every year to the Saudi economy, from 2014 to 2050 respectively. However, further studies including real-time data about annual slaughtering activities and the amount of waste generation and its management are critical to decide optimum waste management practices based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methodologies.

  10. Biodiesel production potential from fat fraction of municipal waste in Makkah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), millions of Muslims come to perform Pilgrimage every year. Around one million ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated in Makkah city annually. The collected MSW is disposed of in the landfills without any treatment or energy recovery. As a result, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contamination of the soil and water bodies along with leachate and odors are occurring in waste disposal vicinities. The composition of MSW shows that food waste is the largest waste stream (up to 51%) of the total generated MSW. About 13% of the food waste consists of fat content that is equivalent to about 64 thousand tons per year. This study aims to estimate the production potential of biodiesel first time in Makkah city from fat/oil fractions of MSW and highlight its economic and environmental benefits. It has been estimated that 62.53, 117.15 and 6.38 thousand tons of biodiesel, meat and bone meal (MBM) and glycerol respectively could be produced in 2014. A total electricity potential of 852 Gigawatt hour (GWh) from all three sources based on their energy contents, Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 40.17, 18.33 and 19 MJ/kg, was estimated for 2014 that will increase up to 1777 GWh in 2050. The cumulative net savings from landfill waste diversion (256 to 533 million Saudi Riyal (SAR)), carbon credits (46 to 96 million SAR), fuel savings (146 to 303 million SAR) and electricity generation (273 to 569 million SAR) have a potential to add a total net revenue of 611 to 1274 million SAR every year to the Saudi economy, from 2014 to 2050 respectively. However, further studies including real-time data about annual slaughtering activities and the amount of waste generation and its management are critical to decide optimum waste management practices based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methodologies. PMID:28207856

  11. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. A modern solid waste management strategy--the generation of new by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia; Pierpaoli, Mattia; Kulbat, Eliza; Luczkiewicz, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    To benefit the environment and society, EU legislation has introduced a 'zero waste' strategy, in which waste material should be converted to resources. Such legislation is supported by the solid waste hierarchy concept, which is a set of priorities in waste management. Under this concept, municipal solid waste plants (MSWPs) should be equipped with sorting and recycling facilities, composting/incineration units and landfill prisms for residual bulk disposal. However, each of the aforementioned facilities generates by-products that must be treated. This project focuses on the leachates from landfill prisms, including modern prism (MP) that meet EU requirements and previous prism (PP) that provide for the storage of permitted biodegradable waste as well as technological wastewaters from sorting unit (SU) and composting unit (CU), which are usually overlooked. The physico-chemical parameters of the liquid by-products collected over 38 months were supported by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) amplifications of functional genes transcripts and a metagenomic approach that describes the archaeal and bacterial community in the MP. The obtained data show that SU and especially CU generate wastewater that is rich in nutrients, organic matter and heavy metals. Through their on-site pre-treatment and recirculation via landfill prisms, the landfill waste decomposition process may be accelerated because of the introduction of organic matter and greenhouse gas emissions may be increased. These results have been confirmed by the progressive abundance of both archaeal community and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene. The resulting multivariate data set, supported by a principal component analysis, provides useful information for the design, operation and risk assessment of modern MSWPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A renewable flocculant from a poultry slaughterhouse waste and preliminary estimate of production costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken blood (CKB) is a waste product of large processing plants. CKB fractions (frozen and dehydrated) were tested as renewable flocculants, and their actions were compared to that of anionic polyacrylamide, a commercial, polymeric flocculant made from natural gas. The CKB frozen fractions were ...

  14. Technological features of cementation of liquid organic wastes from radiochemical production and NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, T.B.; Kiselev-Dmitriev, A.L.; Masanov, O.L. [A.A. Bochvar Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-31

    One method to manage liquid radioactive wastes is to incorporate them into inorganic materials. At VNINM, work was performed to cement spent oils and extractants and to determine final product properties. Attention was paid to a choice of emulsifiers. Parameters investigated included emulsifier availability, stability, and incorporability into a matrix material.

  15. Limited bacterial diversity within a treatment plant receiving antibiotic containing waste from bulk drug production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marathe, Nachiket P.; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Larsson, D.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted

  16. Full PWA Report: An Assessment of Energy, Waste, and Productivity Improvements for North Star Steel Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-25

    North Star Steel's Wilton, Iowa plant (NSSI) was awarded a subcontract through a competitive process to use Department of Energy/OIT funding to examine potential processes and technologies that could save energy, reduce waste, and increase productivity.

  17. Biogas production from co-digestion of orange peel waste and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic co-digestion of jatropha deoiled cake and orange peel waste for biogas production was carried out in the batch scale (500 ml serum bottle) under anaerobic condition at ambient temperature (at various mixing ratios of two substrate). The experimental data showed a maximum gas output of 1140 ml of gas ...

  18. Assessing the environmental impact of energy production from hydrochar generated via hydrothermal carbonization waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a relatively low temperature thermal conversion process that is gaining significant attention as a sustainable and environmentally beneficial approach for the transformation of biomass and waste streams to value-added products. Although there are numerous studies ...

  19. Micro-scale Plasma Arc Gasification for Waste Treatment and Energy Production Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As NASA continues to develop technology for spaceflight beyond low earth orbit, we must develop the right systems for sustaining human life on a long duration or planetary mission. Plasma arc gasification (PAG) is an energy efficient mechanism of waste management for power generation and synthetic gas(syngas) production.

  20. Bioelectrochemical recovery of waste-derived volatile fatty acids and production of hydrogen and alkali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are organic compounds of great importance for various industries and environmental processes. Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic wastes are promising alternative technologies for VFA production. However, one of the major challenges is development of sustain......Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are organic compounds of great importance for various industries and environmental processes. Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic wastes are promising alternative technologies for VFA production. However, one of the major challenges is development...... of sustainable downstream technologies for VFA recovery. In this study, an innovative microbial bipolar electrodialysis cell (MBEDC) was developed to meet the challenge of waste-derived VFA recovery, produce hydrogen and alkali, and potentially treat wastewater. The MBEDC was operated in fed-batch mode...... was successfully verified with digestate. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility of a new method for waste-derived VFA recovery and valuable products production that uses wastewater as fuel and bacteria as catalyst. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Transitions in waste treatment as a driver for product life extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2015-01-01

    destabilised due to increased EU demands for waste recycling, and new opportunities for pursuing strategies of increased product lifetime appear. Swapping and local repair initiatives can be seen as examples of such opportunities. These initiatives link nicely to e.g. policy visions of circular economy...

  2. Biological production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of OFMSW and co-fermentation with slaughterhouse wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, A.; Gomez, X.; Cuestos, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen is an ideal, clean and sustainable energy source for the future because of its high conversion and nonpolluting nature (Lin and Lay, 2003). There are different methods for the production of hydrogen, the traditional ones, are the production from fossil fuels. Aiming to reach a development based on sustainable principles the production of hydrogen from renewable sources is a desirable goal. Among the environmental friendly alternatives for the production of hydrogen are the biological means. Dark fermentation as it is known the process when light is not used; it is a preferable option thanks to the knowledge already collected from its homologous process, the anaerobic digestion for the production of methane. There are several studies intended to the evaluation of the production of hydrogen, many are dedicated to the use of pure cultures or the utilization of basic substrates as glucose or sucrose (Lin and Lay, 2003; Chang et al., 2002, Kim et al., 2005). This study is performed to evaluate the fermentation of a mixture of wastes for the production of hydrogen. It is used as substrate the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and a mixture of this residue with slaughterhouse waste. (Author)

  3. Parametric Evaluation of Digestability of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monoj Kumar Mondal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste was collected from Varanasi’s municipal solid waste dumpsite and sorted for organic fraction present in it. Current work showed the consequences of calcium hydroxide or lime digestion on organic fraction of municipal solid waste of Varanasi, India. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste sample was digested with desired amount of calcium hydroxide. The different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 % of calcium hydroxide was blended separately to substrates (10 % total solid at 30-35 ºC in 3 different beakers denoted by A1, A2 and A3, respectively of 2 L capacity. Experiments of hydrolysis step were conducted on all three samples for evaluation of chemical oxygen demand, pH and volatile fatty acids content in sample. The parameters measured during experiments were chemical oxygen demand, biogas production, total solid, volatile solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon. Rate enhancement of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were occurred for calcium hydroxide digested samples. Therefore calcium hydroxide can be used as an effective alkali for the digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

  4. USE MANURE AND ORGANIC WASTE AS PLANTING MEDIA OF SEED POTATOES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meksy Dianawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Manure and organic waste could be used as organic media at potato seed production of G1. The goal of this research was to increase production of potato seed G1 by several kinds of manure and organic waste. This research was conducted at plastic house in Lembang, West Java, from June to September 2014. This research used randomized completed block design with two treatment factors and six replications. The first factor was kinds of manure i.e chicken manure and sheep manure. The second factor was kinds of organic waste. Data was analysed by F test and followed by Duncan and correlation test at 95 percent confidence level. The results showed that media of husk waste with chicken and sheep manure has higher tuber weight and number of big-size tuber per plant than one of cocopeat significantly. Media of sheep manure with husk and bamboo waste has highest tuber weight per plant significantly. Number of total tuber was effected by number of smallsized tuber by 84 percent.

  5. Measurements of radiation level in petroleum products and wastes in Riyadh City Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, F.S. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education, Riyadh University for Women, Al-rowdah, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh, Central 11417 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: ferdoasalsaleh@hotmail.com; Al-Harshan, G.A. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education, Riyadh University for Women, Al-rowdah, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh, Central 11417 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-15

    Recent concern has been devoted to the hazard arising from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas facilities. Twenty-seven petroleum samples were collected from Riyadh Refinery. Fourteen samples were products and 13 were waste samples; three of them were scale samples and 10 were sludge samples. The specific radioactivities of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 224}Ra, {sup 40}K, and {sup 235}U for all samples were determined using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The radium equivalent activity, radiation hazard indices and absorbed dose rate in air for all waste samples were estimated. The radon emanation coefficient of the waste samples was estimated. It ranged between 0.574 and 0.154. The age of two scale samples was determined and found to be 2.39 and 3.66 years. The chemical structure of the waste samples was investigated using X-ray florescence analysis (XRF) and Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, Ca and Fe were found in all samples. From this study, it was noticed that the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the petroleum wastes were higher than that of the petroleum products.

  6. Utilization of agro waste pectin for the production of industrially important polygalacturonase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Jahan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a variety of agro-industrial wastes have been utilized for meaningful purpose to produce valuable biocatalyst. All wastes used were low cost and easily accessible while, some available throughout the year. A number of bacterial strains isolated from rotten fruits and vegetables were screened for the production of industrially important polygalacturonase (PGase using pectin present in these agro-industrial wastes. The strain producing maximum PGase was identified as Bacillus licheniformis KIBE-IB3 on the basis of taxonomic studies and 16S rDNA analysis. Among different agro-industrial wastes studied, high yield of PGase was achieved from fermentation broth having wheat bran (1.0% as a substrate in to the medium supplemented with nitrogen sources in combination of NaNO3 and yeast extract while KH2PO4 was selected as suitable micronutrient. After optimizing fermentation parameters it was noticed that Bacillus licheniformis KIBE-IB3 was capable of producing maximum PGase at 37 °C, pH 7.0 and after 48 h of incubation time. From the current research, wheat bran was proven as a cheap and easily available source throughout the year for hyper production of pectinase. The utilization of the waste will also help to minimize the concerned environmental issues.

