WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste matrix materials

  1. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  2. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. C.

    1981-06-01

    Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphic matrix for the waste forms. The approach involves the low temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior t the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package.

  3. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, W.C.

    1981-06-01

    At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

  4. Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhao-shu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

  5. Survey of matrix materials for solidified radioactive high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating advanced waste forms, including matrix waste forms, that may provide a very high degree of stability under the most severe repository conditions. The purpose of this study was to recommend practical matrix materials for future development that most enhance the stability of the matrix waste forms. The functions of the matrix were reviewed. Desirable matrix material properties were discussed and listed relative to the matrix functions. Potential matrix materials were discussed and recommendations were made for future matrix development. The matrix mechanically contains waste cores, reduces waste form temperatures, and is capable of providing a high-quality barrier to leach waters. High-quality barrier matrices that separate and individually encapsulate the waste cores are fabricated by powder fabrication methods, such as sintering, hot pressing, and hot isostatic pressing. Viable barrier materials are impermeable, extremely corrosion resistant, and mechanically strong. Three material classes potentially satisfy the requirements for a barrier matrix and are recommended for development: titanium, glass, and graphite. Polymers appear to be marginally adequate, and a more thorough engineering assessment of their potential should be made.

  6. Lead and lead-based alloys as waste matrix materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arustamov, A.E.; Ojovan, M.I.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1999-07-01

    Metals and alloys with relatively low melting temperatures such as lead and lead-based alloys are considered in Russia as prospective matrices for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel in containers in preparation for final disposal in underground repositories. Now lead and lead-based alloys are being used for conditioning spent sealed radioactive sources at radioactive waste disposal facilities.

  7. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  8. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 2: Preliminary feasibility screening study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes in concentrations, matrix materials, and containers designed for storage on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.

  9. Immobilization of industrial waste in cement–bentonite clay matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sented. The objective of this work was to investigate the leaching mechanism of copper as a constituent of copper aluminum oxychloride ('CAOX'). Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a waste material from a composite matrix into surrounding water were investigated using three methods based on theoretical.

  10. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  11. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  12. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  13. Materials and Waste Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing data and tools to reduce waste, manage risks, reuse and conserve natural materials, and optimize energy recovery. Collaboration with states facilitates assessment and utilization of technologies developed by the private sector.

  14. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  15. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  16. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  17. Methane generation from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  18. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  19. EVALUATION OF CAUSES OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL WASTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    of causative factors of waste, assessment of these factors and any improvement in material wastage management on construction sites will enhance the cost performance of projects in Nigeria. This work had the following objectives. It studied the causes or factors affecting construction material waste generation on building ...

  20. Use of Waste Materials in Highway Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Imtiaz

    1991-01-01

    This study synthesizes the information on the use of waste materials in highway construction. The information was obtained from a review of published literature supplemented by: recent unpublished reports, presentations of research updates by professionals at different forums, anti personal meetings with the experts. In addition, a questionnaire regarding the use of waste materials was prepared and distributed to each of the state highway agencies. A majority of states responded to the questi...

  1. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, David F.; Dighe, Shyam V.; Gass, William R.

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles.

  2. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  3. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  4. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  5. Iron Phosphate Glass as Potential Waste Matrix for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, T.; Ishinomori, T.; Endo, Y.; Sazarashi, M.; Ono, S.; Suzuki, K.

    2003-02-25

    Recently, Iron Phosphate Glass (IPG) is investigated as the alternative final waste form for High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) in U.S. This study is aimed to investigate feasibility of IPG to HLW arising from commercial reprocessing in Japan. In order to evaluate favorable preparation conditions, maximum waste loading and property of IPG, the melting tests were carried. From the results of melting tests, the favorable preparation conditions was with matrix of Fe/P 0.43 (mole ratio in products) and melting at 1200{sup o} for 4h. The products of 10-20mass% waste loading of simulated HLW were glassy and had no crystal peaks, however the product of 30mass% waste loading showed some crystal peaks by XRD analysis. IPG and Borosilicate glass (BG) had about the same thermal properties. As a result, IPG had enough potential for high waste loading and the extremely good chemical durability for consideration as a waste form for Japanese HLW.

  6. The matrix method for radiological characterization of radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    Magistris, M

    2007-01-01

    Beam losses are responsible for material activation in some of the components of particle accelerators. The activation is caused by several nuclear processes and varies with the irradiation history and the characteristics of the material (namely chemical composition and size). Once at the end of their operational lifetime, these materials require radiological characterization. The radionuclide inventory depends on the particle spectrum, the irradiation history and the chemical composition of the material. As long as these factors are known and the material cross-sections are available, the induced radioactivity can be calculated analytically. However, these factors vary widely among different items of waste and sometimes they are only partially known. The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN, Geneva) has been operating accelerators for high-energy physics for 50 years. Different methods for the evaluation of the radionuclide inventory are currently under investigation at CERN, including the so-calle...

  7. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  8. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  9. Wear Behavior of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Prepared from Industrial Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Francis Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in the population and industrialization, a lot of valuable natural resources are depleted to prepare and manufacture products. However industrialization on the other hand has waste disposal issues, causing dust and environmental pollution. In this work, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite is prepared by reinforcing 10 wt% and 20 wt% of wet grinder stone dust particles an industrial waste obtained during processing of quarry rocks which are available in nature. In the composite materials design wear is a very important criterion requiring consideration which ensures the materials reliability in applications where they come in contact with the environment and other surfaces. Dry sliding wear test was carried out using pin-on-disc apparatus on the prepared composites. The results reveal that increasing the reinforcement content from 10 wt% to 20 wt% increases the resistance to wear rate.

  10. Wear Behavior of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Prepared from Industrial Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, L Francis; Suresh, Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    With an increase in the population and industrialization, a lot of valuable natural resources are depleted to prepare and manufacture products. However industrialization on the other hand has waste disposal issues, causing dust and environmental pollution. In this work, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite is prepared by reinforcing 10 wt% and 20 wt% of wet grinder stone dust particles an industrial waste obtained during processing of quarry rocks which are available in nature. In the composite materials design wear is a very important criterion requiring consideration which ensures the materials reliability in applications where they come in contact with the environment and other surfaces. Dry sliding wear test was carried out using pin-on-disc apparatus on the prepared composites. The results reveal that increasing the reinforcement content from 10 wt% to 20 wt% increases the resistance to wear rate.

  11. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William j. Weber; Lumin Wang; Jonathan Icenhower

    2004-07-09

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials.

