WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste package fill

  1. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  2. Informative document packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de

    1989-01-01

    This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  3. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  4. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  5. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  7. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  9. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  10. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  11. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  13. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  14. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  15. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  16. WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN SENSITIVITY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mecharet

    2001-03-09

    The purpose of this technical report is to present the current designs for waste packages and determine which designs will be evaluated for the Site Recommendation (SR) or Licence Application (LA), to demonstrate how the design will be shown to comply with the applicable design criteria. The evaluations to support SR or LA are based on system description document criteria. The objective is to determine those system description document criteria for which compliance is to be demonstrated for SR; and, having identified the criteria, to refer to the documents that show compliance. In addition, those system description document criteria for which compliance will be addressed for LA are identified, with a distinction made between two steps of the LA process: the LA-Construction Authorization (LA-CA) phase on one hand, and the LA-Receive and Possess (LA-R&P) phase on the other hand. The scope of this work encompasses the Waste Package Project disciplines for criticality, shielding, structural, and thermal analysis.

  17. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  18. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  19. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  20. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety

  1. Packaging wastes management; Gestion integral de los residuos de envases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Ramos, M.

    1996-12-01

    Packaging, having fulfilled their function, become waste and joint the flow of resure we generate every day. Packaging waste is a usable secondary raw material, provided that a suitable integrated management strategy is devised. This article highlights the Integrated Management Strategic Plan for Packaging Waste, following the priority guidelines established by the Community Directives on waste management: Reduction, re-use, Recycling, Energy Recovery and Final Elimination, and the European Directive 94/62/CE about packaging and packaging waste. (Author)

  2. 44-BWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADING CURVE EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Scaglione

    2004-08-25

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 44 BWR waste package configuration as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an application of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent (wt%) U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 40 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing BWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results of 100 percent of the current BWR projected waste stream being able to be disposed of in the 44-BWR waste package with Ni-Gd Alloy absorber plates is contingent upon the referenced waste stream being sufficiently similar to the waste stream received for disposal. (3) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials.

  3. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-08-16

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  4. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-04-19

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  5. Hydrogen generation in tru waste transportation packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B; Sheaffer, M K; Fischer, L E

    2000-03-27

    This document addresses hydrogen generation in TRU waste transportation packages. The potential sources of hydrogen generation are summarized with a special emphasis on radiolysis. After defining various TRU wastes according to groupings of material types, bounding radiolytic G-values are established for each waste type. Analytical methodologies are developed for prediction of hydrogen gas concentrations for various packaging configurations in which hydrogen generation is due to radiolysis. Representative examples are presented to illustrate how analytical procedures can be used to estimate the hydrogen concentration as a function of time. Methodologies and examples are also provided to show how the time to reach a flammable hydrogen concentration in the innermost confinement layer can be estimated. Finally, general guidelines for limiting the hydrogen generation in the payload and hydrogen accumulation in the innermost confinement layer are described.

  6. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  7. Compatibility studies for the waste packaging program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1969-03-01

    A program is now underway by Battelle-Northwest to develop the technology required for a waste packaging plant. Cesium chloride and strontium fluoride have been selected as the prime candidates for packaging. Cesium diuranate and strontium pyrophosphate have been selected as backup compounds for packaging in case either or both of the prime candidates should be rejected for any reason. No detailed studies of CsCl compatibility have been reported and long term data are needed. As in the case with CsCl, no detailed studies have been made on SrF{sub 2} compatibility. As a result of the lack of pertinent compatibility data, it is readily apparent that detailed studies are required on CsCl and SrF{sub 2} compatibility and at least scouting studies must be made on the compatibility of the backup packaging compounds. This report summarizes the compatibility studies that are underway at PNL using non-radioactive compounds. Capsule fabrication procedures and tests schedules are outlined.

  8. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2005-07-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to

  9. Waste forms, packages, and seals working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, N. [Center Antonio, TX (United States); McNeil, M.B. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of radioactive waste forms and packaging. Also included is a description of the use of natural analogs in waste packaging, container materials and waste forms.

  10. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

  12. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  13. Transport concept of new waste management system (inner packaging system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakozaki, K. [Transnuclear Ltd (AREVA Group), Tokyo (Japan); Wada, R. [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Kobe Steel, Ltd. (KSL) and Transnuclear Tokyo (TNT) have jointly developed a new waste management system concept (called ''Inner packaging system'') for high dose rate wastes generated from nuclear power plants under cooperation with Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The inner packaging system is designed as a total management system dedicated to the wastes from nuclear plants in Japan, covering from the wastes conditioning in power plants up to the disposal in final repository. This paper presents the new waste management system concept.

  14. Consumption and recovery of packaging waste in Germany in 2008; Aufkommen und Verwertung von Verpackungsabfaellen in Deutschland im Jahr 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, Kurt [Gesellschaft fuer Verpackungsmarktforschung mbH, Mainz (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Pursuant to EU Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste dated 20.12.1994 in connection with Directive 2004/12/EC, EU Member States are obliged to report annually on the consumption and recovery of packaging. This report shall be prepared on the basis of the Commission's decision of 22.03.2005 on establishing mandatory table formats (2005/270/EC). The study determines the quantity of packaging (packaging consumption) for the material groups of glass, plastics, paper, aluminium, tin plate, composites, other steel, wood and other packaging materials placed on the market in Germany. In addition to the quantity of packaging used in Germany, filled exports and imports were also ascertained in order to calculate the consumption rate. The quantity of packaging waste of waste relevance in Germany was calculated on the basis of the quantity of packaging placed on the market as e.g. reusable and durable packaging will only be discarded at some point in the future. All existing data from associations, the waste disposal industry and environmental statistics were compiled and documented systematically in order to determine the recovery quantities and recovery paths. The quantities incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery could only be calculated as the difference between the total quantity to be discarded and quantities actually recovered. In 2008, 16.04 million tons of packaging were consumed and became waste. Compared to the reference year 2005, packaging consumption increased by 3.7 % (minus 0.4 % compared to 2007). A total of 13.10 million tons was recovered in terms of material or energy, of which a total of 2.41 million tons outside Germany. In addition, 1.40 million tons of imported packaging waste were recovered in Germany. In 2008, 2.10 million tons were incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery. (orig.)

  15. Consumption and recovery of packaging waste in Germany in 2009; Aufkommen und Verwertung von Verpackungsabfaellen in Deutschland im Jahr 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, Kurt [GVM Gesellschaft fuer Verpackungsmarktforschung mbH, Mainz (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Pursuant to EU Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste dated 20.12.1994 in connection with Directive 2004/12/EC, EU Member States are obliged to report annually on the consumption and recovery of packaging. This report shall be prepared on the basis of the Commission's decision of 22.03.2005 on establishing mandatory table formats (2005/270/EC). The study determines the quantity of packaging (packaging consumption) for the material groups of glass, plastics, paper, aluminium, tin plate, composites, other steel, wood and other packaging materials placed on the market in Germany. In addition to the quantity of packaging used in Germany, filled exports and imports were also ascertained in order to calculate the consumption rate. The quantity of packaging waste of waste relevance in Germany was calculated on the basis of the quantity of packaging placed on the market as e.g. reusable and durable packaging will only be discarded at some point in the future. All existing data from associations, the waste disposal industry and environmental statistics were compiled and documented systematically in order to determine the recovery quantities and recovery paths. The quantities incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery could only be calculated as the difference between the total quantity to be discarded and quantities actually recovered. In 2008, 15.05 million tons of packaging were consumed and became waste. Compared to the reference year 2008, packaging consumption decreased by 6.2 %. A total of 12.73 million tons was recovered in terms of material or energy, of which a total of 2.45 million tons outside Germany. In addition, 1.42 million tons of imported packaging waste were recovered in Germany. In 2009, 1.55 million tons were incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery.

  16. STUDY ON PACKAGING WASTE PREVENTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scortar Lucia-Monica

    2013-07-01

    It is very important to mention that individuals and businesses can often save a significant amount of money through waste prevention: waste that never gets created doesn't have management costs (handling, transporting, treating and disposing of waste. The rule is simple: the best waste is that which is not produced.

  17. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, B.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability of the Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) to meet the packaging requirements of HNF-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of special form, highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile radioactive material. This SEP evaluates five shipments of DSWCs used for the transport and storage of Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel to the Plutonium Finishing Plant Protected Area.

  19. 21-PWR Waste Package Side and End Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schmitt

    2005-08-29

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities and initial angles between the waste package and the unyielding surface is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the area of the outer shell (OS) where the residual stress exceeds a given limit (hereafter ''damaged area''). The stress limit is defined as a fraction of the yield strength of the OS material, Alloy 22 (SB-575 N06022), at the appropriate temperature. The design of the 21-PWR waste package used in this calculation is that defined in Reference 8. However, a value of 4 mm was used for the gap between the inner shell and the OS, and the thickness of the OS was reduced by 2 mm. The sketch in Attachment I provides additional information not included in Reference 8. All obtained results are valid for this design only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Specialty Analyses and Waste Package Design Section. The waste package (i.e. uncanistered spent nuclear fuel disposal container) is classified as Quality Level 1.

  20. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  1. Repository documentation rethought. A comprehensive approach from untreated waste to waste packages for final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthofer, Anton Philipp; Schubert, Johannes [VPC GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The German Act on Reorganization of Responsibility for Nuclear Disposal (Entsorgungsuebergangsgesetz (EntsorgUebG)) adopted in June 2017 provides the energy utilities with the new option of transferring responsibility for their waste packages to the Federal Government. This is conditional on the waste packages being approved for delivery to the Konrad final repository. A comprehensive approach starts with the dismantling of nuclear facilities and extends from waste disposal and packaging planning to final repository documentation. Waste package quality control measures are planned and implemented as early as in the process qualification stage so that the production of waste packages that are suitable for final deposition can be ensured. Optimization of cask and loading configuration can save container and repository volume. Workflow planning also saves time, expenditure and exposure time for personnel at the facilities. VPC has evaluated this experience and developed it into a comprehensive approach.

  2. Humid air corrosion of YMP waste package candidate material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating candidate materials for high level nuclear waste containers (Waste Packages) for a potential deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The potential repository is located above the water table in the unsaturated zone. The rock contains nominally 10% by volume water and gas pressure in the emplacement drifts of the repository is expected to remain near the ambient atmospheric pressure. The heat generated by the radioactive decay of the waste will raise the temperature of the waste packages and the surrounding rock. Waste Package temperatures above the ambient boiling point of water are anticipated for the waste emplacement scenarios. Because the repository emplacement drifts are expected to remain at the ambient atmospheric pressure, the maximum relative humidity obtainable decreases above the boiling point of water. Temperatures of the Waste Packages and the surrounding rock are expected to reach maximum temperature within 100`s of years and then gradually decrease with time. Episodic liquid water contact with the WPs is also expected; this will result in the deposition of salts and mineral scale.

  3. Recovery and distribution of incinerated aluminum packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Bakker, M C M; de Heij, P G

    2011-12-01

    A study was performed into relations between physical properties of aluminum packaging waste and the corresponding aluminum scraps in bottom ash from three typical incineration processes. First, Dutch municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was analyzed for the identifiable beverage can alloy scraps in the +2mm size ranges using chemical detection and X-ray fluorescence. Second, laboratory-scale pot furnace tests were conducted to investigate the relations between aluminum packaging in base household waste and the corresponding metal recovery rates. The representative packaging wastes include beverage cans, foil containers and thin foils. Third, small samples of aluminum packaging waste were incinerated in a high-temperature oven to determine leading factors influencing metal recovery rates. Packaging properties, combustion conditions, presence of magnesium and some specific contaminants commonly found in household waste were investigated independently in the high-temperature oven. In 2007, the bottom ash (+2mm fraction) from the AEB MSWI plant was estimated to be enriched by 0.1 wt.% of aluminum beverage cans scrap. Extrapolating from this number, the recovery potential of all eleven MSWI plants in the Netherlands is estimated at 720 ton of aluminum cans scrap. More than 85 wt.% of this estimate would end up in +6mm size fractions and were amenable for efficient recycling. The pot furnace tests showed that the average recovery rate of metallic aluminum typically decreases from beverage cans (93 wt.%) to foil containers (85 wt.%) to thin foils (77 wt.%). The oven tests showed that in order of decreasing impact the main factors promoting metallic aluminum losses are the packaging type, combustion temperature, residence time and salt contamination. To a lesser degree magnesium as alloying element, smaller packaging size and basic contaminations may also promote losses. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time.

  5. Defense Waste Processing Facility Process Simulation Package Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, K.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to immobilize high level liquid radioactive waste into safe, stable, and manageable solid form. The complexity and classification of the facility requires that a performance based operator training to satisfy Department of Energy orders and guidelines. A major portion of the training program will be the application and utilization of Process Simulation Packages to assist in training the Control Room Operators on the fluctionality of the process and the application of the Distribution Control System (DCS) in operating and managing the DWPF process. The packages are being developed by the DWPF Computer and Information Systems Simulation Group. This paper will describe the DWPF Process Simulation Package Life Cycle. The areas of package scope, development, validation, and configuration management will be reviewed and discussed in detail.

  6. A comprehensive waste collection cost model applied to post-consumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.; Bing, X.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PPW) can be collected for recycling via source separation or post-separation. In source separation, households separate plastics from other waste before collection, whereas in post-separation waste is separated at a treatment centre after collection. There are

  7. Insight into economies of scale for waste packaging sorting plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik; Maul, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This contribution presents the results of a techno-economic analysis performed for German Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) which sort commingled lightweight packaging waste (consisting of plastics, metals, beverage cartons and other composite packaging). The study addressed the importance...... of economies of scale and discussed complementary relations occurring between capacity size, technology level and operational practice. Processing costs (capital and operational expenditure) per unit waste input were found to decrease from above 100 € for small plants with a basic technology level to 60...

  8. Management of radioactive waste packaging drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il-Sik; Shon, Kang J. S.; Lee, Y. H.; Song, I. T.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, K. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    Radioactive waste drums of dismantled equipment and contaminated soil waste generated from KAERI research reactor, Seoul in 1988 were transferred to KAERI in Taejeon and are stored at low and medium level storage building until now. As a result of relatively long term storage, a corrosion on the surface of the drums was progressed and a remedial action was conducted to take a measure for the enhancement of safety. Thus, we examined the corrosion status on the surface of waste drums and studied mostly applicable methods. Resultingly, the seriously corroded drums were repackaged and the slightly corroded drums were painted after removing a corroded part on the surface. 12 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  9. Secondary Waste Form Down Selection Data Package – Ceramicrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-08-31

    As part of high-level waste pretreatment and immobilized low activity waste processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility. Currently, four waste forms are being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. These waste forms are Cast Stone, Ceramicrete, DuraLith, and Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer. The preferred alternative will be down selected from these four waste forms. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing data packages to support the down selection process. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. The information included will be based on information available in the open literature and from data obtained from testing currently underway. This data package is for the Ceramicrete waste form. Ceramicrete is a relatively new engineering material developed at Argonne National Laboratory to treat radioactive and hazardous waste streams (e.g., Wagh 2004; Wagh et al. 1999a, 2003; Singh et al. 2000). This cement-like waste form can be used to treat solids, liquids, and sludges by chemical immobilization, microencapsulation, and/or macroencapsulation. The Ceramicrete technology is based on chemical reaction between phosphate anions and metal cations to form a strong, dense, durable, low porosity matrix that immobilizes hazardous and radioactive contaminants as insoluble phosphates and microencapsulates insoluble radioactive components and other constituents that do not form phosphates. Ceramicrete is a type of phosphate-bonded ceramic, which are also known as chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. The Ceramicrete

  10. WAPDEG Analysis of Waste Package and Drip shield Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2004-09-29

    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), an analysis of the degradation of the engineered barrier system (EBS) drip shields and waste packages at the Yucca Mountain repository is developed. The purpose of this activity is to provide the TSPA with inputs and methodologies used to evaluate waste package and drip shield degradation as a function of exposure time under exposure conditions anticipated in the repository. This analysis provides information useful to satisfy ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) requirements. Several features, events, and processes (FEPs) are also discussed (Section 6.2, Table 15). The previous revision of this report was prepared as a model report in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Due to changes in the role of this report since the site recommendation, it no longer contains model development. This revision is prepared as a scientific analysis in accordance with AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses'' and uses models previously validated in (1) ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]); (2) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169984]); and (3) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169845]). The integrated waste package degradation (IWPD) analysis presented in this report treats several implementation-related issues, such as defining the number and size of patches per waste package that undergo stress corrosion cracking; recasting the weld flaw analysis in a form as implemented in the Closure Weld Defects (CWD) software; and, general corrosion rate manipulations (e.g., change of

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging for 1720-DR sodium-filled tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-03-09

    Preparations are under way to sell the sodium stored in the 1720-DR tank in the 1720-DR building. This will require that the tank, as well as the 1720-DR facility, be moved to the 300 Area, so that the sodium may be melted and transferred into a railroad tanker car. Because the sodium is a hazardous material and is being shipped in a nonspecification packaging, a safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) is required. This SEP approves the sodium-filled tank for a single shipment from the 105-DR area to the 300 Area.

  12. Preclosure analysis of conceptual waste package designs for a nuclear waste repository in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neal, W.C.; Gregg, D.W.; Hockman, J.N.; Russell, E.W.; Stein, W.

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the selection and analysis of conceptual waste package developed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for possible disposal of high-level nuclear waste at a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The design requirements that the waste package must conform to are listed, as are several desirable design considerations. Illustrations of the reference and alternative designs are shown. Four austenitic stainless steels (316L SS, 321 SS, 304L SS and Incoloy 825 high nickel alloy) have been selected for candidate canister/overpack materials, and 1020 carbon steel has been selected as the reference metal for the borehole liners. A summary of the results of technical and ecnonmic analyses supporting the selection of the conceptual waste package designs is included. Postclosure containment and release rates are not analyzed in this report.

  13. 27 CFR 19.596 - Marks on packages of spirits filled on bonded premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... part, packages of spirits filled in processing shall be marked with: (1) The name of the processor, or his trade name; (2) The plant number of the processor, such as “DSP-KY-708”; (3) The kind of spirits... paragraph (c) of this section; (2) The plant number of the producer, such as “DSP-KY-708”; (3) The kind of...

  14. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wallace

    2004-10-13

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios.

  16. Secondary Waste Cementitious Waste Form Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-16

    A review of the most up-to-date and relevant data currently available was conducted to develop a set of recommended values for use in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA) to model contaminant release from a cementitious waste form for aqueous wastes treated at the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This data package relies primarily upon recent data collected on Cast Stone formulations fabricated with simulants of low-activity waste (LAW) and liquid secondary wastes expected to be produced at Hanford. These data were supplemented, when necessary, with data developed for saltstone (a similar grout waste form used at the Savannah River Site). Work is currently underway to collect data on cementitious waste forms that are similar to Cast Stone and saltstone but are tailored to the characteristics of ETF-treated liquid secondary wastes. Recommended values for key parameters to conduct PA modeling of contaminant release from ETF-treated liquid waste are provided.

  17. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammy S. Edgecumble Summers

    2001-08-23

    This Analysis Model Report (AMR) was prepared in accordance with the Work Direction and Planning Document, ''Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). It takes into consideration the Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), which has been selected as the preferred design for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) program team (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The salient features of the EDA II design for this model are a waste package (WP) consisting of an outer barrier of Alloy 22 and an inner barrier of Type 316L stainless steel. This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22l, the current waste-package-outer-barrier (WPOB) material. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: (1) Long-range order reactions; (2) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in the base metal; and (3) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in welded samples.

  18. The Role of Packaging in Solid Waste Management 1966 to 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnay, Arsen; Franklin, William E.

    The goals of waste processors and packagers obviously differ: the packaging industry seeks durable container material that will be unimpaired by external factors. Until recently, no systematic analysis of the relationship between packaging and solid waste disposal had been undertaken. This three-part document defines these interactions, and the…

  19. BWR ASSEMBLY SOURCE TERMS FOR WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-02-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly radiation source term data for use during Waste Package (WP) design. The BWR assembly radiation source terms are to be used for evaluation of radiolysis effects at the WP surface, and for personnel shielding requirements during assembly or WP handling operations. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate BWR assembly radiation source terms that bound selected groupings of BWR assemblies, with regard to assembly average burnup and cooling time, which comprise the anticipated MGDS BWR commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream. The source term data is to be provided in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent shielding/radiation dose calculations. Since these calculations may also be used for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), with appropriate justification provided by TSPA, or radionuclide release rate analysis, the grams of each element and additional cooling times out to 25 years will also be calculated and the data included in the output files.

  20. Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Jansen, M.

    2011-01-01

    An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was

  1. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of

  2. Root Cause Investigation of Rubber Seal Cracking in Pre-filled Cartridges: Ozone and Packaging Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edwin K; Hubbard, Aaron; Hsu, Chung C; Vedrine, Lionel; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2011-01-01

    Pre-filled syringes/cartridges as primary packaging for parenterally delivered biopharmaceutical liquids consist of multiple components, including containers made of glass or plastic, and stoppers/plungers and disk seals (septa) made of rubber materials. Cracking of rubber components may be cosmetically unacceptable and in extreme cases may compromise enclosure integrity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the root cause of septum cracking and evaluate parameters/solutions to delay or prevent cracking from occurring. Custom-made chambers capable of tightly controlling ozone levels were assembled to deliberately create septum cracks. Cracks were qualitatively assessed by optical microscopy and quantified using image analysis by ImageJ. The results confirmed that ozone attack is the root cause of septum cracking during storage, and the stress-the result of crimping on the glass cartridge by the aluminum lined seal-made the septum particularly vulnerable to ozone attack. Ozone concentration as low as 10-40 ppb (levels routinely detected on a busy street) could crack the stressed septum in hours while days of ozone exposure at 50 ppm could not cause the unstressed septum to crack. Under ozone attack cracks initially grow in length and width uniformly across the stressed area and then stop progressing, perhaps due to residual stress release. Although the use of impermeable barriers could prevent cracking completely, this study suggested that any form of packaging barriers, including a highly permeable Tyvek® sheet, could postpone cracking by slowing down ozone diffusion and convection. We demonstrate that simple double packaging-placing the Tyvek®-lidded blister tray in a cardboard carton-could sufficiently protect the stressed septum for years in a surrounding environment with ozone at normal indoor levels (≤2 ppb). Pre-filled syringes/cartridges as primary packaging for parenterally delivered biopharmaceutical liquids contain multiple components

  3. Estimation of waste package performance requirements for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B J

    1980-07-01

    A method of developing waste package performance requirements for specific nuclides is described, and based on federal regulations concerning permissible concentrations in solution at the point of discharge to the accessible environment, a simple and conservative transport model, and baseline and potential worst-case release scenarios.

  4. Analysis of Ecodesign Implementation and Solutions for Packaging Waste System by Using System Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, Alise; Dace, Elina; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research project which explored the packaging waste management system in Latvia. The paper focuses on identifying how the policy mechanisms can promote ecodesign implementation and material efficiency improvement and therefore reduce the rate of packaging waste accumulation in landfill. The method used for analyzing the packaging waste management policies is system dynamics modeling. The main conclusion is that the existing legislative instruments can be used to create an effective policy for ecodesign implementation but substantially higher tax rates on packaging materials and waste disposal than the existing have to be applied.

  5. Flowable fill using waste foundry sand: A substitute for compacted or stabilized soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, S.T.; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Flowable fill is generally a mixture of sand, fly ash, a small amount of cement, and water. Sand is the major component of most flowable fill mixes; consequently, using a waste material as a substitute for natural sand results in the beneficial use of the waste material. Waste foundry sand (WFS) was used as a fine aggregate in this study. Three green sands from ferrous foundries and two class F fly ashes were used. The flow behavior, hardening characteristics, ultimate strength behavior, and permeability characteristics of flowable fill were investigated. The penetration resistance necessary to sustain walkability as the fresh flowable fill hardens was determined. The pH of pore solution of hardened flowable fill indicated that the potential for corrosivity is low. The toxicity tests indicated that some WFSs are environmentally safe.

  6. Nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria for the NRC. Task 1. Waste package overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayal, R.; Lee, B.S.; Wilke, R.J.; Swyler, K.J.; Soo, P.; Ahn, T.M.; McIntyre, N.S.; Veakis, E.

    1982-02-01

    In this report the current state of waste package development for high level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel in the US and abroad has been assessed. Specifically, reviewed are recent and on-going research on various waste forms, container materials and backfills and tentatively identified those which are likely to perform most satisfactorily in the repository environment. Radiation effects on the waste package components have been reviewed and the magnitude of these effects has been identified. Areas requiring further research have been identified. The important variables affecting radionuclide release from the waste package have been described and an evaluation of regulatory criteria for high level waste and spent fuel is presented. Finally, for spent fuel, high level, and TRU waste, components which could be used to construct a waste package having potential to meet NRC performance requirements have been described and identified.

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  8. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  9. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Steele, Jackie L.

    2001-02-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses LAWABP1 and HLP-31 that will be used for simulations of the immobilized lowactivity waste disposal system with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in March of 2001. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali-H ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow and vapor hydration experiments were used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses. The majority of the thermodynamic data were extracted from the thermodynamic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6. However, several secondary reaction products identified from laboratory tests with prototypical LAW glasses were not included in this database, nor are the thermodynamic data available in the open literature. One of these phases, herschelite, was determined to have a potentially significant impact on the release calculations and so a solubility product was estimated using a polymer structure model developed for zeolites. Although this data package is relatively complete, final selection of ILAW glass compositions has not been done by the waste treatment plant contractor. Consequently, revisions to this data package to address new ILAW glass formulations are to be regularly expected.