  7. Multiple syntrophic interactions drive biohythane production from waste sludge in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Huang, Cong; Liu, Bingfeng; Ren, Nanqi; Xing, Defeng

    2016-01-01

    Biohythane is a new and high-value transportation fuel present as a mixture of biomethane and biohydrogen. It has been produced from different organic matters using anaerobic digestion. Bioenergy can be recovered from waste activated sludge through methane production during anaerobic digestion, but energy yield is often insufficient to sludge disposal. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is also a promising approach for bioenergy recovery and waste sludge disposal as higher energy efficiency and biogas production. The systematic understanding of microbial interactions and biohythane production in MEC is still limited. Here, we report biohythane production from waste sludge in biocathode microbial electrolysis cells and reveal syntrophic interactions in microbial communities based on high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. The alkali-pretreated sludge fed MECs (AS-MEC) showed the highest biohythane production rate of 0.148 L·L(-1)-reactor·day(-1), which is 40 and 80 % higher than raw sludge fed MECs (RS-MEC) and anaerobic digestion (open circuit MEC, RS-OCMEC). Current density, metabolite profiles, and hydrogen-methane ratio results all confirm that alkali-pretreatment and microbial electrolysis greatly enhanced sludge hydrolysis and biohythane production. Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicates that anode biofilm was dominated by exoelectrogenic Geobacter, fermentative bacteria and hydrogen-producing bacteria in the AS-MEC. The cathode biofilm was dominated by fermentative Clostridium. The dominant archaeal populations on the cathodes of AS-MEC and RS-MEC were affiliated with hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium (98 %, relative abundance) and Methanocorpusculum (77 %), respectively. Multiple pathways of gas production were observed in the same MEC reactor, including fermentative and electrolytic H2 production, as well as hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis. Real-time quantitative PCR

  8. Study on concentrated seawater refining process by waste liquid in soda production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Tao; Li, Tao; Wang, Zejiang; Lu, Shaoyan; Huang, Xiping

    2017-12-01

    The concentrated seawater containing abundant salt components can be utilized as water resource in soda industry either to lower the production cost or prevent the environmental problems caused by excessive drainage. However, its application has been confined by the high contents of the scaling ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-) which probably cause production interruption and unnecessary energy consuming. Hence, this study has developed a process for concentrated seawater refining by the waste liquid from the soda production and investigated its optimum conditions: Ca(OH)2/Mg2+=1.0, pH ≥ 10.61, proportion of demonization waste liquid adding to 40%v/v, 10% w/v seed crystal input, and Ca2+/CO32-=1.1. The composition of refined liquid could satisfy the requirement of actual production.

  9. A novel cell factory for efficient production of ethanol from dairy waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Dantoft, Shruti Harnal; Würtz, Anders

    2016-01-01

    contained in residual whey permeate (RWP), by introducing lactose catabolism into a L. lactis strain CS4435 (MG1363 Δ(3) ldh, Δpta, ΔadhE, pCS4268), where the carbon flow has been directed toward ethanol instead of lactate. To achieve growth and ethanol production on RWP, we added corn steep liquor...... hydrolysate (CSLH) as the nitrogen source. The outcome was efficient ethanol production with a titer of 41 g/L and a yield of 70 % of the theoretical maximum using a fed-batch strategy. The combination of a low-cost medium from industrial waste streams and an efficient cell factory should make the developed...... process industrially interesting. A process for the production of ethanol using L. lactis and a cheap renewable feedstock was developed. The results demonstrate that it is possible to achieve sustainable bioconversion of waste products from the dairy industry (RWP) and corn milling industry (CSLH...

  10. Estimation of waste generated by the production of rainbow trout in Lake Tota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Hernán Torres-Barrera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the total waste from the production of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss ( Wa l b a u m (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae in Lake Tota freshwater ecosystem, located in the Department of Boyacá, Colombia, and its potential impact on the lake was estimated. This economic activity has been carried out intensively since 2005 using submerged cages in the lake. With data obtained from the National Authority for Aquaculture and Fisheries (Aunap, the Autonomous Regional Corporation of Boyacá (Corpoboyacá, and the Chamber of Commerce of Sogamoso, fish farmers, their geographical location on the lake, production by these farms were identified, and with this information the amount of waste produced, including the amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus generated in this process was calculated. The results indicate that the lake is polluted due to intensive trout production. It is recommended to improve or modify trout production methods that will minimize water pollution.

  11. Production of Methane and Water from Crew Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Parrish, Clyde; Strayer, Richard F.; Garland, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Recycling is a technology that will be key to creating a self sustaining lunar outpost. The plastics used for food packaging provide a source of material that could be recycled to produce water and methane. The recycling of these plastics will require some additional resources that will affect the initial estimate of starting materials that will have to be transported from earth, mainly oxygen, energy and mass. These requirements will vary depending on the recycling conditions. The degredation products of these plastics will vary under different atmospheric conditions. An estimate of the the production rate of methane and water using typical ISRU processes along with the plastic recycling will be presented.

  12. Summary Report: Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.; Turo, Laura A.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2011-09-23

    Glass-ceramic waste form development began in FY 2010 examining two combined waste stream options: (1) alkaline earth (CS) + lanthanide (Ln), and (2) + transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by the uranium extraction (UREX+) separations process. Glass-ceramics were successfully developed for both options however; Option 2 was selected over Option 1, at the conclusion of 2010, because Option 2 immobilized all three waste streams with only a minimal decrease in waste loading. During the first year, a series of three glass (Option 2) were fabricated that varied waste loading-WL (42, 45, and 50 mass%) at fixed molar ratios of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali both at 1.75. These glass-ceramics were slow cooled and characterized in terms of phase assemblage and preliminary irradiation stability. This fiscal year, further characterization was performed on the FY 2010 Option 2 glass-ceramics in terms of: static leach testing, phase analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and irradiation stability (electron and ion). Also, a new series of glass-ceramics were developed for Option 2 that varied the additives: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0-6 mass%), molar ratio of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali (1.75 to 2.25) and waste loading (50, 55, and 60 mass%). Lastly, phase pure powellite and oxyapatite were synthesized for irradiation studies. Results of this fiscal year studies showed compositional flexibility, chemical stability, and radiation stability in the current glass-ceramic system. First, the phase assemblages and microstructure of all of the FY 2010 and 2011 glass-ceramics are very similar once subjected to the slow cool heat treatment. The phases identified in these glass-ceramics were oxyapatite, powellite, cerianite, and ln-borosilicate. This shows that variations in waste loading or additives can be accommodated without drastically changing the phase assemblage of the waste form, thus making the processing and performance

  13. Bioprocessing of citrus waste peel for induced pectinase production by Aspergillus niger; its purification and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Zia, Muhammad Anjum; Hussain, Muhammad Azhar; Akram, Zain; Naveed, Muhammad Tahir; Nowrouzi, Azin

    2016-01-01

    Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes. Pectinases are one of the most widely disseminated enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants. Czapeck media supplemented with orange waste peel as carbon source under submerged fermentation process Aspergillus niger presenting the preeminent enzymatic production. On partial optimization culture showed the maximum enzyme yield (117.1 ± 3....

  14. Spallation Reactions: A Tool for RNB Production and a Neutron Source for Nuclear Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlliure, J.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.; Boudard, A.; Casarejos, E.; Czajkowski, S.; Enqvist, T.; Farget, F.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Pravikoff, M.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Stephan, C.; Taieb, J.; Tassan-Got, L.; Volant, C.

    1999-12-31

    A large experimental program was initiated at GSI to study in detail the spallation reactions. The use of the inverse kinematics allows to determine the production cross section and recoil momentum of the spallation residues with high accuracy. The comparison of the experimental data with model calculation gives valuable information about the reaction mechanism and the application of these reactions to RNB production and to the problematic of nuclear waste transmutation.

  15. A study on production of biodiesel using a novel solid oxide catalyst derived from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Samrat; Ray, Srimanta

    2016-05-01

    The issues of energy security, dwindling supply and inflating price of fossil fuel have shifted the global focus towards fuel of renewable origin. Biodiesel, having renewable origin, has exhibited great potential as substitute for fossil fuels. The most common route of biodiesel production is through transesterification of vegetable oil in presence of homogeneous acid or base or solid oxide catalyst. But, the economics of biodiesel is not competitive with respect to fossil fuel due to high cost of production. The vegetable oil waste is a potential alternative for biodiesel production, particularly when disposal of used vegetable oil has been restricted in several countries. The present study evaluates the efficacy of a low-cost solid oxide catalyst derived from eggshell (a food waste) in transesterification of vegetable oil and simulated waste vegetable oil (SWVO). The impact of thermal treatment of vegetable oil (to simulate frying operation) on transesterification using eggshell-derived solid oxide catalyst (ESSO catalyst) was also evaluated along with the effect of varying reaction parameters. The study reported that around 90 % biodiesel yield was obtained with vegetable oil at methanol/oil molar ratio of 18:1 in 3 h reaction time using 10 % ESSO catalyst. The biodiesel produced with ESSO catalyst from SWVO, thermally treated at 150 °C for 24 h, was found to conform with the biodiesel standard, but the yield was 5 % lower compared to that of the untreated oil. The utilization of waste vegetable oil along with waste eggshell as catalyst is significant for improving the overall economics of the biodiesel in the current market. The utilization of waste for societal benefit with the essence of sustainable development is the novelty of this work.

  16. production of particleboards using polystyrene and bamboo wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    size and mixing ratios of HDPE on the properties of the composites. Holz Roh Werkst 64:172–177,2006. [3] Laemlaksakul V., and Kaewkuekool S., “Laminated bamboo materials for furniture – A systematic approach to innovative product design,” WSEAS. Trans. on Advances in Eng. Education,: 5(3): 424–. 430 2006.

  17. Waste production and valorization in an integrated aquaponic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the wastewater effluent emerging from sturgeon aquaculture and to evaluate its potential for hydroponic lettuce production. Bester sturgeon and Lactuca sativa were used to test both nitrogen excretion and uptake in an aquaponic system under two hydraulic regimes. In the end ...

  18. Desiring productivity: nary a wasted moment, never a missed step!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, Trudy

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how nurses are enrolled into and take part in programmes of efficiency and effectiveness. Using the philosophical theorizing about desire as a force or power, I focus specifically on what is understood as relations between desire and productivity in current Westernized health-care systems. Use is made of the idea from Spinoza that human emotions consist only of pleasure, pain, and desire as these act as a motive force. This is then linked with more contemporary work on the politics and discourses of desire. A report on the implementation of a productivity programme in the United Kingdom, The Productive Ward: Releasing time to care™, is explored for the ways its developers set about motivating nurses to endorse and enact the programme. In exploring the mechanics of desire in these processes, a view of desire as productive is promoted. Looking at desire as assembling actions, and an assemblage, moves the analysis to an interrogation of actions and practices used to enable and bring nurses to the process. Moreover, in working through the various modalities and operations of desire, the potential and limits of such projects are abstracted. Such potentials and limits are necessarily set by the intensification of power and desire in the capitalist economy, saturating areas of nursing, and health-care provision. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heintschel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass production for energy purposes on agricultural land competes with food production. This is a serious problem, considering the limited availability of farmland, rising demand for varied food products, demand for more organic crop production resulting in considerably reduced yields per area and the need for more environmentally sound agricultural practices meeting long-term sustainability criteria. Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites, riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields were the area types considered. Data for biomass and biogas yields were either determined through a sampling program or obtained from the literature and through interviews with experts. In an iterative process and distinguishing between theoretical, technical and realized (economic potentials, unsuitable areas and fractions were subtracted from the theoretical potentials. Theoretical potentials for Schwäbisch Hall County were originally estimated at 21 million m3 of biogas. The results of the investigation suggest that a very high percentage of the theoretical residual biomass potential cannot be accessed due to various technical, legal, ecological or management (economic constraints. In fact, in the end, only municipal lawns and green spaces were found to provide suitable substrates. Current use of residual biomass in the model communities did not exceed 0.4% of the theoretical potentials. Provided all residual biomass available under current management practices

  20. Product acceptance of a certified Class C low-level waste form at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, P.J. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States); Maestas, E.; Yeazel, J.A. [Dept. of Energy, West Valley, NY (United States). West Valley Project Office; McIntosh, T.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Energy, is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste (HLW) remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s fully integrated waste program is the treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes which result from processing liquid high-level waste. The treatment takes place in the project`s Integrated Radwaste Treatment System which removes Cesium-137 from the liquid or supernatant phase of the HLW by utilizing an ion exchange technique. The resulting decontaminated and conditioned liquid waste stream is solidified into a Class C low-level cement waste form that meets the waste form criteria specified in NRC 10 CFR 61. The waste matrix is placed in 71-gallon square drums, remotely handled and stored on site until determination of final disposition. This paper discusses the programs in place at West Valley to ensure production of an acceptable cement-based product. Topics include the short and long term test programs to predict product storage and disposal performance, description of the Process Control Plan utilized to control and maintain cement waste form product specifications and finally discuss the operational performance characteristics of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System. Operational data and product statistics are provided.