  12. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Augmented Formulation Matrix Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-20

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in Washington State. The HLW will be vitrified in the HLW facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. A portion (~35%) of the LAW will be vitrified in the LAW vitrification facility for disposal onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize all of the wastes destined for those facilities. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. Cast Stone, a cementitious waste form, is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW. A statistically designed test matrix was used to evaluate the effects of key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. For the processing properties, the water-to-dry-blend mix ratio was the most significant parameter in affecting the range of values observed for each property. The single shell tank (SST) Blend simulant also showed differences in measured properties compared to the other three simulants tested. A review of the testing matrix and results indicated that an additional set of tests would be beneficial to improve the understanding of the impacts noted in the Screening

  13. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  14. Phosphate-bonded ceramics as candidate final-waste-form materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.; Sutaria, M.; Kurokawa, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Room-temperature-setting phosphate-bonded ceramics were studied as candidate materials for stabilizing DOE low-level problem mixed wastes, which cannot be treated by other established stabilization techniques. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na, Al, and Zr were studied to stabilize ash-surrogate waste that contained RCRA metals as nitrates and RCRA organics. We show that for a typical loading of 35 wt.% of ash waste, the phosphate ceramics pass the Toxic Chemicals Leaching Procedure test (TCLP). The waste forms have high compression strength that exceeds ASTM recommendations for final waste forms. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies and differential thermal analyses of the waste forms show evidence of chemical reaction of the waste with phosphoric acid and the host matrix. SEM studies show evidence of physical bonding. Excellent performance in the leaching test is attributed to chemical solidification and to both physical and chemical bonding of the ash wastes with the phosphate ceramics.

  15. Matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry

    of porous stone materials to hinder decay. However, in addition to the removal of target ions in these systems, matrix changes may occur during the electrochemical treatment. For a broader implementation of the electrokinetic methods it is important to understand changes in the matrix composition......Transport of ions in an applied electric field holds many applications within both civil and environmental engineering, e.g. for removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion, remediation of heavy metals from soils and other waste materials and recently for desalination...... for different types of materials. The overall aim of this PhD-project is to evaluate matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials.During electro-remediation protons are produced at the anode and hydroxyl ions are produced at the cathode. The consequent...

  16. Sustainable Materials Management: Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the non-hazardous materials and waste management hierarchy in recognition that no single waste management approach is suitable for managing all materials and waste streams in all circumstances.

  17. Polymer matrix electroluminescent materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, III, Matthew L.; Motamedi, Farshad J [Claremont, CA; Abdelrazzaq, Feras Bashir [Covina, CA; Abdelrazzaq, legal representative, Bashir Twfiq

    2012-06-26

    Photoluminescent and electroluminescent compositions are provided which comprise a matrix comprising aromatic repeat units covalently coordinated to a phosphorescent or luminescent metal ion or metal ion complexes. Methods for producing such compositions, and the electroluminescent devices formed therefrom, are also disclosed.

  18. Biodegradable containers from green waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Schettini, Evelia; Pandini, Stefano; Bignotti, Fabio; Vox, Giuliano; D'Amore, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Novel biodegradable polymeric materials based on protein hydrolysate (PH), derived from waste products of the leather industry, and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG) or epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were obtained and their physico-chemical properties and mechanical behaviour were evaluated. Different processing conditions and the introduction of fillers of natural origin, as saw dust and wood flour, were used to tailor the mechanical properties and the environmental durability of the product. The biodegradable products, which are almost completely manufactured from renewable-based raw materials, look promising for several applications, particularly in agriculture for the additional fertilizing action of PH or in packaging.

  19. Recovering energy and materials from hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The tannery industry faces growing environmental concerns because of the high hazardous metal content of its process waste. The formation, during the tanning process, of the highly toxic hexavalent chromium precludes the use of conventional thermal incineration processes. Borge Tannery in Norway, which processes 600 cattle hides per day, has solved the problem by using new PyroArc technology. The PyroArc waste processing plant can treat all of the tannery's production wastes, transforming them into useful products such as fuel gas and re-usable metal. The fuel gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, and has a calorific value of about 4 MJ/Nm{sub 3}. About 65-70% of the energy content of the source material (waste or biomass) is recovered in the gas, and this is used to produce steam and/or electricity in a gas engine with a capacity of 580 kW. A further 20-25% of the initial energy content is recovered as heat or low-pressure steam. The plant is designed to be self-sufficient in energy (1.5 MW) and to meet the tannery's maximum requirements for hot water and steam. (UK)

  20. Material parameter identification on metal matrix composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available these strain gauges indicate that some compression instability, eccentric loading or other resulting bending condition is present. In this work, a finite element inverse analysis is employed to determine not only material parameters but also the boundary...

  1. Modifying Matrix Materials to Increase Wetting and Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Katie

    2011-01-01

    In an alternative approach to increasing the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fiber and matrix components of organic-fiber/polymer matrix composite materials, the matrix resins are modified. Heretofore, it has been common practice to modify the fibers rather than the matrices: The fibers are modified by chemical and/or physical surface treatments prior to combining the fibers with matrix resins - an approach that entails considerable expense and usually results in degradation (typically, weakening) of fibers. The alternative approach of modifying the matrix resins does not entail degradation of fibers, and affords opportunities for improving the mechanical properties of the fiber composites. The alternative approach is more cost-effective, not only because it eliminates expensive fiber-surface treatments but also because it does not entail changes in procedures for manufacturing conventional composite-material structures. The alternative approach is best described by citing an example of its application to a composite of ultra-high-molecular- weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers in an epoxy matrix. The epoxy matrix was modified to a chemically reactive, polarized epoxy nano-matrix to increase the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fibers and the matrix. The modification was effected by incorporating a small proportion (0.3 weight percent) of reactive graphitic nanofibers produced from functionalized nanofibers into the epoxy matrix resin prior to combining the resin with the UHMWPE fibers. The resulting increase in fiber/matrix adhesion manifested itself in several test results, notably including an increase of 25 percent in the maximum fiber pullout force and an increase of 60-65 percent in fiber pullout energy. In addition, it was conjectured that the functionalized nanofibers became involved in the cross linking reaction of the epoxy resin, with resultant enhancement of the mechanical properties and lower viscosity of the matrix.

  2. The production and properties of fly ash containing aluminum matrix composite materials; Herstellung und Eigenschaften von flugaschehaltigen Aluminium-Matrix-Verbundwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolukisa, S.; Topuz, A.; Sagin, A. [Metallurgical and Materials Eng. Dep., Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2003-07-01

    Cost saving in composite materials is very important. Therefore fly ash particles, which are a waste product of coal combustion, can be used as reinforcement in aluminum matrix composite materials. Aluminum matrix composite materials (AMC) fabricated from A360 and 443 aluminum alloys and Tuncbilek, Yatagan fly ashes were used as reinforcement with volume fractions 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Stir mixing and casting process were used for the production of fly ash containing aluminum-matrix composites (AMC's). Specially designed and ceramic covered mixers were used for stirring of melted aluminum alloy at 750, 850, 950 C temperatures and 400, 560, 750 rpm rotation rates. It has been observed that, with applied production process, maximum 20% (volume fraction) fly ash can be added to aluminum alloy matrix. Referring to the experimental data, optimum properties were achieved at 850 C stirring temperature and 560 rpm mixer rotation rates. (orig.)