  10. Development of the HALFPACK package for optimized shipment of contact handled transuranic waste to the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johson, R.A.; Porter, S.A. [Packaging Technology, Inc, Tacoma, WA (United States); Caviness, M.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Several different transportation packaging designs will be utilized for making shipments of transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA. Although all such packages require certification by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), currently only the TRUPACT-II packaging has been granted USNRC certification (originally licensed in 1989 under USNRC Certificate of Compliance 71-9218). Initial shipments to WIPP will rely on the TRUPACT-II packaging since it is the only currently licensed package system capable of transporting large quantities of Contact-Handled Transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. Two additional packagings are currently under development to more efficiently transport CH-TRU waste and to allow the transport of Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) waste to WIPP: the HALFPACK and 72-B packagings, respectively. This paper specifically addresses the design and licensing of the HALFPACK packaging. Additional information is available regarding the design and testing of the TRUPACT-II packaging. (authors)

  11. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  12. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Wong

    2004-09-28

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP

  13. Management and legislation of packaging wastes; La gestion y la legislacion de residuos de envases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbel Vecino, J.; Gomez-Limon Rodriguez, J.A. [SADECO, Saneamientos de Cordoba. Empresa Municipal (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste management and Packaging Waste management have became in a big environmental problem in Western Europe. This situation made compulsory a European Law to rule the Packaging Waste management recycling (Directive 94/62), that have to be translated inside the different Member States. This paper try to analyze the spanish law project developed in this area, pointing its positive and negative aspects, relating this one with other solutions adopted by other countries. (Author) 9 refs.

  14. 77 FR 17093 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof: Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof: Notice of Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof, DN 2886; the... States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof. The...

  15. Safety evaluation for packaging transportation of equipment for tank 241-C-106 waste sluicing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, D.B.

    1994-08-25

    A Waste Sluicing System (WSS) is scheduled for installation in nd waste storage tank 241-C-106 (106-C). The WSS will transfer high rating sludge from single shell tank 106-C to double shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (102-AY). Prior to installation of the WSS, a heel pump and a transfer pump will be removed from tank 106-C and an agitator pump will be removed from tank 102-AY. Special flexible receivers will be used to contain the pumps during removal from the tanks. After equipment removal, the flexible receivers will be placed in separate containers (packagings). The packaging and contents (packages) will be transferred from the Tank Farms to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage and then to T Plant for evaluation and processing for final disposition. Two sizes of packagings will be provided for transferring the equipment from the Tank Farms to the interim storage facility. The packagings will be designated as the WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings throughout the remainder of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP). The WSSP-1 packagings will transport the heel and transfer pumps from 106-C and the WSSP-2 packaging will transport the agitator pump from 102-AY. The WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings are similar except for the length.

  16. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  17. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  18. Management of packaging waste in Poland--development agenda and accession to the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzińska-Jurczak, Małgorzata; Zakowska, Hanna; Read, Adam

    2004-06-01

    In recent years the issue of the municipal waste in Poland has become increasingly topical, with a considerable rise in the waste generation, much of which can be attributed to a boom in product packaging (mainly plastic). The annual production of plastics packaging has been constantly increasing over the last 20 to 30 years, and now exceeds 3.7 million tons. Due to a lack of processing technologies and poorly developed selective segregation system, packaging waste is still treated as a part of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, most of which is landfilled. As a result of Poland's access to the European Union, previous legal regulations governing municipal waste management have been harmonized with those binding on the member countries. One of the main changes, the most revolutionary one, is to make entrepreneurs liable for environmental risks resulting from the introduction of packaging to the market, and for its recycling. In practice, all entrepreneurs are to ensure recovery, and recycling, of used packaging from products introduced to the market at the required level. In recent year, the required recycling levels were fulfilled for all types of materials but mainly by large institutions using grouped and transport packaging waste for that matter. Household packaging gathered in the selective segregation system at the municipalities was practically left alone. This paper is an attempt to describe the system and assess the first year of functioning of the new, revamped system of packaging waste management in Poland. Recommendations are made relating to those features that need to be included in packaging waste management systems in order to maximize their sustainability and harmonization with the EU legal system.

  19. HORIZONTAL LIFTING OF 5 DHLW/DOE LONG, 12-PWR LONG AND 24-BWR WASTE PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. de la Brosse

    2001-05-17

    The objective of this calculation was to determine the structural response of a 12-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Long, a 24-Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and a 5-Defense High Level Waste/Department of Energy (DHLW/DOE)--Long spent nuclear fuel waste packages lifted in a horizontal position. The scope of this calculation was limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities in the trunnion collar sleeves. In addition, the maximum stress intensities in the inner and outer shells of the waste packages were presented for illustrative purposes. The information provided by the sketches (Attachments I, II and III) is that of the potential design of the types of waste packages considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for these designs only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with the ''Technical work plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 7). AP-3.12Q, Calculations (Ref. 13), was used to perform the calculation and develop the document.

  20. Geotechnical, Hydrogeologic and Vegetation Data Package for 200-UW-1 Waste Site Engineered Surface Barrier Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.

    2007-11-26

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is designing and assessing the performance of engineered barriers for final closure of 200-UW-1 waste sites. Engineered barriers must minimize the intrusion and water, plants and animals into the underlying waste to provide protection for human health and the environment. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator is being used to optimize the performance of candidate barriers. Simulating barrier performance involves computation of mass and energy transfer within a soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum and requires a variety of input parameters, some of which are more readily available than others. Required input includes parameter values for the geotechnical, physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of the materials comprising the barrier and the structural fill on which it will be constructed as well as parameters to allow simulation of plant effects. This report provides a data package of the required parameters as well as the technical basis, rationale and methodology used to obtain the parameter values.

  1. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  2. FABRICATION AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE 9979 TYPE AF RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2013-10-10

    This paper summarizes the development, testing, and certification of the 9979 Type A Fissile Packaging that replaces the UN1A2 Specification Shipping Package eliminated from Department of Transportation (DOT) 49 CFR 173. The DOT Specification Package was used for many decades by the U.S. nuclear industry as a fissile waste container until its removal as an authorized container by DOT. This paper will discuss stream lining procurement of high volume radioactive material packaging manufacturing, such as the 9979, to minimize packaging production costs without sacrificing Quality Assurance. The authorized content envelope (combustible and non-combustible) as well as planned content envelope expansion will be discussed.

  3. Structural and Thermal Safety Analysis Report for the Type B Radioactive Waste Transport Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S

    2007-09-15

    We carried out structural safety evaluation for the type B radioactive waste transport package. Requirements for type B packages according to the related regulations such as IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1, Korea Most Act. 2001-23 and US 10 CFR Part 71 were evaluated. General requirements for packages such as those for a lifting attachment, a tie-down attachment and pressure condition were considered. For the type B radioactive waste transport package, the structural, thermal and containment analyses were carried out under the normal transport conditions. Also the safety analysis were conducted under the accidental transport conditions. The 9 m drop test, 1 m puncture test, fire test and water immersion test under the accidental transport conditions were consecutively done. The type B radioactive waste transport packages were maintained the structural and thermal integrities.

  4. Geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fill incorporating waste foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, An; Tikalsky, Paul J

    2008-11-01

    Waste foundry sand (WFS) can be converted into flowable fill for geotechnical applications. In this study, WFS samples were obtained from 17 independent metal casting facilities with different casting processes, thus representing a good range of WFS properties. The laboratory studies include physical, geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fills consisting of WFS, cement, and fly ash mixed to different water contents. The main properties measured include WFS physical properties (density, particle gradation, grain shape, and fine content), WFS flowable fill geotechnical properties (unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, setting time, and bleeding), and the fill's leaching properties (heavy metals and organics in the bleed water and the leachate extracted from hardened WFS flowable fills). The test results indicate that in terms of the physical properties, most of the data fall within narrow ranges, although data from the copper/aluminum-based WFS samples might fall beyond the ranges. Geotechnical properties of WFS flowable fills in both fresh and hardened phases were verified conforming to the features of specified flowable fills. Material leaching analyses indicate that the toxicity of WFS flowable fills is below regulated criteria. A mix formulation range originated from this study is proposed for the design of WFS made flowable fill.

  5. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  6. Options for reducing food waste by ‘Quality Controlled Logistics’ using intelligent packaging along the supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Dekker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This article describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on Quality Controlled Logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  8. Technical Basis Document No. 6: Waste Package and Drip Shield Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Pasupathi, V; Nair, P; Gordon, G; McCright, D; Gdowski, G; Carroll, S; Steinborn, T; Summers, T; Wong, F; Rebak, R; Lian, T; Ilevbare, G; Lee, J; Hua, F; Payer, J

    2003-08-01

    The waste package and drip shield will experience a wide range of interactive environmental conditions and degradation modes that will determine the overall performance of the waste package and repository. The operable modes of degradation are determined by the temperature regime of operation (region), and are summarized here. Dry-Out Region (T {ge} 120 C; 50 to 400 Years): During the pre-closure period, the waste package will be kept dry by ventilation air. During the thermal pulse, heat generated by radioactive decay will eventually increase the temperature of the waste package, drip shield and drift wall to a level above the boiling point, where the probability of seepage into drifts will become insignificant. Further heating will push the waste package surface temperature above the deliquescence point of expected salt mixtures, thereby preventing the formation of deliquescence brines from dust deposits and humid air. Phase and time-temperature-transformation diagrams predicted for Alloy 22, and validated with experimental data, indicates no significant phase instabilities (LRO and TCP precipitation) at temperatures below 300 C for 10,000 years. Neither will dry oxidation at these elevated temperatures limit waste package life. After the peak temperature is reached, the waste package will begin to cool, eventually reaching a point where deliquescence brine formation may occur. However, corrosion testing of Alloy 22 underneath such films has shown no evidence of life-limiting localized corrosion. Transition Region (120 C {ge} T {ge} 100 C; 400 to 1,000 Years): During continued cooling, the temperature of the drift wall will drop to a level close to the boiling point of the seepage brine, thus permitting the onset of seepage. Corrosion in a concentrated, possibly aggressive, liquid-phase brine, evolved through evaporative concentration, is possible while in this region. However, based upon chemical divide theory, most ({ge} 99%) of the seepage water entering the

  9. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings......Informed decisions regarding new recycling schemes require waste characterisation studies which provide in addition to data on waste amounts and the share of recyclable fractions, accurate data on physico-chemical characteristics of the waste materials considering the material specific input...... were addressed by a resin type-based sorting analysis and a washing test for plastic packaging material from Danish household waste. Preliminary results show that, for a quarter of the hand sorted material, no resin type could be identified and that Polypropylene and Polyethylene terephthalate were...

  10. Scenarios study on post-consumer plastic packaging waste recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.; Groot, J.J.; Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Jansen, M.; Luijsterburg, B.

    2013-01-01

    We all use plastics on a daily basis. Plastics come in many shapes, sizes and compositions and are used in a wide variety of products. Almost all of the currently used plastic packaging are made from fossil resources, which are finite. The production of plastic packages causes environmental impacts,

  11. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M. [CEG-IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Cruz, N.F. da, E-mail: nunocruz@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Simões, P. [IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Marques, R.C. [CESUR, IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  12. Tabulation of thermodynamic data for chemical reactions involving 58 elements common to radioactive waste package systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    The rate of release and migration of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository to the biosphere is dependent on chemical interactions between groundwater, the geologic host rock, and the radioactive waste package. For the purpose of this report, the waste package includes the wasteform, canister, overpack, and repository backfill. Chemical processes of interest include sorption (ion exchange), dissolution, complexation, and precipitation. Thermochemical data for complexation and precipitation calculations for 58 elements common to the radioactive waste package are presented. Standard free energies of formation of free ions, complexes, and solids are listed. Common logarithms of equilibrium constants (log K's) for speciation and precipitation reactions are listed. Unless noted otherwise, all data are for 298.15/sup 0/K and one atmosphere.

  13. Tensile properties of chrome tanned leather waste short fibre filled unsaturated polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Satariah; Romli, Ahmad Zafir; Saad, Siti Zaleha

    2017-12-01

    Waste leather from industries was commonly disposed via land filling or incineration where the oxidation of Cr III to Cr VI by oxidants (such as peroxides and hypohalide) can easily occur. Cr VI is well known as carcinogenic and mutagenic element where the excessive exposure to this element can be very harmful. As an alternative way, the leather waste from footwear industry was utilised as filler in unsaturated polyester composite (UPC). The leather waste was ground using 0.25 mm mesh size and used without any chemical treatment. The sample was fabricated via castingtechnique and the study was carried out at 1 wt%, 2 wt% and 3 wt% filler loading. The leather waste filled composites showed lower tensile strength and Young's modulus than the unfilled composite. The increasing loading amount of leather waste led to the decreased in tensile strength and Young's modulus. The tensile results was supported by the decreasing pattern of density result which indicates the increasing of void content as the filler loading increased. The results of glass transition temperature are also parallel to the tensile properties where the increasing filler loading had decreased the glass transition temperature. Based on the morphological observation on the fractured tensile sample, much severe filler agglomerations and higher amount of voids was observed at higher filler loading compared to the lower filler loading.

  14. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Fruit of Yucca Mountain: The Remote Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Skinner; Greg Housley; Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2011-11-01

    Was the death of the Yucca Mountain repository the fate of a technical lemon or a political lemon? Without caution, this debate could lure us away from capitalizing on the fruits of the project. In March 2009, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully demonstrated the Waste Package Closure System, a full-scale prototype system for closing waste packages that were to be entombed in the now abandoned Yucca Mountain repository. This article describes the system, which INL designed and built, to weld the closure lids on the waste packages, nondestructively examine the welds using four different techniques, repair the welds if necessary, mitigate crack initiating stresses in the surfaces of the welds, evacuate and backfill the packages with an inert gas, and perform all of these tasks remotely. As a nation, we now have a proven method for securely sealing nuclear waste packages for long term storage—regardless of whether or not the future destination for these packages will be an underground repository. Additionally, many of the system’s features and concepts may benefit other remote nuclear applications.

  16. Estimation of packaged water consumption and associated plastic waste production from household budget surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Hill, Allan G.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Wright, Jim

    2017-08-01

    Packaged water consumption is growing in low- and middle-income countries, but the magnitude of this phenomenon and its environmental consequences remain unclear. This study aims to quantify both the volumes of packaged water consumed relative to household water requirements and associated plastic waste generated for three West African case study countries. Data from household expenditure surveys for Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia were used to estimate the volumes of packaged water consumed and thereby quantify plastic waste generated in households with and without solid waste disposal facilities. In Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively, 11.3 (95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4), 10.1 (7.5-12.5), and 0.38 (0.31-0.45) Ml day-1 of sachet water were consumed. This generated over 28 000 tonnes yr-1 of plastic waste, of which 20%, 63% and 57% was among households lacking formal waste disposal facilities in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. Reported packaged water consumption provided sufficient water to meet daily household drinking-water requirements for 8.4%, less than 1% and 1.6% of households in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. These findings quantify packaged water’s contribution to household water needs in our study countries, particularly Ghana, but indicate significant subsequent environmental repercussions.

  17. Sustainable Steel Carburization by Using Snack Packaging Plastic Waste as Carbon Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyan Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research regarding waste conversion to resources technology has attracted growing attention with the continued increase of waste accumulation issues and rapid depletion of natural resources. However, the study, with respect to utilizing plastics waste as carbon resources in the metals industry, is still limited. In this work, an environmentally friendly approach to utilize snack packaging plastic waste as a valuable carbon resources for steel carburization is investigated. At high temperature, plastic waste could be subject to pyrolytic gasification and decompose into small molecular hydrocarbon gaseous products which have the potential to be used as carburization agents for steel. When heating some snack packaging plastic waste and a steel sample together at the carburization temperature, a considerable amount of carbon-rich reducing gases, like methane, could be liberated from the plastic waste and absorbed by the steel sample as a carbon precursor for carburization. The resulting carburization effect on steel was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer techniques. These investigation results all showed that snack packaging plastic waste could work effectively as a valuable carbon resource for steel carburization leading to a significant increase of surface carbon content and the corresponding microstructure evolution in steel.

  18. Packaging waste recycling in Europe: Is the industry paying for it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da Cruz, Nuno, E-mail: nunocruz@ist.utl.pt; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We study the recycling schemes of France, Germany, Portugal, Romania and the UK. • The costs and benefits of recycling are compared for France, Portugal and Romania. • The balance of costs and benefits depend on the perspective (strictly financial/economic). • Financial supports to local authorities ought to promote cost-efficiency. - Abstract: This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste

  19. Packaging waste recycling in Europe: is the industry paying for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Nuno Ferreira; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste management. In fact, if the savings attained by diverting packaging waste from other treatment (e.g. landfilling) and the public subsidies to the investment on the "recycling system" are not considered, it seems that the industry should increase the financial support to local authorities (by 125% in France, 50% in Portugal and 170% in Romania). However, in France and

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  1. Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance.

  2. Recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbo, Helena; Poliakova, Valeria; Mylläri, Ville; Sahimaa, Olli; Anderson, Reetta

    2018-01-01

    Recycling of plastics is urged by the need for closing material loops to maintain our natural resources when striving towards circular economy, but also by the concern raced by observations of plastic scrap in oceans and lakes. Packaging industry is the sector using the largest share of plastics, hence packaging dominates in the plastic waste flow. The aim of this paper was to sum up the recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland. This potential was evaluated based on the quantity, composition and mechanical quality of the plastic packaging waste generated by consumers and collected as a source-separated fraction, within the mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) or within energy waste. Based on the assessment 86,000-117,000 tons (18 kg/person/a) of post-consumer plastic packaging waste was generated in Finland in 2014. The majority, 84% of the waste was in the mixed MSW flow in 2014. Due to the launching of new sorting facilities and separate collections for post-consumer plastic packaging in 2016, almost 40% of the post-consumer plastic packaging could become available for recycling. However, a 50% recycling rate for post-consumer plastic packaging (other than PET bottles) would be needed to increase the overall MSW recycling rate from the current 41% by around two percentage points. The share of monotype plastics in the overall MSW plastics fraction was 80%, hence by volume the recycling potential of MSW plastics is high. Polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) were the most common plastic types present in mixed MSW, followed by polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). If all the Finnish plastic packaging waste collected through the three collection types would be available for recycling, then 19,000-25,000 tons of recycled PP and 6000-8000 tons of recycled HDPE would be available on the local market. However, this assessment includes uncertainties due to performing the

  3. SECOND WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: GENERATION AND EVALUATION OF INTERNAL CRITICIALITY CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Gottlieb, J.R. Massari, J.K. McCoy

    1996-03-27

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department to provide an evaluation of the criticality potential within a waste package having sonic or all of its contents degraded by corrosion and removal of neutron absorbers. This analysis is also intended to provide an estimate of the consequences of any internal criticality, particularly in terms of any increase in radionuclide inventory. These consequence estimates will be used as part of the WPD input to the Total System Performance Assessment. The ultimate objective of this analysis is to augment the information gained from the Initial Waste Package Probabilistic Criticality Analyses (Ref. 5.8 and 5.9, hereafter referred to as IPA) to a degree which will support preliminary waste package design recommendations intended to reduce the risk of waste package criticality and the risk to total repository system performance posed by the consequences of any criticality. The IPA evaluated the criticality potential under the assumption that the waste package basket retained its structural integrity, so that the assemblies retained their initial separation, even when the neutron absorbers had been leached from the basket. This analysis is based on the more realistic condition that removal of the neutron absorbers is a consequence of the corrosion of the steel in which they are contained, which has the additional consequence of reducing the structural support between assemblies. The result is a set of more reactive configurations having a smaller spacing between assemblies, or no inter-assembly spacing at all. Another difference from the IPA is the minimal attention to probabilistic evaluation given in this study. Although the IPA covered a time horizon to 100,000 years, the lack of consideration of basket degradation modes made it primarily applicable to the first 10,000 years. In contrast, this study, by focusing on the degraded modes of the basket, is primarily

  4. Calculation of the Naval Long and Short Waste Package Three-Dimensional Thermal Interface Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr

    2006-10-25

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal performance of the Naval Long and Naval Short spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste packages (WP) in the repository emplacement drift. The scope of this calculation is limited to the determination of the temperature profiles upon the surfaces of the Naval Long and Short SNF waste package for up to 10,000 years of emplacement. The temperatures on the top of the outside surface of the naval canister are the thermal interfaces for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP). The results of this calculation are intended to support Licensing Application design activities.

  5. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

  6. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu eValdés

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  7. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  8. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  9. Dose Rate Calucaltion for the DHL W/DOE SNF Codisposal Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulescu

    2000-02-12

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of the short codisposal waste package (WP) of defense high-level waste (DHLW) and TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The WP contains the TRIGA SNF, in a standardized 18-in. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) SNF canister, and five 3-m-long Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW pour glass canisters, which surround the DOE SNF canister.

  10. Review of waste package verification tests. Semiannual report, April 1984-September 1984. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, H.; Veakis, E.; Soo, P.

    1985-06-01

    This ongoing study is part of a task to specify tests that may be used to verify that engineered waste package/repository systems comply with NRC radionuclide containment and controlled release performance objectives. Work covered in this report includes crushed tuff packing material for use in a high level waste tuff repository. A review of available tests to quantify packing performance is given together with recommendations for future testing work. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging for onsite transfer of B Plant organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-10-07

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the use of a 17,500-L (4,623-gal) tank manufactured by Brenner Tank, Incorporated, to transport up to 16,221 L (4,285 gal) of radioactive organic liquid waste. The waste will be transported from the organic loading pad to a storage pad. Both pads are within the B Plant complex, but approximately 4 mi apart.

  12. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data: Biannual report, August 1986-January 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.; Escalante, E.; Fraker, A.; Harrison, S.; Shull, R.; Linzer, M.; Ricker, R.; Ruspi, J.

    1987-10-01

    This report summarizes results of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) evaluations of Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The waste package is a proposed engineered barrier that is part of a permanent repository for HLW. Metal alloys are the principal barriers within the engineered system. Technical discussions are given for the corrosion of metals proposed for the canister, particularly carbon and stainless steels, and copper. In the section on tuff, the current level of understanding of several canister materials is questioned. Within the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) section, discussions are given on problems concerning groundwater, materials for use in the metallic overpack, and diffusion through the packing. For the proposed salt site, questions are raised on the work on both ASTM A216 Steel and Ti-Code 12. NBS work related to the vitrification of HLW borosilicate glass at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is covered. NBS reviews of selected DOE technical reports and a summary of current waste-package activities of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is presented. Using a database management system, a computerized database for storage and retrieval of reviews and evaluations of HLW data has been developed and is described. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  14. Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    replacing fossil fuels for packaging applications; and FOC 11-01 Human Engineering, by reducing Soldier dismounted movement approach load to 40 lb. and...could not be recycled with the type of machinery due to the mix of plastics . TREX has one of the most state-of-the art machines for recycling...The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing

  15. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  16. Management model of pharmaceutical wastes (drugs packages); Modelos de gestion de los residuos farmaceuticos (envases de Medicacion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaella, J.

    1997-12-31

    Medical Packaging wastes have some characteristics that make them risky for the environment. This paper introduces a packaging management model developed for the whole public hospitals of Andalucia (Spain). The general goal of this model includes all the laws about wastes in Spain and the European Union with the best cost-benefit rate. (Author)

  17. Waste Package Outer Barrier Stress Due to Thermal Expansion with Various Barrier Gap Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. M. Lewis

    2001-11-27

    The objective of this activity is to determine the tangential stresses of the outer shell, due to uneven thermal expansion of the inner and outer shells of the current waste package (WP) designs. Based on the results of the calculation ''Waste Package Barrier Stresses Due to Thermal Expansion'', CAL-EBS-ME-000008 (ref. 10), only tangential stresses are considered for this calculation. The tangential stresses are significantly larger than the radial stresses associated with thermal expansion, and at the WP outer surface the radial stresses are equal to zero. The scope of this activity is limited to determining the tangential stresses the waste package outer shell is subject to due to the interference fit, produced by having two different shell coefficients of thermal expansions. The inner shell has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than the outer shell, producing a pressure between the two shells. This calculation is associated with Waste Package Project. The calculations are performed for the 21-PWR (pressurized water reactor), 44-BWR (boiling water reactor), 24-BWR, 12-PWR Long, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF - Short (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel), 2-MCO/2-DHLW (multi-canister overpack), and Naval SNF Long WP designs. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design for the types of WPs considered in this calculation. This calculation is performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for SR (Ref.7). The calculation is documented, reviewed, and approved in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Calculations (Ref.1).

  18. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Saripalli, Prasad; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, P. F.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Reed, Lunde R.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2004-09-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses; LAWA44, LAWB45, and LAWC22. This data will be used for Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases (STORM) simulations of the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) for immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in July 2005. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali (Na+)-hydrogen (H+) ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) and product consistency (PCT) tests where used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses in order to determine a chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form. The majority of the thermodynamic data used in this data package were extracted from the thermody-namic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6, version 8.0. Because of the expected importance of 129I release from secondary waste streams being sent to IDF from various thermal treatment processes, parameter estimates for diffusional release and solubility-controlled release from cementitious waste forms were estimated from the available literature.

  19. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  20. Impact of rinsing in pesticide packaging waste management: Economic and environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marčeta Una

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides have become dailiness due to inevitable application of these preparations in agricultural activities, with the consequence of generation of large amounts of waste packaging. Impact on the environment and expenses of management of packaging waste can be minimized if the packaging is immediately rinsed after the application of devices and if identified as non-hazardous. Besides, financial losses may be reduced by maximum utilization of the preparation. Considering these two financial aspects this work shows evaluation of quantitative losses of preparations if the triple rising method is not applied. The research was conducted in two phases. Phase I included the examination of the impact of different formulations of the same volume on quantitative and financial losses. Based on the results of the first phase of the research, it was noted that the SC formulation is the most interesting to study because this type of formulation has the highest percentage of residue, as well as the fact that the highest annual consumption is noted percisely in this preparation group. This paper presents the results which indicate the impact of packaging volume of SC formulation (ALVERDE 240 SC, INTERMEZZO and ANTRE PLUS on percentage of preparation residue in packaging if there was no rinsing. The results have shown that the quantitative loss is inversely proportional to the volume of packaging, while financial losses do not only depend on the percentage of residue but also on price and quantity of utilization of preparations.