  1. Bioethanol Production from Waste Potatoes as a Sustainable Waste-to-energy Resource via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A. A.; Shah, F. A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ever increasing demand of energy and corresponding looming depletion of fossil fuels have transpired into a burning need of time to vie for alternative energy resources before the traditional energy sources are completely exhausted. Scientists are continuously working on sustainable energy production as an alternate source of energy to meet the present and future requirements. This research deals with conversion of the starch to fermentable carbon source (sugars) by fermentation through liquefaction by using yeast and alpha- amylase. The results show that the significant bioethanol production was achieved while using the parameters like temperature (30 °C) pH (6) and incubation time of 84 hrs. About 90 ml of bioethanol was produced from potato intake of 800 g. Pakistan being an agricultural country is rich in potato crop and this research bodes well to open new vistas to arrest the energy shortage in this part of the world

  2. Renewable energy production by photoelectrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using WO{sub 3} photoanodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raptis, Dimitrios [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Dracopoulos, Vassilios [FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece); Lianos, Panagiotis, E-mail: lianos@upatras.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • Efficient nanoparticulate WO{sub 3} photoanodes. • Photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen production by consumption of organic wastes. • Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol, glycerol or sorbitol. • Recording of hydrogen production and calculation of efficiencies. - Abstract: The present work has studied renewable hydrogen production by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of model organic substances representing biomass derived organic wastes. Its purpose was to show that renewable energy can be produced by consuming wastes. The study has been carried out by employing nanoparticulate WO{sub 3} photoanodes in the presence of ethanol, glycerol or sorbitol, i.e. three substances which are among typical biomass products. In these substances, the molecular weight and the number of hydroxyl groups increases from ethanol to sorbitol. The photocurrent produced by the cell was the highest in the presence of ethanol, smaller in the case of glycerol and further decreased in the presence of sorbitol. The photocurrent was roughly the double of that produced in the absence of an organic additive thus demonstrating current doubling phenomena. Hydrogen was produced only under illumination and was monitored at two forward bias, 0.8 and 1.6 V vs Ag/AgCl. Hydrogen production rates followed the same order as the photocurrent thus indicating that hydrogen production by reduction of protons mainly depends on the current flowing through the external circuit connecting photoanode with cathode. The maximum solar-to-hydrogen efficiency reached by the present system was 2.35%.

  3. Agro-industrial waste materials and wastewater sludge for rhizobial inoculant production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rebah, F; Prévost, D; Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D

    2007-12-01

    Inoculating legumes with commercial rhizobial inoculants is a common agriculture practice. Generally, inoculants are sold in liquid or in solid forms (mixed with carrier). The production of inoculants involves a step in which a high number of cells are produced, followed by the product formulation. This process is largely governed by the cost related to the medium used for rhizobial growth and by the availability of a carrier source (peat) for production of solid inoculant. Some industrial and agricultural by-products (e.g. cheese whey, malt sprouts) contain growth factors such as nitrogen and carbon, which can support growth of rhizobia. Other agro-industrial wastes (e.g. plant compost, filtermud, fly-ash) can be used as a carrier for rhizobial inoculant. More recently, wastewater sludge, a worldwide recyclable waste, has shown good potential for inoculant production as a growth medium and as a carrier (dehydrated sludge). Sludge usually contains nutrient elements at concentrations sufficient to sustain rhizobial growth and heavy metals are usually below the recommended level. In some cases, growth conditions can be optimized by a sludge pre-treatment or by the addition of nutrients. Inoculants produced in wastewater sludge are efficient for nodulation and nitrogen fixation with legumes as compared to standard inoculants. This new approach described in this review offers a safe environmental alternative for both waste treatment/disposal and inoculant production.

  4. Nonwoven production from agricultural okra wastes and investigation of their thermal conductivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, M. N.; Kocak, E. D.; Merdan, N.; Mistik, I.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays bio-based composite materials have been used in rising amounts and demanded widely in industrial uses, as they provide cost reduction and weight loss in the end use products. Agricultural cellulose based wastes can be a good alternative to synthetic fibers and can be used in natural fiber reinforced composite production, as there is a huge (more than 40 million tons) potential for natural cellulose production from agricultural wastes. Okra is one of the most grown vegetables around the world with stems left on the fields after harvest. When the similarity of mechanical properties of okra fibers with traditional bast fibers (flax, kenaf, hemp) are considered, from an economical and an environmental point of view this research emphasizes the potential of agricultural biomass for natural fiber production. In this study, okra stem wastes used for natural cellulosic fiber production and treated with 10% NaOH at 60°C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. By alkali treatment, decrease in fiber diameter and weight, and increase in tensile strength and elongation % have been observed. Nonwoven production has been done from both the fibers with and without surface treatments. Thermal conductivity properties of both nonwovens have been investigated.

  5. TECHNOLOGIES OF SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES BY MICROORGANISMS USING WASTE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe here literature and our experimental data concerning microbial synthesis using waste biodiesel production, mono- and dihydric alcohols (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, butanol, ethanol, polyols (mannitol, erythritol, arabitol, organic acids (citric, succinic, lactic, glyceric, polymers and compounds with a complex structure (polysaccharides, polyhydroxyalkanoates, surfactants, cephalosporin, cyanocobalamin. In some mentioned cases recombinant producer strains were used. It was shown that due to the presence of potential inhibitors in the composition of technical (crude glycerol (methanol, sodium and potassium salts, the efficiency of synthesis of most microbial products on such a substrate is lower than on the purified glycerol. However, the need of utilization of this toxic waste (storage and processing of crude glycerol is a serious environmental problem due to the high alkalinity and the content of methanol in it, compensates the lower rates of synthesis of the final product. Furthermore, currently considering the volumes of crude glycerol formed during the production of biodiesel, microbial technologies are preferred for its utilization, allowing realizing biosynthesis of practically valuable metabolites in the environment with the highest possible concentration of this waste. Using of crude glycerol as a substrate will reduce the cost of products of microbial synthesis and increase the profitability of biodiesel production.

  6. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma Wikandari; Huong Nguyen; Ria Millati; Claes Niklasson; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then dige...

  7. Characteristics of mechanically sorted municipal wastes and their suitability for production of refuse derived fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arina, Dace; Orupe, Ausma

    2012-11-01

    The article presents the results of experimental work in the first waste mechanical Pre-treatment Centre in Latvia Daibe. The goal - to detect the main parameters for sorted waste parts and to compare them with parameters stated for refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a cement plant in Latvia (Cemex). Samples were taken in four fractions - coarse, medium, fine, metal. The parameters - upper, lower heating values, moisture, ash content, S, Cl, metals were determined. Results - coarse fraction has greater potential of the production of the RDF, but reduction of its content of Cl would be necessary.

  8. Mineral carbonation of phosphogypsum waste for production of useful carbonate and sulfate salts

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu-Petteri eMattila; Ron eZevenhoven

    2015-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (CaSO4·2H2O, PG) waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H3PO4) production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2). For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] with ammonia (NH3) and CO2, al...

  9. Utilization of agroindustrial waste for biosurfactant production by native bacteria from chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Yañez-Ocampo Gustavo; Somoza-Coutiño Gilberto; Blanco-González Cristina; Wong-Villarreal Arnoldo

    2017-01-01

    In this work, two agro-industrial wastes, namely Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) and Coffee Wastewater (CW) have been used as the carbon source for the production of biosurfactants, due to their low cost and high availability. Biosurfactant-producing bacterial isolates from the Mexican state of Chiapas were used. The selected biosurfactant-producer strains were evaluated in a liquid medium with 2% (v/v) of WCO as the carbon source. The assay was conducted in an Erlenmeyer flask containing 300 mL aliq...

  10. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS....... The optimum PH range for hydrogen production in this system was in the range from 5 to 5.5. The short hydraulic retention time (2 days) applied in the first stage was enough to separate acidogenesis from methanogenesis. No additional control for preventing methanogenesis in the first stage was necessary...

  11. Improved biogas production from food waste by co-digestion with de-oiled grease trap waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting food waste (FW) and de-oiled grease trap waste (GTW) to improve the biogas production. A lab-scale mesophilic digester (MD), a temperature-phased anaerobic digester (TPAD) and a TPAD with recycling (TPAD-R) were synchronously operated under mono-digestion (FW) and co-digestion (FW+de-oiled GTW). Co-digestion increased the biogas yield by 19% in the MD and TPAD-R, with a biogas yield of 0.60L/g VS added. Specific methanogenic activity in the TPAD-R was much higher than that in the MD. In addition to methane, hydrogen at a yield of approximately 1mol/mol hexose was produced in the TPAD-R. Alkalinity was consumed more in the co-digestion than in mono-digestion. Co-digestion resulted in more lipid accumulation in each digester. The MD favored the degradation of lipid and conversion of long-chain fatty acids more than the TPAD and TPAD-R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of asphaltic mix with waste products use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trend of high growth of the vehicle fleet in Russia along with the positive impact on the socio-economic development of the country has a number of adverse consequences, one of which is the high accident rate on the roads. The paper considers modern way to provide the safe vehicles flow with the use of colored asphalt, which is a kind of hot asphalt and can have a variety of colors, which consists of coloring pigments. The conventional method of coloring the asphalt mix is produced by adding color rubble or pigmenting additives. The task, which was put forward, was the establishment of such road concrete mix, from which, without the use of primary materials and without increasing the consumption of bitumen, asphalt concrete road surfaces of acceptable strength could be obtained. As a pigment the dust of gas purification system of electrical furnace DSP - 60 of «Kamastal» plant, Perm, was used. The composition of the dust waste from the furnace consists of metal oxides and silicates. Dust-gas-cleaning is a fine powder with a high specific surface (1.2…2.5 thousand cm /g and bulk density of 3.7…4.2 g/cm . The powder color is dark brown. The density of the ready colored asphalt samples is 2.47...2.49 g/cm , and water saturation is 3.50…3.55 %. As a result of the research the diagrams of the dependence of road concrete mix’s water saturation from dust percentage and a diagram of dependence of concrete mixes’ durability from dust percentage at t = 20° and 50° C were built. After analyzing the obtained curves it can be concluded that the increase of the percentage of dust leads to increase of water saturation of road concrete mix and reduced strength. Thus, the developed asphalt concrete mix allows visually separating the lanes on the road, it has the relevant regulatory requirements durability and water resistance. This mixture corresponds to the type B mark III and can be used in regions I, II, and partly III of road-climatic zones

  13. Technical evaluation of a tank-connected food waste disposer system for biogas production and nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Å; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Magnusson, N; Bissmont, M