  3. Role of bacteria on the long term behaviour of waste confinement matrixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovisier, J.; Bachelet, M.; Geoffroy, V.

    2007-12-01

    Bacteria are often presented as source of problems because they are suspected to accelerate the alteration of materials. Numerous works are based on patterns of holes and channels attributed to bacterial activity while no laboratory experiments clearly support these conclusions. A review of this important question will be presented. If microorganisms like Acidi Thiobacillus thiooxydans is able to metabolize strong acid by sulphur oxidation and contribute to accelerate the degradation of rocks and minerals, others one like Pseudomonas aeruginosa may produce protective exopolysaccharides (EPSs). These EPS may protect materials and also trap potentially toxic elements. To model the long term behaviour of waste confinme,nt matrixes, the effect of bacteria cannot be describe only on the basis of morphological patterns. One have to measure real rate which is only possible with specific growth media permitting to analyze weak concentration variations by ICP-MS (tracers)

  4. Material Recovery and Waste Form Development FY 2014 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Develop advanced nuclear fuel cycle separation and waste management technologies that improve current fuel cycle performance and enable a sustainable fuel cycle, with minimal processing, waste generation, and potential for material diversion.

  5. Wear Behavior of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Prepared from Industrial Waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xavier, L Francis; Suresh, Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    .... In this work, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite is prepared by reinforcing 10 wt% and 20 wt% of wet grinder stone dust particles an industrial waste obtained during processing of quarry rocks which are available in nature...

  6. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    by the material type of the sample and the physico-chemical parameter to be analyzed. For example, studies examining mechanical sample preparation methods suggest that plastic fractions are especially prone to de-mixing effects and that differing mechanical properties within a sample (e.g. plastic and metal) can...... lead to biased results. In the experimental part of this PhD project the milling of plastics and metals was especially challenging and alternative methods for preparation and analysis should be investigated. Furthermore, chemical sample preparation by means of acid digestion was found to severely...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions...

  7. Gabriela Mistral, in a Maternal-Matrix-Material Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Binetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For some decades, feminist thinkers such as Luce Irigaray, Luisa Muraro and Rosi Braidotti —among others— have tried to reconstruct the ontological assumptions of a language independent of the abstract phallogocentric logic, emerging by metonymic mediation from the maternal-material-matristic substrate, in essential continuity with that origin and immediate connection with life. In the context of this new maternal-matrix-material symbolic, this article aims to read Mistralian poetics, conceived and nurtured by the same matrix from which life is born.

  8. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Todd, Terry A.; Burchfield, Larry A.; Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  9. Use of waste materials for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, R.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Napoli Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche; Buonerba, A.; Grassi, A. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Waste raw materials obtained by several sources of both food and agro industries could be considered for biofuel production. In the last years, this topic has growing in interest. At this purpose, our research, has been focused on the development of new technologies to obtain biodiesel from the mentioned wastes feedstock. In particular from oleins, that are mixtures of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides. Therefore, we are studying the way to produce biodiesel in two steps: an esterification reaction of FFAs with glycerol and a transesterification with methanol of the whole mixture. The esterification of FFAs with glycerol has the advantage of using a relatively high temperature favouring the stripping of water formed during the esterification. In this way esterification equilibrium is shifted to the right. Then, the mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides, obtained by esterification with glycerol, can be submitted to transesterification with methanol, in the usual way, to produce biodiesel Catalysts promoting esterification, normally, are mineral acids or heterogeneous Bronsted acid catalysts. At this purpose, the classical sulphonated polystyrene acid resins cannot be used at temperature greater than 120 C. Therefore, a new class of sulfonated polymers, with enhanced temperature resistance, has been developed by selective and quantitative sulfonation of olefinic butadiene units in multiblock copolymers syndiotactic polystyrene-co-1,4-cis-polybutadiene. This catalytic system has been successfully tested in the above mentioned esterification reaction and compared to classic commercial strong acid catalysts like Amberlyst {sup registered}, Nafion {sup registered} and sulfuric acid. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of Causes of Construction Material Waste: Case of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... contributing to construction material waste generation on building sites in Rivers State, Nigeria are ''rework contrary to drawing and specification”, “design changes and revision” and “waste from uneconomical shapes” respectively. It was also discovered that inappropriate equipment contributed least to waste generation ...

  11. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) WasteWise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA??s WasteWise encourages organizations and businesses to achieve sustainability in their practices and reduce select industrial wastes. WasteWise is part of EPA??s sustainable materials management efforts, which promote the use and reuse of materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. All U.S. businesses, governments and nonprofit organizations can join WasteWise as a partner, endorser or both. Current participants range from small local governments and nonprofit organizations to large multinational corporations. Partners demonstrate how they reduce waste, practice environmental stewardship and incorporate sustainable materials management into their waste-handling processes. Endorsers promote enrollment in WasteWise as part of a comprehensive approach to help their stakeholders realize the economic benefits to reducing waste. WasteWise helps organizations reduce their impact on global climate change through waste reduction. Every stage of a product's life cycle??extraction, manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal??indirectly or directly contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere and affects the global climate. WasteWise is part of EPA's larger SMM program (https://www.epa.gov/smm). Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources

  12. Waste materials - catalytic opportunities: an overview of the application of large scale waste materials as resources for catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Batra, V.S.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Pulford, I.D. [TERI University, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy & Environment

    2011-01-15

    In this overview, we present examples of the use of high volume waste materials in catalysis or for catalyst synthesis. Waste materials derived from both industrial and biological sources have attracted interest and this is briefly summarized. The materials described include red mud, aluminium dross, fly ash, blast furnace slag, rice husk and various kinds of shell.

  13. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  14. Characterization of selected LDEF polymer matrix resin composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Witte, William G., Jr.; Shen, James Y.

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of selected graphite fiber reinforced epoxy (934 and 5208) and polysulfone (P1700) matrix resin composite materials which received 5 years and 10 months of exposure to the LEO environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is reported. Resin loss and a decrease in mechanical performance as well as dramatic visual effects were observed. However, chemical characterization including infrared, thermal, and selected solution property measurements showed that the molecular structure of the polymeric matrix had not changed significantly in response to this exposure. The potential effect of a silicon-containing molecular contamination of these specimens is addressed.

  15. Standard Guide for Testing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the application of ASTM standard test methods (and other supporting standards) to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. The most commonly used or most applicable ASTM standards are included, emphasizing use of standards of Committee D30 on Composite Materials. 1.2 This guide does not cover all possible standards that could apply to polymer matrix composites and restricts discussion to the documented scope. Commonly used but non-standard industry extensions of test method scopes, such as application of static test methods to fatigue testing, are not discussed. A more complete summary of general composite testing standards, including non-ASTM test methods, is included in the Composite Materials Handbook (MIL-HDBK-17). Additional specific recommendations for testing textile (fabric, braided) composites are contained in Guide D6856. 1.3 This guide does not specify a system of measurement; the systems specified within each of the referenced standards shall appl...