  1. Shielding Calculations on Waste Packages – The Limits and Possibilities of different Calculation Methods by the example of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Waste Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Mike

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For nuclear waste packages the expected dose rates and nuclide inventory are beforehand calculated. Depending on the package of the nuclear waste deterministic programs like MicroShield® provide a range of results for each type of packaging. Stochastic programs like “Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System” (MCNP® on the other hand provide reliable results for complex geometries. However this type of program requires a fully trained operator and calculations are time consuming. The problem here is to choose an appropriate program for a specific geometry. Therefore we compared the results of deterministic programs like MicroShield® and stochastic programs like MCNP®. These comparisons enable us to make a statement about the applicability of the various programs for chosen types of containers. As a conclusion we found that for thin-walled geometries deterministic programs like MicroShield® are well suited to calculate the dose rate. For cylindrical containers with inner shielding however, deterministic programs hit their limits. Furthermore we investigate the effect of an inhomogeneous material and activity distribution on the results. The calculations are still ongoing. Results will be presented in the final abstract.

  2. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  3. PACKAGING WASTE MANAGEMENT ON EXAMPLE OF CITY ZIELONA GÓRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna ZARĘBSKA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal requirements of the European Union's packaging waste, and their most recent transposition into Polish law. The author has attempted to describe selected achievements of the Department of Public Utilities and Housing (DPUaH in Zielona Góra, which for many years on behalf of the city, in a systematic way it’s developing municipal waste management system (including packaging, consistent with EU policies and objectives of sustainable development. The deficiencies and weaknesses in the system are taken into consideration, whose liquidation is a priority for future investment of DPUaH consistent with the Waste Management Plan for the City of Zielona Góra.

  4. Model Tests on the Retaining Walls Constructed from Geobags Filled with Construction Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geobag retaining wall using construction waste is a new flexible supporting structure, and the usage of construction waste to fill geobags can facilitate the construction recycling. In this paper, model tests were performed on geobag retaining wall using construction waste. The investigation was concentrated on the slope top settlement, the distribution characteristics of the earth pressures on retaining walls and horizontal wall displacements, and slope failure modes. The results indicated that the ultimate loads that the slope tops with retaining walls could bear were 87.5%~125% higher than that of the slope top without retaining walls. The ultimate loading of strengthened slopes with different slope ratios from 1 : 0.75 to 1 : 0.25 could be reduced by 11.8% to 29.4%. The horizontal displacements of the retaining walls constructed from geobags were distributed in a drum shape, with the greatest horizontal displacements occurring about 1/3~1/2 of the wall height away from the bottom of the wall. As the slope ratio increased, the failure of the slope soil supported by geobag retaining wall using construction waste changed from sliding to sliding-toppling (dominated by sliding and then to toppling-sliding (dominated by toppling. The range of 1/3~1/2 of wall height is the weak part of the retaining walls, which should be strengthened with certain measures during the process of design and construction.

  5. Mechanical and wear characteristics of epoxy composites filled with industrial wastes: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, A.; Satapathy, A.

    2017-02-01

    Use of industrial wastes, such as slag and sludge particles, as filler in polymers is not very common in the field of composite research. Therefore in this paper, a comparison of mechanical characteristics of epoxy based composites filled with LD sludge, BF slag and LD slag (wastes generated in iron and steel industries) were presented. A comparative study among these composites in regard to their dry sliding wear characteristics under similar test conditions was also included. Composites with different weight proportions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%) of LD sludge were fabricated by solution casting technique. Mechanical properties were evaluated as per ASTM test standards and sliding wear test was performed following a design of experiment approach based on Taguchi’s orthogonal array. The test results for epoxy-LD sludge composites were compared with those of epoxy-BF slag and epoxy-LD slag composites reported by previous investigators. The comparison reveals that epoxy filled with LD sludge exhibits superior mechanical and wear characteristics among the three types of composites considered in this study.

  6. Options for reducing food waste by quality-controlled logistics using intelligent packaging along the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heising, Jenneke K; Claassen, G D H; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-10-01

    Optimising supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This paper describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on quality-controlled logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate with the critical quality attribute of a food product. The information on the quality of each individual packaged food item that is provided by the intelligent packaging can be used for QCL. In a conceptual approach it is explained that monitoring food quality by intelligent packaging sensors makes it possible to obtain information about the variation in the quality of foods and to use a dynamic expiration date (IP-DED) on a food package. The conceptual approach is supported by quantitative data from simulations on the effect of using the information of intelligent packaging in supply chain management with the goal to reduce food waste. This simulation shows that by using the information on the quality of products that is provided by intelligent packaging, QCL can substantially reduce food waste. When QCL is combined with dynamic pricing based on the predicted expiry dates, a further waste reduction is envisaged.

  7. Preparation and characterization of starch-based loose-fill packaging foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi

    Regular and waxy corn starches were blended in various ratios with biodegradable polymers including polylactic acid (PLA), Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 (EBC) and Mater-Bi ZF03U (MBI) and extruded with a C. W. Brabender laboratory twin screw extruder using a 3-mm die nozzle at 150°C and 150 rev/min. Physical characteristics including radial expansion, unit density and bulk density and water solubility index, water absorption characteristics, mechanical properties including compressibility, Young's modulus, spring index, bulk compressibility and bulk spring index and abrasion resistance were investigated as affected by the ingredient formulations, i.e. type of polymers, type of starches, polymer to starch ratio and starch moisture content. A completely randomized factorial blocking experimental design was used. Fifty-four treatments resulted. Each treatment was replicated three times. SAS statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Foams made of waxy starch had better radial expansion, lower unit density and bulk density than did foams made of regular starch. Regular starch foams had significantly lower water solubility index than did the waxy starch foams. PLA-starch foams had the lowest compressibility and Young's modulus. MBI-starch foams were the most rigid. All foams had excellent spring indices and bulk spring indices which were comparable to the spring index of commercial expanded polystyrene foam. Correlations were established between the foam mechanical properties and the physical characteristics. Foam compressibility and Young's modulus decreased as increases in radial expansion and decreases in unit and bulk densities. Their relationships were modeled with power law equations. No correlation was observed between spring index and bulk spring index and foam physical characteristics. MBI-starch foams had the highest equilibrium moisture content. EBC-starch and PLA-starch foams had similar water absorption characteristics. No significant

  8. Application of fluidization to separate packaging waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M Teresa; Ferreira, Célia; Portela, Antía; Santos, João Tiago

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the experimental work described in this paper is the study of the separation of PS (polystyrene) from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) from drop-off points using a fluidized bed separator. This is a low-cost process commonly used in the hydro-classification of mineral ores. Firstly, experimental tests were carried out with artificial granulated samples with different grain sizes, types and sources of plastic ("separability tests"). The particle settling velocities were determined under different operating conditions. Then, based on the results, the laboratory tests continued with real mixtures of waste plastics ("separation tests") and the efficiency of the process was evaluated. From a PET-rich mixture, a concentrate of PS with a 75% grade in PS was produced while the underflow was quite clear from PS (grade less than 0.5% in PS).

  9. Hanford low-level waste process chemistry testing data package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Tracey, E.M.; Darab, J.G.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    Recently, the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) among the State of Washington Department of Ecology, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the cleanup of the Hanford Site was renegotiated. The revised agreement specifies vitrification as the encapsulation technology for low level waste (LLW). A demonstration, testing, and evaluation program underway at Westinghouse Hanford Company to identify the best overall melter-system technology available for vitrification of Hanford Site LLW to meet the TPA milestones. Phase I is a {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} test to demonstrate that a melter system can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content aqueous LLW feed into a glass product of consistent quality. Seven melter vendors were selected for the Phase I evaluation: joule-heated melters from GTS Duratek, Incorporated (GDI); Envitco, Incorporated (EVI); Penberthy Electomelt, Incorporated (PEI); and Vectra Technologies, Incorporated (VTI); a gas-fired cyclone burner from Babcock & Wilcox (BCW); a plasma torch-fired, cupola furnace from Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC); and an electric arc furnace with top-entering vertical carbon electrodes from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM).

  10. Development of bio based plastic materials for packaging from soybeans waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A.; Rashidi, A. R.; Roslan, A.; Idris, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Demands of plastic material which increase with the increasing of human population encourage researchers to find alternative solution to replace petro based plastic. Thus, in the present study, a novel "green bioplastic" packaging was developed using soybean waste which is a major waste in soy sauce food industry. The evaluation of the effect of ratio of starch, soy waste and plasticizer in this bioplastic production was studied and their characteristics were compared with available bioplastics. Characteristics study was done in terms of burning test, water absorption capacity, thermal and tensile strength measurement and the result obtained were analyzed. The glass transition temperature (Tg) for soy waste bioplastic is 117˚C. The water absorption test shows that an increase in mass up to 114.17% which show large amount of water uptake capacity of this bioplastics. And about 38% of percentage loss was observed when compared with other novel bioplastics. The results clearly show that the amount of glycerol as a plasticizer had an inversely proportional relationship with the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg). The average maximum force value for tensile strength test is 6.71 N. The burning test show that the soy wastes bioplastic release a very faint smell of soy and glue-like substance. The flame ignited a Yellowish-Orange colour and released some sparks. Based on the overall results, soy-based have been proven to become an excellent bio-based packaging materials.

  11. Review of DOE Waste Package Program. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. (ed.)

    1985-12-01

    A large number of technical reports on waste package component performance were reviewed over the last year in support of the NRC`s review of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Assessment reports. The intent was to assess in some detail the quantity and quality of the DOE data and their relevance to the high-level waste repository site selection process. A representative selection of the reviews is presented for the salt, basalt, and tuff repository projects. Areas for future research have been outlined. 141 refs.

  12. Impact of Spanish legislation of packaging and packaging wastes on the economic agents; Repercusiones de la Legislacion EspaNola sobre los envases y residuos de envases en los agentes econOmicos involucrados e institucionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Ramos, M.

    1997-09-01

    Review of the legislative text and the responsibilities for economical agents involve in the specific Spanish normative about packagings and packaging wastes. Highlights the Integrated Management Strategic Plan for Packagings Wastes to reach the objectives in Reduction, Recycling and Energy Recovery in Spain. (Author)

  13. FEPs Screening of Processes and Issues in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2004-10-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to drip shield and waste package modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Thirty-three FEPs associated with the waste package and drip shield performance have been identified (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). A screening decision, either ''included'' or ''excluded,'' has been assigned to each FEP, with the technical bases for screening decisions, as required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs analyses in this report address issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the drip shield and waste package over the post closure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For included FEPs, this report summarizes the disposition of the FEP in TSPA-LA. For excluded FEPs, this report provides the technical bases for the screening arguments for exclusion from TSPA-LA. The analyses are for the TSPA-LA base-case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]), where a drip shield is placed over the waste package without backfill over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP includes one or more specific issues, collectively described by a FEP name and description. The FEP description encompasses a single feature, event, or process, or a few closely related or coupled processes, provided the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs were assigned to associated Project reports, so the screening decisions reside with the relevant subject-matter experts.

  14. What a Load of Rubbish: Japan’s Problem with Increasing Disposable Container and Packaging Waste

    OpenAIRE

    原田 卓哉; Harrison, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Huge amounts of plastic are used in everyday life. However, much of the plastic used for disposable containers and packaging is used once and then discarded. This can then cause a serious environmental problem. After describing the environmental effects and possible ways of treatment, this paper examines the situation in Japan, particularly with respect to how reuse and waste reduction can be achieved in Japan by adopting better extended producer responsibility schemes, introducing bans or fe...

  15. An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Olle; Söderholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  16. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes characterization studies conducted with outcrop samples of Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (Tpt). In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), Tpt is being studied both as a primary object and as a constituent used to condition water that will be reacted with waste form, canister, or packing material. These studies directly or indirectly support NNWSI subtasks concerned with waste package design and geochemical modeling. To interpret the results of subtask experiments, it is necessary to know the exact nature of the starting material in terms of the intial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry. 31 figures, 5 tables.

  17. The role of laboratory analog experiments in assessing the performance of waste package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-12-31

    There is an immediate need to begin to validate models that can be used for assessing the performance of waste package materials in an unsaturated repository environment. This paper examines available testing information and testing approaches that could support validation of models for engineering barrier system (EBS) radionuclide release. The content is presented in the context of the general methodology that has been proposed for validating performance assessment models. Available experimental observations are used to test some of the EBS release rate modeling premises. These observations include evidence of fluid film formation on waste glass surfaces in isothermal humid environments, accelerated waste glass reaction rates under repository service conditions of large glass surface area to water volume ratio, and mobilization of radionuclides as solutes and colloids. It is concluded that some important modeling premises may not be consistent with available experimental information. However, it is also concluded that future laboratory testing, which simulates the integrated waste package systems, is needed to evaluate the significance of these inconsistencies and to test the system level models. A small-scale apparatus which was developed and tested to examine the feasibility of laboratory analog testing for the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository environment is described. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher P; Brenner, Ceri M; Stitt, Camilla A; Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R; Mirfayzi, Seyed R; Wilson, Lucy A; Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad; Allott, Ric; Butler, Nicholas M H; Clarke, Robert J; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Higginson, Adam; Murphy, Christopher; Notley, Margaret; Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos; Jowsey, John; McKenna, Paul; Neely, David; Kar, Satya; Scott, Thomas B

    2016-11-15

    A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500keV), with a source size of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  1. Review of waste package verification tests. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, P. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    The potential of WAPPA, a second-generation waste package system code, to meet the needs of the regulatory community is analyzed. The analysis includes an indepth review of WAPPA`s individual process models and a review of WAPPA`s operation. It is concluded that the code is of limited use to the NRC in the present form. Recommendations for future improvement, usage, and implementation of the code are given. This report also describes the results of a testing program undertaken to determine the chemical environment that will be present near a high-level waste package emplaced in a basalt repository. For this purpose, low carbon 1020 steel (a current BWIP reference container material), synthetic basaltic groundwater and a mixture of bentonite and basalt were exposed, in an autoclave, to expected conditions some period after repository sealing (150{sup 0}C, {approx_equal}10.4 MPa). Parameters measured include changes in gas pressure with time and gas composition, variation in dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and certain ionic concentrations of water in the packing material across an imposed thermal gradient, mineralogic alteration of the basalt/bentonite mixture, and carbon steel corrosion behavior. A second testing program was also initiated to check the likelihood of stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels and Incoloy 825 which are being considered for use as waste container materials in the tuff repository program. 82 refs., 70 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  3. Contaminant Release Data Package for Residual Waste in Single-Shell Hanford Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-12-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation report be submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology. The RCRA Facility Investigation report will provide a detailed description of the state of knowledge needed for tank farm performance assessments. This data package provides detailed technical information about contaminant release from closed single-shell tanks necessary to support the RCRA Facility Investigation report. It was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., which is tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with tank closure. This data package is a compilation of contaminant release rate data for residual waste in the four Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) that have been tested (C-103, C-106, C-202, and C-203). The report describes the geochemical properties of the primary contaminants of interest from the perspective of long-term risk to groundwater (uranium, technetium-99, iodine-129, chromium, transuranics, and nitrate), the occurrence of these contaminants in the residual waste, release mechanisms from the solid waste to water infiltrating the tanks in the future, and the laboratory tests conducted to measure release rates.

  4. High-voltage leak detection of a parenteral proteinaceous solution product packaged in form-fill-seal plastic laminate bags. Part 1. Method development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Rasmus; Rasmussen, Mats; Buus, Peter; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2013-01-01

    In Part 1 of this three-part research series, a leak test performed using high-voltage leak detection (HVLD) technology, also referred to as an electrical conductivity and capacitance leak test, was developed and validated for container-closure integrity verification of a small-volume laminate plastic bag containing an aqueous solution for injection. The sterile parenteral product is the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®, by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark). The aseptically filled and sealed package is designed to preserve product sterility through expiry. Method development and validation work incorporated positive control packages with a single hole laser-drilled through the laminate film of each bag. A unique HVLD method characterized by specific high-voltage and potentiometer set points was established for testing bags positioned in each of three possible orientations as they are conveyed through the instrument's test zone in each of two possible directions-resulting in a total of six different test method options. Validation study results successfully demonstrated the ability of all six methods to accurately and reliably detect those packages with laser-drilled holes from 2.5-11.2 μm in nominal diameter. Part 2 of this series will further explore HVLD test results as a function of package seal and product storage variables. The final Part 3 will report the impact of HVLD exposure on product physico-chemical stability. In this Part 1 of a three-part research series, a leak test method based on electrical conductivity and capacitance, called high voltage leak detection (HVLD), was used to find leaks in small plastic bags filled with an insulin pharmaceutical solution for human injection by Novo Nordisk A/S (Bagsværd, Denmark). To perform the test, the package is electrically grounded while being conveyed past an electrode linked to a high-voltage, low-amperage transformer. The instrument measures the current that passes

  5. Use of bremsstrahlung information for the nondestructive characterization of radioactive waste packages; Nutzung von Bremsstrahlungsinformation zur zerstoerungsfreien Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfallgebinde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmoser, Benjamin Paul

    2016-11-10

    In order to minimize pseudo activity whilst storage of radioactive waste packages it is required to determine the nuclide inventory as precisely as possible. The in Gamma spectra contained parts of bremsstrahlung can be used to identify and quantify certain beta nuclides. For this an analytical method has been developed. This was mainly tested with beta-emitter Sr-90 and Tm-170, as well as commonly present gamma-emitters in laboratory scale and actual 200 liter waste packages. As a result, non-destructive determination of radioactive wastes can be conducted more precisely.

  6. Feasibility study of fissile mass quantification by photofission delayed gamma rays in radioactive waste packages using MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Eric, E-mail: eric.simon@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance cedex (France); Jallu, Fanny; Pérot, Bertrand [CEA, DEN, Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance cedex (France); Plumeri, Stéphane [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2016-12-21

    The feasibility of fissile mass quantification in large, long-lived medium activity radioactive waste packages using photofission delayed gamma rays has been assessed with MCNPX. The detection limit achievable is lower than the expected uranium mass in these waste packages, but the important sensibility to the waste matrix density and sample localization imposes to get an accurate measurement of these parameters. An isotope discrimination method based on gamma-ray ratios has been evaluated showing that photofission delayed gamma rays can be used to measure the fissile mass as well as the total uranium mass.

  7. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  8. DOSE RATES FOR WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR SNF IN A WASTE PACKAGE (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-01-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to estimate the dose rate on and near the surface a Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package (WP) which is loaded with Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel. The 21 PWR MPC WP is used to provide an upper bound for waste package designs since the 12 PWR MPC WP will have a smaller source term and an equivalent amount of shielding. the objectives of this evaluation are to calculate the requested dose rate(s) and document the calculation in a fashion to allow comparisons to other waste forms and WP designs at a future time.

  9. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the

  10. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment. Erratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-06

    This report refers to or contains Kg values for glasses LAWA44, LAWB45 and LAWC22 affected by calculations errors as identified by Papathanassiu et al. (2011). The corrected Kg values are reported in an erratum included in the revised version of the original report. The revised report can be referenced as follows: Pierce E. M. et al. (2004) Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment. PNNL-14805 Rev. 0 Erratum. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.

  11. Waste Materials from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Polymer Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Martínez-López; Gonzalo Martínez-Barrera; Carlos Barrera-Díaz; Fernando Ureña-Núñez; Witold Brostow

    2015-01-01

    Different concentrations (from 1 to 6 wt%) and sizes (0.85, 1.40, and 2.36 mm) of waste Tetra Pak particles replaced partially silica sand in polymer concrete. As is well known, Tetra Pak packages are made up of three raw materials: cellulose (75%), low density polyethylene (20%), and aluminum (5%). The polymer concrete specimens were elaborated with unsaturated polyester resin (20%) and silica sand (80%) and irradiated by using gamma rays at 100 and 200 kGy. The obtained results have shown t...

  12. Evaluation of performance indicators applied to a material recovery facility fed by mixed packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Cremiato, Raffaele; Zaccariello, Lucio; Lotito, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    Most of the integrated systems for municipal solid waste management aim to increase the recycling of secondary materials by means of physical processes including sorting, shredding and reprocessing. Several restrictions prevent from reaching a very high material recycling efficiency: the variability of the composition of new-marketed materials used for packaging production and its shape and complexity are critical issues. The packaging goods are in fact made of different materials (aluminium, polymers, paper, etc.), possibly assembled, having different shape (flat, cylindrical, one-dimensional, etc.), density, colours, optical properties and so on. These aspects limit the effectiveness and efficiency of the sorting and reprocessing plants. The scope of this study was to evaluate the performance of a large scale Material Recovery Facility (MRF) by utilizing data collected during a long period of monitoring. The database resulted from the measured data has been organized in four sections: (1) data related to the amount and type of inlet waste; (2) amount and composition of output products and waste; (3) operating data (such as worked hours for shift, planned and unscheduled maintenance time, setting parameters of the equipment, and energy consumption for shift); (4) economic data (value of each product, disposal price for the produced waste, penalty for non-compliance of products and waste, etc.). A part of this database has been utilized to build an executive dashboard composed by a set of performance indicators suitable to measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the MRF operations. The dashboard revealed itself as a powerful tool to support managers and engineers in their decisions in respect to the market demand or compliance regulation variation as well as in the designing of the lay-out improvements. The results indicated that the 40% of the input waste was recovered as valuable products and that a large part of these (88%) complied with the standards of

  13. Waste Cellulose from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martínez-Barrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the packaging industry has promoted indiscriminately the use of disposable packing as Tetra Pak, which after a very short useful life turns into garbage, helping to spoil the environment. One of the known processes that can be used for achievement of the compatibility between waste materials and the environment is the gamma radiation, which had proved to be a good tool for modification of physicochemical properties of materials. The aim of this work is to study the effects of waste cellulose from Tetra Pak packing and gamma radiation on the mechanical properties of cement concrete. Concrete specimens were elaborated with waste cellulose at concentrations of 3, 5, and 7 wt% and irradiated at 200, 250, and 300 kGy of gamma dose. The results show highest improvement on the mechanical properties for concrete with 3 wt% of waste cellulose and irradiated at 300 kGy; such improvements were related with the surface morphology of fracture zones of cement concrete observed by SEM microscopy.

  14. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  15. Evaluating laser-driven Bremsstrahlung radiation sources for imaging and analysis of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher P., E-mail: cj0810@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Brenner, Ceri M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Stitt, Camilla A. [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Armstrong, Chris; Rusby, Dean R. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mirfayzi, Seyed R. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wilson, Lucy A. [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Alejo, Aarón; Ahmed, Hamad [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Allott, Ric [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Butler, Nicholas M.H. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Clarke, Robert J.; Haddock, David; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Higginson, Adam [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Murphy, Christopher [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Notley, Margaret [Central Laser Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, Charilaos [Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jowsey, John [Ground Floor North B582, Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • X-ray generation was achieved via laser interaction with a tantalum thin foil target. • Picosecond X-ray pulse from a sub-mm spot generated high resolution images. • MeV X-ray emission is possible, permitting analysis of full scale waste containers. • In parallel neutron emission of 10{sup 7}–10{sup 9} neutrons per steradian per pulse was attained. • Development of a 10 Hz diode pumped laser system for waste monitoring is envisioned. - Abstract: A small scale sample nuclear waste package, consisting of a 28 mm diameter uranium penny encased in grout, was imaged by absorption contrast radiography using a single pulse exposure from an X-ray source driven by a high-power laser. The Vulcan laser was used to deliver a focused pulse of photons to a tantalum foil, in order to generate a bright burst of highly penetrating X-rays (with energy >500 keV), with a source size of <0.5 mm. BAS-TR and BAS-SR image plates were used for image capture, alongside a newly developed Thalium doped Caesium Iodide scintillator-based detector coupled to CCD chips. The uranium penny was clearly resolved to sub-mm accuracy over a 30 cm{sup 2} scan area from a single shot acquisition. In addition, neutron generation was demonstrated in situ with the X-ray beam, with a single shot, thus demonstrating the potential for multi-modal criticality testing of waste materials. This feasibility study successfully demonstrated non-destructive radiography of encapsulated, high density, nuclear material. With recent developments of high-power laser systems, to 10 Hz operation, a laser-driven multi-modal beamline for waste monitoring applications is envisioned.

  16. Geochemistry Model Abstraction and Sensitivity Studies for the 21 PWR CSNF Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot; S. LeStrange; E. Thomas; K. Zarrabi; S. Arthur

    2002-10-29

    The CSNF geochemistry model abstraction, as directed by the TWP (BSC 2002b), was developed to provide regression analysis of EQ6 cases to obtain abstracted values of pH (and in some cases HCO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration) for use in the Configuration Generator Model. The pH of the system is the controlling factor over U mineralization, CSNF degradation rate, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration in solution. The abstraction encompasses a large variety of combinations for the degradation rates of materials. The ''base case'' used EQ6 simulations looking at differing steel/alloy corrosion rates, drip rates, and percent fuel exposure. Other values such as the pH/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} dependent fuel corrosion rate and the corrosion rate of A516 were kept constant. Relationships were developed for pH as a function of these differing rates to be used in the calculation of total C and subsequently, the fuel rate. An additional refinement to the abstraction was the addition of abstracted pH values for cases where there was limited O{sub 2} for waste package corrosion and a flushing fluid other than J-13, which has been used in all EQ6 calculation up to this point. These abstractions also used EQ6 simulations with varying combinations of corrosion rates of materials to abstract the pH (and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} in the case of the limiting O{sub 2} cases) as a function of WP materials corrosion rates. The goodness of fit for most of the abstracted values was above an R{sup 2} of 0.9. Those below this value occurred during the time at the very beginning of WP corrosion when large variations in the system pH are observed. However, the significance of F-statistic for all the abstractions showed that the variable relationships are significant. For the abstraction, an analysis of the minerals that may form the ''sludge'' in the waste package was also presented. This analysis indicates that a number a different iron and aluminum minerals may form in

  17. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  18. An investigation of the usability of sound recognition for source separation of packaging wastes in reverse vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, M Kemal; Kaplan, Özgür; Büyük, Osman; Güllü, M Kemal

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the usability of sound recognition for source separation of packaging wastes in reverse vending machines (RVMs). For this purpose, an experimental setup equipped with a sound recording mechanism was prepared. Packaging waste sounds generated by three physical impacts such as free falling, pneumatic hitting and hydraulic crushing were separately recorded using two different microphones. To classify the waste types and sizes based on sound features of the wastes, a support vector machine (SVM) and a hidden Markov model (HMM) based sound classification systems were developed. In the basic experimental setup in which only free falling impact type was considered, SVM and HMM systems provided 100% classification accuracy for both microphones. In the expanded experimental setup which includes all three impact types, material type classification accuracies were 96.5% for dynamic microphone and 97.7% for condenser microphone. When both the material type and the size of the wastes were classified, the accuracy was 88.6% for the microphones. The modeling studies indicated that hydraulic crushing impact type recordings were very noisy for an effective sound recognition application. In the detailed analysis of the recognition errors, it was observed that most of the errors occurred in the hitting impact type. According to the experimental results, it can be said that the proposed novel approach for the separation of packaging wastes could provide a high classification performance for RVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 6, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and transportation package acceptable concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ``WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.`` The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  20. Preliminary Criticality Analysis of Degraded SNF Accumulations to a Waste Package (SCPB: N/A) 

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Davis

    2005-12-15

    This study is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide input to a separate evaluation on the probability of criticality in the far-field environment. These calculations are performed in sufficient detail to provide conservatively bounding configurations to support separate probabilistic analyses. The objective of this evaluation is to provide input to a risk analysis which will show that criticalities involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are not credible, or indicate additional measures that are required for the Engineered Barrier Segment (EBS) to make such events incredible. Minimum critical volumes and masses of UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/tuff mixtures are determined without application of regulatory safety limits. This study does not address or demonstrate compliance with regulatory limits.