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a tank-connected food waste disposer system with the objective to optimise biogas production and nutrient recovery from food waste in Malmö was evaluated. The project investigated the source-separation ratio of food waste through waste composition analyses, determined the potential biogas production in ground food waste, analysed the organic matter content and the limiting components in ground food waste and analysed outlet samples to calculate food waste losses from the separation tank. It can be concluded that the tank-connected food waste disposer system in Malmö can be used for energy recovery and optimisation of biogas production. The organic content of the collected waste is very high and contains a lot of energy rich fat and protein, and the methane potential is high. The results showed that approximately 38% of the food waste dry matter is collected in the tank. The remaining food waste is either found in residual waste (34% of the dry matter) or passes the tank and goes through the outlet to the sewer (28%). The relatively high dry matter content in the collected fraction (3-5% DM) indicates that the separation tank can thicken the waste substantially. The potential for nutrient recovery is rather limited considering the tank content. Only small fractions of the phosphorus (15%) and nitrogen (21%) are recyclable by the collected waste in the tank. The quality of the outlet indicates a satisfactory separation of particulate organic matter and fat. The organic content and nutrients, which are in dissolved form, cannot be retained in the tank and are rather led to the sewage via the outlet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  16. Cauliflower waste utilization for sustainable biobutanol production: revelation of drying kinetics and bioprocess development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Manisha A; Nimbalkar, Pranhita R; Chavan, Prakash V; Chendake, Yogesh J; Bankar, Sandip B

    2017-07-03

    Efficient yet economic production of biofuel(s) using varied second-generation feedstock needs to be explored in the current scenario to cope up with global fuel demand. Hence, the present study was performed to reveal the use of cauliflower waste for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium acetobutylicum NRRL B 527. The proximate analysis of cauliflower waste demonstrated to comprise 17.32% cellulose, 9.12% hemicellulose, and 5.94% lignin. Drying of cauliflower waste was carried out in the temperature range of 60-120 °C to investigate its effect on ABE production. The experimental drying data were simulated using moisture diffusion control model. The cauliflower waste dried at 80 °C showed maximum total sugar yield of 26.05 g L-1. Furthermore, the removal of phenolics, acetic acid, and total furans was found to be 90-97, 10-40, and 95-97%, respectively. Incidentally, maximum ABE titer obtained was 5.35 g L-1 with 50% sugar utilization.

  17. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  18. Recycling of quarry waste as part of sustainable aggregate production: Norwegian and Italian point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Chiappino, Claudia; Primavori, Piero; Engelsen, Christian John

    2016-04-01

    Resource preservation is one of the main challenges in Europe, together with waste management and recycling; recently several researchers are interested in the recovering of critical raw materials and secondary raw materials from landfill. Aggregate supply, even if it is not "critical" sensus stricto (s.s.), is one of the European priorities (low value but high volume needs). On the other side, the management of quarry waste , mainly from dimension stones, but also as fines from aggregate crushing, is still a matter of concern. Such materials are managed in different ways both locally and nationwide, and often they are landfilled, because of an unclear legislation and a general lack of data. Most of time the local authorities adopt the maximum precaution principle or the enterprises find it little profitable to recover them, so that the sustainable recycling of such material is not valued. Several studies have shown, depending on the material specific characteristics, the viability of recycling quarry waste into new raw materials used in glass and ceramic industries, precast concrete production, infrastructures etc. (Loudes et al. 2012, Dino&Marian 2015, Bozzola et al 2012, Dino et al. 2012, etc.). Thus, aggregate production may be one of the profitable ways to use quarry waste and is falling under the priority of EU (aggregate supply). Positive economic and environmental effects are likely to be achieved by systematic recycling of quarry waste planned by industries (industrial planning) and public authorities (national and local planning of aggregate exploitation). Today, the recycling level varies to a great extent and systematic recovery is not common among European Countries. In Italy and Norway no significant incentives on recycling or systematic approaches for local aggregate exploitation exist. The environmental consequences can be overexploitation of the natural resources, land take for the landfills, environmental contamination and landscape alteration by

  19. Production of free fatty acids from waste oil by application of ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Larissa P.; Santos, Francisco F.P.; Costa, Enio; Fernandes, Fabiano A.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    This paper evaluates the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste oil by means of low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound application under atmospheric pressure. To evaluate the potential of this technology, the reaction between waste palm oil and ethanol was carried out. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol-to-oil weight ratio, potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio, and temperature on the yield of waste oil into FFA. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating conditions affecting the reaction were ethanol-to-oil weight ratio and potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio. The highest yield observed was of 97.3 % after 45 min of reaction. The best operating condition was obtained by applying an ethanol-to-oil weight ratio of 2.4, a potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio of 0.3, and temperature of 60 C. (orig.)

  20. Investigation of the possibility of using hydrogranulation in reprocessing radioactive wastes of radiochemical production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revyakin, V.; Borisov, L.M. [All Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Non-Organic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    Radio-chemical production facilities are constantly accumulating liquid radioactive wastes (still residues as the result of evaporation of extraction and adsorption solutions etc.) which are a complex multicomponent mixtures. The wastes are frequently stored for extended periods of time while awaiting disposition and in some cases, and this is much worse, they are released into the environment. In this report, I would like to draw your attention to some results we have obtained from investigations aimed at simplifying handing of such wastes by the precipitation of hard to dissolve metal hydroxides, the flocculation of the above into granules with the help of surface-active agents (in this case a polyacrylamide - PAA), quickly precipitated and easily filtered. The precipitate may be quickly dried and calcinated, if necessary, and transformed into a dense oxide sinter. In other words it may be transformed into a material convenient for storage or burial.

  1. Characterization and Production of Fuel Briquettes Made from Biomass and Plastic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Garrido

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the physical properties of briquettes produced from two different biomass feedstocks (sawdust and date palm trunk and different plastic wastes, without using any external binding agent, were investigated. The biomass feedstocks were blended with different ratios of two waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE plastics (halogen-free wire and printed circuit boards (PCBs and automotive shredder residues (ASR. The briquettes production is studied at different waste proportions (10–30%, pressures (22–67 MPa and temperatures (room–130 °C. Physical properties as density and durability rating were measured, usually increasing with temperature. Palm trunk gave better results than sawdust in most cases, due to its moisture content and the extremely fine particles that are easily obtained.

  2. Study of the Technical Feasibility of Increasing the Amount of Recycled Concrete Waste Used in Ready-Mix Concrete Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban; Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier; López-Ochoa, Luis M; López-González, Luis M

    2017-07-18

    The construction industry generates a considerable amount of waste. Faced with this undesirable situation, the ready-mix concrete sector, in particular, has invested energy and resources into reusing its own waste in its production process as it works towards the goal of more sustainable construction. This study examines the feasibility of incorporating two types of concrete waste, which currently end up in landfill, into the production process of ready-mix concrete: the waste generated during the initial production stage (ready-mix concrete waste), and waste created when demolition waste is treated to obtain artificial aggregate. The first phase of the study's methodology corroborates the suitability of the recycled aggregate through characterization tests. After this phase, the impact of incorporating different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate is evaluated by examining the performance of the produced concrete. The replacement rate varied between 15% and 50%. The results indicate that recycled aggregates are, indeed, suitable to be incorporated into ready-mix concrete production. The impact on the final product's performance is different for the two cases examined herein. Incorporating aggregates from generic concrete blocks led to a 20% decrease in the produced concrete's strength performance. On the other hand, using recycled aggregates made from the demolition waste led to a smaller decrease in the concrete's performance: about 8%. The results indicate that with adequate management and prior treatment, the waste from these plants can be re-incorporated into their production processes. If concrete waste is re-used, concrete production, in general, becomes more sustainable for two reasons: less waste ends up as landfill and the consumption of natural aggregates is also reduced.

  3. Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Fiber Glass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Haun

    2005-07-15

    The U.S. fiber glass industry disposes of more than 260,000 tons of industrial fiber glass waste in landfills annually. New technology is needed to reprocess this industrial waste into useful products. A low-cost energy-saving method of manufacturing ceramic tile from fiber glass waste was developed. The technology is based on sintering fiber glass waste at 700-900 degrees C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 degrees C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 degrees C. The process also eliminates other energy intensive processing steps, including mining and transportation of raw materials, spray-drying to produce granulated powder, drying pressed tile, and glazing. The technology completely transforms fiber glass waste into a dense ceramic product, so that all future environmental problems in the handling and disposal of the fibers is eliminated. The processing steps were developed and optimized to produce glossy and matte surface finishes for wall and floor tile applications. High-quality prototype tile samples were processed for demonstration and tile standards testing. A Market Assessment confirmed the market potential for tile products produced by the technology. Manufacturing equipment trials were successfully conducted for each step of the process. An industrial demonstration plant was designed, including equipment and operating cost analysis. A fiber glass manufacturer was selected as an industrial partner to commercialize the technology. A technology development and licensing agreement was completed with the industrial partner. Haun labs will continue working to transfer the technology and assist the industrial partner with commercialization beyond the DOE project.

  4. Waste-to-energy possibilities for industrial olive and grape by-products in Extremadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celma, A.R.; Rojas, S. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica; Lopez-Rodriguez, F. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Area de Proyectos de Ingenieria

    2007-07-15

    The olive and grape agro-industrial sectors have a major economic importance in Extremadura. Annual production of olive oil is more than 50 x 10{sup 3} t, and of wine is more than 3 x 10{sup 6} hectolitres. The large amounts of by-products are in most cases under-used, although they could be converted into a zero cost of the waste at the point of origin. In this context, the present work describes an estimate of plant size, and an economic analysis of grate firing+steam turbine (GF/ST) and fluidized bed combustion+steam turbine (FBC/ST) waste-to-energy solutions using industrial olive and grape by-products in Extremadura. The fuel is dry olive husk waste (OH), olive mill wastewater (OMW), OH+OMW sludge, and grape waste from wineries, with total calculated specific costs of 3.28, 8.09, 2.67, and 2.05 EUR GJ{sup -1} with respect to the lower heating value (LHV), respectively. The logistics component corresponding to trucking the biomass to the power production plant is that of greatest economic importance, even when the logistics strategy includes de-centralized drying plants. For real onsite availabilities of OH 21.084 x 10{sup 3} t, OMW 37.483 x 10{sup 3} t, olive sludge 87.462 x 10{sup 3} t, and grape waste 89.486 x 10{sup 3} t, the gross power is 19.13 MW for a GF/ST plant and 20.46 MW for an FBC/ST plant. The results are compared using standard economic indices - net present value (NPV), profitability index (PI), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback time (PBT). A sensitivity and risk analysis of the proposals showed the GF/ST option to be the better suited to the studied scenario, with better values for all the indicators. (author)

  5. Investigation of Household Hazardous Waste Production in Amirkola, Iran, in 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoliman Amouei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: It is extremely important to recognize the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of this type of waste before any planning on them due to the lack of the prepared program in the field of household hazardous waste (HHW management in the country. This research has been done in Babol, Iran, in order to achieve this important goal. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out on the basis of cluster samplingamong150families of Amirkola, Iran, to determine the per capita and percentage of different types of HHW. Training items in the form of pamphlets and special disposal bags were given to the families for being familiar with the types of waste and collection the waste, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of SPSS version19 and to signify of mean data was used with one-way analysis of variance. Results: Average production of HHW was 75.6 kg a day, which contained almost 0.3% of municipal waste. The most important types of hazardous waste, including cleaners (60%, drugs (15.5%, toxic materials and chemicals (9.5%, electronics (8%, cosmetics (6.5%, sharp objects (1%, and pesticides (0.5%. Conclusion: This study showed that a high percentage of the amount of hazardous waste was allocated to the cleaners and medicines respectively. In this respect, the families were trained in order to reduce HHW in the source, to separate and recycle them. Moreover, it is also recommended to collect, transport and dispose of in accordance with health regulations.