  16. Resistance of acellular dermal matrix materials to microbial penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Elizabeth N; Qi, Chao; Ibrahim, Omer; Kim, John Y; Alam, Murad

    2013-05-01

    Acellular dermal matrices have many current and potential applications, but their long-term safety has not been extensively studied. In particular, limited information exists regarding such materials' resistance to infection. To assess the resistance to microbial penetration of common acellular dermal matrix materials used in reconstruction after skin cancer excision, treatment of chronic ulcers and burns, breast reconstruction, hernia repairs, and other applications. Comparative in vitro study of 4 commercially available dermal substitutes for their ability to act as barriers to penetration by common skin pathogens. University-based dermatology and plastic surgery departments and a hospital microbiology laboratory. Four commercially available dermal substitutes, including AlloDerm (LifeCell), FlexHD (Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation), Strattice (LifeCell), and NeoForm (Mentor Corporation). We tested the 4 dermal matrix materials with the following 4 organisms commonly implicated in wound infections: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Candida albicans. Each material was inoculated with the same concentration of each pathogen. The number of bacterial colonies grown on blood agar plates. AlloDerm and rehydrated FlexHD were found to be the best barriers to penetration by P. aeruginosa. AlloDerm, FlexHD, and Strattice also prevented penetration by S. aureus and S. pyogenes; NeoForm was less effective in withstanding these organisms. The results of this study were inconclusive with regard to C. albicans penetration. Three of the 4 commonly used acellular dermal matrix materials are resistant to in vitro penetration by S. aureus and S. pyogenes and partially resistant to P. aeruginosa. Resistance to fungal pathogens is uncertain. Antimicrobial differences across matrix materials may influence their selection for particular uses, such as treatment of refractory leg ulcers or reconstruction after skin cancer excision.

  17. Characterization study of industrial waste glass as starting material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present study, an industrial waste glass was characterized and the potential to assess as starting material in development of bioactive materials was investigated. A waste glass collected from the two different glass industry was grounded to fine powder. The samples were characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), ...

  18. The contributions of construction material waste to project cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result implies that any increase in material waste on the construction site would result in a corresponding increase in the amount of cost overrun for a project. Table 1: Results of the Pearson moment-correlation analysis between the volume of material wasted (52.4% average project completion) and the cost overruns ...

  19. Youth Solid Waste Educational Materials List, November 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide provides a brief description and ordering information for approximately 300 educational materials for grades K-12 on the subject of solid waste. The materials cover a variety of environmental issues and actions related to solid waste management. Entries are divided into five sections including audiovisual programs, books, magazines,…

  20. Chromium liquid waste inertization in an inorganic alkali activated matrix: Leaching and NMR multinuclear approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponzoni, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.ponzoni@unimore.it [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Modena (Italy); Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Modena (Italy); Spinella, Alberto; Saladino, Maria Luisa [University of Palermo CGA-UniNetLab, Palermo (Italy); Martino, Delia Chillura [University of Palermo, Department STEBICEF, Palermo (Italy); Caponetti, Eugenio [University of Palermo CGA-UniNetLab, Palermo (Italy); University of Palermo, Department STEBICEF, Palermo (Italy); Armetta, Francesco [University of Palermo, Department STEBICEF, Palermo (Italy); Leonelli, Cristina [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, Modena (Italy)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Inertization of chromium liquid waste in aluminosilicate matrix. • Water less inertization technique exploiting the waste water content. • Liquid waste inertization without drying step. • Long term stabilization study through leaching test. • SEM analysis and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR in relation with long curing time. - Abstract: A class of inorganic binders, also known as geopolymers, can be obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicate powders at room temperature. The process is affected by many parameters (curing time, curing temperature, relative humidity etc.) and leads to a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous waste. In this study an industrial liquid waste containing a high amount of chromium (≈2.3 wt%) in the form of metalorganic salts is inertized into a metakaolin based geopolymer matrix. One of the innovative aspects is the exploitation of the water contained in the waste for the geopolymerization process. This avoided any drying treatment, a common step in the management of liquid hazardous waste. The evolution of the process - from the precursor dissolution to the final geopolymer matrix hardening - of different geopolymers containing a waste amount ranging from 3 to 20% wt and their capability to inertize chromium cations were studied by: i) the leaching tests, according to the EN 12,457 regulation, at different curing times (15, 28, 90 and 540 days) monitoring releases of chromium ions (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) and the cations constituting the aluminosilicate matrix (Na, Si, Al); ii) the humidity variation for different curing times (15 and 540 days); iii) SEM characterization at different curing times (28 and 540 days); iv) the trend of the solution conductivity and pH during the leaching test; v) the characterization of the short-range ordering in terms of T−O−T bonds (where T is Al or Si) by {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al solid state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (ss MAS NMR) for

  1. ZeroWaste BYG: Redesigning construction materials towards zero waste society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes [1], providing the basis to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector.The amount of waste increases and it is both difficult and expensive to handle many waste types as e.g.different ashes. At the same time......The ZeroWaste research group (www.zerowaste.byg.dtu.dk) at the Department of Civil Engineering was established in 2012 and covers the broad range of expertise required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have developed methods for removal of heavy metals...... there are fewer natural resources and the general consumption increases. We wish to utilize alternative and new ash types as raw material in concrete, similarly to what was previously seen with fly ash from coal combustion and microsilica, which were both transformed from problematic waste to valuable raw...

  2. Use of waste material in cultivation substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Salaš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardeners' practical experience and experimental work prove the affirmation that the used substrate is a very important base for the production of quality nursery products. It is important to emphasis the complexity and synergy of all factors influencing the ecosystem and there mutual relations. Physical, chemical and biological properties do not separately affect the growth and development of plants. In addition, the relations are not statical but differ in relation with other factors changes. This article is dealing with the possibility to use waste material from timber processing in cultivation substrates. The large scale use of such substrates would enable people to reach a relative independence from peat substrates, of which the global reserve is gradually decreasing.Our research activities focus on the use of bark. The basic problems of a bark substrate are easy dehydration and unbalanced nutrition of trees and shrubs. The suggested and experimented cultivation technology solves these problems. It is based on the cultivation of woody species in bark substrates, using modern irrigation systems, slow release fertilisers (Silvamix Forte and special soil conditioners (TerraCottem. This technology was tested on the following species of trees and shrubs: Malus and Buxus.