  1. Waste Materials from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martínez-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations (from 1 to 6 wt% and sizes (0.85, 1.40, and 2.36 mm of waste Tetra Pak particles replaced partially silica sand in polymer concrete. As is well known, Tetra Pak packages are made up of three raw materials: cellulose (75%, low density polyethylene (20%, and aluminum (5%. The polymer concrete specimens were elaborated with unsaturated polyester resin (20% and silica sand (80% and irradiated by using gamma rays at 100 and 200 kGy. The obtained results have shown that compressive and flexural strength and modulus of elasticity decrease gradually, when either Tetra Pak particle concentration or particle size is increased, as regularly occurs in composite materials. Nevertheless, improvements of 14% on both compressive strength and flexural strength as well as 5% for modulus of elasticity were obtained when polymer concrete is irradiated.

  2. Quarterly progress report on the DOE Waste Package project at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, July 1, 1993 through September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladkany, S.G.

    1993-11-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: overview and progress of waste package project and container design; waste container design considerations (criticality analysis, experimental drift model); waste container alternate design considerations; thermal simulation of high level nuclear waste canister emplacement; structural analysis and design of nuclear waste package canister; robotic manipulation of the nuclear waste container; investigation of stress in a circular tunnel due to overburden & thermal loading of horizontally placed 21PWR multi-purpose canisters; investigation of faulted tunnel models by combined photoelasticity and finite element analysis; and transport phenomena in the near field.

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood.

  4. Hydrogen Concentration in the Inner-Most Container within a Pencil Tank Overpack Packaged in a Standard Waste Box Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marusich, Robert M.

    2012-01-25

    A set of steady state diffusion flow equations, for the hydrogen diffusion from one bag to the next bag (or one plastic waste container to another), within a set of nested waste bags (or nested waste containers), are developed and presented. The input data is then presented and justified. Inputting the data for each volume and solving these equations yields the steady state hydrogen concentration in each volume. The input data (permeability of the bag surface and closure, dimensions and hydrogen generation rate) and equations are analyzed to obtain the hydrogen concentrations in the innermost container for a set of containers which are analyzed for the TRUCON code for the general waste containers and the TRUCON code for the Pencil Tank Overpacks (PTO) in a Standard Waste Box (SWB).

  5. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  6. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrados, A., E-mail: aitziber.adrados@ehu.es [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering of Bilbao, Alameda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); De Marco, I.; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A.; Caballero, B.M.; Laresgoiti, M.F. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering of Bilbao, Alameda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the influence of materials in the pyrolysis of real plastic waste samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic compounds remain unaltered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components give rise to an increase in char formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components promote the production of aqueous phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components increase CO and CO{sub 2} contents in the gases. - Abstract: In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm{sup 3} reactor, swept with 1 L min{sup -1} N{sub 2}, at 500 Degree-Sign C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg{sup -1}). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO{sub 2}; their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg{sup -1}. The amount of CO-CO{sub 2} increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  7. Packaging waste prevention in the distribution of fruit and vegetables: An assessment based on the life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tua, Camilla; Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Dolci, Giovanni; Grosso, Mario

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, alternative food supply chains based on short distance production and delivery have been promoted as being more environmentally friendly than those applied by the traditional retailing system. An example is the supply of seasonal and possibly locally grown fruit and vegetables directly to customers inside a returnable crate (the so-called 'box scheme'). In addition to other claimed environmental and economic advantages, the box scheme is often listed among the packaging waste prevention measures. To check whether such a claim is soundly based, a life cycle assessment was carried out to verify the real environmental effectiveness of the box scheme in comparison to the Italian traditional distribution. The study focused on two reference products, carrots and apples, which are available in the crate all year round. An experience of a box scheme carried out in Italy was compared with some traditional scenarios where the product is distributed loose or packaged at the large-scale retail trade. The packaging waste generation, 13 impact indicators on environment and human health and energy consumptions were calculated. Results show that the analysed experience of the box scheme, as currently managed, cannot be considered a packaging waste prevention measure when compared with the traditional distribution of fruit and vegetables. The weaknesses of the alternative system were identified and some recommendations were given to improve its environmental performance.

  8. Recharge Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Fayer; EM Murphy; JL Downs; FO Khan; CW Lindenmeier; BN Bjornstad

    2000-01-18

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is known as the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity, hereafter called the ILAW PA project. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require predictions of contaminant migration from the facility. To make such predictions will require estimates of the fluxes of water moving through the sediments within the vadose zone around and beneath the disposal facility. These fluxes, loosely called recharge rates, are the primary mechanism for transporting contaminants to the groundwater. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the shallow-land disposal of ILAW. Specifically, recharge estimates are needed for a filly functional surface cover; the cover sideslope, and the immediately surrounding terrain. In addition, recharge estimates are needed for degraded cover conditions. The temporal scope of the analysis is 10,000 years, but could be longer if some contaminant peaks occur after 10,000 years. The elements of this report compose the Recharge Data Package, which provides estimates of recharge rates for the scenarios being considered in the 2001 PA. Table S.1 identifies the surface features and

  9. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  10. Air-Filled porosity and permeability relationships during solid-waste fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was constructed to measure the structural parameters of organic porous media, i.,e. mechanical strength, air-filled porosity, air permeability, and the Ergun particle size. These parameters are critical to the engineering of aerobic bioconversion systems and were measured

  11. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  12. Upgrading of recycled plastics obtained from flexible packaging waste by adding nanosilicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, E.; Claro, M.; Scarfato, P.; Di Maio, L.; Incarnato, L.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, the growing consumption of polymer products creates large quantities of waste materials resulting in public concern in the environment and people life. The efficient treatment of polymer wastes is still a difficult challenge and the recycling process represents the best way to manage them. Recently, many researchers have tried to develop nanotechnology for polymer recycling. The products prepared through the addition of nanoparticles to post-used plastics could offer the combination of improved properties, low weight, easy of processing and low cost which is not easily and concurrently found by other methods of plastic recycling. In this study materials, obtained by the separation and mechanical recycling of post-consumer packaging films of small size (recycled plastics (denoted as Recyclate A and Recyclate B) evidenced that they are mainly constituted of polyethylene (PE) and of a small fraction of polypropylene (PP). PE/PP incompatibility has been proved and explained in many studies reported in the literature and it represents the main reason for the unsatisfactory mechanical properties of these recycled plastics. The aim of this work was to improve the mechanical properties of these recycled polymeric mixtures by the addition of two different types of organo-modified silicates, also taking advantage of the function of nanofillers as potential blend compatibilizers. In particular, three organoclays (Dellite 67G, sepiolite PM15 and sepiolite UNISA1), differing for the morphology (lamellar or acicular) and/or the type of organic modifier, were melt compounded with the recycled materials in a twin-screw extruder. The morphological, thermal, rheological and mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposites were extensively discussed.

  13. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  14. Hydrogen Concentration in the Inner-Most Container within a Pencil Tank Overpack Packaged in a Standard Waste Box Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marusich, Robert M.

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate hydrogen generation within Pencil Tank Overpacks (PTO) in a Standard Waste Box (SWB), to establish plutonium (Pu) limits for PTOs based on hydrogen concentration in the inner-most container and to establish required configurations or validate existing or proposed configurations for PTOs. The methodology and requirements are provided in this report.

  15. The Probabilistic Nature of Environmental Cracking in Candidate Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.M. Gordon; P.L. Andresen; L.M. Young

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this research is to determine the effects of material condition and applied stress on environmental cracking in candidate waste package materials for the Yucca Mountain Project. Time-to-failure experiments were performed on smooth bar tensile specimens in a hot, concentrated, mixed-salt solution chosen to simulate concentrated Yucca Mountain water. Smooth tensile specimens were individually loaded by the internal pressure of a 55-liter autoclave, where the applied stress varied with the individual specimen gauge cross section. The effects of material, applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatment were investigated for Alloy 22, Titanium Grade 7, and 316NG stainless steel. Testing of multiple specimens allowed statistical differences among material conditions to be determined. Sensitized 304SS specimens were included in the test matrix to provide benchmark data. Microstructural effects on time-to-failure were studied for Alloy 22, where heat treatments designed to produce topologically close-packed phases (TCP) and long-range ordering (LRO) were investigated. This research complements high-resolution crack-growth-rate experiments performed in a parallel research project.

  16. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curits, P.C.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90{degrees}C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron- absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. the stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on it chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high- chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. the results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  17. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data; Volume 8: Biannual report, August 1989--January 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.G. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High-Level Waste Management; Fraker, A.C.; Escalante, E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (MSEL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes evaluations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of some of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the six-month period, August 1989--January 1990. This includes reviews of related materials research and plans, information on the Yucca Mountain, Nevada disposal site activities, and other information regarding supporting research and special assistance. Short discussions are given relating to the publications reviewed and complete reviews and evaluations are included. Reports of other work are included in the Appendices.

  18. Development of an improved compact package plant for small community waste-water treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hulsman, A

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges facing the design and operation of small community wastewater treatment plants are discussed. The package plant concept is considered and the consequent development of a compact intermittently aerated activated sludge package plant...

  19. FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ROCK FALL ON UNCANISTERED FUEL WASTE PACKAGE DESIGNS (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    1996-10-18

    The objective of this analysis is to explore the Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Tube Design waste package (WP) resistance to rock falls. This analysis will also be used to determine the size of rock that can strike the WP without causing failure in the containment barriers from a height based on the starter tunnel dimensions. The purpose of this analysis is to document the models and methods used in the calculations.

  20. Characterization of odorous contaminants in post-consumer plastic packaging waste using multidimensional gas chromatographic separation coupled with olfactometric resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangl, Miriam; Fell, Tanja; Schlummer, Martin; Maeurer, Andreas; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The increasing world population with their growing consumption of goods escalates the issue of sustainability concepts with increasing demands in recycling technologies. Recovery of post-consumer packaging waste is a major topic in this respect. However, contamination with odorous constituents currently curtails the production of recycling products that meet the high expectations of both consumers and industry. To guarantee odor-free recyclates, the main prerequisite is to characterize the molecular composition of the causative odorants in post-consumer plastic packaging waste. However, targeted characterization of odorous trace contaminants among an abundance of volatiles is a major challenge and requires specialized and high-resolution analytical approaches. For this aim, post-consumer packaging waste was characterized by sensory analysis and two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and olfactometry. The 33 identified odorants represent various structural classes as well as a great diversity of smell impressions with some of the compounds being identified in plastics for the first time. Substances unraveled within this study provide insights into sources of odorous contamination that will require specific attention in the future in terms of screening and prevention in recycling products. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Level 4 Milestone (M4): M41UF033201 - Review of Radiolysis of Brines on the Surface of a Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-12

    This milestone report (M41UF033201) documents a literature review of relevant publications for gamma radiolysis occurring within a droplet of water on the outside of a waste package in a repository environment within the “

  3. Evaluation of the data available for estimating release rates from commercial low-level waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper, an overview of our findings concerning the distribution of activity within low-level radioactive wastes will be presented. This will begin in a general fashion and consider the distribution of the total activity by each of the following: waste class, waste stream, wasteform, and waste container. A radionuclide specific breakdown by waste class and wasteform follows. The findings are reviewed in terms of performance assessment modeling needs. Finally, we present our conclusions.

  4. Design of an innovative, ecological portable waste compressor for in-house recycling of paper, plastic and metal packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xevgenos, D; Athanasopoulos, N; Kostazos, P K; Manolakos, D E; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Loizidou, M

    2015-05-01

    Waste management in Greece relies heavily on unsustainable waste practices (mainly landfills and in certain cases uncontrolled dumping of untreated waste). Even though major improvements have been achieved in the recycling of municipal solid waste during recent years, there are some barriers that hinder the achievement of high recycling rates. Source separation of municipal solid waste has been recognised as a promising solution to produce high-quality recycled materials that can be easily directed to secondary materials markets. This article presents an innovative miniature waste separator/compressor that has been designed and developed for the source separation of municipal solid waste at a household level. The design of the system is in line with the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), since it allows for the separate collection (and compression) of municipal solid waste, namely: plastic (polyethylene terephthalate and high-density polyethylene), paper (cardboard and Tetrapak) and metal (aluminium and tin cans). It has been designed through the use of suitable software tools (LS-DYNA, INVENTROR and COMSOL). The results from the simulations, as well as the whole design process and philosophy, are discussed in this article. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Climate accounting for waste management, Phase I and II. Summary: Phase 1: Glass Packaging, Metal packaging, paper, cardboard, plastic and wet organic waste. Phase 2: Wood waste and residual waste from households; Klimaregnskap for avfallshaandtering, Fase I og II. Sammendrag: Fase 1: Glassemballasje, metallemballasje, papir, papp, plastemballasje og vaatorganisk avfall. Fase 2: Treavfall og restavfall fra husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2009-09-15

    involves the lowest greenhouse gas load for the types of waste glass packaging, metal packaging and plastic packaging. Biological treatment (biogas production) provides the lowest GHG (greenhouse gas) impact for the treatment of wet organic waste. Energy recovery provides the lowest GHG impact for the treatment of paper, cardboard and wood waste. Disposal provides the greatest greenhouse gas load for all the analyzed types of waste, but plastic and glass containers. For waste composition has a major impact on greenhouse gas emissions for the landfill and the energy efficiency of the waste. The composition varies both with the types of waste disposed and with what kind of source separation schemes offered in the various municipalities. This in turn can vary depending on population density (urban areas / cities versus scattered buildings), and motivation of the individual citizen to source sorting. Energy recovery means the lowest greenhouse gas emissions for an 'average composite' residual waste in Norway. Analysis of residual waste should always be considered in context with the total amounts and handling of sorted out waste types, as well as total amounts and composition of residual waste. This is important to achieve a comprehensive assessment and avoid suboptimalization. Transport related greenhouse gas emissions are generally of relatively little importance in relation to the environmental benefits arising from the material and / or energy utilization. 3. The model is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions resulting from disposal of a total of approximately 4.1 million tons of waste from households, industry, construction and service industries. 4. Analysis of a realistic optimal scenario for disposal of household waste show that this system can be virtually carbon-neutral. 5. The choice of which assumptions to be incorporated in this type of analysis depends on the purpose of analysis, in addition to local and geographical conditions. 6. Relevant

  6. The impact of policy interactions on the recycling of plastic packaging waste in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gandenberger, Carsten; Orzanna, Robert; Klingenfuß, Sara; Sartorius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental challenges associated with the strong growth of plastic waste worldwide, the EU Commission recently published a green paper on a European Strategy on Plastic Waste in the Environment (COM (2013), 123 final), which highlights the challenges and opportunities that arise from improving the management of plastic waste in the EU. The European Waste Directive (2008/98/EC) which was transposed into German law through the Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz (KrWG) established the so-c...

  7. Report to Congress on the potential use of lead in the waste packages for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-01

    In the Report of the Senate Committee on Appropriations accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriation Act for 1989, the Committee directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the use of lead in the waste packages to be used in geologic repositories for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The evaluation that was performed in response to this directive is presented in this report. This evaluation was based largely on a review of the technical literature on the behavior of lead, reports of work conducted in other countries, and work performed for the waste-management program being conducted by the DOE. The initial evaluation was limited to the potential use of lead in the packages to be used in the repository. Also, the focus of this report is post closure performance and not on retrievability and handling aspects of the waste package. 100 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data; Biannual report, February 1989--July 1989: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, C.G. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High-Level Waste Management; Fraker, A.C.; Escalante, E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (IMSE), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.

    1991-12-01

    This report summarizes evaluations by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the six-month period, February through July 1989. This includes reviews of related materials research and plans, information on the Yucca Mountain, Nevada disposal site activities, and other information regarding supporting research and special assistance. Outlines for planned interpretative reports on the topics of aqueous corrosion of copper, mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and internal failure modes of Zircaloy cladding are included. For the publications reviewed during this reporting period, short discussions are given to supplement the completed reviews and evaluations. Included in this report is an overall review of a 1984 report on glass leaching mechanisms, as well as reviews for each of the seven chapters of this report.

  10. Waste Cellulose from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Cement Concrete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martínez-Barrera, Gonzalo; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos E; Cuevas-Yañez, Erick; Varela-Guerrero, Víctor; Vigueras-Santiago, Enrique; Ávila-Córdoba, Liliana; Martínez-López, Miguel

    2015-01-01

      The development of the packaging industry has promoted indiscriminately the use of disposable packing as Tetra Pak, which after a very short useful life turns into garbage, helping to spoil the environment...

  11. Data Package for Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection—Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-05

    Available literature on Cast Stone and Saltstone was reviewed with an emphasis on determining how Cast Stone and related grout waste forms performed in relationship to various criteria that will be used to decide whether a specific type of waste form meets acceptance criteria for disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford. After the critical review of the Cast Stone/Saltstone literature, we conclude that Cast Stone is a good candidate waste form for further consideration. Cast stone meets the target IDF acceptance criteria for compressive strength, no free liquids, TCLP leachate are below the UTS permissible concentrations and leach rates for Na and Tc-99 are suiteably low. The cost of starting ingredients and equipment necessary to generate Cast Stone waste forms with secondary waste streams are low and the Cast Stone dry blend formulation can be tailored to accommodate variations in liquid waste stream compositions. The database for Cast Stone short-term performance is quite extensive compared to the other three candidate waste solidification processes. The solidification of liquid wastes in Cast Stone is a mature process in comparison to the other three candidates. Successful production of Cast Stone or Saltstone has been demonstrated from lab-scale monoliths with volumes of cm3 through m3 sized blocks to 210-liter sized drums all the way to the large pours into vaults at Savannah River. To date over 9 million gallons of low activity liquid waste has been solidified and disposed in concrete vaults at Savannah River.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-D-3, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-09

    Decommissioning and demolition of the 132-D-3 site, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1986. Decommissioning included removal of equipment, water, and sludge for disposal as radioactive waste. The at- and below-grade structure was demolished to at least 1 m below grade and the resulting rubble buried in situ. The area was backfilled to grade with at least 1 m of clean fill and contoured to the surrounding terrain. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  13. The Garbage Project Revisited: From a 20th Century Archaeology of Food Waste to a Contemporary Study of Food Packaging Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Vergne Lehmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1973, Dr. Bill Rathje and his students at the University of Arizona began what was to become a two decade long investigation into American consumer waste habits. An archaeologist by profession, Rathje decided to adapt traditional archaeological methods and apply them to contemporary archaeological situations. This provided a platform for improving the understanding of what was really happening with, amongst other forms of waste, food at the consumer household level. The Garbage Project was able to study consumer behaviours directly from the material realities they left behind rather than from self-conscious self-reports of surveys and interviews. Using the same rationale, this study developed a profile of the packaged and processed food consumption in three regional Victorian municipalities. The main findings identified that consumers were limited to the food retail opportunities closest to their home and that they took greater care to wash out recyclables if they were placed in the recycling bin compared to the same item placed in a kerbside landfill bin. There was also an apparent lack of understanding about appropriate food storage and buying for purpose, especially with regard to the volume of the item they purchased, which appears to result in partially used recyclable containers being put in the kerbside landfill bin. By understanding the nature of the packaging and food that has been thrown away, it is possible to develop a narrative around what people understand about food purchasing practices, longevity, storage and how they use it at home. This in turn can assist community engagement and education around nutrition, meal planning and purchasing as well as community waste education.

  14. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste

  15. Extended producer responsibility for packaging wastes and WEEE - a comparison of implementation and the role of local authorities across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Rachel; Grimes, Sue M; Wilson, David C

    2011-05-01

    A comparison of the implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR) to packaging waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is presented for a representative sample of eleven European Union countries based on five indicators: stakeholders and responsibilities; compliance mechanisms; role of local authorities; financing mechanisms and merits and limitations, with four countries selected for more detailed case study analysis. Similarities, trends and differences in national systems are highlighted with particular focus on the role of local authorities and their relationship with obligated producers and the effect on the operation and success of each system. The national systems vary considerably in design, in terms of influence of pre-existing policy and systems, methods of achieving producer compliance (multiple or single collective schemes), fee structures, targets, waste stream prioritization and local authority involvement. Differing approaches are evident across all member states with respect to the role played by local authorities, responsibility apportioned to them, and the evolution of working relationships between obligated producers and municipalities. On the whole, EPR for packaging and WEEE has been successfully implemented throughout Europe in terms of Directive targets. It is, however, clear that the EPR systems currently in application across Europe differ primarily due to contrasting opinion on the legitimacy of local authorities as stakeholders and, in some cases, a fear on the part of industry of associated costs. Where local authorities have been engaged in the design and implementation of national systems, existing infrastructure used and defined roles established for producers and local authorities, results have been significantly more positive than in the cases where local authorities have had limited engagement.

  16. Food waste: The role of date labels, package size, and product category

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Norbert L.W.; Rickard, Bradley J.; Saputo, Rachel; Ho, Shuay-Tsyr

    2015-01-01

    The presence of food waste, and ways to reduce food waste, has generated significant debate among industry stakeholders, policy makers, and consumer groups in the United States and elsewhere. Many have argued that the variety of date labels used by food manufacturers leads to confusion about food quality and food safety among consumers. Here we develop a laboratory experiment with treatments that expose subjects to different date labels (Sell by, Best by, Use by, and Fresh by) for six food pr...

  17. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mtn. Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  18. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  19. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-01-01

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The focus of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  20. Extended producer responsibility for packaging waste in South Africa: Current approaches and lessons learned

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available on their effectiveness in stimulating the recovery of post-consumer packaging material for recycling. In particular, the approaches adopted in the plastic bag, steel beverage can, glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) industries are examined. It is found...

  1. 77 FR 23751 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... trademarks; (3) unfair competition by passing off; (4) trademark dilution; and (5) trade dress infringement... packaging thereof by reason of (1) trade dress infringement; (2) passing off; (3) infringement of common law... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

  2. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Stephen P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-12-14

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The purpose of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  3. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-08-13

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999.

  4. THE PROCESS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN POST-CONSUMER PACKAGING: CASE STUDY MCDONALD'S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research considers the increasing concern of society in general environmental issues, shows the importance of an Environmental Management System to improve the image of a company towards society in which it is embedded. Shows that proper waste management can result in financial and environmental benefits for companies that practice. To address the practical issues of the theme, was chosen the company McDonald's, as a service company fast food, that have a quantity of waste, and creates conditions for application of the techniques of environmental management in this sector. Thus, this article aims to demonstrate through case study and descriptive research, the commitment that this large network of fast-food has with the preservation of the environment through its waste management and investments in economic, social and environmental the country.

  5. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 2: Preliminary Design Concept for the Repository and Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  6. Environmental packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gareth Benjamin Harverd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The food packaging industry is a £300bn global industry growing at a rate of 12% per year and increasingly favouring polymer or polymer-based materials. This generates 58m tonnes of "plastic" packaging waste annually in the EU and poses significant challenges for management given existing legislative constraints and increasing concerns surrounding the environmental impacts. The government, co...

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-F-1 Glass Dump Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 120-F-1 waste site consisted of two dumping areas located 660 m southeast of the 105-F Reactor containing laboratory equipment and bottles, demolition debris, light bulbs and tubes, small batteries, small drums, and pesticide contaminated soil. It is probable that 108-F was the source of the debris but the material may have come from other locations within the 100-F Area. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-2, 100-F Burning Pit Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-031

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-12-01

    The 128-F-2 waste site consisted of multiple burn and debris filled pits located directly east of the 107-F Retention Basin and approximately 30.5 m east of the northeast corner of the 100-F Area perimeter road that runs along the riverbank. The burn pits were used for incinerating nonradioactive, combustible materials from 1945 to 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    A complex mixture of chlorinated organic compounds is located in an unconfined carbonated bedrock aquifer with low permeability in a former industrial area next to Barcelona (NE Spain). The site exhibited an especially high complexity due to the presence of multiple contaminant sources, wide variety of pollutants (mainly chlorinated ethenes but also chlorinated methanes) and unknown system of fractures (Palau et al., 2014). Interception trenches were installed in the place of the removed pollution sources and were filled with construction wastes with the aim of retaining and treating the accumulated contaminated recharge water before reaching the aquifer. Recycled concrete-based aggregates from a construction and demolition waste recycling plant were used to maintain alkaline conditions in the water accumulated in the trenches (pH 11.6±0.3) and thus induce chloroform (CF) degradation by alkaline hydrolysis. An efficacy of around 30-40% CF degradation in the interception trenches was calculated from the significant and reproducible CF carbon isotopic fractionation (-53±3o obtained in batch experiments (Torrentó et al., 2014). Surprisingly, although hydrolysis of carbon tetrachloride (CT) is extremely slow, a significant CT carbon isotopic enrichment was also observed in the trenches. The laboratory experiments verified the low capability of concrete to hydrolyze the CT and showed the high adsorption of CT on the concrete particles (73% after 50 days) with invariability in its δ13C values. Therefore, the significant CT isotopic fractionation observed in the interception trenches could point out the occurrence of other degradation processes distinct than alkaline hydrolysis. Geochemical speciation modelling using the code PHREEQC showed that water collected at the trenches is supersaturated with respect to several iron oxy-hydroxides and therefore, CT degradation processes related to these iron minerals cannot be discarded. In addition, the combination of alkaline

  11. Data package for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Sections 1--7 and Appendices A--D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, R.H.