  6. Hydrogen and methane production by co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste in the two-stage fermentation process: substrate conversion and energy yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyuan; Li, Ruying; Ji, Min; Han, Li

    2013-10-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to produce hydrogen and methane from waste activated sludge and food waste by two-stage mesophilic fermentation. Hydrogen and methane production, energy yield, soluble organic matters, volatile solid removal efficiency and carbon footprint were investigated during two-stage digestion at various food waste proportions. The highest energy yield reached 14.0 kJ/g-VS at the food waste proportion of 85%, with hydrogen and methane yields of 106.4 ml-H2/g-VS and 353.5 ml-CH4/g-VS respectively. The dominant VFA composition was butyrate for co-digestion and sole food waste fermentation, whereas acetate was dominate in VFA for sole waste activated sludge fermentation. The VS removal efficiencies of co-digestion were 10-77% higher than that of waste activated sludge fermentation. Only 0.1-3.2% of the COD in feedstock was converted into hydrogen, and 14.1-40.9% to methane, with the highest value of 40.9% in methane achieved at food waste proportion of 85%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biogas from poultry waste-production and energy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Karoline Carvalho; Schneider, Roselene Maria; do Amaral, Adriana Garcia

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m -2 were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days. The efficiency of the biodigestion process was evaluated by biogas production in relation to total solids (TS) added, as well as the potential for power generation. Quantified volumes ranged from 8.9 to 41.1 L of biogas for aviary 1, and 6.7 to 33.9 L of biogas for aviary 2, with the sixth bed reused from both aviaries registering the largest biogas potential. Average potential biogas in m 3  kg -1 of TS added were 0.022 to 0.034 for aviary 1 and 0.015 to 0.022 for aviary 2. Energy values ​​of biogas produced were calculated based on calorific value and ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 kWh for chicken litter without fermentation and from 0.05 to 0.27 kWh for chicken litter with fermentation. It was concluded that the re-use of poultry litter resulted in an increase in biogas production, and the use of fermentation in the microbiological treatment of poultry litter seems to have negatively influenced production of biogas.

  8. Biodigester economic viability for electrical power production using biogas from swine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: ricardogc@fca.unesp.br; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2008-07-01

    The increase of energy use in agriculture and the raising prices of electricity demand studies on alternate sources of energy and improvement on biogas use efficiency so that agricultural activities become more competitive. Biogas production through anaerobic biodigestion represents an important breakthrough for the problem of swine waste and energy availability for rural areas. This work aimed to analyze the economy on biodigester investment for electrical power production using biogas from anaerobic biodigestion of swine waste. Two factors were used for this evaluation: the cost of electrical power production through biogas and time for equipment investment return. Results show that investment return time can be only 2.45 years for electrical power at peak time. (author)

  9. Biosurfactant production by Corynebacterium kutscheri from waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, R; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2007-12-01

    Production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable sources. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3-l fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (9.8 mg ml(-l)) and biosurfactant production (6.4 mg ml(-l)) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h, respectively. Chemical characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that it is a glycolipopeptide with chemical composition of carbohydrate (40%), lipid (27%) and protein (29%). The biosurfactant is able to emulsify waste motor lubricant oil, crude oil, peanut oil, kerosene, diesel, xylene, naphthalene and anthracene; the emulsification activity was comparatively higher than the activity found with Triton X-100. This study indicates the possibility of biosurfactant production using renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources like waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Emulsification activity found with the biosurfactant against different hydrocarbons showed the possibility of the application of biosurfactants against diverse hydrocarbon pollution. The data obtained from the study could be useful for large-scale biosurfactant production using economically cheaper substrates. Information obtained in emulsification activity and laboratory-scale experiment on bioremediation inferred that bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites may be treated with biosurfactants or the bacteria that produces it.

  10. Biorefinery production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate using waste office paper hydrolysate as feedstock for microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelamegam, Annamalai; Al-Battashi, Huda; Al-Bahry, Saif; Nallusamy, Sivakumar

    2018-01-10

    Waste paper, a major fraction of municipal solid waste, has a potential to serve as renewable feedstock for the biorefineries of fuels, chemicals and materials due to rich in cellulose and abundant at low cost. This study evaluates the possibility of waste office paper (WOP) to serve as a potential feedstock for the biorefinery production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate). In this study, the WOP was pretreated, enzymatically saccharified and the hydrolysate was used for PHB production. The hydrolysate mainly consists of glucose (22.70g/L) and xylose (1.78g/L) and the corresponding sugar yield was about 816mg/g. Ammonium sulphate and C/N ratio 20 were identified as most favorable for high yield of PHB. The batch fermentation of Cupriavidus necator using the pretreated WOP hydrolysate resulted in cell biomass, PHB production and PHB content of 7.74g/L, 4.45g/L and 57.52%, respectively. The volumetric productivity and yield achieved were 0.061g/L/h and 0.210g/g sugar, respectively. The results suggested that WOP could be a potential alternative feedstock for the biorefinery production of bioplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production with Ralstonia eutropha from low quality waste animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Jahns, Stefan; Koenig, Steven; Bock, Martina C E; Brigham, Christopher J; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-11-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters considered as alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. Ralstonia eutropha is a model organism for PHA production. Utilizing industrially rendered waste animal fats as inexpensive carbon feedstocks for PHA production is demonstrated here. An emulsification strategy, without any mechanical or chemical pre-treatment, was developed to increase the bioavailability of solid, poorly-consumable fats. Wild type R. eutropha strain H16 produced 79-82% (w/w) polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) per cell dry weight (CDW) when cultivated on various fats. A productivity of 0.3g PHB/(L × h) with a total PHB production of 24 g/L was achieved using tallow as carbon source. Using a recombinant strain of R. eutropha that produces poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(HB-co-HHx)], 49-72% (w/w) of PHA per CDW with a HHx content of 16-27 mol% were produced in shaking flask experiments. The recombinant strain was grown on waste animal fat of the lowest quality available at lab fermenter scale, resulting in 45 g/L CDW with 60% (w/w) PHA per CDW and a productivity of 0.4 g PHA/(L × h). The final HHx content of the polymer was 19 mol%. The use of low quality waste animal fats as an inexpensive carbon feedstock exhibits a high potential to accelerate the commercialization of PHAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  13. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vasques Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 °C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.

  15. THE EFFECT OF AMOUNT OF NATURAL ZEOLIT CATALYST IN PRODUCT OF POLYPROPILENE (PP PLASTIC WASTE PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalimatus sa'diyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the waste problem, especially plastic waste , environmental concerned scientists from various disciplines have conducted various research and actions. Catalytic pyrolysis processes was chosen as an alternative method to recycle plastic waste. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of natural zeolit catalyst on the pyrolysis process with oxygen-free conditions to obtain maximum hydrocarbon compounds (gasoline fraction in C5-C9. The process of pyrolysis was conducted in 3.5 dm3 unstirred stainless steel semi-batch reactor. This process operated at atmospheric pressure with nitrogen injection. Plastic waste that used in this particular paper was 50 grams of polypropylene (PP. In pyrolysis process, natural zeolite catalysts was added 2,5 gram (5% weight of natural zeolite per weight of plastic waste samples, 5 gram (10% , and 10 gram (20%. Temperature of pyrolysis was 450°C and were maintained until 30 minutes. Steam that produced from pyrolisis was condensed and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS to determine yield of hydrocarbons produced. From the analysis of GC-MS, liquid products of pyrolysis contained lots of aromatic hydrocarbons. The optimal amount of catalyst that produce liquid with hydrocarbon compound that has the quality of gasoline was 10 gram (20% with ≤C9 composition as 29,16% n-paraffin, 9,22% cycloparaffin, and 61,64% aromatics.

  16. Production of Ceramic Balls by High Temperature Atomization of Mine Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunsik; Ha, Minchul; Yang, Dong-hyo; Sohn, Jeong-soo; Park, Joohyun

    Gold tailing, red mud and waste limestones are industrial wastes that are mostly landfilled near the process plants. These increase the environmental risks as well as the necessity of waste management. Recycling of materials has been limited due to the fine particle sizes, heavy metals and unique oxide compositions. The authors investigated the potential utilization of these industrial wastes by melting and granulation technique. As quartz, hematite, alumina and lime consist more than 90wt% of mine wastes, CaO-FetO-Al2O3-SiO2 quaternary oxide system was applied to the thermodynamic calculations. Compositions of molten oxides were designed considering the lowest melting temperature and the adequate viscosity for atomization. Samples were melted by high frequency induction furnace then the atomization was carried out by air blowing technique. Viscosities of the melts were measured to quantify the optimum melting and atomization condition. Size distribution of the produced ceramic balls was investigated to estimate potential of the product to be used as abrasive materials.

  17. Production of Pectin-Cellulose Biofilms: A New Approach for Citrus Waste Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bátori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While citrus waste is abundantly generated, the disposal methods used today remain unsatisfactory: they can be deleterious for ruminants, can cause soil salinity, or are not economically feasible; yet citrus waste consists of various valuable polymers. This paper introduces a novel environmentally safe approach that utilizes citrus waste polymers as a biobased and biodegradable film, for example, for food packaging. Orange waste has been investigated for biofilm production, using the gelling ability of pectin and the strength of cellulosic fibres. A casting method was used to form a film from the previously washed, dried, and milled orange waste. Two film-drying methods, a laboratory oven and an incubator shaker, were compared. FE-SEM images confirmed a smoother film morphology when the incubator shaker was used for drying. The tensile strength of the films was 31.67 ± 4.21 and 34.76 ± 2.64 MPa, respectively, for the oven-dried and incubator-dried films, which is within the range of different commodity plastics. Additionally, biodegradability of the films was confirmed under anaerobic conditions. Films showed an opaque appearance with yellowish colour.

  18. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  19. Biogas production liquid and solid waste for power generation. Total concept for utilization of wastes; Biogasherstellung aus Abwasser und Feststoffen dient zur Stromerzeugung. Gesamtkonzept zur Nutzung von Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Stephan [Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Aerzen (Germany)

    2010-06-14

    Processing of vegetables and potatoes uses produces large amounts of liquid and solid waste materials every day. These can be used for biogas production and for electric power generation in a cogeneration unit. The liquid waste is processed and then discharged into a nearby streamlet and/or into a public sewage plant. The waste heat of the process can be used for heating. A plant working by this principle was constructed at Twistringen in the German state of Niedersachsen. The system incorporates two biogas blowers and two oil-free compressing rotary piston blowers by Aerzener Maschinenfabrik. (orig.)

  20. Conversion of hazardous plastic wastes into useful chemical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Nahid

    2009-08-15

    Azoisobutylnitrile (AIBN) initiator was used in the treatment of most widely used domestic plastics in lieu of catalysts. The pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics with azoisobutylnitrile was carried out individually under nitrogen atmosphere. A series of single (plastic/AIBN) and binary (mixed plastics/AIBN) reactions were carried out in a 25-cm(3) micro-autoclave reactor. The optimum conditions selected for this study were: 5% AIBN by weight of total plastics, 60 min, 650 psi and 420 degrees C. It was found that HDPE, LDPE, PP underwent to a maximum cracking and produced highest amounts of liquid and gaseous products. Pyrolysis of PET and PS plastics with AIBN afforded comparatively significant amount of insoluble organic materials. In other reactions, fixed ratios of mixed plastics were pyrolyzed with AIBN that afforded excellent yields of liquid hydrocarbons. This result shows a very significant increase in the liquid portions of the products on using AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics. The use of AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics is seems to be feasible and an environmental friendly alternative to catalytic process for maximizing the liquid fuels or chemical feed stocks in higher amounts.