  3. Mechanical and magnetic properties of composite materials with polymer matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of modern technologies require materials with unusual combinations of properties that cannot be met by the conventional metal alloys, ceramics, and polymeric materials. Material property combinations and ranges have been extended by the development of composite materials. Development of Nd-Fe-B/polymer composite magnetic materials has significantly increased interest in research and development of bonded magnets, since particles of Nd-Fe-B alloys are proved to be very suitable for their production. This study investigates the mechanical and magnetic properties of compression molded Nd-Fe-B magnets with different content of magnetic powder in epoxy matrix. Mechanical properties were investigated at ambient temperature according to ASTM standard D 3039-00. The obtained results show that tensile strength and elongation decrease with an increase of Nd-Fe-B particles content in epoxy matrix. The modulus of elasticity increases, which means that in exploitation material with higher magnetic powder content, subjected to the same level of stress, undergoes 2 to 3.5 times smaller deformation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used to examine the morphology of sample surfaces and fracture surfaces caused by the tensile strength tests. The results of SQUID magnetic measurements show an increase of magnetic properties of the investigated composites with increasing content of Nd-Fe-B particles.

  4. Immobilization of industrial waste in cement–bentonite clay matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of a series of experimental tests performed to determine the influence of matrix characteristics on the leaching mechanism of copper aluminum oxychloride immobilized into cement matrices are presented. The objective of this work was to investigate the leaching mechanism of copper as a constituent of copper ...

  5. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The waste of assistance material perceived by nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Cecília Franchini Reichert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the opinion of nursing students about the waste of assistance materials in practical learning activities. We conducted an exploratory, descriptive study with a quantitative approach. One hundred and eighty-six students composed the sample and they answered to an instrument with affirmatives measured by a Likert-type scale. More than half of students believed that institutions where they are interns waste materials; 76% of fourth grade students (p<0.001 acknowledged to waste materials during their internships and, 89% of the same year (p<0.001 attributed waste to conducting a procedure for the first time. The study allowed the discussion about waste materials during nursing training, alerting about the importance of adequate management of these resources besides the nursing responsibility with the environment and sustainable practices.

  7. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  8. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance...... of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies...... 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive...

  9. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    -chemical waste composition data was performed to derive value ranges and data distributions for element concentrations (e.g. Cd content) and physical parameters (e.g. heating value). Based on 11,886 individual data entries, median values and percentiles for 47 parameters in 11 individual waste fractions......State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources...... and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related...

  10. Technogeneous mineral wastes – source of raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Františka

    Full Text Available The electron microanalysis is used for the evaluation of properties of the technogeneous mineral wastes - the Jelšava waste sands. In the contribution flotation results of the given waste are presented prognosticating a high-quality magnesite concentrate from it. The acquired knowledge, can be rationally used also as a factographic material for explaining the unsuitable wet treatment and, at the same time, it can serve for the proper formulation and construction of other possible technological solutions.

  11. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  12. Extracellular Matrix-Based Biohybrid Materials for Engineering Compliant, Matrix-Dense Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracaglia, Laura G; Fisher, John P

    2015-11-18

    An ideal tissue engineering scaffold should not only promote, but take an active role in, constructive remodeling and formation of site appropriate tissue. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived proteins provide unmatched cellular recognition, and therefore influence cellular response towards predicted remodeling behaviors. Materials built with only these proteins, however, can degrade rapidly or begin too weak to substitute for compliant, matrix-dense tissues. The focus of this Progress Report is on biohybrid materials that incorporate polymer components with ECM-derived proteins, to produce a substrate with desired mechanical and degradation properties, as well as actively guide tissue remodeling. Materials are described through four fabrication methods: 1) polymer and ECM-protein fibers woven together, 2) polymer and ECM proteins combined in a bilayer, 3) cell-built ECM on polymer scaffold, and 4) ECM proteins and polymers combined in a single hydrogel. Scaffolds from each fabrication method can achieve characteristics suitable for different types of tissue. In vivo testing has shown progressive remodeling in injury models, and suggests ECM-based biohybrid materials promote a prohealing immune response over single component alternatives. The prohealing immune response is associated with lasting success and long term host maintenance of the implant. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Leparoux, Marc; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al4C3) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al4C3. Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al4C3 also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials.

  14. Tailoring material properties of a nanofibrous extracellular matrix derived hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Todd D.; Lin, Stephen Y.; Christman, Karen L.

    2011-12-01

    In the native tissue, the interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, mechanical stability, and signaling. It has been shown that decellularized ECMs can be processed into injectable formulations, thereby allowing for minimally invasive delivery. Upon injection and increase in temperature, these materials self-assemble into porous gels forming a complex network of fibers with nanoscale structure. In this study we aimed to examine and tailor the material properties of a self-assembling ECM hydrogel derived from porcine myocardial tissue, which was developed as a tissue specific injectable scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. The impact of gelation parameters on ECM hydrogels has not previously been explored. We examined how modulating pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration affected the nanoscale architecture, mechanical properties, and gelation kinetics. These material characteristics were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, rheometry, and spectrophotometry, respectively. Since the main component of the myocardial matrix is collagen, many similarities between the ECM hydrogel and collagen gels were observed in terms of the nanofibrous structure and modulation of properties by altering ionic strength. However, variation from collagen gels was noted for the gelation temperature along with varied times and rates of gelation. These discrepancies when compared to collagen are likely due to the presence of other ECM components in the decellularized ECM based hydrogel. These results demonstrate how the material properties of ECM hydrogels could be tailored for future in vitro and in vivo applications.

  15. Use of selected waste materials in concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batayneh, Malek; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    A modern lifestyle, alongside the advancement of technology has led to an increase in the amount and type of waste being generated, leading to a waste disposal crisis. This study tackles the problem of the waste that is generated from construction fields, such as demolished concrete, glass, and plastic. In order to dispose of or at least reduce the accumulation of certain kinds of waste, it has been suggested to reuse some of these waste materials to substitute a percentage of the primary materials used in the ordinary portland cement concrete (OPC). The waste materials considered to be recycled in this study consist of glass, plastics, and demolished concrete. Such recycling not only helps conserve natural resources, but also helps solve a growing waste disposal crisis. Ground plastics and glass were used to replace up to 20% of fine aggregates in concrete mixes, while crushed concrete was used to replace up to 20% of coarse aggregates. To evaluate these replacements on the properties of the OPC mixes, a number of laboratory tests were carried out. These tests included workability, unit weight, compressive strength, flexural strength, and indirect tensile strength (splitting). The main findings of this investigation revealed that the three types of waste materials could be reused successfully as partial substitutes for sand or coarse aggregates in concrete mixtures.

  16. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was more effective as dye concentration increases from 5 up to 60 mg/L. The favorable results obtained for lettuce waste have been especially encouraged, as this material has not been commonly employed for sorption purposes. Equilibrium data fitted very well in a Freundlich isotherm model, whereas pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes the process behavior. Restaurant waste performed rapid dye removal at no cost, so it can be adopted and widely used in industries for contaminated water treatment.