    1988-09-01

    This data package is required to support an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to be written to evaluate the effects of future disposal of low-level waste at four sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Current waste disposal facilities are exceeding their capacities and increasingly stringent disposal requirements dictate the need for the sites and new waste disposal technologies. The Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program has developed a strategy for low-level waste disposal built around a dose based approach. This approach emphasizes contamination pathways, including surface and groundwater and ALARA conditions for workers. This strategy dictates the types of data needed for this data package. The data package provides information on geology, soils, groundwater, surface water, and ecological characterization of the Oak Ridge Reservation in order to evaluate alternative technologies and alternative sites. The results of the investigations and data collections indicate that different technologies will probably have to be used at different sites. This conclusion, however, depends on the findings of the Environmental Impact Statement. 14 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-50 Stormwater Runoff Culvert, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-15

    The 100-F-50 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is a steel stormwater runoff culvert that runs between two railroad grades in the south-central portion of the 100-F Area. The culvert exiting the west side of the railroad grade is mostly encased in concrete and surrounded by a concrete stormwater collection depression partially filled with soil and vegetation. The drain pipe exiting the east side of the railroad grade embankment is partially filled with soil and rocks. The 100-F-50 stormwater diversion culvert confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to no action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Thermal behavior and pyrolytic degradation kinetics of polymeric mixtures from waste packaging plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tuffi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior and pyrolytic kinetic analysis of main waste polymers (polypropylene (PP, polyethylene film (PE, poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET, polystyrene (PS and three synthetic mixtures representing commingled postconsumer plastics wastes (CPCPWs output from material recovery facilities were studied. Thermogravimetry (TG pyrolysis experiments revealed that the thermal degradation of single polymers and the synthetic mixture enriched in PP occurred in one single step. The other two mixtures underwent a two-consecutive, partially overlapping degradation steps, whose peaks related to the first-order derivative of TG were deconvoluted into two distinct processes. Further TG experiments carried out on binary mixtures (PS/PP, PET/PP, PET/PEfilm and PP/PEfilm showed a thermal degradation reliance on composition, structure and temperatures of single polymer components. A kinetic analysis was made for each step using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS method, thus determining almost constant activation energy (Ea for pyrolysis of PS, PET, PP and PE film in the range 0.25<α<0.85, unlike for pyrolysis of CPCPWs, with particular reference to CPCPW1 and the second step of CPCPW2 and CPCPW3, both ascribable to degradation of PP and PE film. To account for the reliability of these values the integral isoconversional modified method developed by Vyazovkin was also applied.

  15. Geologic Data Package for 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SP Reidel; DG Horton

    1999-12-21

    This database is a compilation of existing geologic data from both the existing and new immobilized low-activity waste disposal sites for use in the 2001 Performance Assessment. Data were compiled from both surface and subsurface geologic sources. Large-scale surface geologic maps, previously published, cover the entire 200-East Area and the disposal sites. Subsurface information consists of drilling and geophysical logs from nearby boreholes and stored sediment samples. Numerous published geological reports are available that describe the subsurface geology of the area. Site-specific subsurface data are summarized in tables and profiles in this document. Uncertainty in data is mainly restricted to borehole information. Variations in sampling and drilling techniques present some correlation uncertainties across the sites. A greater degree of uncertainty exists on the new site because of restricted borehole coverage. There is some uncertainty to the location and orientation of elastic dikes across the sites.

  16. Recharge Data Package for Hanford Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Keller, Jason M.

    2007-09-24

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., in its preparation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation report. One of the PNNL tasks is to use existing information to estimate recharge rates for past and current conditions as well as future scenarios involving cleanup and closure of tank farms. The existing information includes recharge-relevant data collected during activities associated with a host of projects, including those of RCRA, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the CH2M HILL Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, and the PNNL Remediation and Closure Science Project. As new information is published, the report contents can be updated. The objective of this data package was to use published data to provide recharge estimates for the scenarios being considered in the RCRA Facility Investigation. Recharge rates were estimated for areas that remain natural and undisturbed, areas where the vegetation has been disturbed, areas where both the vegetation and the soil have been disturbed, and areas that are engineered (e.g., surface barrier). The recharge estimates supplement the estimates provided by PNNL researchers in 2006 for the Hanford Site using additional field measurements and model analysis using weather data through 2006.

  17. VEGETATION AS THE BIOINDICATOR OF HUMAN-INDUCED DEGRADATION IN KARST LANDSCAPE: CASE STUDY OF WASTE-FILLED DOLINES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mateja Breg Valjavec; Daniela Ribeiro; Andraž Čarni

    2017-01-01

    .... Buried waste provides heterogeneous ecological conditions on the surface, thus plant communities or individual plant species that developed on the surface of landfills can be used as a bioindicators...

  18. Utilization of chemically treated municipal solid waste (spent coffee bean powder) as reinforcement in cellulose matrix for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagamani, Senthil Muthu Kumar; Nagarajan, Rajini; Jawaid, Mohammad; Anumakonda, Varadarajulu; Siengchin, Suchart

    2017-11-01

    As the annual production of the solid waste generable in the form of spent coffee bean powder (SCBP) is over 6 million tons, its utilization in the generation of green energy, waste water treatment and as a filler in biocomposites is desirable. The objective of this article is to analyze the possibilities to valorize coffee bean powder as a filler in cellulose matrix. Cellulose matrix was dissolved in the relatively safer aqueous solution mixture (8% LiOH and 15% Urea) precooled to -12.5°C. To the cellulose solution (SCBP) was added in 5-25wt% and the composite films were prepared by regeneration method using ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. Some SCBP was treated with aq. 5% NaOH and the composite films were also prepared using alkali treated SCBP as a filler. The films of composites were uniform with brown in color. The cellulose/SCBP films without and with alkali treated SCBP were characterized by FTIR, XRD, optical and polarized optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. The maximum tensile strength of the composite films with alkali treated SCBP varied between (106-149MPa) and increased with SCBP content when compared to the composites with untreated SCBP. The thermal stability of the composite was higher at elevated temperatures when alkali treated SCBP was used. Based on the improved tensile properties and photo resistivity, the cellulose/SCBP composite films with alkali treated SCBP may be considered for packaging and wrapping of flowers and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-02-27

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant.

  20. Trade study for the feed tank fill status issue for low-activity waste feed issue 19D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1998-05-18

    This document identifies and evaluates alternatives that will provide DOE-RL sufficient information from which a decision can be negotiated regarding the Project Hanford Management Contractor team`s use of tanks 241-AP-106 and -108 versus the private contractors need to upgrade them for their purposes. The desired alternatives to be evaluated and the measures for comparison were selected in a separate meeting with the customer (RL). These are defined in the sections that follow. The following summarizes the results of this study. More detailed explanations of the results can be found later in Section 6.0 of the document. Relinquishing the use of tanks early increases the programmatic risk when compared to the baseline via the following areas: (1) Tank Space -- The amount of usable tank space decreases. This also impacts the amount of spare and contingency space available. (2) Waste Transfer Complexity -- The complexity of tankfarm transfers increases. As double-shell tank (DST) space becomes limited, the number and interdependency of waste transfers increases. (3) Float -- Float time for low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging operations decreases. (4) Waste Segregation -- The segregation of tank wastes may be violated.

  1. Calculation Package for the Analysis of Performance of Cells 1-6, with Underdrain, of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales D.

    2010-03-30

    This calculation package presents the results of an assessment of the performance of the 6 cell design of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The calculations show that the new cell 6 design at the EMWMF meets the current WAC requirement. QA/QC steps were taken to verify the input/output data for the risk model and data transfer from modeling output files to tables and calculation.

  2. Degradation Behavior and Accelerated Weathering of Composite Boards Produced from Waste Tetra Pak® Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nural Yilgor; Coskun Kose; Evren Terzi; Aysel Kanturk Figen; Rebecca Ibach; S. Nami Kartal; Sabriye Piskin

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing panels from Tetra Pak® (TP) packaging material might be an alternative to conventional wood-based panels. This study evaluated some chemical and physical properties as well as biological, weathering, and fire performance of panels with and without zinc borate (ZnB) by using shredded TP packaging cartons. Such packaging material, a worldwide well-known...

  3. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  4. Waste Package Misload Probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Knudsen

    2001-11-20

    The objective of this calculation is to calculate the probability of occurrence for fuel assembly (FA) misloads (i.e., Fa placed in the wrong location) and FA damage during FA movements. The scope of this calculation is provided by the information obtained from the Framatome ANP 2001a report. The first step in this calculation is to categorize each fuel-handling events that occurred at nuclear power plants. The different categories are based on FAs being damaged or misloaded. The next step is to determine the total number of FAs involved in the event. Using the information, a probability of occurrence will be calculated for FA misload and FA damage events. This calculation is an expansion of preliminary work performed by Framatome ANP 2001a.

  5. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  6. Role of land filling in the modern strategies for solid waste management; Il ruolo della discarica nelle moderne strategie di smaltimento dei rifiuti solidi urbani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossu, R.; Lavagnolo, M. C.; Raga, R. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria, Idraulica, Marittima, Ambientale e Geotecnica

    2001-09-01

    The new environmental regulations in Europe require higher standards for design and management of new landfills. Municipal solid wastes (MSW) have to be pretreated before land filling, in order to enable strong reduction of landfill emissions and environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the role of new landfills in solid waste management and the influence of some measures on the reduction of emissions and environmental impact. [Italian] In base alle nuove Direttive italiane e comunitarie, la discarica controllata e' destinata ad avere anche in futuro un ruolo di primo piano nella gestione dei rifiuti solidi urbani. In particolare, saranno destinati a smaltimento in discarica rifiuti pretrattati che garantiscano limitata putrescibilita' e minore impatto ambientale della discarica. Nell'articolo vengono esposte alcune considerazioni sul ruolo delle discariche nelle moderne strategie di smaltimento dei rifiuti solidi urbani, sugli effetti del pretrattamento dei rifiuti sulle emissioni di biogas e percolato dalle discariche e sulle caratteristiche idrauliche e meccaniche delle discariche per rifiuti pretrattati.

  7. Corrosion testing of selected packaging materials for disposal of high-level waste glass in rock-salt formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.; Fiehn, B.; Halm, G. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (DE)

    1991-12-31

    In previous corrosion studies performed in salt brines, unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 have proved to be the most promising materials for long-term resistant packagings to be used in heat-generating waste (vitrified HLW, spent fuel) disposal in rock-salt formations. Investigations of the iron-base materials Ni-Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron have also been carried out in order to complete the results available to date. The three steels (fine-grained steel, low-carbon steel, cast steel) investigated and Ti 99.8-Pd resisted pitting and crevice corrosion as well as stress-corrosion cracking under all test conditions. Gamma dose-rates of 1 Gy/h - 100 Gy/h or H{sub 2}S concentrations in the brines as well as welding and explosion plating did not influence noticeably the corrosion behaviour of the materials. Furthermore, the determined corrosion rates of the steels (50 {mu}m/a-250 {mu}m/a, depending on the test conditions) are intercomparable and imply technically acceptable corrosion allowances for the thick-walled containers discussed. For Ti 99.8-Pd no detectable corrosion was observed. By contrast, Hastelloy C4 proved susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion at gamme dose-rates higher than 1 Gy/h and in the presence of H{sub 2}S (25 mg/l) in Q-brine. The materials Ni Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron corroded at negligible rates in the in-situ experiments performed in rock salt/limited amounts of NaCI-brine. Nevertheless, these materials must be ruled out as container materials because they have proved to be susceptible to pitting and intergranular corrosion in previous laboratory studies conducted with MgCI{sub 2}-rich brine (Q-brine) in excess. 15 refs.; 29 figs.; 7 tabs.

  8. Synthesis of knowledge on the long-term behaviour of concretes. Applications to cemented waste packages; Synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des betons. Application aux colis cimentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richet, C.; Galle, C.; Le Bescop, P.; Peycelon, H.; Bejaoui, S.; Tovena, I.; Pointeau, I.; L' Hostis, V.; Levera, P

    2004-03-01

    As stipulated in the former law of December 91 relating to 'concrete waste package', a progress report (phenomenological reference document) was first provided in 1999. The objective was to make an assessment of the knowledge acquired on the long-term behaviour of cement-based waste packages in the context of deep disposal and/or interim storage. The present document is an updated summary report. It takes into account a new knowledge assessment, considers coupled mechanisms and should contribute to the first performance studies (operational calculations). Handling and radio-nuclides (RN) confinement are the two major functional properties requested from the concrete used for the waste packages. In unsaturated environment (interim storage/disposal prior to closing), the main problem is the generation of cracks in the material. This aspect is a key parameter from the mechanical point of view (retrievability). It can have a major impact on the disposal phase (confinement). In saturated environment (disposal post-closing phase), the main concern is the chemical degradation of the waste package concrete submitted to underground waters leaching. In this context, the major thema are: the durability of the concretes under water (chemical degradation) and in unsaturated medium (corrosion of reinforcement), matter transport, RN retention, chemistry / transport / mechanical couplings. On the other hand, laboratory data on the behaviour of concretes are used to evaluate the RN source term of waste packages in function of time (concrete waste package OPerational Model, i.e. 'Concrete MOP'). The 'MOP' provides the physico-chemical description of the RN release in relationship with the waste package degradation itself. This description is based on simplified phenomenology for which only dimensioning mechanisms are taken into account. The use of Diffu-Ca code (basic module for the MOP) on the CASTEM numerical plate-form, already allows operational

  9. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Packaging for Posterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  11. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Meeting for Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and WasteTreatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-30

    The sixth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held November 15-17, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, and Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 55 Russian attendees from 16 different Russian organizations and four non-Russian attendees from the US. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C. The 16 different Russian design, industrial sites, and scientific organizations in attendance included staff from Rosatom/Minatom, Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of Russia (GOSATOMNADZOR, NIERA/GAN), All Russian Designing & Scientific Research Institute of Complex Power Technology (VNIPIET), Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), A. A. Bochvar All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), All Russian & Design Institute of Production Engineering (VNIPIPT), Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation Specialized State Designing Institute (GSPI), State Scientific Center Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR), Siberian Chemical Combine Tomsk (SCC), Mayak PO, Mining Chemical Combine (MCC K-26), Institute of Biophysics (IBPh), Sverdlosk Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building (SNIIChM), Kurchatov Institute (KI), Institute of Physical Chemistry Russian Academy of Science (IPCh RAS) and Radon PO-Moscow. The four non-Russian attendees included

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-H-1, 116-H Reactor Stack Burial Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-26

    The 132-H-1 waste site includes the 116-H exhaust stack burial trench and the buried stack foundation (which contains an embedded vertical 15-cm (6-in) condensate drain line). The 116-H reactor exhaust stack and foundation were decommissioned and demolished using explosives in 1983, with the rubble buried in situ beneath clean fill at least 1 m (3.3 ft) thick. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  13. A user's guide to the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated software package:a low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Arnold, Bill Walter; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2007-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory, has over 30 years experience in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal and at the time of this publication is providing assistance internationally in a number of areas relevant to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In countries with small radioactive waste programs, international technology transfer program efforts are often hampered by small budgets, schedule constraints, and a lack of experienced personnel. In an effort to surmount these difficulties, Sandia has developed a system that utilizes a combination of commercially available software codes and existing legacy codes for probabilistic safety assessment modeling that facilitates the technology transfer and maximizes limited available funding. Numerous codes developed and endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and codes developed and maintained by United States Department of Energy are generally available to foreign countries after addressing import/export control and copyright requirements. From a programmatic view, it is easier to utilize existing codes than to develop new codes. From an economic perspective, it is not possible for most countries with small radioactive waste disposal programs to maintain complex software, which meets the rigors of both domestic regulatory requirements and international peer review. Therefore, revitalization of deterministic legacy codes, as well as an adaptation of contemporary deterministic codes, provides a credible and solid computational platform for constructing probabilistic safety assessment models. This document is a reference users guide for the GoldSim/BLT-MS integrated modeling software package developed as part of a cooperative technology transfer project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan for the preliminary assessment of several candidate low

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-2, 100-B Burn Pit #2 Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-21

    The 128-B-2 waste site was a burn pit historically used for the disposal of combustible and noncombustible wastes, including paint and solvents, office waste, concrete debris, and metallic debris. This site has been remediated by removing approximately 5,627 bank cubic meters of debris, ash, and contaminated soil to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Vegetation cover and long-term conservation of radioactive waste packages: the case study of the CSM waste disposal facility (Manche District, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Berghem, Yves; Lemperiere, Guy

    2012-03-01

    The CSM is the first French waste disposal facility for radioactive waste. Waste material is buried several meters deep and protected by a multi-layer cover, and equipped with a drainage system. On the surface, the plant cover is a grassland vegetation type. A scientific assessment has been carried out by the Géophen laboratory, University of Caen, in order to better characterize the plant cover (ecological groups and associated soils) and to observe its medium and long term evolution. Field assessments made on 10 plots were complemented by laboratory analyses carried out over a period of 1 year. The results indicate scenarios and alternative solutions which could arise, in order to passively ensure the long-term safety of the waste disposal system. Several proposals for a blanket solution are currently being studied and discussed, under the auspices of international research institutions in order to determine the most appropriate materials for the storage conditions. One proposal is an increased thickness of these materials associated with a geotechnical barrier since it is well adapted to the forest plants which are likely to colonize the site. The current experiments that are carried out will allow to select the best option and could provide feedback for other waste disposal facility sites already being operated in France (CSFMA waste disposal facility, Aube district) or in other countries.

  16. Effect of silanized-chitosan on flammability, mechanical, water absorption and biodegradability properties of pseudo-stem banana fiber and montmorillonite filled waste polypropylene biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, W. E.; Prihandoko, A.; Pujiasih, S.; Widianto, A.; Rahmawati, N.; Saputra, O. A.; Handayani, D. S.

    2017-02-01

    Growing consciousness for an eco-friendly environment has revived the interest to develop composite fibers from biobased products. In this study, flammability, mechanical, water absorption and biodegradability properties of chitosan filled biocomposite waste polypropylene (wPP) reinforced with pseudo-stem banana fiber (PBF) and montmorillonite (MMt) biocomposites has been conducted investigate. It was successfully processed in solution method. Chitosan was chemically treated with glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) to improve interfacial adhesion between chitosan and wPP. The chitosan treated with GPTMS content in the biocomposites were varied from 0 to 7% (dry wt. basis). Flammability, tensile strength and water absorption index of biocomposites were measured according to ASTM D635, ASTM D638, and ASTM D570 respectively. To study the nature of its biodegradability, the biocomposites were technically buried in garbage dump land. The results show that the addition of treated chitosan 3-GPTMS has improved thermal properties such as Time to Ignition (TTi), Burning Rate (BR), and Heat release (HR) of treated biocomposites compared with neat PP and untreated biocomposite with treated chitosan. The treated biocomposites exhibit higher tensile strength and Young’s modulus, but lower elongation at break compared with neat PP and untreated biocomposites with treated chitosan. The biocomposites show a reduction in the rate of water uptake with higher loading of CH.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-C-3, 105-C Chemical Waste Tanks, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-01-31

    The 116-C-3 waste site consisted of two underground storage tanks designed to receive mixed waste from the 105-C Reactor Metals Examination Facility chemical dejacketing process. Confirmatory evaluation and subsequent characterization of the site determined that the southern tank contained approximately 34,000 L (9,000 gal) of dejacketing wastes, and that the northern tank was unused. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling and modeling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Modeling for speciation of radionuclides in waste packages with high-level radioactive wastes; Modellierung zur Speziation von Radionukliden in Abfallgebinden mit hoch radioaktiven Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, Torben; Bracke, Guido; Seher, Holger

    2016-10-15

    Based on a literature search on radioactive waste inventories adequate thermodynamic data for model inventories were derived for geochemical model calculations using PHREEQC in order to determine the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes in different containers. The calculations were performed for different model inventories (PWR-MOX, PWR-UO2, BWR-MOX, BMR-UO2) assuming intact containers under reduction conditions. The effect of a defect in the container on the solid phase composition was considered in variation calculations assuming air contact induced oxidation.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Final evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company, WRAP-1,208 liter waste drum, docket 94-35-7A, type A packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) Drum. The WRAP-1 Drum was tested for DOE-HQ in August 1994, by Los Alamos National Laboratory, under docket number 94-35-7A. Additionally, comparison and evaluation of the approved, as-tested packaging configuration was performed by WHC in September 1995. The WRAP-1 Drum was evaluated against the performance of the DOT-17C, 208 1 (55-gal) steel drums tested and evaluated under dockets 89-13-7A/90-18-7A and 94-37-7A.

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-23, 100-B/C Area Surface Debris, Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-027

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-16

    The 100-B-23, 100-B/C Surface Debris, waste consisted of multiple locations of surface debris and chemical stains that were identified during an Orphan Site Evaluation of the 100-B/C Area. Evaluation of the collected information for the surface debris features yielded four generic waste groupings: asbestos-containing material, lead debris, oil and oil filters, and treated wood. Focused verification sampling was performed concurrently with remediation. Site remediation was accomplished by selective removal of the suspect hazardous items and potentially impacted soils. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Final evaluation & test report for the standard waste box (docket 01-53-7A) type A packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, D L

    2001-10-15

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A compliance test and evaluation results of the Standard Waste Box. Testing and evaluation activities documented herein are on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Safety, Health and Security (EM-5), Germantown, Maryland. Duratek Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations performed an evaluation of the changes as documented herein under Docket 01-53-7A.

  5. Data Package for Past and Current Groundwater Flow and Contamination beneath Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.

    2007-03-16

    This appendix summarizes historic and recent groundwater data collected from the uppermost aquifer beneath the 200 East and 200 West Areas. Although the area of interest is the Hanford Site Central Plateau, most of the information discussed in this appendix is at the scale of individual single-shell tank waste management areas. This is because the geologic, and thus the hydraulic, properties and the geochemical properties (i.e., groundwater composition) are different in different parts of the Central Plateau.

  6. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-F-2, 183-F Clearwells, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-04

    The 126-F-2 site is the clearwell facility formerly used as part of the reactor cooling water treatment at the 183-F facility. During demolition operations in the 1970s, potentially contaminated debris was disposed in the eastern clearwell structure. The site has been remediated by removing all debris in the clearwell structure to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of radiological surveys and visual inspection of the remediated clearwell structure show neither residual contamination nor the potential for contaminant migration beyond the clearwell boundaries. The results of verification sampling at the remediation waste staging area demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...

  10. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  11. Material Efficiency in Dutch Packaging Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; van Sluisveld, M.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been

  12. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  13. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  14. A program to develop packages for long-lived ILW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Tanabe, H. [Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Kataoka, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Yoshida, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Power and Industrial Systems, Tokyo (Japan); Takei, A. [Taiheiyo Consultant Co., Ltd., Taiheiyo Cement Group, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamori, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., LTD, Tokyo (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan); Kanno, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    TRU waste packages development has been conducted from 1998 by RWMC and industries in Japan to establish configuration which comply with the TRU waste disposal concept. 5 waste package concepts were selected through comparison study among over 20 proposals. Those 5 packages are two concrete container types and three metal container types. They were chosen from the view points of engineering feasibility and prospected advantages for repository performance. In this paper, overview of the development plan is introduced, and the design concepts of those 5 waste packages and the results of functional tests for some packages are shown. (author)

  15. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be given an external visual inspection, by the person filling the Large Packaging, to ensure: (1) The Large Packaging is free from corrosion, contamination, cracks, cuts, or other damage which would...

  16. Efficiency of recycling post-consumer plastic packages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van E.U.T.; Jansen, M.; Brouwer, M.T.; Feil, A.; Molenveld, K.; Pretz, Th.

    2017-01-01

    The recycling of packaging waste is an important part of the EU circular economy package, with a political focus on raising the recycling targets for post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PPW). The recycling of PPW involves at least three steps; collection, sorting and mechanical recycling. In

  17. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  18. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  19. New program to develop packages for long - lived ILW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, S.; Tanabe, H.; Sakamoto, H. [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan); Yoshida, T. [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Takei, A. [OTEC Co., Ltd (Japan); Nakamori, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (Japan); Fukudome, K. [Kobe Steel, Ltd. (Japan); Kanno, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    TRU waste packages development has been conducted from 1998 by RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Center) and industries in Japan to establish configuration which comply with the TRU waste (incl. long - lived ILW) disposal concept. 5 waste package concepts were selected through comparison study among over 20 proposals. Those 5 packages are two concrete container types and three metal container types. They were chosen from the view points of engineering feasibility and prospected advantages for repository performance. In this paper, overview of the development plan is introduced, and the design concepts of those 5 waste packages are shown. (authors)

  20. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  1. Food Packaging for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén

    2011-01-01

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue. This thesis focuses on the functions of packagin...