  1. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Basic survey on trends of waste use type production facilities and waste fuel production facilities; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Haikibutsu riyogata seizo shisetsu oyobi haikibutsu nenryo seizo shisetsu doko kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This survey was made to obtain the basic data for future spread and promotion of No.6 type (waste use type production facilities) and No.7 type (waste fuel production facilities) which were added to the objects having been subsidized since fiscal 1997 under `the environmental harmony type energy community project.` In the former, the kiln in the cement industry and the blast furnace in the steel industry can be extremely large places to receive waste plastic since the facilities are distributed in every area and the treatment capacity is large. However, the effective collection, transportation and sorting of large quantity of waste plastic, especially the problem of removal of vinyl chloride, is a big bottleneck. As to the use of waste plastic using gasification technology, there are no actual results on the commercial basis. That is, however, appropriate for treatment of the waste difficult in treatment, and can be expected of the usage in the chemical industry. In the latter, in the facilities using industrial waste raw materials as fuel, solidification and liquefaction are both operated on a commercial basis. In relation to the solidification and use as fuel of general waste, the treatment of combustion ash is preventing the expansion of use of waste in the industrial field because of a large quantity of chlorine included in the products. 92 refs., 54 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. A Critical Review of Research on Reuse of Mechanically Recycled FRP Production and End-of-Life Waste for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardavan Yazdanbakhsh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last three decades, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite materials have been widely used in major engineering industries. Managing FRP waste is becoming an important issue due to the growth in the production of FRP composite materials. In this article, the issue of FRP waste management is discussed and the commonly used methods for the handling of FRP waste are reviewed. One potentially viable use of FRP waste is in the partial replacement of fillers or aggregates in cementitious materials (particularly portland cement mortar and concrete. A number of important prior investigations performed on the use of FRP waste in concrete and mortar are reviewed. The results from most of those investigations suggest that FRP aggregates significantly reduce the strength of cementitious materials with little significant effect on durability. Recommendations for future research in this area are provided for producing stronger mortars and concretes incorporating FRP production and end-of-life waste.

  3. Study of the Technical Feasibility of Increasing the Amount of Recycled Concrete Waste Used in Ready-Mix Concrete Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier; López-González, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    The construction industry generates a considerable amount of waste. Faced with this undesirable situation, the ready-mix concrete sector, in particular, has invested energy and resources into reusing its own waste in its production process as it works towards the goal of more sustainable construction. This study examines the feasibility of incorporating two types of concrete waste, which currently end up in landfill, into the production process of ready-mix concrete: the waste generated during the initial production stage (ready-mix concrete waste), and waste created when demolition waste is treated to obtain artificial aggregate. The first phase of the study’s methodology corroborates the suitability of the recycled aggregate through characterization tests. After this phase, the impact of incorporating different percentages of recycled coarse aggregate is evaluated by examining the performance of the produced concrete. The replacement rate varied between 15% and 50%. The results indicate that recycled aggregates are, indeed, suitable to be incorporated into ready-mix concrete production. The impact on the final product’s performance is different for the two cases examined herein. Incorporating aggregates from generic concrete blocks led to a 20% decrease in the produced concrete’s strength performance. On the other hand, using recycled aggregates made from the demolition waste led to a smaller decrease in the concrete’s performance: about 8%. The results indicate that with adequate management and prior treatment, the waste from these plants can be re-incorporated into their production processes. If concrete waste is re-used, concrete production, in general, becomes more sustainable for two reasons: less waste ends up as landfill and the consumption of natural aggregates is also reduced. PMID:28773183

  4. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  6. Life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol, biomethane and limonene production from citrus waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbafrani, Mohammad; McKechnie, Jon; MacLean, Heather L.; Saville, Bradley A.

    2013-03-01

    The production of biofuel from cellulosic residues can have both environmental and financial benefits. A particular benefit is that it can alleviate competition for land conventionally used for food and feed production. In this research, we investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate from citrus waste, a byproduct of the citrus processing industry. The study represents the first life cycle-based evaluations of citrus waste biorefineries. Two biorefinery configurations are studied—a large biorefinery that converts citrus waste into ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate, and a small biorefinery that converts citrus waste into biomethane, limonene and digestate. Ethanol is assumed to be used as E85, displacing gasoline as a light-duty vehicle fuel; biomethane displaces natural gas for electricity generation, limonene displaces acetone in solvents, and digestate from the anaerobic digestion process displaces synthetic fertilizer. System expansion and two allocation methods (energy, market value) are considered to determine emissions of co-products. Considerable GHG reductions would be achieved by producing and utilizing the citrus waste-based products in place of the petroleum-based or other non-renewable products. For the large biorefinery, ethanol used as E85 in light-duty vehicles results in a 134% reduction in GHG emissions compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles when applying a system expansion approach. For the small biorefinery, when electricity is generated from biomethane rather than natural gas, GHG emissions are reduced by 77% when applying system expansion. The life cycle GHG emissions vary substantially depending upon biomethane leakage rate, feedstock GHG emissions and the method to determine emissions assigned to co-products. Among the process design parameters, the biomethane leakage rate is critical, and the ethanol produced in the large biorefinery would not meet EISA

  7. Critical analysis of the waste management performance of two uranium production units in Brazil--part II: Caetite production center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Horst Monken; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto; Peres, Valeska; Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Simões Filho, F Fernando Lamego

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the environmental waste management of the Heap-Leach Uranium Production Facility of Caetité located in a semi-arid region in Brazil. A comparison is made with the first uranium production site of the country located in Poços de Caldas. It is demonstrated that differences in the operational process along with different environmental conditions can lead to different impacts. In the present case groundwater is the potential most sensitive environmental medium despite the well-established consensus in the literature that radon and aerosol emissions may turn-out to be the most relevant environmental aspects of an installation located at this type of region. Most of the (226)Ra content in the ore remains in the leached ore that is deposited with the waste rock. A lack in appropriate prediction of the hydrological balance has been causing unanticipated emissions of liquid effluents into the environment. Chemical treatment of this effluent may be needed. Contamination of groundwater in the short term by the waste ponds is not to be expected but it can be a relevant issue in the long term. As a consequence, careful closure schemes will need to be put in place. Finally, the overall costs with remediation in the Caetité production center are lower than those observed at the Poços de Caldas mining site.

  8. Fermentative Polyhydroxybutyrate Production from a Novel Feedstock Derived from Bakery Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Chi; Han, Wei; Lau, Kin Yan; Lei, Ho Man; Lo, Kin Yu; Ng, Wai Yee; Melikoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Halomonas boliviensis was cultivated on bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater in batch and fed-batch cultures for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production. Results demonstrated that bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater could be efficiently utilized by Halomonas boliviensis while PHB contents between 10 and 30% (w/w) were obtained. Furthermore, three methods for bakery waste hydrolysis were investigated for feedstock preparation. These include: (1) use of crude enzyme extracts from Aspergillus awamori, (2) Aspergillus awamori solid mashes, and (3) commercial glucoamylase. In the first method, the resultant free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentration in hydrolysates was 150 and 250 mg L−1 after 20 hours at enzyme-to-solid ratios of 6.9 and 13.1 U g−1, respectively. In both cases, the final glucose concentration was around 130–150 g L−1. In the second method, the resultant FAN and glucose concentrations were 250 mg L−1 and 150 g L−1, respectively. In the third method, highest glucose and lowest FAN concentrations of 170–200 g L−1 and 100 mg L−1, respectively, were obtained in hydrolysates after only 5 hours. The present work has generated promising information contributing to the sustainable production of bioplastic using bakery waste hydrolysate. PMID:25136626

  9. Bioethanol Production from Liquid Waste of Rice Flour with Batch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sari Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid waste rice flour is abundant liquid wastes but it is still underutilized. So far, it is only used for process water in factory production, wastewater, and even regarded as environment pollution. Rice flour liquid waste has higher levels of glucose, starch and protein which can be used as one of ethanol producers. This study aims to assess the process of hydrolysis, fermentation, and batch distillation process, as well as to search for alternative raw materials products of bioethanol. There are three processes of making bioethanol, namely biological hydrolysis process done by using bacillus; the process of fermentation by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; and batch distillation. After the third process was done, the results were: glucose is 5% - 10% in the process of hydrolysis; ethanol content is 11% - 16% in the fermentation process; and the levels are high enough for bio-ethanol, which is 95% - 96% in the batch distillation process. So it can be concluded that the liquid waste of rice flour can be used as raw materials for the manufacture of alternative bioethanol.

  10. Critical factors and their effects on product maturity in food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    Product maturity represents the efficiency of composting performance, and it calls for high attention in food waste composting. In this study, a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design method combined with well-controlled experiments was introduced to characterize the effects of system factors (i.e., C/N ratio, aeration rate, starting culture amount, and coal ash amendment) on product maturity of food waste composting. The compost maturity was synthetically evaluated by developing a Mamdani fuzzy rule-based inference system. Temperature index, O2 uptake rate, ammonium, OM loss, C/N ratio, and ash content were chosen as indicators of the fuzzy multicriterion maturity evaluation. Evaluation results of compost maturity for the eight experiment runs demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of evaluating the compost maturity in food waste composting. The effect analyses indicated that the starting culture amount and aeration rate contributed the most to the compost maturity in this study. The results could provide decision support for the process control in food waste composting management.

  11. Chemical and radiological risk factors associated with waste from energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Benestad, C.

    1992-01-01

    We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents'. These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify the poten......We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents'. These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify...... and one has to accept a certain small risk by accepting the concentration limit. This is in line with the establishment of limits for radiation. Waste products from coal combustion have the highest potential risk among the fossil fuel alternatives. The highest risk is caused by metals, and the fly ash...... represents the effluent stream giving the largest contribution to the potential risk. The waste from nuclear power production has a lower potential risk than coal if today's limit values are used. If one adjusts the limits for radiation dose and the concentration limit values so that a similar risk...

  12. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šánek, Lubomír; Pecha, Jiří; Kolomazník, Karel; Bařinová, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    Annually, a great amount of waste fats and oils not suitable for human consumption or which cannot be further treated are produced around the world. A potential way of utilizing this low-cost feedstock is its conversion into biodiesel. The majority of biodiesel production processes today are based on the utilization of inorganic alkali catalysts. However, it has been proved that an organic base - tetramethylammonium hydroxide - can be used as a very efficient transesterification catalyst. Furthermore, it can be employed for the esterification of free fatty acids - reducing even high free fatty acid contents to the required level in just one step. The work presented herein, is focused on biodiesel production from waste frying oils and animal fats using tetramethylammonium hydroxide at the pilot-plant level. The results showed that the process performance in the pilot unit - using methanol and TMAH as a catalyst, is comparable to the laboratory procedure, even when the biodiesel is produced from waste vegetable oils or animal fats with high free fatty acid content. The reaction conditions were set at: 1.5% w/w of TMAH, reaction temperature 65°C, the feedstock to methanol molar ratio to 1:6, and the reaction time to 120min. The conversion of triglycerides to FAME was approximately 98%. The cloud point of the biodiesel obtained from waste animal fat was also determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fermentative polyhydroxybutyrate production from a novel feedstock derived from bakery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Lam, Wan Chi; Han, Wei; Lau, Kin Yan; Cheung, Lai Chun; Lee, Ming Wui; Lei, Ho Man; Lo, Kin Yu; Ng, Wai Yee; Sun, Zheng; Melikoglu, Mehmet; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Halomonas boliviensis was cultivated on bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater in batch and fed-batch cultures for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production. Results demonstrated that bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater could be efficiently utilized by Halomonas boliviensis while PHB contents between 10 and 30% (w/w) were obtained. Furthermore, three methods for bakery waste hydrolysis were investigated for feedstock preparation. These include: (1) use of crude enzyme extracts from Aspergillus awamori, (2) Aspergillus awamori solid mashes, and (3) commercial glucoamylase. In the first method, the resultant free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentration in hydrolysates was 150 and 250 mg L(-1) after 20 hours at enzyme-to-solid ratios of 6.9 and 13.1 U g(-1), respectively. In both cases, the final glucose concentration was around 130-150 g L(-1). In the second method, the resultant FAN and glucose concentrations were 250 mg L(-1) and 150 g L(-1), respectively. In the third method, highest glucose and lowest FAN concentrations of 170-200 g L(-1) and 100 mg L(-1), respectively, were obtained in hydrolysates after only 5 hours. The present work has generated promising information contributing to the sustainable production of bioplastic using bakery waste hydrolysate.