  17. PURIFIED WASTE FCC CATALYST AS A CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danute Vaiciukyniene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are commonly used in the fluid catalytic cracking process. Zeolite polluted with oil products and became waste after some time used. The quantity of this waste inevitably rises by expanding rapidly oil industry. The composition of these catalysts depends on the manufacturer and on the process that is going to be used. The main factors retarding hydration process of cement systems and modifying them strength are organic compounds impurities in the waste FCC catalyst. The present paper shows the results of using purified waste FCC catalyst (pFCC from Lithuania oil refinery, as Portland cement replacement material. For this purpose, the purification of waste FCC catalyst (FCC samples was treated with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. By acting of waste with H2O2 it can eliminate the aforementioned waste deficiency, and the obtained product becomes one of the most promising ingredients, in new advanced building materials. Hardened cement paste samples with FCC or pFCC were formed. It was observed that the pFCC blended cements developed higher strength, after 28 days, compared to the samples with FCC or reference samples. Typical content of Portland cement substituting does not exceed 30 % of mass of Portland cement in samples. Reducing the consumption of Portland cement with utilizing waste materials is preferred for reasons of environmental protection.

  18. Metal Matrix Composite Material by Direct Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichenko, D.; Marants, A.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, P. H.; Smurov, I.

    Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a laser cladding process for producing a protective coating on the surface of a metallic part or manufacturing layer-by-layer parts in a single-step process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the possibility to create carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite objects. Powders of steel 16NCD13 with different volume contents of titanium carbide are tested. On the base of statistical analysis, a laser cladding processing map is constructed. Relationships between the different content of titanium carbide in a powder mixture and the material microstructure are found. Mechanism of formation of various precipitated titanium carbides is investigated.

  19. Thermal-vacuum effects on polymer matrix composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Mabson, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on the thermal-vacuum response of a variety of fiber reinforced polymers matrix composites that comprised the UTIAS experiment on the LDEF satellite. Theoretical temperature-time predictions for this experiment are in excellent agreement with test data. Results also show quite clearly the effect of outgassing in the dimensional changes of these materials and the corresponding coefficients of thermal expansion. Finally, comparison with ground-based simulation tests are presented as well. Use of these data for design purposes are also given.

  20. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  1. Chromium liquid waste inertization in an inorganic alkali activated matrix: leaching and NMR multinuclear approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Chiara; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Spinella, Alberto; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Martino, Delia Chillura; Caponetti, Eugenio; Armetta, Francesco; Leonelli, Cristina

    2015-04-09

    A class of inorganic binders, also known as geopolymers, can be obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicate powders at room temperature. The process is affected by many parameters (curing time, curing temperature, relative humidity etc.) and leads to a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous waste. In this study an industrial liquid waste containing a high amount of chromium (≈ 2.3 wt%) in the form of metalorganic salts is inertized into a metakaolin based geopolymer matrix. One of the innovative aspects is the exploitation of the water contained in the waste for the geopolymerization process. This avoided any drying treatment, a common step in the management of liquid hazardous waste. The evolution of the process--from the precursor dissolution to the final geopolymer matrix hardening--of different geopolymers containing a waste amount ranging from 3 to 20%wt and their capability to inertize chromium cations were studied by: i) the leaching tests, according to the EN 12,457 regulation, at different curing times (15, 28, 90 and 540 days) monitoring releases of chromium ions (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) and the cations constituting the aluminosilicate matrix (Na, Si, Al); ii) the humidity variation for different curing times (15 and 540 days); iii) SEM characterization at different curing times (28 and 540 days); iv) the trend of the solution conductivity and pH during the leaching test; v) the characterization of the short-range ordering in terms of TOT bonds (where T is Al or Si) by (29)Si and (27)Al solid state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (ss MAS NMR) for geopolymers containing high amounts of waste (10-20%wt). The results show the formation of a stable matrix after only 15 days independently on the waste amount introduced; the longer curing times increase the matrices stabilities and their ability to immobilize chromium cations. The maximum amount of waste that can be inertized is around 10 wt% after a curing time of 28 days

  2. XPS Investigation of ceramic matrixes for disposal of long-living radioactive waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Yury A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of ceramic matrixes for the long-term storage of highly active radionuclide wastes and determination of physical and chemical forms of radionuclides in them is one of the important problems in radioecology. It enables to create purpose fully materials for the long-term storage of radionuclides. In the present work the samples of ceramics [CaCe0.9Ti2O6.8(I and CaCeTi2O7(II}] formed under various conditions were investigated with the X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. It is necessary for synthesis of ceramic matrixes, for the disposal of the plutonium and others tetravalent actinides. A technique was developed for the determination of cerium oxidation state (Ce3+ and Ce4+ on the basis of the X-ray photo electron spectroscopy spectral structure characteristics. It was established that the sample (I formed at 300 MPa and T = 1400 °C in the air atmosphere contained on the surface two types of cerium ions in the ratio – 63 atomic % of Ce3+ and 37 atomic % of Ce4+, and the sample (II formed at 300 MPa and T= 1300 °C in the oxygen atmosphere contained on its surface two types of cerium ions also, but in the ratio – 36 atomic % of Ce3+ and 64 atomic % of Ce4+. It was established that on the surface of the studied ceramics carbonates of calcium and/or cerium could be formed under influence of the environment that leads to the destruction of ceramics.

  3. EVALUATION OF CAUSES OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL WASTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. This research paper evaluates the causes of construction waste generation on building sites in Rivers. State, Nigeria. The methods employed to collect data include review of relevant literature and structured questionnaire. The statistical techniques used to analyse the data collected are Mean score method,.

  4. Mechanical properties of waste paper/jute fabric reinforced polyester resin matrix hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sekhar

    2017-09-15

    Hybrid composites were prepared with jute fabric and un-shredded newspaper in polyester resin matrix. The experiment was designed 1:2 weights ratio jute and unshredded newspaper to have 42 (w/w)% fibre content hybrid composites and two different sequences jute/paper/jute and paper/jute/paper of waste newspaper and jute fabric arrangement. Reinforcing material is characterized by chemically, X-ray diffraction methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tensile testing. The tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear strength and fracture surface morphology of composites were evaluated and compared. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composite are higher than that of pure paper-based composite but less than pure woven jute composite. The hybridization effect of woven jute fabric and layering pattern effect on mechanical properties of newspaper/woven jute fabric hybrid composites were studied. The test results of composites were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (α=0.05), it showed significant differences among the groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recovery of lithium from waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, J.; Dvořák, P.; Kondás, J.; Havlák, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-54 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : alkaline waste water * laboratory scale * lithium carbonates * lithium metals * precipitation efficiency * reduced pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_01_50.pdf