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  3. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  4. Packaging and Transportation Support at LANL CTMA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-08

    Operations Support Packaging and Transportation (OS-PT) supports LANL in various functions. Some highlights of the past year have been with the work relating to environmental remediation, type B packaging, non-DOT compliant transfers, and special permit training. The TA-21 remediation project was part of the ARRA funding that LANL received. The $212 million in funding was used to demolish 24 buildings at TA-21, excavate the lab's oldest waste disposal site, and install 16 groundwater monitoring wells. The project was completed ahead of schedule and under budget. More than 300 tons of metal was recycled and all the soil excavated from MDA-B was replaced with clean fill. OS-PT supported this projected by transporting more than 7 million pounds of waste to TA-54 Area G with an addendum to their TSD. Because of the public access on the transfer route, Los Alamos County restricted the transfer to happen from 2:00 AM to 4:00 AM. OS-PT conducted 8 transfers in support of this project. Some concerns included the contaminated trailers at receipt facilities when transferring filled Super Sacks. Future Super Sacks were over packed into new IP-2 Super Sacks before shipping. OS-PT is also supporting the remediation of TA-54 Area G. LANL has an agreement with the State of New Mexico to remove all TRU waste currently stored above ground from at Area G. OS-PT supports this initiative with transfers of TRU waste under LANL's TSD and support of TRU shipments to WIPP. Another project supported by our organization is gas cylinder/dewar recycling and remediation. We are focusing on reducing risk associated with unneeded gasses at LANL. To minimized excessive ordering, to save money and time, and to minimize hazards OS-PT is supporting a gas recycling program. This program will allow programmatic organization across LANL to share unused/unneeded gasses. Instead of old dewars being disposed of, OS-PT has began identifying these dewars and sending them for refurbishment. To date

  5. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  6. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-16, PNL Outfall and the 100-F-43, PNL Outfall Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 116-F-16 waste site is the former Pacific National Laboratories (PNL) Outfall, used to discharge waste effluents from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  11. Rock & Roll : Waste seperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunder, L.; Rem, P.C.; Van Den Berg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Five hundred tonnes of glass, 1 million tonnes of plastic,14 million tonnes of building and demolition waste, 7 million tonnes of household waste, 3 million tonnes of packaging, 3.5 million tonnes of paper and board, and 300,000 old cars. All part of the annual harvest of waste materials in the

  12. Solid waste prevention and management at green festivals: A case study of the Andanças Festival, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Gomes, Ana; Ramos, Mário; Santos, Pedro; Gonçalves, Graça; Fonseca, Miguel; Pires, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Research on waste prevention and management at green festivals is scarce. The present study helps to fill this gap by analyzing waste prevention/reduction and management measures implemented at the Andanças festival, Portugal. Waste characterization campaigns and a questionnaire survey were conducted during the festival. The results show that the largest amount of waste generated was residual waste, followed by food and kitchen waste and packaging waste. The amount of waste generated per person per day at the festival was lower than that of other festivals for both the entire venue and the canteen. Concerning food and kitchen waste generated at the canteen, the amounts are in accordance with the findings of previous studies, but the amount of the edible fraction is comparatively low. Source separation rates are high, in line with other festivals that engage in food-waste source separation. Factors affecting the participation of attendees in waste prevention measures at the festival are the type of participant, their region of origin, the frequency of visits, and whether they are attending as a family. Efforts must be made to increase the awareness of attendees about waste prevention measures, to develop guidelines and methods to quantify the waste prevention measures, and to formulate policies aimed at increasing the application of the zero-waste principle at festivals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a methodology to determine the radionuclide inventory of bituminized waste packages; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung des Nuklid-Inventars in bituminierten Abfallgebinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesalic, E.; Kortmann, F.; Lierse von Gostomski, C.

    2016-02-22

    For the declaration of the nuclide-inventory of bituminous waste there are currently no standardized sampling-, dissolving- and analysis methods such as for cemented waste, resins and sludge is the case. The aim of this project was to develop a method for the destructive sampling and subsequent radionuclide separation and declaration for the characterization of bituminized waste. The qualitative and quantitative results of non-destructive measurement methods (segmented gamma scanning in combination with digital radiography and gamma transmission computed tomography) are compared with results from destructive analysis. The project involves: - the development of a routine method for sampling bituminized 200-L-waste containers, exemplarily applied to real drums with bituminized waste. - the development of destructive treatment and preparation methods for the obtained bitumen samples with subsequent analysis for: - Alpha emitters, e.g. Pu-, Am- and Cm-isotopes, - Beta/Gamma emitters, e.g. Co-60, Cs-137, - pure Beta emitters, e.g. Sr-90. - Comparison of the results from destructive and non-destructive methods.

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field Septic System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-16

    The 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field (LSLDF) septic system waste site consists of a diversion chamber, two septic tanks, a distribution box, and a drain field. This septic system was designed to receive sanitary waste water, from animal studies conducted in the 331-A and 331-B Buildings, for discharge into the soil column. However, field observations and testing suggest the 331 LSLDF septic system did not receive any discharges. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of the 331 LSLDF waste site to No Action. This site does not have a deep zone or other condition that would warrant an institutional control in accordance with the 300-FF-2 ROD under the industrial land use scenario.

  16. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-16, PNL Outfall and the 100-F-43, PNL Outfall Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-046

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 100-F-43 waste site is the portion of the former discharge spillway for the PNL Outfall formerly existing above the ordinary high water mark of the Columbia River. The spillway consisted of a concrete flume used to discharge waste effluents from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Geochemical Characterization Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-07

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank (SST) farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical information available for the vadose zone beneath the SST farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF).

  19. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-08-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology.

  20. Data package for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Appendices E-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, R.H.

    1988-09-01

    This volume contains 11 appendices to the main document in Volume 1. Topics in Volume 2 include hydrologic data for a proposed solid waste storage area, soil characterizations, well logs, surface water discharge data, water quality data, atmospheric precipitation and stream flow, a small mammal survey, and general ecological information. (TEM)

  1. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  2. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:13, 108-F Drain Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-03

    The 100-F-26:13 waste site is the network of process sewer pipelines that received effluent from the 108-F Biological Laboratory and discharged it to the 188-F Ash Disposal Area (126-F-1 waste site). The pipelines included one 0.15-m (6-in.)-, two 0.2-m (8-in.)-, and one 0.31-m (12-in.)-diameter vitrified clay pipe segments encased in concrete. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-8, 1904-F Outfall Structure and the 100-F-42, 1904-F Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-25

    The 116-F-8 waste site is the former 1904-F Outfall Structure used to discharge reactor cooling water effluent fro mthe 107-F Retention Basin to the Columbia River. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  7. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-3, 184-B Coal Pit Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-07

    The 126-B-3 waste site is the former coal storage pit for the 184-B Powerhouse. During demolition operations in the 1970s, the site was used for disposal of demolition debris from 100-B/C Area facilities. The site has been remediated by removing debris and contaminated soils. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-8, 1904-F Outfall Structure and the 100-F-42, 1904-F Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-26

    The 100-F-42 waste site is the portion of the former emergency overflow spillway for the 1904-F Outfall Structure formerly existing above the ordinary high water mark of the Columbia River. The spillway consisted of a concrete flume designed to discharge effluent from the 107-F Retention Basin in the event that flows could not be completely discharged via the river outfall pipelines. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH is a natural sheath that forms around rice grains during their growth. As a type of natural fiber obtained from agroindustrial waste, RH can be used as filler in composites materials in various polymer matrices. This review paper is aimed at highlighting previous works of RH filled polymer composites to provide information for applications and further research in this area. Based on the information gathered, application of RH filled composites as alternative materials in building and construction is highly plausible with both light weight and low cost being their main driving forces. However, further investigations on physical and chemical treatment to further improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix are needed as fiber-polymer interaction is crucial in determining the final composite properties. Better understanding on how the used polymer blends as the matrix and secondary fillers may affect the properties would provide interesting areas to be explored.

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:12, 1.8-m (72-in.) Main Process Sewer Pipeline, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-034

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-29

    The 100-F-26:12 waste site was an approximately 308-m-long, 1.8-m-diameter east-west-trending reinforced concrete pipe that joined the North Process Sewer Pipelines (100-F-26:1) and the South Process Pipelines (100-F-26:4) with the 1.8-m reactor cooling water effluent pipeline (100-F-19). In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:2, Discovery Pipeline Near 108-F Building, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-05-30

    The 100-F-44:2 waste site is a steel pipeline that was discovered in a junction box during confirmatory sampling of the 100-F-26:4 pipeline from December 2004 through January 2005. The 100-F-44:2 pipeline feeds into the 100-F-26:4 subsite vitrified clay pipe (VCP) process sewer pipeline from the 108-F Biology Laboratory at the junction box. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-18, 184-B Powerhouse Debris Pile, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-11-30

    The 100-B-18 Powerhouse Debris Pile contained miscellaneous demolition waste from the decommissioning activities of the 184-B Powerhouse. The debris covered an area roughly 15 m by 30 m and included materials such as concrete blocks, mixed aggregate/concrete slabs, stone rubble, asphalt rubble, traces of tar/coal, broken fluorescent lights, brick chimney remnants, and rubber hoses. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-52, 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory Soil, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 100-F-52 waste site consisted of the soil under and around the former 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory. The laboratory was used for studies of the effects of pre-reactor and post-reactor process water on fish eggs, young fish, and other small river creatures of interest. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:1 Main Process Sewer Collection Line, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-11

    The 100-C-9:1 main process sewer pipeline, also known as the twin box culvert, was a dual reinforced process sewer that collected process effluent from the 183-C and 190-C water treatment facilities, discharging at the 132-C-2 Outfall. For remedial action purposes, the 100-C-9:1 waste site was subdivided into northern and southern sections. The 100-C-9:1 subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

  1. Borehole Data Package for Well 299-E33-44 at Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area B-BX-BY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DG Horton; SM Narbutovskih

    1999-03-23

    One new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) groundwater monitoring well was installed during September 1998 at the single-shell tank farm Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY. The well is 299-E33-44 and is located east of the BY single-shell tank farm. The well is a new upgradient monitoring well drilled in support of the groundwater assessment program at WMA B-BX-BY. This document is a compilation of information on the drilling and construction well development pump installation, and sediment testing and analyses applicable to well 299-E33-44. Appendix A contains copies of the geologist's log, the Well Construction Summary Report and Well Summary Sheet (as-built diagram); Appendix B contains results of Laboratory analyses completed on samples of sediment from the well and Appendix C contains geophysical logs. An aquifer test (slug test) was done in the well after well completion. Results from the aquifer test will be published elsewhere. Additional documentation concerning well construction is on file with Bechtel Hanford Inc., Richland, Washington.

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:15 Miscellaneous Pipelines Associated with the 132-F-6, 1608-F Waste Water Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-031

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-18

    The 100-F-26:15 waste site consisted of the remnant portions of underground process effluent and floor drain pipelines that originated at the 105-F Reactor. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Estimation of radiation dose to man resulting from biotic transport: the BIOPORT/MAXI1 software package. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Gano, K.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1985-10-01

    BIOPORT/MAXI1 is a collection of five computer codes designed to estimate the potential magnitude of the radiation dose to man resulting from biotic transport processes. Dose to man is calculated for ingestion of agricultural crops grown in contaminated soil, inhalation of resuspended radionuclides, and direct exposure to penetrating radiation resulting from the radionuclide concentrations established in the available soil surface by the biotic transport model. This document is designed as both an instructional and reference document for the BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package and has been written for two major audiences. The first audience includes persons concerned with the mathematical models of biological transport of commercial low-level radioactive wastes and the computer algorithms used to implement those models. The second audience includes persons concerned with exercising the computer program and exposure scenarios to obtain results for specific applications. The report contains sections describing the mathematical models, user operation of the computer programs, and program structure. Input and output for five sample problems are included. In addition, listings of the computer programs, data libraries, and dose conversion factors are provided in appendices.

  4. Recyclability and the selection of packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David

    1992-12-01

    Costs of solid-waste disposal, concern for environmental impact, and "green" marketing opportunities have placed more attention on recyclability of packaging materials. Recyclability is determined not only by the characteristics of materials themselves, but also by the presence or absence of collection facilities, ease of separation, technology for reprocessing, and markets for recovered materials. By these measures, packaging materials are becoming more recyclable and recyclability is growing in importance as a factor in material selection.

  5. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Waste Management Information System (WMIS) User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. E. Broz

    2008-12-22

    This document provides the user of the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) instructions on how to use the WMIS software. WMIS allows users to initiate, track, and close waste packages. The modular design supports integration and utilization of data throuh the various stages of waste management. The phases of the waste management work process include generation, designation, packaging, container management, procurement, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal.

  8. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  9. Crack sealer fill characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to determine the extent of crack fill for crack sealers composed of methyl methacrylate, : epoxy, urethane, and high molecular weight methacrylate. The test specimens consisted of eight-inch long concrete : cylinders ...

  10. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...... state-facilitated way of bridging/altering the tension-filled relationship between legitimation and fiscal accumulation in Western European liberal-capitalist democratic polities....

  11. Intermontane valley fills

    OpenAIRE

    Mey, Jürgen (Diplom-Geologe)

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary valley fills are a widespread characteristic of mountain belts around the world. They transiently store material over time spans ranging from thousands to millions of years and therefore play an important role in modulating the sediment flux from the orogen to the foreland and to oceanic depocenters. In most cases, their formation can be attributed to specific fluvial conditions, which are closely related to climatic and tectonic processes. Hence, valley-fill deposits constitute v...

  12. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  13. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  14. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRODE, J.N.

    1999-08-24

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

  15. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  16. Study and development of a method allowing the identification of actinides inside nuclear waste packages, by active neutron or photon interrogation and delayed gamma-ray spectrometry; Etude et developpement d'une technique de dosage des actinides dans les colis de dechets radioactifs par interrogation photonique ou neutronique active et spectrometrie des gamma retardes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrel, F

    2007-10-15

    An accurate estimation of the alpha-activity of a nuclear waste package is necessary to select the best mode of storage. The main purpose of this work is to develop a non-destructive active method, based on the fission process and allowing the identification of actinides ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu). These three elements are the main alpha emitters contained inside a package. Our technique is based on the detection of delayed gammas emitted by fission products. These latter are created by irradiation with the help of a neutron or photon beam. Performances of this method have been investigated after an Active Photon or Neutron Interrogation (INA or IPA). Three main objectives were fixed in the framework of this thesis. First, we measured many yields of photofission products to compensate the lack of data in the literature. Then, we studied experimental performances of this method to identify a given actinide ({sup 239}Pu in fission, {sup 235}U in photofission) present in an irradiated mixture. Finally, we assessed the application of this technique on different mock-up packages for both types of interrogation (118 l mock-up package containing EVA in fission, 220 l mock-up package with a wall of concrete in photofission). (author)

  17. Solid waste management history of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the management of solid radioactive waste from 1944 to the present. This report includes the following topics: The scope of solid waste management practices and the changes in these practices with time; waste categorization; the history of waste management requirements, including waste management laws, policies, and orders; waste acceptance criteria; how different waste types were handled and packaged; the types of containers used for waste packaging; disposal practices, including detailed descriptions of burial and storage facilities; and the various forms of documentation required for solid waste storage or disposal.

  18. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  19. Parent Training Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowitschek, Joseph J.; Hofmeister, Alan

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the current development of training packages for educating parents to help their children develop self-help, math, reading, and spelling skills. Two packages are described: (1) a multimedia package monitored by a professional in training workshops for parents of mentally retarded children; and (2) pencil and paper packages in which…

  20. Starch plastics packaging and agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental impact of petroleum-based plastics is a growing concern throughout the world. Containers and packaging comprise the largest sector of municipal solid waste and are a major component of pollution on both land and sea. Although the benefits of plastics in many consumer and industrial...

  1. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  2. Evaluating the impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, M.; Worrell, E.

    2011-01-01

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste production. This paper evaluates the material impacts packaging policy in The Netherlands in the period 1986–2007. Five different voluntary agreements were implemented over this period to reduce the environmental impact

  3. Packaging as a means for promoting sustainable and aware consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tamborrini, Paolo Marco; Pereno, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays we are strongly aware of packaging wastes issues: many designers and researchers faced the challenge of eco-sustainable packaging. Conversely, communication problems are little considered, although informative function can have positive or negative impact on consumer's awareness. This research aims to investigate the role of communication on the sustainability of pack. The theoretical analysis is applied to a specific case study: packaging of organic sauces of Tuttovo S.r.l. The proj...

  4. Comparative evaluation of low cost materials as constructed wetland filling media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Henrique J. O.; Vaz, Mafalda M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.

    2017-11-01

    Three waste materials from civil construction activities were assessed as low cost alternative filling materials used in Constructed Wetlands (CW). CW are green processes for wastewater treatment, whose design includes an appropriate selection of vegetation and filling material. The sustainability of such processes may be incremented using recovered wastes as filling materials. The abilities of the materials to support plant growth and to contribute to pollutants removal from wastewater were assessed and compared to expanded clay, a filling usually used in CW design. Statistical analysis, using one-way ANOVA and Welch's ANOVA, demonstrate that limestone fragments are a better choice of filling material than brick fragments and basalt gravel.

  5. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and computer applications for the last 20 years. He has been a National Science. Talent awardee of. NCERT in mathematics. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Space-filling Curves. ReMittal. In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the ...

  6. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  7. Decree no 2010-42 of the 23. of April 2010 authorizing Electricite de France to create, on the territory of the district of Saint-Vulbas (Ain department) a base nuclear installation named ICEDA for 'activated waste packaging and storage installation'; Decret no 2010-402 du 23 avril 2010 autorisant Electricite de France a creer, sur le territoire de la commune de Saint-Vulbas (departement de l'Ain), une installation nucleaire de base denommee Installation de conditionnement et d'entreposage de dechets actives (ICEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This decree presents the role of the projected installation (packaging and storage of radioactive wastes produced by a dismantling programme or by maintenance or modification of pressurized water reactors), briefly describes its buildings, indicates the concerned waste types and radioactivity levels, indicates the principles adopted for confining radioactive or toxic materials, and measures concerning the protection of the installation against various risks (fire, explosion, earthquakes). It also states the principles for its operation and for waste management

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  9. TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

  10. Microstructure Filled Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thomas, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reese, T. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-24

    We propose replacing the gas fill in a hohlraum with a low average density, variable uniformity 3D printed structure. This creates a bimodal hohlraum which acts like a vacuum hohlraum initially during the picket, but could protect the capsule from glint or direct illumination, and then once expanded, homogenizes to behave like a variable z gas-fill during peak portion of the drive. This is motivated by a two main aims: 1) reduction of the Au bubble velocity to improve inner beam propagation, and 2) the introduction of a low density, high-Z, x-ray converter to improve x-ray production in the hohlraum and uniformity of the radiation field seen by the capsule.

  11. APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology involves the design, production and use of structures through control of the size and shape of the materials at the nanometre scale. Also, nanomaterials have been already applied in many fields of human life. Nanocomposites have already led to several innovations with potential applications in the food packaging sector. The use of nanocomposite formulations is expected to considerably enhance the shelf-life of many types of food. This improvement can lead to lower weight packages because less material is needed to obtain the same or even better barrier properties. This, in turn, can lead to reduced package cost with less packaging waste. Antimicrobial packaging is another area with high potential for applying nanocomposite technology. Nanostructured antimicrobials have a higher surface area-to-volume ratio when compared with their higher scale counterparts. Therefore, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging systems are supposed to be particularly efficient in their activities against microbial cells. In this review, definition of nanomaterials is presented. Besides, the paper shows examples of nanocomposities and antimicrobial nanopackaging mainly with the use of nanosilver. Moreover, nanoparticles such ZnO, TiO2, MgO and nanosensors in packaging were presented.

  12. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ann C. Wilkie; Ryan E. Graunke; Camilo Cornejo

    2015-01-01

    School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard), and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils). Metal and glass comprised the s...

  13. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  14. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  15. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  16. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast Moving Consumer Goods, but for consumer durables as well. In the communication aspect, the package delivers a promise to the customer contained in the package, but the package itself is part of this ...

  17. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Bolanča, Stanislav; Majnarić, Igor; Golubović, Kristijan

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  18. Waste characterization for the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility in support of waste certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.F.

    1994-10-17

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) procedures define the rules concerning packages of solid Low Level Waste (LLW) that are sent to the E-area vaults (EAV). The WACs tabulate the quantities of 22 radionuclides that require manifesting in waste packages destined for each type of vault. These quantities are called the Package Administrative Criteria (PAC). If a waste package exceeds the PAC for any radionuclide in a given vault, then specific permission is needed to send to that vault. To avoid reporting insignificant quantities of the 22 listed radionuclides, the WAC defines the Minimum Reportable Quantity (MRQ) of each radionuclide as 1/1000th of the PAC. If a waste package contains less than the MRQ of a particular radionuclide, then the package`s manifest will list that radionuclide as zero. At least one radionuclide has to be reported, even if all are below the MRQ. The WAC requires that the waste no be ``hazardous`` as defined by SCDHEC/EPA regulations and also lists several miscellaneous physical/chemical requirements for the packages. This report evaluates the solid wastes generated within the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for potential impacts on waste certification.

  19. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  20. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-08-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  2. Effective thermal conductivity method for predicting spent nuclear fuel cladding temperatures in a dry fill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahney, Robert

    1997-12-19

    This paper summarizes the development of a reliable methodology for the prediction of peak spent nuclear fuel cladding temperature within the waste disposal package. The effective thermal conductivity method replaces other older methodologies.

  3. Waste Socio-technological Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata Campos, Maria José; Zapata, Patrik; Eriksson-Zetterquist, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of packaging waste from a problem into a resource has had significant consequences for a more sustainable use of natural resources and even the reduction of potential C02 emissions and its contribution to the climate change. Material recycling leads to separated material being...... able to replace other production or construction materials. It also means that the consumption of the amount of virgin material decreases and saves energy. Despite the growing material recycling rates, the amount of waste per person, and packaging waste among others, continues to increase. High...... recycling rates can be pointless if the amount of waste does not decrease. This is an example of how well established waste recovery regimes can stand in the way of more sustainable forms to handle waste (Corvellec et al, 2013) and, ultimately, hinder the development towards the EU objective (2008...

  4. Requirements on radioactive waste for disposal (waste acceptance requirements as of February 2017). Konrad repository; Anforderungen an endzulagernde radioaktive Abfaelle (Endlagerungsbedingungen, Stand: Februar 2017). Endlager Konrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, Karin; Moeller, Kai (eds.)

    2017-02-10

    The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection) has established waste acceptance requirements for the Konrad repository. These requirements were developed on the basis of the results of a site-specific safety assessment. They include general requirements on waste packages and specific requirements on waste forms and packagings as well as limitations for activities of individual radionuclides and limitations to masses of non-radioactive harmful substances. Requirements on documentation and delivery of waste packages were additionally included.

  5. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-04-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  6. Solid Waste Management Practices in EBRP Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nadine L.

    1994-01-01

    A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)

  7. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  8. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  9. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  10. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  11. Transportation considerations related to waste forms and canisters for Defense TRU wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Andrews, W.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rosenthal, L.J.; Odle, C.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report identifies and discusses the considerations imposed by transportation on waste forms and canisters for contact-handled, solid transuranic wastes from the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The report reviews (1) the existing raw waste forms and potential immobilized waste forms, (2) the existing and potential future DOE waste canisters and shipping containers, (3) regulations and regulatory trends for transporting commercial transuranic wastes on the ISA, (4) truck and rail carrier requirements and preferences for transporting the wastes, and (5) current and proposed Type B external packagings for transporting wastes.

  12. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  13. Eco-Efficient Packaging Material Selection for Fresh Produce: Industrial Session

    OpenAIRE

    Tamani, Nouredine; Mosse, Patricios; Croitoru, Madalina; Buche, Patrice; Guillard, Valérie; Guillaume, Carole; Gontard, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Within the framework of the European project EcoBioCap (ECOefficient BIOdegradable Composite Advanced Packaging), we model a real world use case aiming at conceiving the next generation of food packagings. The objective is to select packaging materials according to possibly conflicting requirements expressed by the involved parties (food and packaging industries, health authorities, consumers, waste management authority, etc.). The requirements and user preferences are...

  14. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  15. CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOURS RELATED TO PACKAGING AND THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARDS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Jeżewska-Zychowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the relationship between the attitude of consumers towards the environment and their behaviours when choosing food products taking into consideration their packaging. This relationship was established according to gender, age and the educational level of the consumers. Questionnaire study was carried out in 2010 within 548 adults from Warsaw. Participants were asked questions on attitudes towards environment and behaviours related to reduction of packaging waste. Frequency, factor and cluster analysis were used. Signifi cantly more women than men agreed that buying pro ducts in larger packages and beverages in glass bottles can reduce the amount of garbage. Over twice more people with positive attitude claimed not buying food in disposable plastic or paper packaging. Negative attitude fostered doing nothing to minimize waste packaging. Attitudes towards the environment have had signifi - cant impact on the choice of food packaging. More positive attitudes favoured the reduction of the amount of packaging waste. Thus, environmental campaigns focused on attitudes and environmentally relevant use of food packing are required.

  16. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  17. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  18. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has an extremely high potential to benefit society through applications in food packaging. It can make the products cheaper and the production more efficient by producing less waste and using less energy. However, any new technology carries an ethical responsibility for wise application and the recognition that there are potential unforeseen risks that may come with the tremendous positive potential. The concept of nanocomposites represents a stimulating route for creating new and innovative materials, also in the area of natural polymers. The use of protective coatings and suitable packaging by the food industry has become a topic of great interest because of their potentiality for increasing the shelf life of many food products. Research and development of bio-nanocomposite materials for food applications such as packaging and other food contact surfaces is expected to grow in the next decade with the advent of new polymeric materials and composites with inorganic nano-particles.

  19. Low and intermediate level waste in SFR-1. Reference Waste Inventory 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almkvist, Lisa (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Gordon, Anna (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The objective with this report is to describe all the waste and the waste package that is expected to be deposited in SFR 1 at the time of closure. The report will form the basis for the release calculation in the safety analysis for SFR 1. Three different scenarios are explored in this report; the waste inventory is based on an estimated operational lifetime of the Swedish nuclear power plants of 50 and 60 years and that closure of the SFR 1 repository will take place in 2040 or 2050 respectively. The third scenario is where the repository is full (one part where the activity adds up to 1016 Bq and one part where the repository is considered full regarding volume). In the report, data about geometries, weights, materials, chemicals and radionuclide are given. No chemotoxic material has been identified in the waste. The inventory is estimated using the Prosit-interface which extracts information from the Triumf database. The inventory is based on so called 'waste types' and the waste types' 'reference waste package'. The reference waste package combined with a prognosis of the number of waste packages to be delivered to SFR 1 gives the final waste inventory for SFR 1. All reference waste packages are thoroughly described in the appendices of this report. The reference waste packages are as far as possible based on actual experiences and measurements. The radionuclide inventory is also based on actual measurements. The inventory is based on measurements of 60Co and 137Cs in waste packages and on measurements of 239Pu and 240Pu in reactor water. Other nuclides in the inventory are calculated with correlation factors

  20. Estimation of residual MSW heating value as a function of waste component recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Semiao, Viriato

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of packaging wastes may be compatible with incineration within integrated waste management systems. To study this, a mathematical model is presented to calculate the fraction composition of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) only as a function of the MSW fraction composition at source and recycling fractions of the different waste materials. The application of the model to the Lisbon region yielded results showing that the residual waste fraction composition depends both on the packaging wastes fraction at source and on the ratio between that fraction and the fraction of the same material, packaging and non-packaging, at source. This behaviour determines the variation of the residual waste LHV. For 100% of paper packaging recycling, LHV reduces 4.2% whereas this reduction is of 14.4% for 100% of packaging plastics recycling. For 100% of food waste recovery, LHV increases 36.8% due to the moisture fraction reduction of the residual waste. Additionally the results evidence that the negative impact of recycling paper and plastic packaging on the LHV may be compensated by recycling food waste and glass and metal packaging. This makes packaging materials recycling and food waste recovery compatible strategies with incineration within integrated waste management systems.