  14. Fermentative Polyhydroxybutyrate Production from a Novel Feedstock Derived from Bakery Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pleissner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Halomonas boliviensis was cultivated on bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater in batch and fed-batch cultures for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB production. Results demonstrated that bakery waste hydrolysate and seawater could be efficiently utilized by Halomonas boliviensis while PHB contents between 10 and 30% (w/w were obtained. Furthermore, three methods for bakery waste hydrolysis were investigated for feedstock preparation. These include: (1 use of crude enzyme extracts from Aspergillus awamori, (2 Aspergillus awamori solid mashes, and (3 commercial glucoamylase. In the first method, the resultant free amino nitrogen (FAN concentration in hydrolysates was 150 and 250 mg L−1 after 20 hours at enzyme-to-solid ratios of 6.9 and 13.1 U g−1, respectively. In both cases, the final glucose concentration was around 130–150 g L−1. In the second method, the resultant FAN and glucose concentrations were 250 mg L−1 and 150 g L−1, respectively. In the third method, highest glucose and lowest FAN concentrations of 170–200 g L−1 and 100 mg L−1, respectively, were obtained in hydrolysates after only 5 hours. The present work has generated promising information contributing to the sustainable production of bioplastic using bakery waste hydrolysate.

  15. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0# diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of the Hanford Tank Waste Feed Acceptance and Product Qualification Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C. C.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, D. T.; Peeler, David K.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Reboul, S. H.; Stone, M. E.; Peterson, Reid A.; Chun, Jaehun; Fort, James A.; Vienna, John D.; Wells, Beric E.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing Hanford Tank waste feed acceptance and product qualification. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the planned waste feed acceptance and qualification testing for Hanford tank wastes. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) feed criteria development with emphasis on identifying the feed properties and the process requirements, 2) the Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process qualification program, and 3) the WTP HLW glass product qualification program. Opportunities for streamlining the accetpance and qualification programs were also considered in the gap assessment. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps and/or implement the opportunities were identified. These approaches will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate and long-term benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with tank waste removal and preparation, transfers from the tank farm to the WTP, processing within the WTP Pretreatment Facility, and in producing qualified HLW glass products. Additionally, implementation of the identified opportunities provides the potential for long-term cost savings given the anticipated

  17. Production and use of waste gas. Situation in Flanders.; Winnen en benutten van stortgas. Situatie in Vlaanderen.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, G.; Beckers, H.

    1997-08-01

    Waste gas is an energy rich gas that origins by the anaerobic degradation of organic material, an d mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. To make an estimate of the amount of gas that comes free in function of time at a certain landfill , the multifasemodel can be used. This model is based on a first order reaction, by which is supposed that the speed of the degradation process is proportional to the amount of organic material still present in the landfill. Furthermore the model takes the different fractions of organic material which each have a different degradation speed into account. The model assumes that the waste gas production starts 1 year after dumping and immediately is optimal. From then on the waste gas production decreases exponential. In total about 9 million cubic meter waste gas per year is used in Flanders, which is less than 10% of the total amount of waste gas that comes free. If all waste gas would be extracted and used, about 78 million cubic meters natural gas would be saved at the moment. The amount of projects for application will grow in the future. Especially because of the stimulating measures for use of waste gas. So a reduced environmental tax must be paid in case of use of waste gas and 1 BEF/kWh is paid if electricity is produced with waste gas. In a number of our neighboring countries, waste gas is extracted and used on a large scale.

  18. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  19. Feed Additives Production Out of Dairy Industry Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrikh, EV

    2017-05-01

    Application of macro- and microelements in animal feed is the most effective in the case of their industrial brining in mixed feeds, feed mixes, and protein-vitamin supplements in the form of various complex salts. Application of the product contributes to the body’s needs of broiler chickens in vitamins and minerals, normalization of metabolism, and ensures a high rate of growth and development. The composition of the premix can be adjusted depending on the actual proportion of biologically active substances in the feed used by a consumer. It is possible to include in the premix other biologically active substances. Assessing the slaughter qualities of experimental pigs, it was found (Table. 2) that the pigs of group II has a tendency toward greater weight of hot carcass (4.5 kg), of slaughter yelts (by 3.83%) and toward a smaller thickness of fat over the spinous processes of the 6-7th thoracic vertebrae (1.67 mm). The performed investigations have established that there is no significant difference between groups I and II in the content of certain amino acids, however, group I shows poorer results in the content of valine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine by 0.16 g / 100 g of protein (P> 0.999) 0.2 (P> 0.90), 0.46 (P> 0.999) and 0.39 (P> 0.999) g / 100 g protein respectively.

  20. Ethanol production from agricultural wastes using Sacchromyces cervisae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64% followed by rice straw (40% and wheat straw (34%. Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L and wheat straw (44 g/L using medium composition of (% 0.25 (NH42SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.

  1. Pretreatment of different waste streams for improvement in biogas production; Foerbehandlingsteknikers betydelse foer oekat biogasutbyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); del Pilar Castillo, Maria (JTI (Sweden)); Loren, Anders; Brive, Lena; Ekendahl, Susanne; Nordman, Roger (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Kanerot, Mija (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Biological breakdown of organic municipal and industrial waste to biogas is already in use today. The technology is of outmost importance to attain the environmental goals that our society has set regarding to sustainable development. Of decisive economic importance is the ability to obtain an increased amount of biogas from the same amount of substrate. Alternative resources for biogas production are at the same time of great interest in order to enable a large expansion of biogas production. The goal of applying a suitable pre-treatment step before anaerobic digestion is to open up the molecular structure of inaccessible biopolymers in order to facilitate access to the carbon for microorganisms involved in biological breakdown and fermentation to biogas. Our study shows that introducing a pretreatment step opens new perspectives for biogas production. Treatment of paper residuals by steam explosion increased methane production up to 400 Nm3/ton dry matter, to a double amount of methane yield compared to that of untreated paper. A novel method for pretreatment with an environment-friendly solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was also tested on lignocellulose-rich waste fractions from forest and agricultural. The NMMO-treatment increased the methane yields of spruce chips and triticale straw by 25 times (250 Nm3/ton dry matter), and by 6 times (200 Nm3/ton dry matter), respectively, compared to that of the untreated materials. Keratin-rich feather waste yielded around 200 Nm3 methane/ton dry matter, which could be increased to 450 Nm3/ton after enzymatic treatment and to 360 Nm3/ton after either chemical treatment with lime, or after biological treatment with a recombinant bacterial strain of Bacillus megaterium. However, the gain in increased amount of methane after a pretreatment step should be weighted against a possible increase in energy usage generated by the pretreatment. We have therefore performed a case study in which the energy balance for a biogas

  2. Municipal solid waste processing and separation employing wet torrefaction for alternative fuel production and aluminum reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu'min, Gea Fardias; Prawisudha, Pandji; Zaini, Ilman Nuran; Aziz, Muhammad; Pasek, Ari Darmawan

    2017-09-01

    This study employs wet torrefaction process (also known as hydrothermal) at low temperature. This process simultaneously acts as waste processing and separation of mixed waste, for subsequent utilization as an alternative fuel. The process is also applied for the delamination and separation of non-recyclable laminated aluminum waste into separable aluminum and plastic. A 2.5-L reactor was used to examine the wet torrefaction process at temperatures below 200°C. It was observed that the processed mixed waste was converted into two different products: a mushy organic part and a bulky plastic part. Using mechanical separation, the two products can be separated into a granular organic product and a plastic bulk for further treatment. TGA analysis showed that no changes in the plastic composition and no intrusion from plastic fraction to the organic fraction. It can be proclaimed that both fractions have been completely separated by wet torrefaction. The separated plastic fraction product obtained from the wet torrefaction treatment also contained relatively high calorific value (approximately 44MJ/kg), therefore, justifying its use as an alternative fuel. The non-recyclable plastic fraction of laminated aluminum was observed to be delaminated and separated from its aluminum counterpart at a temperature of 170°C using an additional acetic acid concentration of 3%, leaving less than 25% of the plastic content in the aluminum part. Plastic products from both samples had high calorific values of more than 30MJ/kg, which is sufficient to be converted and used as a fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of wastes derived from earthquakes for the production of concrete masonry partition wall blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhao; Ling, Tung-Chai; Kou, Shi-Cong; Wang, Qingyuan; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-08-01

    Utilization of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes as recycled aggregates in the production of concrete and concrete products have attracted much attention in recent years. However, the presence of large quantities of crushed clay brick in some the C&D waste streams (e.g. waste derived collapsed masonry buildings after an earthquake) renders the recycled aggregates unsuitable for high grade use. One possibility is to make use of the low grade recycled aggregates for concrete block production. In this paper, we report the results of a comprehensive study to assess the feasibility of using crushed clay brick as coarse and fine aggregates in concrete masonry block production. The effects of the content of crushed coarse and fine clay brick aggregates (CBA) on the mechanical properties of non-structural concrete block were quantified. From the experimental test results, it was observed that incorporating the crushed clay brick aggregates had a significant influence on the properties of blocks. The hardened density and drying shrinkage of the block specimens decreased with an increase in CBA content. The use of CBA increased the water absorption of block specimens. The results suggested that the amount of crushed clay brick to be used in concrete masonry blocks should be controlled at less than 25% (coarse aggregate) and within 50-75% for fine aggregates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the environmental impact of energy production from hydrochar generated via hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Nicole D; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Ro, Kyoung S

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous studies suggesting hydrothermal carbonization is an environmentally advantageous process for transformation of wastes to value-added products, a systems level evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion has not been conducted. The specific objectives of this work are to use a life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the HTC of food wastes and the subsequent combustion of the generated solid product (hydrochar) for energy production, and to understand how parameters and/or components associated with food waste carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion influence system environmental impact. Results from this analysis indicate that HTC process water emissions and hydrochar combustion most significantly influence system environmental impact, with a net negative GWP impact resulting for all evaluated substituted energy-sources except biomass. These results illustrate the importance of electricity production from hydrochar particularly when it is used to offset coal-based energy sources. HTC process water emissions result in a net impact to the environment, indicating a need for developing appropriate management strategies. Results from this analysis also highlight a need for additional exploration of liquid and gas-phase composition, a better understanding of how changes in carbonization conditions (e.g., reaction time and temperature) influence metal and nutrient fate, and the exploration of liquid-phase treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Vaidya, Atul N; Kumar, M Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-01

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=29). PHB production yield (Y(p/s)) was highest (0.184 g g(-1) COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  7. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  8. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ``Ceramics``, Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  9. Regular recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production. Recash a Life-Environment Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars; Emilsson, Stig [Swedish Forest Agency, Karlstad (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvest, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. In order to create better conditions for a regular recycling of wood, the Swedish Forest Agency took the initiative for creating a LIFE-Environment demonstration project. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distribute knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large.