  6. Developing a matrix reference material for screening of transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Li; Li, Yunjing; Wu, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) that are compatible with detection methods are needed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Screening is the first detection step in determining the possible presence of GMO ingredients in food or feed; however, screening has been hindered by the lack of GMO CRMs. In this study, transgenic rice materials were developed via the transformation of a construct harboring 11 commonly used screening elements. Digital PCR was utilized to identify a homozygous single-copy line termed SDrice. The qualitative detections of 11 elements in 21 transgenic materials demonstrated that the genomic DNA of the SDrice was suitable for use as a positive control in the screening of GMO ingredients. The suitability of SDrice as reference material was further checked by testing the sensitivity of 11 known conventional PCR assays, ranging from 10 to 50 copies of the SDrice genome. The standard curves that were created using SDrice DNA series as calibrators all exhibited good linearities in the relationships of the Ct values with the template copy numbers in these 11 real-time PCR assays. The LODs of the real-time PCR assays were estimated to be two to five copies of the SDrice genome. Comparisons of the SDrice with other GM rice revealed that significant differences existed in both the intercepts of the standard curves and the ΔCt values of the exogenous and reference genes for the P-35S, T-nos, HPT, T-35S, and Bar assays; the SDrice was not fit for quantification of other GM rice events. This study provided a matrix reference material (RM) that was suitable for screening GM rice, determination of sensitivity and a LOD of PCR assays, and overcame some of the drawbacks of plasmid DNA as reference material.

  7. Approach for enhancing nuclear materials tracking and reporting in waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Seitz, S. L. (Sharon L.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.)

    2001-06-01

    Recent policy from the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) has identified the need to report nuclear materials in waste in a manner that is consistent with the Department of Energy's Nuclear Materials Information System (NMIS), which uses Form 471 as its official record. NMIS is used to track nuclear material inventories while they are subject to safeguards. This requirement necessitates the reevaluation of existing business practices that are used to track and report these nuclear materials. This paper provides a methodology for applying a systems approach to the evaluation of the flow of nuclear waste materials from a generating facility through to permanent disposal. This methodology can be used to integrate existing systems and leverage data already gathered that support both the waste reporting requirements and the NMIS requirements. In order to consider an active waste reporting system that covers waste management through to final disposal, the requirements for characterization, certification, and transportation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are used as an example. These requirements are found in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP/WAC) and associated requirement documents. This approach will prevent inconsistencies in reported data and address current and future needs. For example, spent fuel (which the U.S. intends to dispose of as high-level waste) has not been viewed as particularly attractive in terms of proliferation in comparison to materials associated with other parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, collecting high-level waste (or some types of defense waste) in one location where it will be left for hundreds or thousands of years presents proliferation and safeguards issues that need to be considered as part of a systems evaluation. This paper brings together information on domestic and international safeguards practices and considers the current system of documentation used by the

  8. Prevention of spontaneous combustion of backfilled plant waste material.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adamski, SA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Grootegeluk Coal Mine commenced operation in 1980 all plant discards and inter-burden material have been stacked on discards dumps, a practice that has led to the spontaneous combustion of the waste material on these dumps. From 1980 to 1988...

  9. Material Recovery from Wastes: An Employment and Poverty Alleviation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Oumarou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is not only about removing waste from the environment but also a tool of social integration and economic well-being. Waste management through the three Rs offers advantages of employment, sustainable development and poverty alleviation. The environment requires attention because it is rapidly degrading amidst dwindling natural resources, mounting amounts of wastes while poverty continues to increase. This paper focused on material recovery from wastes through recovery, re-use, and recycling of municipal solid wastes in the north- eastern city of Maiduguri in Nigeria over a period of 24 months between 2011 and 2013. Three waste management scenarios were thought of and adopted within 7 groups made of the major wards, areas of the Maiduguri metropolis and the University of Maiduguri; involving 5000 respondents/participants working under waste collection outfits or operating at open dump areas. Data obtained were analyzed using simple statistical methods. Findings revealed an annual estimate of the recovery as 16.8 tons of bottles/glasses, 158.4 tons of plastics/rubber, and 264 tons of metal. It also indicated that considerable amount of money could be made from material recovery and recycling=N=97,600 was made from the sales of bottles/glasses, =N= 652,800 from plastic/rubber and =N= 1,408,000 from sales of scrap metals. Material recovery, re-use and recycling have many economic and material benefits. They also constitute human capacity development schemes. These recoverables have paved great means of livelihood to many people involved in this activity. There is need for support from either government or private sector.

  10. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  11. Hot extruded carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hansang; Leparoux, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials were successfully fabricated by mechanical ball milling followed by powder hot extrusion processes. Microstructural analysis revealed that the CNTs were well dispersed at the boundaries and were aligned with the extrusion direction in the composites obtained. Although only a small quantity of CNTs were added to the composite (1 vol%), the Vickers hardness and the tensile strength were significantly enhanced, with an up to three-fold increase relative to that of pure Al. From the fractography of the extruded Al-CNT composite, several shapes were observed in the fracture surface, and this unique morphology is discussed based on the strengthening mechanism. The damage in the CNTs was investigated with Raman spectroscopy. However, the Al-CNT composite materials were not only strengthened by the addition of CNTs but also enhanced by several synergistic effects. The nanoindentation stress-strain curve was successfully constructed by setting the effective zero-load and zero-displacement points and was compared with the tensile stress-strain curve. The yield strengths of the Al-CNT composites from the nanoindentation and tensile tests were compared and discussed. We believe that the yield strength can be predicted using a simple nanoindentation stress/strain curve and that this method will be useful for materials that are difficult to machine, such as complex ceramics.

  12. Pilot-Plant for Energy Recovery from Tropical Waste Food Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental unit for obtaining gaseous methane from waste food materials is discussed and results are presented for experimental tests with animal wastes and tropical waste food materials. The tropical waste food considered include garri, boiled beans and plantains. As expected, the animal wastes produced higher ...

  13. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra; Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong

    2017-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO2-treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO2-treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO2-treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO2-treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO2-treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO2-treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall, this study shows the efficacy of SC-CO2

  15. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  16. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  17. Intermetallic and titanium matrix composite materials for hypersonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, B.; Surdon, G.; Colin, C. [Dassault Aviation, Saint-Cloud (France)]|[Aersopatiale Space & Defence, St Medard en Jalles (France)

    1995-09-01

    As part of the French Program of Research and Technology for Advanced Hypersonic Propulsion (PREPHA) which was launched in 1992 between Aerospatiale, Dassault Aviation, ONERA, SNECMA and SEP, an important work is specially devoted to the development of titanium and intermetallic composite materials for large airframe structures. At Dassault Aviation, starting from a long experience in Superplastic Forming - Diffusion Bonding (SPF-DB) of titanium parts, the effort is brought on the manufacturing and characterization of composites made from Timet beta 21S or IMI 834 foils and Textron SCS6 fiber fabrics. At `Aersopatiale Espace & Defence`, associated since a long time about intermetallic composite materials with university research laboratories, the principal effort is brought on plasma technology to develop the gamma titanium aluminide TiAl matrix composite reinforced by protected silicon carbide fibers (BP SM 1240 or TEXTRON SCS6). The objective, is to achieve, after 3 years of time, to elaborate a medium size integrally stiffened panel (300 x 600 sq mm).