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  2. Printing systems for MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald J.; Cox, Weldon R.; Wallace, David B.

    2001-10-01

    Ink-jet printing technology is, in many ways, ideally suited for addressing a number of these MEMS device packaging challenges. The general advantages of this form of microdispensing derive from the incorporation of data-driven, non-contact processes which enable precise, picoliter-level volumes of material to be deposited with high accuracy and speed at target sites, even on non-planar surfaces. Being data-driven, microjet printing is a highly flexible and automated process which may readily be incorporated into manufacturing lines. It does not require application-specific tooling such as photomasks or screens, and, as an additive process with no chemical waste, it is environmentally friendly. In short, the advantages obtainable with incorporation of micro-jet printing technology in many fabrication applications range from increased process capability, integration and automation to reduced manufacturing costs.

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) multicanister overpack cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-07-14

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) documents the safety of shipments of irradiated fuel elements in the MUlticanister Overpack (MCO) and MCO Cask for a highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile package. This SARP evaluates the package during transfers of (1) water-filled MCOs from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and (2) sealed and cold vacuum dried MCOs from the CVDF in the 100 K Area to the Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area.

  4. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  5. The BINSYN Program Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Linnell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The BINSYN program package, recently expanded to calculate synthetic spectra of cataclysmic variables, is being further extended to include synthetic photometry of ordinary binary stars in addition to binary stars with optically thick accretion disks. The package includes a capability for differentials correction optimization of eclipsing binary systems using synthetic photometry.

  6. Waste Management Strategy in The Netherlands. Part 1. Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, B.R.W

    2002-05-08

    This report reflects the input prepared in the framework of work package 1 of the thematic network COMPAS, which deals with the identification of waste forms in EU member states and their applicant countries. In accordance with the COMPAS project plan a brief introduction of the nuclear industry in The Netherlands and some historical milestones in radioactive waste research are given first (in chapter 1), after which the current waste management policy is described (in chapter 2). Those aspects that could play a role in identifying alternative waste management strategies and influencing strategy issues have been emphasised. The current and projected radioactive waste forms will be part of this (decision) process and consequently are summarised in (chapter 3 of) this report. Finally, advanced waste reduction technologies are addressed (in chapter 4), because they could influence (future) waste management strategies. Naturally radioactive materials are also discussed in (chapter 5 of) this report.

  7. New Finsler package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nabil L.; Elgendi, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    The book “Handbook of Finsler geometry” has been included with a CD containing an elegant Maple package, FINSLER, for calculations in Finsler geometry. Using this package, an example concerning a Finsler generalization of Einstein’s vacuum field equations was treated. In this example, the calculation of the components of the hv-curvature of Cartan connection leads to wrong expressions. On the other hand, the FINSLER package works only in dimension four. We introduce a new Finsler package in which we fix the two problems and solve them. Moreover, we extend this package to compute not only the geometric objects associated with Cartan connection but also those associated with Berwald, Chern and Hashiguchi connections in any dimension. These improvements have been illustrated by a concrete example. Furthermore, the problem of simplifying tensor expressions is treated. This paper is intended to make calculations in Finsler geometry more easier and simpler.

  8. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  9. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill vs. Fill ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  10. SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIC FRESH BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Elena TĂNASE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and particularly global warming are topics carefully treated by specialists already since decades. The most pregnant factor that influences climate change is pollution, namely the high level carbon dioxide emissions. Besides other substances used by the most of the industries (oil, charcoal, fertilizers, etc., plastics are not to be ignored when talking about pollution. Plastic waste affects animals and humans, as well as their habitat. In this respect, food industry engages in preserving the good functioning of the environment by developing and using biodegradable and bio-based resources for food packaging. The aim of this literature review was to identify the optimal sustainable packaging solution used for berries. The results of the study pointed out that the most used environmentally friendly packaging technique is the one that involves modified atmosphere. In terms of packaging materials, the literature is limited when it comes to biodegradable/bio-based solutions. However, active packaging gains popularity among researchers, considering the endless possibilities to include sustainable compounds in a biopolymer based matrix, in order to prolong the shelf-life of berries or fruits in general.

  11. Antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusin Tanja I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging industry presents one of the fastest growing industries nowadays. New trends in this industry, which include reducing food as well as packaging waste, improved preservation of food and prolonged shelf-life together with substitution of petrochemical sources with renewable ones are leading to development of this industrial area in diverse directions. This multidisciplinary challenge is set up both in front of food and material scientists. Nanotechnology is recently answering to these challenges, with different solutions-from improvements in materials properties to active packaging solutions, or both at the same time. Incorporation of nanoparticles into polymer matrix and preparation of hybrid materials is one of the methods of modification of polymer properties. Nano scaled materials with antimicrobial properties can act as active components when added into polymer, thereby leading to prolonged protective function of pristine food packaging material. This paper presents a review in the field of antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging in turn of technology, application and regulatory issues.

  12. Consumer-Related Food Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Normann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities......Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss...... and that there are opportunities for competitive advantage through corporate social responsibility and a business case for sustainability in the area of food waste....

  13. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  14. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  15. Contribution to selection and behaviour of filling of the container of high-level radioactive wastes. Final report. Phase I; Contribucion a la seleccion y evaluacion del comportamiento del material de relleno interno del contenedor de residuos de alta actividad Informe final. Fase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dies, J.; Puig, F.; Sevilla, M.; Pablo, J. de; Pueyo, J. J.; Miralles, L.; Martinez-Esparza, A.

    2006-07-01

    This work has been carried out to analyse different alternatives related to the inner material selection of the Spanish high level waste container for deep geological repository. Its preliminary design considers granitic or clay formations, compacted bentonite sealing, steel corrosion controlled outer wall and glass bed filling of the container. This filling is as relevant as its main role, which is to prevent repository criticality under any foreseen conditions. The present report covers, in first place, the most relevant advances on deep geological storage all around the world, paying special attention on container design solutions. Secondly, having studied carefully the general features of ENRESA preliminary design, the waste forms and all other disposal requirements, a complete and detailed objectives definition is carried out as a selection criterion for candidate materials evaluation and selection. It should be noted that this compilation of demands is significantly deeper and more exhaustive than any other that had been found in literature, including over 20 requirements additionally to another dozen general aspects that could involve improvements in repository performance. Afterwards, eight materials or materials families had been chosen for their potentially interesting properties for geologic disposal. These materials are cast iron or steel, borosilicate glass, spinel, depleted uranium, dehydrated zeolites, hematite, phosphates and olivine. Each one of these candidates (under their possible physical forms) had been examined in detail, using available literature and group experience, and evaluated under each of the previously defined objectives. Finally, some relevant conclusions about candidates suitability are extracted from the previous analysis and all the objectives evaluations for each material are summarized in the form of a few matrices to help in decision making. Some other important aspects related to performance improvement, costs, logistics and

  16. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  17. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  18. Biopharmaceutical formulations for pre-filled delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Jan; Darton, Nicholas J; Derham, Barry K; Royle, Nikki; Simpson, Iain

    2013-06-01

    Pre-filled syringes are becoming an increasingly popular format for delivering biotherapeutics conveniently and cost effectively. The device design and stable liquid formulations required to enable this pre-filled syringe format are technically challenging. In choosing the materials and process conditions to fabricate the syringe unit, their compatibility with the biotherapeutic needs to be carefully assessed. The biothereaputic stability demanded for the production of syringe-compatible low-viscosity liquid solutions requires critical excipient choices to be made. The purpose of this review is to discuss key issues related to the stability aspects of biotherapeutics in pre-filled devices. This includes effects on both physical and chemical stability due to a number of stress conditions the product is subjected to, as well as interactions with the packaging system. Particular attention is paid to the control of stability by formulation. We anticipate that there will be a significant move towards polymer primary packaging for most drugs in the longer term. The timescales for this will depend on a number of factors and hence will be hard to predict. Formulation will play a critical role in developing successful products in the pre-filled syringe format, particularly with the trend towards concentrated biotherapeutics. Development of novel, smart formulation technologies will, therefore, be increasingly important.

  19. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  20. Application of thermodynamics to the estimation of the biodegradation of bitumen wastes package underground stored; Application de la thermodynamique a l'evaluation de la biodegradation des colis de dechets bitumes en situation de stockage profond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libert, M.F.; Besnainou, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    A modelling approach to evaluate microbial activity in a geological system is adopted. It focusses upon the availability of key nutrients (C, H, O, N, P, S) and energy sources required for bacterial growth. The model is applied to determine the possible consequences of such microbiological activity in the presence of bitumen embedded waste in a repository for low - and intermediate - level waste. Taking into account this particular environment, thermodynamic and experimental results are given in terms of gas and organic complexant production. (authors)

  1. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  2. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  3. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  4. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct media exposure of MEMS multi-sensor systems using a potted-tube packaging concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Anders; Birkelund, Karen; Janting, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A packaging concept for Data Storage Tags is presented. A potted-tube packaging concept, using a polystyrene tube and different epoxies as filling material that allows for direct sensor exposure is investigated. The curing temperature, water uptake and the diffusion coefficient for water...... in the filling material is measured. The packaging concept is used to encapsulate a microfabricated multi-sensor (measuring temperature, water conductivity, pressure and light intensity). The direct exposure of the sensors results in high sensitivity and fast response time. The design of an elongated multi......-sensor is described and effectiveness of the packaging is demonstrated with the precise measurement of water conductivity using the packaged multi-sensor. The packaging concept is very promising for high accuracy measurements in harsh environments....

  6. Monitoring of municipal waste generated in the city of Warsaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Emilia; den Boer, Jan; Jaroszynska, Jadwiga; Szpadt, Ryszard

    2012-08-01

    Waste management in the new EU member states is currently undergoing rapid development in order to comply with the European legislation. In Poland there is a lack of capacity of waste treatment installations for residual waste which amounts to 5.5 million tonnes year(-1). Detailed data on waste generation is needed to design new installations and ensure their efficient operation. This paper presents the results of the monitoring of municipal waste generation in Warsaw, being one of the largest agglomerations in the region. Detailed quantitative and qualitative results for both household and institutional waste are provided, as well as the technological properties of the household waste. The amount of municipal waste generated per capita amounted to 390 kg year(-1). The main fractions contributing to the mixed household waste were: biodegradable kitchen waste, packaging plastics, non-packaging paper and cardboard, packaging glass and packaging paper and cardboard. The coarse fraction (> 100 mm) constituted 40% of total household waste, of which the majority were recyclables. The lower heating value of residual waste was sufficient to allow mass incineration. Data on historical developments of household waste quantities and composition since the year 2000 along with their estimates until the year 2020 are provided and discussed. Current problems of municipal waste management in Warsaw along with the proposed future solutions are briefly outlined.

  7. Solid Waste Management in Petroleum Refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Jadea S. Alshammari; Fatma K.A Gad; Ahmed A.M. Elgibaly; Abdul R. Khan

    2008-01-01

    Waste management became focus of attention of many researchers and scientists in the last half century due to its vital importance. Waste management covered waste source reduction in general, by recycling, reusing, composting, incineration with or without energy recovery, fuel production and land filling. A common approach of waste management models were for specific problems with a limited scope (like assignment of generating sources to landfills, transfer stations sitting, site selection fo...

  8. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-09-12

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings.

  10. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  11. Orbital heat rate package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovin, J. K.; Spradley, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Package consisting of three separate programs used to accurately predict temperature distribution of spacecraft in planetary orbit is invaluable tool for design and analysis of other structures that must function in complex thermal environment.

  12. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  13. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  14. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  15. The ENSDF Java Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, A. A.

    2005-05-01

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-04-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  18. High-performance light-emitting diodes encapsulated with silica-filled epoxy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Huiping; Hu, Zhongnan; Yu, Yingfeng

    2013-09-25

    Packaging materials have a great impact on the performance and reliability of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this study, we have prepared high performance LED devices through encapsulating LEDs by epoxy materials incorporated with filler powders. A set of evaluation methods have also been established to characterize the reliability of LED devices. No delamination or internal cracking between packaging materials and lead frames has been found for the encapsulated high performance LED devices after the package saturation with moisture and subsequent exposure to high-temperature solder reflow and thermal cycling. Four kinds of inorganic silica fillers, namely, quartz, fused silica, cristobalite, and spherical silica, and one kind of organic filler, that is, spherical silicone powder, were incorporated into the epoxy packaging materials to compare their effects on performance of LED devices. The properties of epoxy packaging materials and LED devices were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermomechanical analyzer (TMA), ultravioletvisible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Except the spherical silicone powder filled epoxy materials, all the other filled systems showed lower equilibrium water sorption content and smaller water diffusion coefficient in both water sorption and moisture sorption tests. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values were also decreased with the addition of fillers, and the systems filled with quartz, fused, and filled with spherical silica gave the best performance, which exhibited the reduced CTE values both below and above Tg. The results of TGA essentially showed no difference between filled and unfilled systems. The glass transition temperature changed little for all the filled systems, except the one incorporated with spherical silicone. The modulus at room temperature

  19. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  20. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-21:2 Subsite (100-B/C Discovery Pipeline DS-100BC-002), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-16

    The 100-B-21:2 waste site consists of the immediate area of the DS-100BC-02 pipeline. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Transmittal of the Calculation Package that Supports the Analysis of Performance of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Based 5-Cell Design Issued 8/14/09)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams M.J.

    2009-09-14

    This document presents the results of an assessment of the performance of a build-out of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF configuration that was assessed includes the as-constructed Cells 1 through 4, with a groundwater underdrain that was installed beneath Cell 3 during the winter of 2003-2004, and Cell 5, whose proposed design is an Addendum to Remedial Design Report for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DOE/OR/01-1873&D2/A5/R1. The total capacity of the EMWMF with 5 cells is about 1.7 million cubic yards. This assessment was conducted to determine the conditions under which the approved Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the EMWMF found in the Attainment Plan for Risk/Toxicity-Based Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2001a], as revised for constituents added up to October 2008, would remain protective of public health and safety for a five-cell disposal facility. For consistency, the methods of analyses and the exposure scenario used to predict the performance of a five-cell disposal facility were identical to those used in the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) and its addendum (DOE 1998a, DOE 1998b) to develop the approved WAC. To take advantage of new information and design changes departing from the conceptual design, the modeling domain and model calibration were upaded from those used in the RI/FS and its addendum. It should be noted that this analysis is not intended to justify or propose a change in the approved WAC.

  3. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  4. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  5. COMSOL Multiphysics Model for HLW Canister Filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesterson, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. Wastes containing high concentrations of Al2O3 and Na2O can contribute to nepheline (generally NaAlSiO4) crystallization, which can sharply reduce the chemical durability of high level waste (HLW) glass. Nepheline crystallization can occur during slow cooling of the glass within the stainless steel canister. The purpose of this work was to develop a model that can be used to predict temperatures of the glass in a WTP HLW canister during filling and cooling. The intent of the model is to support scoping work in the laboratory. It is not intended to provide precise predictions of temperature profiles, but rather to provide a simplified representation of glass cooling profiles within a full scale, WTP HLW canister under various glass pouring rates. These data will be used to support laboratory studies for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of nepheline crystallization. The model was created using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercially available software. The model results were compared to available experimental data, TRR-PLT-080, and were found to yield sufficient results for the scoping nature of the study. The simulated temperatures were within 60 ºC for the centerline, 0.0762m (3 inch) from centerline, and 0.2286m (9 inch) from centerline thermocouples once the thermocouples were covered with glass. The temperature difference between the experimental and simulated values reduced to 40 ºC, 4 hours after the thermocouple was covered, and down to 20 ºC, 6 hours after the thermocouple was covered

  6. Eco-Friendly Packaging Wraps Products in Natural Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth Montalbano

    2014-01-01

    .... One major user of plastic waste is the food packaging industry. Plastic has long been used as a way to keep foods fresh during transport and shelf time, and plastic and Styrofoam are often used for food service and takeaway containers...

  7. Phthalate migration from packaging materials into food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Bogdanovičová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of dibutylphthalate (DBP and di- (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in samples of packages used for packaging meat productsand the phthalate migration from packaging materials to meat products were studied. Five samples of textile packaging intended for cooked meat production were analysed as well asthe final product which was filled into packages. Subsequently an analysis was carried out (after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage of the finished meat products stored over the course of their intended shelf life at ambient temperature of 4 °C. Determination of phthalates was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method with UV detection at a wavelength of 224 nm on the Zorbax Eclipse C8 column. The content of phthalates in the final product was below the limit of quantification. According to the Regulation of the Commission (EU No. 10/2011, the specific migration limit of products intended for food contact is 1.5 mg.kg-1of food simulant for DEHP and 0.3 mg.kg-1 for DBP. After filling and the first day of storage of the meat product, four package samples release the said phthalates to an extent that it exceeded the limits of the Commission Regulation (EU No. 10/2011. Already after the seventh day of storage, all samples (with the exception of sample 2 for DBP exceeded SMLs. Monitoring of each phthalate migration in individual samples during storage (for 28 days produced a rising tendency.  In sample 1, DBP increased from 0.40 to 3.37 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 0.58 to 14.66 mg.kg-1. In sample 2, DBP increased from ≤0.2 mg.kg-1 to 4.34 mg.kg-1, whileDEHP from 1.46 to 28.20 mg.kg-1. In sample 3, DBP increased from ≤0.2 mg.kg-1 to  8.27 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 1.67 to 14.84 mg.kg-1. In sample 4, DBP increased from 0.27 to 6.12 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 2.37 to 13.22 mg.kg-1. In sample 5, DBP increased from 0.32 to 11.11 mg.kg-1, while DEHP from 1.91 to 15.42 mg.kg-1.

  8. Compact integrated piezoelectric vibration control package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Ronald L., Jr.; Russo, Farla M.; Palombo, Daniel A.

    1997-06-01

    Using recent advances in small, surface-mount electronics, coupled with proprietary packaging techniques, ACX has developed the SmartPackTM. The design and realization of this self-contained, active piezoelectric control device are described in this paper. The SmartPack uses a local control architecture, consisting of two parallel, analog, positive position feedback (PPF) filters, along with nearly collocated piezo strain sensors and actuators, to control multiple structural vibration modes. A key issue is the management of waste heat from the power electronics required to drive the piezo actuators. This issue is addressed through thermal/electrical modeling of the packaged amplifier. The effectiveness of the device is demonstrated through multi-mode active damping on a 24 inch square plate.

  9. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  10. Classification of the Z-Pinch Waste Stream as Low-Level Waste for Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singledecker, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The purpose of this document is to describe the waste stream from Z-Pinch Residual Waste Project that due to worker safety concerns and operational efficiency is a candidate for blending Transuranic and low level waste together and can be safely packaged as low-level waste consistent with DOE Order 435.1 requirements and NRC guidance 10 CFR 61.42. This waste stream consists of the Pu-ICE post-shot containment systems, including plutonium targets, generated from the Z Machine experiments requested by LANL and conducted by SNL/NM. In the past, this TRU waste was shipped back to LANL after Sandia sends the TRU data package to LANL to certify the characterization (by CCP), transport and disposition at WIPP (CBFO) per LANL MOU-0066. The Low Level Waste is managed, characterized, shipped and disposed of at NNSS by SNL/NM per Sandia MOU # 11-S-560.

  11. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  12. Radioactive and nonradioactive waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; DREZ,P.E.; RATH,JONATHAN S.; TRELLUE,H.R.

    2000-05-19

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the handling of plutonium in research on or production of US nuclear weapons will be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the physical and radiological properties of the TRU waste that will be deposited in the WIPP. This geologic repository will accommodate up to 175,564 m{sup 3} of TRU waste, corresponding to 168,485 m{sup 3} of contact-handled (CH-) TRU waste and 7,079 m{sup 3} of remote-handled (RH-) TRU waste. Approximately 35% of the TRU waste is currently packaged and stored (i.e., legacy) waste, with the remainder of the waste to be packaged or generated and packaged in activities before the year 2033, the closure time for the repository. These wastes were produced at 27 US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the course of generating defense nuclear materials. The radionuclide and nonradionuclide inventories for the TRU wastes described in this paper were used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) performance assessment calculations by Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM).

  13. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  14. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arjmandi, Reza; Hassan, Azman; Majeed, Khaliq; Zakaria, Zainoha

    2015-01-01

      Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH...

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-36, 108-F Biological Laboratory, and for the 116-F-15, 108-F Radiation Crib, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-05-24

    The 100-F-36 waste site is the location of the former 108-F Biological Laboratory. The building was closed in 1973, decontaminated, decommissioned, and eventually demolished in 1999. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-36, 108-F Biological Laboratory, and for the 116-F-15, 108-F Radiation Crib, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-05-24

    The 116-F-15 waste site is the former location of the 108-F Radiation Crib that was located in the first floor of the 108-F Biological Laboratory. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Future trends in electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshabini, Aicha; Wang, Gangqiang; Barlow, Fred

    2006-03-01

    Electronic packaging is traditionally defined as the back-end process that transforms bare integrated circuits (IC) into functional products. As the IC feature size decreases and the size of silicon wafer increases, the cost per IC is reduced and the performance is enhanced. The future IC chips will be larger in size, have more input/output terminals (I/Os), and require higher power. In addition to the advancements in IC technology, electronic packaging is also driven by the market requirements for low cost, small size, and multi-functional electronic products. In response to these requirements, packaging related areas such as design, packaging architectures, materials, processes, and manufacturing equipment are all changing rapidly. Wafer-level packaging (WLP) offers the benefits of low cost and smallest size for single chip packages, since the package is done at wafer level other than individual die. After packages reach the horizontal limit of dimensions, 3D stacking solution provides more efficient packages through expanding packages in the vertical dimension. Functional integration is achieved with 3D stacking architectures. System in package (SiP), one of the solutions to system integration, incorporates electronics, non-electronic devices such as optical devices, biological devices, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), etc, and interconnection in a single package, to form smart structures or microsystems. MEMS devices require specialized packaging to serve new market applications. This paper and presentation describe the technology requirements and challenges of these advancing packaging areas. The potential solutions and future trends are presented.

  19. Sustainable packaging: from eco-efficiency to eco-effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Boas, Simon H.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2014-01-01

    and the natural environment. Companies in the packaging sector have traditionally been using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to fulfill these requirements. However, being inspired by the eco-efficiency principle, LCA aims to reduce the negative environmental footprint of human activities by optimizing......According to Verghese et al (2012) sustainable packaging should be: effective in delivering its functional requirements, efficient in its use of materials, energy, and water throughout its life cycle, cyclic in its use of renewable materials and recoverability at end-of-life, and safe for people......-effective” solutions,i.e. maximizing the benefit to ecological systems. C2C is based on three key principles “waste equal food”,“use solar energy income” and “celebrate diversity” (McDonough and Braungart, 2002). The first principlecalls for eliminating the concept of waste by designing systems where waste...

  20. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  1. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  2. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  3. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast

  4. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  5. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  6. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  7. Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-23

    This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

  8. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.

  9. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  10. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C. Wilkie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard, and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils. Metal and glass comprised the smallest fraction of the waste stream. Average total waste generation ranged from 50.5 to 137.6 g·student−1·day−1. The mean generation rates for food waste ranged from 24.7 to 64.9 g·student−1·day−1. The overall average for cafeteria waste generation among all three schools was 102.3 g·student−1·day−1, with food waste alone contributing 52.2 g·student−1·day−1. There are two primary approaches to diverting school food waste from landfills: reduction and recycling. Food waste can be reduced through educating students and staff in order to change behaviors that cause food waste. Food waste can be collected and recycled through composting or anaerobic digestion in order to generate beneficial end products, including soil amendments and bioenergy. Over 75% of the cafeteria waste measured in this study could be recycled in this manner.

  11. The empowerment of sustainable design in food packaging as designer responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, V.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is emphasized on the empowerment of sustainable design in providing the dual function of a food packaging. Which can extend the life of paper, cardboard, plastic, aluminum foil so as to reduce the contribution of waste on earth. The methodology used in this research is using qualitative research. With the main approach taken on the layout of the packaging design, the approach that relies heavily on the data in the form of packaging design. For the process of observation, the authors should compare with the forms of food packaging designs that are contained in the diversity of food packaging types from products outside Indonesia. The purpose of this study is also intended as a recommendation through observation of data interviews and survey related products. Conclusion through material exploration, packaging structure exploration, efficient exploration of ink usage and packaging usage patterns.

  12. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  13. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-22

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  15. Realtime 3D stress measurement in curing epoxy packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Hyldgård, A.; Birkelund, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to characterize stress in microsystem packaging. A circular p-type piezoresistor is implemented on a (001) silicon chip. We use the circular stress sensor to determine the packaging induced stress in a polystyrene tube filled with epoxy. The epoxy curing process...... is monitored by stress measurements. From the stress measurements we conclude that the epoxy cures in 8 hours at room temperature. We find the difference in in-plane normal stresses to be sigmaxx-sigmayy=6.7 MPa and (sigmaxx+sigmayy-0.4sigmazz)=232 MPa....

  16. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  17. Recycling of Polymer-Based Multilayer Packaging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaiser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based multilayer packaging materials are commonly used in order to combine the respective performance of different polymers. By this approach, the tailored functionality of packaging concepts is created to sufficiently protect sensitive food products and thus obtain extended shelf life. However, because of their poor recyclability, most multilayers are usually incinerated or landfilled, counteracting the efforts towards a circular economy and crude oil independency. This review depicts the current state of the European multilayer packaging market and sketches the current end-of-life situation of postconsumer multilayer packaging waste in Germany. In the main section, a general overview of the state of research about material recycling of different multilayer packaging systems is provided. It is divided into two subsections, whereby one describes methods to achieve a separation of the different components, either by delamination or the selective dissolution–reprecipitation technique, and the other describes methods to achieve recycling by compatibilization of nonmiscible polymer types. While compatibilization methods and the technique of dissolution–reprecipitation are already extensively studied, the delamination of packaging has not been investigated systematically. All the presented options are able to recycle multilayer packaging, but also have drawbacks like a limited scope or a high expenditure of energy.