  10. PRODUCTION OF ENRICHED BIOMASS BY RED YEASTS OF SPOROBOLOMYCES SP. GROWN ON WASTE SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Breierova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids and ergosterol are industrially significant metabolites probably involved in yeast stress response mechanisms. Thus, controlled physiological and nutrition stress including use of waste substrates can be used for their enhanced production. In this work two red yeast strains of the genus Sporobolomyces (Sporobolomyces roseus, Sporobolomyces shibatanus were studied. To increase the yield of metabolites at improved biomass production, several types of exogenous as well as nutrition stress were tested. Each strain was cultivated at optimal growth conditions and in medium with modified carbon and nitrogen sources. Synthetic media with addition of complex substrates (e.g. yeast extract and vitamin mixtures as well as some waste materials (whey, apple fibre, wheat, crushed pasta were used as nutrient sources. Peroxide and salt stress were applied too, cells were exposed to oxidative stress (2-10 mM H2O2 and osmotic stress (2-10 % NaCl. During the experiment, growth characteristics and the production of biomass, carotenoids and ergosterol were evaluated. In optimal conditions tested strains substantially differed in biomass as well as metabolite production. S.roseus produced about 50 % of biomass produced by S.shibatanus (8 g/L. Oppositely, production of pigments and ergosterol by S.roseus was 3-4 times higher than in S.shibatanus. S.roseus was able to use most of waste substrates, the best production of ergosterol (8.9 mg/g d.w. and beta-carotene (4.33 mg/g d.w. was obtained in medium with crushed pasta hydrolyzed by mixed enzyme from Phanerochaetae chrysosporium. Regardless very high production of carotenes and ergosterol, S.roseus is probably not suitable for industrial use because of relatively low biomass production.

  11. Enhanced productivity in reactor decommissioning and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasinger, Karl [Areva GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    As for any industrial facility, the service live of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities, research and test reactors ends. Decision for decommissioning such facilities may be motivated by technical, economical or political reasons or a combination of it. As of today, a considerable number of research reactors, fuel cycle facilities and power reactors have been completely decommissioned. However, the end point of such facilities' lifetime is achieved, when the facility is finally removed from regulatory control and the site becomes available for further economical utilization. This process is commonly known as decommissioning and involves detailed planning of all related activities, radiological characterization, dismantling, decontamination, clean-up of the site including treatment and packaging of radioactive and/or contaminated material not released for unrestricted recycling or industrial disposal. Decommissioning requires adequate funding and suitable measures to ensure safety while addressing stakeholders' requirements on occupational health, environment, economy, human resources management and the socioeconomic effects to the community and the region. One important aspect in successful management of decommissioning projects and dismantling operation relates to the economical impact of the endeavor, primarily depending on the selected strategy and, as from commencement of dismantling, on total duration until the end point is achieved. Experience gained by Areva in executing numerous decommissioning projects during past 2 decades shows that time injury free execution and optimum productivity turns out crucial to project cost. Areva develops and implements specific 'performance improvement plans' for each of its projects which follow the philosophy of operational excellence based on Lean Manufacturing principles. Means and methods applied in implementation of these plans and improvements achieved are described and examples are given on

  12. Production and application of carbon nanotubes, as a co-product of hydrogen from the pyrolysis-catalytic reforming of waste plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A.; -->Miskolczi, -->Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production from waste plastics is an important alternative for managing waste plastics. This work addresses a promising technology for co-producing high value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in addition to the production of hydrogen; thus significantly increasing the economic feasibility of the process. Catalyst design is a critical factor to control the production of hydrogen and CNTs. NiMnAl catalysts, prepared by a co-precipitation method, with different metal molar ratios were developed ...

  13. Silicon carbide recovered from photovoltaic industry waste as photocatalysts for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Hu, Yu [College of Material Science and Enginneering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Zeng, Hongmei [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Zhong, Lin, E-mail: zhonglin@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Liu, Kewei; Cao, Hongmei [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Li, Wei [College of Material Science and Enginneering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Yan, Hongjian, E-mail: hjyan@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • SiC was recovered from photovoltaic industry waste. • The recovered SiC is mainly consist of 3C-SiC, 6H-SiC and some silicon oxycarbides. • The recovered SiC shows photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution from water. - Abstract: In recent years, the focus on creating a dependable and efficient means to recycle or recover the valuable parts from the waste material has drawn significantly attention as an environmentally friendly way to deal with the industrial wastes. The silicon carbide (SiC) crystalline is one of reusable material in the slurry wastes generated during wafer slicing. Here we report the use of recovered SiC from the slurry wastes as photocatalysts to produce hydrogen in the presence of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}S as electron donor. The recovered SiC were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), UV–vis (UV–vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The morphology of SiC loaded with 1 wt% Pt as cocatalyst by thermal-reduction method was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results reveal that the recovered SiC is mainly consist of 3C-SiC, 6H-SiC and some silicon oxycarbides on the surface of the SiC. The highest hydrogen production rate is 191.8 μmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1}. This study provides a way to recycle crystalline SiC from the discharged waste in the photovoltaic industry and reuse it as photocatalyst to yield hydrogen with the advantage of low energy consumption, low pollution and easy operation.

  14. Biogas production from co-digestion of dairy manure and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Hamed M; Zhang, Ruihong

    2010-06-01

    The effect of manure-screening on the biogas yield of dairy manure was evaluated in batch digesters under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Moreover, the study determined the biogas production potential of different mixtures of unscreened dairy manure and food waste and compared them with the yield from manure or food waste alone. A first-order kinetics model was developed to calculate the methane yield from different mixtures of food waste and unscreened dairy manure. The methane yields of fine and coarse fractions of screened manure and unscreened manure after 30days were 302, 228, and 241L/kgVS, respectively. Approximately 93%, 87%, and 90% of the biogas yields could be obtained, respectively, after 20days of digestion. Average methane content of the biogas was 69%, 57%, and 66%, respectively. Based on mass balance calculations, separation of the coarse fraction of manure would sacrifice about 32% of the energy potential. The methane yield of the food waste was 353L/kgVS after 30days of digestion. Two mixtures of unscreened manure and food waste, 68/32% and 52/48%, produced methane yields of 282 and 311L/kgVS, respectively after 30days of digestion. After 20days, approximately 90% and 95% of the final biogas yield could be obtained, respectively. Therefore, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20days could be recommended for a continuous digester. The average methane content was 62% and 59% for the first and second mixtures, respectively. The predicted results from the model showed that adding the food waste into a manure digester at levels up to 60% of the initial volatile solids significantly increased the methane yield for 20days of digestion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Additional paper waste in pulping sludge for biohydrogen production by heat-shocked sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid; Tapananont, Supachok; Detjaroen, Siriporn; Sangkhatim, Juthatip; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Sirirote, Pramote

    2012-01-01

    Dark anaerobic fermentation is an interesting alternative method for producing biohydrogen (H(2)) as a renewable fuel because of its low cost and various usable organic substrates. Pulping sludge from wastewater treatment containing plentiful cellulosic substrate could be feasibly utilized for H(2) production by dark fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal proportion of pulping sludge to paper waste, the optimal initial pH, and the optimal ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N) for H(2) production by anaerobic seed sludge pretreated with heat. The pulping sludge was pretreated with NaOH solution at high temperature and further hydrolyzed with crude cellulase. Pretreatment of the pulping sludge with 3% NaOH solution under autoclave at 121 °C for 2 h, hydrolysis with 5 FPU crude cellulase at 50 °C, and pH 4.8 for 24 h provided the highest reducing sugar production yield (229.68 ± 2.09 mg/g(TVS)). An initial pH of 6 and a C/N ratio of 40 were optimal conditions for H(2) production. Moreover, the supplement of paper waste in the pulping sludge enhanced the cumulative H(2) production yield. The continuous hydrogen production was further conducted in a glass reactor with nylon pieces as supporting media and the maximum hydrogen production yield was 151.70 ml/g(TVS).

  16. Microbial Enzyme Production Using Lignocellulosic Food Industry Wastes as Feedstock: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ravindran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are of great importance in the industry due to their substrate and product specificity, moderate reaction conditions, minimal by-product formation and high yield. They are important ingredients in several products and production processes. Up to 30% of the total production cost of enzymes is attributed to the raw materials costs. The food industry expels copious amounts of processing waste annually, which is mostly lignocellulosic in nature. Upon proper treatment, lignocellulose can replace conventional carbon sources in media preparations for industrial microbial processes, such as enzyme production. However, wild strains of microorganisms that produce industrially important enzymes show low yield and cannot thrive on artificial substrates. The application of recombinant DNA technology and metabolic engineering has enabled researchers to develop superior strains that can not only withstand harsh environmental conditions within a bioreactor but also ensure timely delivery of optimal results. This article gives an overview of the current complications encountered in enzyme production and how accumulating food processing waste can emerge as an environment-friendly and economically feasible solution for a choice of raw material. It also substantiates the latest techniques that have emerged in enzyme purification and recovery over the past four years.

  17. Microbial Enzyme Production Using Lignocellulosic Food Industry Wastes as Feedstock: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes are of great importance in the industry due to their substrate and product specificity, moderate reaction conditions, minimal by-product formation and high yield. They are important ingredients in several products and production processes. Up to 30% of the total production cost of enzymes is attributed to the raw materials costs. The food industry expels copious amounts of processing waste annually, which is mostly lignocellulosic in nature. Upon proper treatment, lignocellulose can replace conventional carbon sources in media preparations for industrial microbial processes, such as enzyme production. However, wild strains of microorganisms that produce industrially important enzymes show low yield and cannot thrive on artificial substrates. The application of recombinant DNA technology and metabolic engineering has enabled researchers to develop superior strains that can not only withstand harsh environmental conditions within a bioreactor but also ensure timely delivery of optimal results. This article gives an overview of the current complications encountered in enzyme production and how accumulating food processing waste can emerge as an environment-friendly and economically feasible solution for a choice of raw material. It also substantiates the latest techniques that have emerged in enzyme purification and recovery over the past four years. PMID:28952592

  18. Cement plate slab production with the incorporation of glass wool waste ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathany Angélica dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the characteristics of Civil Construction is its ability to absorb a wide range of wastes to produce new products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of cement plates produced with the addition of ground glass wool waste and in natura, in shredded form. The tensile strength tests in bending and permeability were performed, according to ABNT NBR 15498: 2007 as well as environmental ones according to ABNT NBR 10004: 2004. The plates produced in this study were characterized as being impermeable, with a satisfactory tensile strength in bending and being classified as plates for indoor and outdoor use, and as products that do not offer immediate risk to health and to the environment; however, it should be discarded in landfill.

  19. Production of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification of waste sardine oil and evaluation of its engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arumugam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA content (32 mg KOH/g of oil. Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively. Reusability of immobilized lipase was studied and it was found after 5 cycles of reuse there was about 13% drop in FAME yield. Engine performance of the produced biodiesel was studied in a Variable Compression Engine and the results confirm that waste sardine oil is a potential alternate and low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production.

  20. Dispersal and assimilation of an aquaculture waste subsidy in a low productivity coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C A; Nichols, P D; Ross, D J; Dempster, T

    2017-07-15

    To understand dispersal and assimilation of aquaculture waste subsidies in a naturally low-productivity environment, we applied a novel, rapid transmethylation technique to analyse sediment and biota fatty acid composition. This technique was initially validated at Atlantic salmon farms in Macquarie Harbour, Australia, where sediments were collected at farm and control locations. Subsequently, sediment, benthic polychaete and zooplankton were sampled at sites 0, 50, 250, 500 and 1000m distant from multiple cages. Results demonstrated an acute deposition zone up to 50m from cages and a diffuse zone extending 500m from cages. Changes in sediment concentration of linoleic acid, oleic acid and total fatty acids were effective tracers of farm deposition. Bacterial biomarkers indicated that aquaculture waste stimulates bacterial productivity in sediments, with elevated biomarker concentrations also detected in benthic polychaetes. Overall, fatty acid analysis was a sensitive technique to characterize the benthic footprint of aquaculture influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.