  18. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation

  19. Can-Filled Crash Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Crash barrier composed largely of used aluminum beverage cans protects occupants of cars in collisions with poles or trees. Lightweight, can-filled barrier very effective in softening impact of an automobile in head-on and off-angle collisions. Preliminary results indicate barrier is effective in collisions up to 40 mi/h (64 km/h).

  20. Brain Responses to Filled Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestvik, Arild; Maxfield, Nathan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the study of sentence comprehension is whether the process of gap-filling is mediated by the construction of empty categories (traces), or whether the parser relates fillers directly to the associated verb's argument structure. We conducted an event-related potentials (ERP) study that used the violation paradigm to examine…

  1. What are the communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? Report from a Team Syntegrity Meeting. The European Project RISCOM-II. Work Package 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden); Espejo, Raul [Syncho Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Wene, Clas-Otto [Wenergy, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    The Team Syntegrity Meeting is a special part of the project. It aims for increased awareness among key stakeholder groups in Europe about how nuclear waste decision processes should be developed in order to increase transparency and trust. Team Syntegrity is conducted with a special meeting format. The self-organisation of the meeting is a strong positive feature of the format. Instead of having a project leader setting the agenda, the participants formulate their own topics of relevance starting from an opening question. This report documents the meeting that was held in Lanaken, Belgium on 14-17 May 2002. The opening question for the meeting was: What are communication challenges for politicians, experts and stakeholders in order to enhance transparency in nuclear waste management decisions? There are different opinions about how communication on nuclear waste issues should be done. There are differences between stakeholder groups, and there are different approaches taken in various countries. Still it should be possible to reach a deeper understanding of social communications, that is, understanding the requirements to have effective communications between policy makers, experts and stakeholders. The aim was thus not to develop common views on the nuclear waste problem as such, but rather common grounds for developing procedures for effective communication. Hopefully, this meeting made some progress in this direction. The call for the Team Syntegrity (TS) Meeting resulted in 105 Statements of Importance given in Appendix 2. Following the TS format the meeting then formed its own agenda by first producing 30 Aggregated Statements of Importance (Appendix 3), which were grouped into 12 Consolidated Statements of Importance or topics. The group discussions were thus held under the twelve topics of: Consultation, communication and participation; Mutual learning; Roles and arenas; Heritage; Transparency; Wider context; Process; Risk; Institutional cultures

  2. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Vilas G; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan

    2013-11-12

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of about 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically carbon nanotubes having a partially filled core (encapsulated) adjacent to one end of the nanotube. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  3. Communication from the Radioactive Waste Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste service of the Radiation protection Group informs you that as of 15 April 2011 radioactive waste can be delivered to the waste treatment centre (Bldg. 573) only during the following hours: Mon- Thu: 08:00 – 11:30 / 13:30 – 16:00 Fri : 08:00 – 11:30 An electronic form must be filled in before the arrival of the waste at the treatment centre: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/General/RadioactiveWaste for further information, please call 73171.

  4. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the Lake...

  5. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  6. Preliminary waste acceptance criteria for the ICPP spent fuel and waste management technology development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms.

  7. 77 FR 38789 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Concentrator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Concentrator Feed Makeup... concentrator feed makeup tank and melter feed hold tank (the vessels) which were used in conjunction with... waste packages in accordance with applicable waste acceptance criteria using specific waste profile...

  8. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  9. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  10. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists of ...... of an extremely accurate and stable vector magnetometer, which is co-mounted in an optical bench together with a start tracker system to ensure mechanical stability of the measurements....

  11. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  12. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  13. Bioplastics and food packaging: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisa Jabeen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging as a vital part of the subject of food technology is involved with protection and preservation of all types of foods. Due to economical abundance, petrochemical plastics have been largely used as packaging material due to their desirable properties of good barrier properties towards O2, aroma compounds, tensile strength and tear strength. Meanwhile, they have many disadvantages like very low water vapour transmission rate and the major disadvantage is that they are non-biodegradable and result in environmental pollution. Keeping in view the non-renewable nature and waste disposal problem of petroleum, newer concept of use of bioplastics came into existence. Bioplastics of renewable origin are compostable or degradable by the enzymatic action of micro-organisms. Generally biodegradable polymers get hydrolysed into CO2, CH4, inorganic compounds or biomass. The use of bio-origin materials obtained through microbial fermentations, starch and cellulose has led to their tremendous innovative uses in food packaging in the last few years.

  14. Improved Consolidation Process for Producing Ceramic Waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hash, Harry C.; Hash, Mark C.

    1998-07-24

    A process for the consolidation and containment of solid or semisolid hazardous waste, which process comprises closing an end of a circular hollow cylinder, filling the cylinder with the hazardous waste, and then cold working the cylinder to reduce its diameter while simultaneously compacting the waste. The open end of the cylinder can be sealed prior to or after the cold working process. The preferred method of cold working is to draw the sealed cylinder containing the hazardous waste through a plurality of dies to simultaneously reduce the diameter of the tube while compacting the waste. This process provides a quick continuous process for consolidating hazardous waste, including radioactive waste.

  15. MANAGING THE RETRIEVAL RISK OF BURIED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE WITH UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WOJTASEK, R.D.; GADD, R.R.; GREENWELL, R.D.

    2006-01-19

    United States-Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store transuranic (TRU) waste are almost certain to encounter waste packages with characteristics that are so unique as to warrant special precautions for retrieval. At the Hanford Site, a subgroup of stored TRU waste (12 drums) had special considerations due to the radioactive source content of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}), and the potential for high heat generation, pressurization, criticality, and high radiation. These characteristics bear on the approach to safely retrieve, overpack, vent, store, and transport the waste package. Because of the potential risk to personnel, contingency planning for unexpected conditions played an effective role in work planning and in preparing workers for the field inspection activity. As a result, the integrity inspections successfully confirmed waste package configuration and waste confinement without experiencing any perturbations due to unanticipated packaging conditions. This paper discusses the engineering and field approach to managing the risk of retrieving TRU waste with unique characteristics.

  16. Development and validation of a CFD model predicting the backfill process of a nuclear waste gallery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala, Vinay Ramohalli, E-mail: gopala@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lycklama a Nijeholt, Jan-Aiso [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bakker, Paul [Van Hattum en Blankevoort, Woerden (Netherlands); Haverkate, Benno [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: > This work presents the CFD simulation of the backfill process of Supercontainers with nuclear waste emplaced in a disposal gallery. > The cement-based material used for backfill is grout and the flow of grout is modelled as a Bingham fluid. > The model is verified against an analytical solution and validated against the flowability tests for concrete. > Comparison between backfill plexiglas experiment and simulation shows a distinct difference in the filling pattern. > The numerical model needs to be further developed to include segregation effects and thixotropic behavior of grout. - Abstract: Nuclear waste material may be stored in underground tunnels for long term storage. The example treated in this article is based on the current Belgian disposal concept for High-Level Waste (HLW), in which the nuclear waste material is packed in concrete shielded packages, called Supercontainers, which are inserted into these tunnels. After placement of the packages in the underground tunnels, the remaining voids between the packages and the tunnel lining is filled-up with a cement-based material called grout in order to encase the stored containers into the underground spacing. This encasement of the stored containers inside the tunnels is known as the backfill process. A good backfill process is necessary to stabilize the waste gallery against ground settlements. A numerical model to simulate the backfill process can help to improve and optimize the process by ensuring a homogeneous filling with no air voids and also optimization of the injection positions to achieve a homogeneous filling. The objective of the present work is to develop such a numerical code that can predict the backfill process well and validate the model against the available experiments and analytical solutions. In the present work the rheology of Grout is modelled as a Bingham fluid which is implemented in OpenFOAM - a finite volume-based open source computational fluid dynamics

  17. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  18. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  19. Space filling curves in steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfeld, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a new method to increase the reliability of current steganalytic techniques by optimising the sample order. Space filling curves (e.g., Hilbert curve) take advantage of the correlation of adjacent pixels and thus make the detection of steganographic messages with low change densities more reliable. The findings are applicable, but not limited to LSB steganalysis. An experimental comparison of five different sampling paths reveals that recursive principles achieve by far the best performance. All measures, such as mean distance, median autocorrelation, and the ability to detect even tiny modifications show substantial improvements compared to conventional methods. We elaborate the relationship between those parameters and quantify the effectiveness with a large test database of small images, which are usually hard to detect. Apart from quantitative advances, visualisation of steganalytic measures can also gain from the application of reverse space filling curves.

  20. Particle-filled microporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jerome W.; Kinzer, Kevin E.; Mrozinski, James S.; Johnson, Eric J.; Dyrud, James F.

    1990-01-01

    A microporous particulate-filled thermoplastic polymeric article is provided. The article can be in the form of a film, a fiber, or a tube. The article has a thermoplastic polymeric structure having a plurality of interconnected passageways to provide a network of communicating pores. The microporous structure contains discrete submicron or low micron-sized particulate filler, the particulate filler being substantially non-agglomerated.

  1. Safety analysis report for DUPIC radioactive waste transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Ku, J. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, H. H.; Lee, H. S.; Park, J. J

    2000-12-01

    Radioactive waste package is needed to transport the radioactive waste which generated in PIEF hot cell after the test of DUPIC process. This report presents that the safety evaluation of DUPIC radioactive waste package. This cask should be easy to handle in the facilities and safe to maintain the shielding safety of operators. According to the regulations, it should be verified that the cask maintains the thermal and structural integrities under prescribed load conditions by the regulations. The basic structural functions and the integrities of the cask under required load conditions were evaluated. Therefore, it was verified that the cask is suitable to transport DUPIC radioactive waste from PIEF to RWTF.

  2. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels

    2014-01-01

    . In order to better understand food waste and loss more research must be conducted on the total amount of food waste at every level of the food supply chain. Solutions can be found through improved communication, more efficient food packaging, and better in interpretation of food labels by consumers......Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional...... and environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18. billion of annual edible food waste. Currently, the majority of food waste is still incinerated with energy recovery. However...

  3. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  4. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions...

  5. Mother-baby package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburlini, G

    1995-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme developed the Mother-Baby package to facilitate the development of national strategies and plans of action. It was presented at an international meeting in Geneva in April 1994. The goals of the package are by the year 2000 to reduce maternal mortality by half and perinatal and neonatal mortality by 30-40% of 1990 levels. The package comprises: 1) a section on the technical basis and underlying strategies, 2) a section describing intervention before and during pregnancy, and during and after delivery, and 3) detailed recommendations on operating the program. The underlying strategy aims to reduce the number of high-risk and unwanted pregnancies; the number of obstetric complications; and the case fatality rate in women with complications. Interventions are based on a fourfold approach of family planning, quality antenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and access to essential obstetric care for high-risk pregnancies and complications. The district health system is the basic unit for planning and implementing the interventions. Midwives who live in the community are best equipped to provide appropriate community-based care to pregnant women. Pregnancy and obstetric complications requiring surgery and anesthesia should be available in the district hospital with an adequate referral system. Upgrading the skills of traditional birth attendants is also essential. National authorities should undertake a series of steps to carry out the interventions. A basic infrastructure, the upgrading of peripheral facilities, the development of human resources for safe motherhood, the effective delegation of responsibility, information, education, and communication (IEC), the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and women's groups, and the monitoring of results are other important elements in carrying out the interventions.

  6. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  7. Study of filled dolines by using 3D stereo image processing and electrical resistivity imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Breg Valjavec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with doline degradation due to uncontrolled waste dumping in the past in the Logatec Polje in Slovenia. It introduces a concept for determining 3D geometric characteristics (shape, depth, radius, area, and volume of formerly concave landforms (i.e., recently filled dolines by using a combination of two methods: (1 photogrammetric stereo processing of archival aerial photographs and (2 electrical resistivity imaging (ERI. To represent, visualize, and study the characteristics of the former surface morphology (i.e., the dolines before they were filled, a digital terrain model (DTM for 1972 (DTM1972 was made using digital photogrammetry processing of five sequential archival aerial photographs (1972, © GURS. DTM1972 was visually and quantitatively compared with the DTM5 of the recent surface morfology (DTM5, © GURS, 2006 in order to define areas of manmade terrain differences. In general, a circular area with a higher terrain difference is an indicator of a filled doline. The calculated terrain differences also indicate the thickness of buried waste material. Three case-study dolines were selected for 3D geometric analysis and tested in the field using ERI. ERI was used to determine the genetic type of the original doline, to confirm that the buried material in the doline is actually waste, and to ascertain opportunities for further study of water pollution due to waste leakage. Based on a comparison among the ERI sections obtained using various electrode arrays, it was concluded that the basins are actually past concave landforms (i.e., dolines filled with mixed waste material having the lowest resistivity value (bellow 100 ohm-m, which differs measurably from the surrounding natural materials. The resistivity of hard stacked limestone is higher (above 1,000 ohm-m than resistivity of cracked carbonate rocks with cracks filled with loamy clay sediments while in loamy alluvial sediment resistivity falls below 150 ohm

  8. Functions of Nano-Materials in Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Kwablah, Amegadze Paul Seyram; He, Jiating; Li, Xu

    Food packaging has been changing from bulky and rigid form in the past to different variation of lights and plastic packagings. Regardless of the changes, the packaging must be able to uphold its original function which is to serve as food containment as well as to protect the food from the external environment. Coupled with the increasing consumer’s awareness on food waste, higher standard of living, technological developments are underway to enhance the shelf-life of packed food as well as methods to provide indications of food packaging environment. There are many different indicators for food spoilage, but two commonly found gases in food packaging are oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is the main mechanism for food spoilage, while carbon dioxide is often used in modified-atmosphere-packaging. There are also different methods of gas scavenging and/or sensing techniques based on different concepts in the literature. In this review, the focus will be on nano-materials, namely titanium dioxide, silica, zeolites and metal organic frameworks. This review is structured in a manner to highlight how each material can be used in both gas scavenging and/or indicators applications. The last part of the review focuses on the approach and some key considerations when integrating nano-materials into the plastic film.

  9. New package for CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  10. Engineering study of tank fill options for landfill closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, W.A.

    1996-09-27

    To prepare single-shell tanks for closure, it will be necessary to piece some type of load- bearing fill material inside the tanks to support the domes. Provision of internal support permits the simplifying assumption that the combined weight of the dome, the existing operational soil cover, and the surface barrier will eventually transfer to and be carried by the fill. This engineering study provides descriptions and evaluations of four alternative concepts for fitting and stabilizing nominally empty SSTs with fill materials. For this study it is assumed that 99 percent (or more) of tank wastes will be retrieved before closure is undertaken. The alternatives are: Gravel: tanks would be fitted with crushed aggregate using a rotating stinger apparatus installed in the central riser; Grout: tanks would be fitted with a pumpable, ex-situ mixed grout formulation; Hybrid: tanks would be fitted first with coarse aggregate, then with grout, producing a pre-placed aggregate concrete material; or Concrete: tank. would be filled with a highly-flowable, ex-situ mixed concrete formulation.

  11. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  12. Waste Dump Closure and Cost Estimates at AngloGold Ashanti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... AngloGold Ashanti Iduapriem Mine is a surface gold mine which produces waste rock in its operations. The waste rock forms waste dumps which grow over the years, and will ultimately need to be closed down when they are filled to the maximum capacity. The mine has closure plans for the waste dumps ...

  13. 78 FR 72612 - Criteria for the Certification and Recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... waste characterization activities at DOE WIPP waste generator sites, and offer more direct public input...\\ Conditions 2 and 3 of the final certification decision apply to activities conducted at waste generator sites... protect site workers from a hypothetical methane or hydrogen explosion inside a filled waste panel. These...

  14. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  15. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  16. Filling patterns in contrast ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lawrence

    1974-01-01

    The filling patterns of a negative contrast material (air), a positive contrast water soluble material (Conray), and a positive contrast water insoluble material (Myodil) were examined in 60 normal ventriculograms. Using a scoring system developed for this study, Conray was found effective for outlining the ipsilateral (injected) lateral ventricle, the third ventricle, the aqueduct of Sylvius, and the fourth ventricle. Air was the most effective for the noninjected lateral ventricle, while Myodil was best for A-P demonstration of the aqueduct. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:4545798

  17. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, Robert J [Pleasanton, CA; Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA; Spadaccini, Christopher M [Oakland, CA

    2011-09-13

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  18. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, Robert J; Kotovsky, Jack; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2012-06-26

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  19. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, Robert J [Pleasanton, CA; Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA; Spadaccini, Christopher M [Oakland, CA

    2012-06-12

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  20. Oxidative stability of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia da Silva Rodrigues Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food industries have been concerned about managing the waste generated by their production processes in order to minimize environmental impacts and also about the development of formulations with different and innovative ingredients such as fruits from the Brazilian savanna. Seeking to meet the expectations of consumers who desire healthy and practical products, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability and the variations in chemical composition and antioxidant potential of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging. The bars formulated were packed in four different types of packaging: laminated without vacuum (LWV, transparent without vacuum (TWV, transparent under vacuum (TV, and laminated under vacuum (LV; they were subsequently analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant activity, and oxidative capacity. The results showed that the cereal bars made with fruit peel and baru are sources of protein, dietary fiber, and fat, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids. The cereal bars exhibited oxidative stability up to 120 days of storage, and the type of packaging was not significant for the variables evaluated; therefore, they can be stored in low cost packaging such as transparent packaging without vacuum for a period of 120 days.

  1. Current disposal planning for dry active wastes at Rokkasho Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In nuclear power stations, two kinds of low level radioactive wastes are generated: `uniform solidified waste` in which waste liquid, spent resin and so on are uniformly solidified and `solid waste` in which metals, lagging materials, plastics and others are solidified. In Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Burying Center, the burying facility for the first period for the uniform solidified waste started the operation in December, 1992, and this time as the second period plan, it has been planned to increase No. 2 waste burying facility for the solid waste. The kinds of the radioactive waste solidified in containers to be buried are the solid state radioactive waste generated by the operation of nuclear power stations and that generated accompanying the operation of this facility. The wastes are classified, cut, pressed and melted as occasion demands so that cement filling material is easily filled in containers, and solidified in the containers. As for the waste to be buried, at the time of its acceptance, 6 months or longer have elapsed since its generation in nuclear power stations, and the surface dose equivalent rate does not exceed 10 mSv/h. The acceptance plan and the expected number of burying, the total radioactivity of buried waste, and the location, geological and hydraulic features, the structure and facilities of waste burying facilities, the method of burying, the management of waste burying site and the evaluation of dose equivalent are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Hazardous waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M E

    1991-04-01

    The management of waste in the dental office is dictated by the federal, state, and local ordinances in force in the locale in which the office is located. The dentist must first determine what the laws require and then implement the changes in waste management into the office setting. The local component society of the ADA often provides such information; otherwise, the health department of the government branch having jurisdiction over the office locale will either have the information or know where to find it. Once it has been established what constitutes hazardous waste, the next steps are to contain it, store it, and finally dispose of it according to the information gained from the authorities. Storage of sharps should be accomplished in "hard-walled, leak-proof containers," usually red, which can be closed securely when they have been filled, and which are located as close to the point of use as possible. Solid waste should usually be contained in red bags, which are then bagged in a second bag when full or in a hard-walled container. Waste may then be hauled away for disposal by a qualified company that keeps the required records of the waste from the time it leaves the office until final disposal by incineration or burial in an approved landfill. The company chosen to do the hauling should be able to demonstrate that they have appropriate insurance to indemnify your office in the event of a problem while they have the waste in their possession.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. A Typical Case Study: Solid Waste Management in Petroleum Refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Jadea S. Alshammari; Fatma K. Gad; Ahmed A.M. Elgibaly; Abdul R. Khan

    2008-01-01

    The current environmental concerns have forced developed and developing countries to reduce air, water and land pollution for sustainable growth. Solid refinery waste is cocktail of hydrocarbons, water, heavy metal and fine solids and is substantial in quantity. The principal processes of waste management focus mainly on waste source reduction, reusing, recycling, composting, incineration with or without energy recovery, fuel production and land filling. Waste management models have a common ...

  4. Shipments of nuclear fuel and waste: are they really safe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    This paper presents a summarized status report on the potential hazards of shipping nuclear materials. Principles of nuclear shipment safety, government regulations, shipment information, quality assurance, types of radioactive wastes, package integrity, packaging materials, number of shipments, accidents, and accident risk are considered. (LK)

  5. Demonstration of Combined Food and Landscape Waste Composting at Fort Leonard Wood, MO: Fort Leonard Wood Installation Strategic Sustainable Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    and diversion steps that digestors require, and can process all food, paper, plastic, and Styrofoam wastes from a typical food service facility. The...of inorganic waste ( Styrofoam , cellophane, food wrappers, and condiment packaging) into the food waste stream. This contamination is not acceptable... Styrofoam , cellophane, food wrappers, and condiment packaging) abso- lutely cannot be tolerated in this waste stream. As discussed previously, and to

  6. Functional Package Management with Guix

    OpenAIRE

    Courtès, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We describe the design and implementation of GNU Guix, a purely functional package manager designed to support a complete GNU/Linux distribution. Guix supports transactional upgrades and roll-backs, unprivileged package management, per-user profiles, and garbage collection. It builds upon the low-level build and deployment layer of the Nix package manager. Guix uses Scheme as its programming interface. In particular, we devise an embedded domain-specific language (EDSL...

  7. Biodegradable packaging materials : case: PLA

    OpenAIRE

    Jama, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this bachelor thesis was to investigate the possibility of biodegradable packaging materials. Plastics and other non-degradable packaging materials have been used for many years and they have a negative impact on the environment since they do not degrade. Different research methods are used to get authentic results, which simplifies using biodegradable packaging materials. There were two biodegradability testing methods, which has been applied to this task:-, testing biode...

  8. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  9. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Description: Silicone gel-filled breast implants have a silicone outer shell ...

  10. Domain walls and spacetime-filling branes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Wess, J; Ivanov, EA

    1999-01-01

    We discuss branes with one transversal direction (domain walls) and no transversal direction (spacetime-filling branes). In particular, we briefly discuss a relationship between spacetime-filling branes and superstring theories with sixteen supercharges.

  11. About the ZOOM minimization package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  12. Modular packaging concept for MEMS and MOEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Vanessa; Reinert, Wolfgang; Quenzer, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Wherever technical systems detect objects in their environment or interact with people, optical devices may play an important role. Light can be relatively easily produced and spatially and temporally modulated. Laser can project sharp images over long distances or cut materials in short distances. Depending on the wavelength an invisible scanning in near infrared for gesture recognition is possible as well as a projection of brilliant colour images. For several years, the Fraunhofer ISIT develops Opto-Packaging processes based on the viscous reshaping of glass wafers: First, hermetically sealed laser micro-mirror scanners WLP with inclined windows deflect in the central light reflex of the window out of the image area. Second, housing with lateral light exit permits hermetic sealing of edge-emitting lasers for highest reliability and durability. Such systems are currently experiencing an extremely high interest of the industry in all segments, from consumer to automotive through to materials processing. Our modular Opto-Packaging platform enables fast product developments. Housing for opto mechanical MEMS devices are equipped with inclined windows to minimize distortion, stray light and reflection losses. The hot viscous glass forming technology is also applied to functionalized substrate wafers which possess areas with high heat dissipation in addition to thermally insulating areas. Electrical contacts may be realized with metal filled vias or TGV (Through Glass Vias). The modular system reduces the development times for new, miniaturized optical systems so that manufacturers can focus on the essentials in their development, namely their product functionalities.

  13. Filling of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece D. Gately

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The reliable production of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres is a relatively new development, and due to their unique structure, there has been much interest in filling their hollow interiors. In this review, we provide an overview of the most common approaches for filling these carbon nanostructures. We highlight that filled carbon nanostructures are an emerging material for biomedical applications.

  14. Energy conversion of source separated packaging; Energiutvinning ur kaellsorterade foerpackningsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blidholm, O.; Wiklund, S.E. [AaF-Energikonsult (Sweden); Bauer, A.C. [Energikonsult A. Bauer (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    The basic idea of this project is to study the possibilities to use source separated combustible material for energy conversion in conventional solid fuel boilers (i.e. not municipal waste incineration plants). The project has been carried out in three phases. During phase 1 and 2 a number of fuel analyses of different fractions were carried out. During phase 3 two combustion tests were carried out; (1) a boiler with grate equipped with cyclone, electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser, and (2) a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with electrostatic precipitator and flue gas condenser. During the tests source separated paper and plastic packagings were co-fired with biomass fuels. The mixing rate of packagings was approximately 15%. This study reports the results of phase 3 and the conclusions of the whole project. The technical terms of using packaging as fuel are good. The technique is available for shredding both paper and plastic packaging. The material can be co-fired with biomass. The economical terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion can be very advantageous, but can also form obstacles. The result is to a high degree guided by such facts as how the fuel is collected, transported, reduced in size and handled at the combustion plant. The results of the combustion tests show that the environmental terms of using source separated packaging for energy conversion are good. The emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere are very low. The emissions are well below the emission standards for waste incineration plants. 35 figs, 13 tabs, 8 appendices

  15. Put waste in its place

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    It doesn’t take much of an effort to sort waste, but what a difference it can make - to the environment, of course, but also to CERN’s incineration bill. A variety of containers are provided to allow waste to be sorted before disposal, thereby making recycling easier. Everyone knows that sorting waste reduces pollution. By recycling or recovering waste materials, we can reduce the amount of waste that ends up in an incinerator or land-fill, while giving the used material a second life. That reduces the consumption of raw materials and natural resources—and of budget resources. CERN pays lower bill: disposing of a tonne of waste by incineration costs 230 Swiss francs, while a tonne of paper only costs 10 francs to dispose of. The problem is that much of the waste is not properly sorted. "In 2008, out of more than 1600 tonnes of waste we had to incinerate 600 tonnes, which is an enormous figure!" says Martine Auerbach, wh...

  16. The LISA Technology Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The UP is in the late stages of development -- all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the UP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaign, and outline the future milestones leading to the UP delivery.

  17. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  18. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  19. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  20. Automotive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.