  18. Humid air corrosion of YMP waste package candidate material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating candidate materials for high level nuclear waste containers (Waste Packages) for a potential deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The potential repository is located above the water table in the unsaturated zone. The rock contains nominally 10% by volume water and gas pressure in the emplacement drifts of the repository is expected to remain near the ambient atmospheric pressure. The heat generated by the radioactive decay of the waste will raise the temperature of the waste packages and the surrounding rock. Waste Package temperatures above the ambient boiling point of water are anticipated for the waste emplacement scenarios. Because the repository emplacement drifts are expected to remain at the ambient atmospheric pressure, the maximum relative humidity obtainable decreases above the boiling point of water. Temperatures of the Waste Packages and the surrounding rock are expected to reach maximum temperature within 100`s of years and then gradually decrease with time. Episodic liquid water contact with the WPs is also expected; this will result in the deposition of salts and mineral scale.

  19. WastePD, an innovative center on materials degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, Gerald S.; Vienna, John; Lian, Jie

    2017-07-25

    The US Department of Energy recently awarded funds to create the Center for Performance and Design of Nuclear Waste Forms and Containers (WastePD) as part of the Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program. EFRCs are multi-investigator collaborations of universities, national labs and companies that “conduct fundamental research focusing on one or more “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community.” The major performance parameter of nuclear waste forms is their ability to isolate the radionuclides by withstanding degradation in a repository environment over very long periods of time. So WastePD is at heart a center focused on materials degradation.

  20. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  1. POLYMER COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY WASTE MATERIALS CONTAINING WOOD FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Dębska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the idea of sustainable development has become one of the most important require-ments of civilization. Development of sustainable construction involves the need for the introduction of innovative technologies and solutions that will combine beneficial economic effects with taking care of the health and comfort of users, reducing the negative impact of the materials on the environment. Composites obtained from the use of waste materials are part of these assumptions. These include modified epoxy mortar containing waste wood fibres, described in this article. The modification consists in the substitution of sand by crushed waste boards, previously used as underlays for panels, in quantities of 0%, 10%, 20%, 35% and 50% by weight, respectively. Composites containing up to 20% of the modifier which were characterized by low water absorption, and good mechanical properties, also retained them after the process of cyclic freezing and thawing.

  2. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Materials and Waste Management in the United States Key Facts and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Each year EPA produces a report called Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures. It includes information on municipal solid waste (MSW)...

  3. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maděrová, Z.; Horská, K.; Kim, S.-R.; Lee, Ch.-H.; Pospíšková, K.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 9 (2016), s. 2143-2149 ISSN 0273-1223 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biofilm * food waste materials * magnetic spent grain * Pseudomonas aeruginosa Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.197, year: 2016

  4. The use of agricultural waste materials for concrete making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents laterite as fine aggregate and agricultural waste materials such as periwinkle shell, (PS) and palm kernel shell (PKS) as coarse aggregate for making concrete. Saturated surface dry (SSD) bulk density and compressive cube strength tests of concrete made from these were carried at the concrete age of ...

  5. Silica from Ash-A Valuable Product from Waste Material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. Silica from Ash - A Valuable Product from Waste Material. Davinder Mittal. General Article Volume 2 ... Author Affiliations. Davinder Mittal1. Chemical Technology Dept. Sont Longowal Institute of Engg. & Tech. Longowal 148 106, Distt.Sangrur, Punjab, India ...

  6. Reliability of chemical microanalyses for solid waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettler, Vojtech, E-mail: ettler@natur.cuni.cz [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Johan, Zdenek [Bureau des Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), av. Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans, Cedex 2 (France); Vitkova, Martina [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Skala, Roman [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Institute of Geology of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 269, 165 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kotrly, Marek [Institute of Criminalistics Prague, P.O. Box 62/KUP, Strojnicka 27, 170 89 Prague 7 (Czech Republic); Habler, Gerlinde [Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Klementova, Mariana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Key role of solid speciation of contaminants in hazardous waste materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanophases affect the accuracy of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-resolution methods (FEG-SEM, FIB-TEM) proposed for solid speciation. - Abstract: The investigation of solid speciation of metals and metalloids is required for accurate assessment of the hazardous properties of solid waste materials from high-temperature technologies (slag, bottom ash, fly ash, air-pollution-control residues). This paper deals with the problem of reliability of microanalyses using a combination of electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) only. These methods do not permit to detect nanophases in host-crystals and lead to erroneous interpretation of analytical results, considering the elements of nanophases as belonging to the crystal structure of the main phase. More detailed analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on foils prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) can be used to solve this analytical problem. In this study, lamellar aggregates of potassium-rich clinopyroxenes were detected in copper smelting slags by a combination of SEM and EPMA. However, FIB-TEM indicated the presence of leucite inclusions (tens to hundreds nm in size) within the clinopyroxene lamellae. Based on examples from smelting slags and other solid waste materials, recommendations for standard SEM and EPMA applications and the need for methods with higher resolution for mineralogical investigation of waste materials are discussed.

  7. Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis. ... Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric scan of the extract, revealed a single prominent peak at a wavelength of 300 nm, as was also the case with paper chromatography which showed one major band separation.

  8. Mechanical Testing of 3D Fabric Composites and Their Matrix Material SC-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) 14. ABSTRACT The U.S. Army is actively investigating advanced light-weight structural materials...performance due to the creation of matrix pockets. Measurements can be made using shearography (12), Moiré interferometry fringe patterns (13) or...composite systems . Included in this study is an evaluation of the matrix material, SC-15. The matrix material properties have been widely reported in a

  9. Characteristics of and sorption to biochars derived from waste material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huichao; Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochars can exhibit a high sorption potential towards heavy metals and organic contaminants in various environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil). They have therefore been proposed for environmental remediation purposes to sequester contaminants. To date, most studies have focused on the physicochemical and sorption properties of mineral phases poor biochars, which are typically produced from plant residues. Only little knowledge is available for biochars derived from human and animal waste material, which are typically characterized by high mineral contents (e.g., sewage sludge, manure). Using human and animal waste as source material to produce biochars would support the development of attractive combined strategies for waste management and remediation. The potential impact of mineral phases on the physicochemical and sorption properties of biochars requires further studies so that the potential as sorbent material can be evaluated. With this purpose, different source material biochars were produced at 200°C, 350°C and 500°C, to yield a series of biochars representing a range of mineral content. The derived biochars from wood shavings (toxic elements (i.e., heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of all materials were within the guidelines values proposed by the International Biochar Initiative, indicating their suitability for environmental application. Single point sorption coefficients for the model sorbate pyrene were measured to investigate the effect of mineral content, feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, particle size fractions and acid demineralization on sorption behavior. Overall, sorption of pyrene was strong for all materials (4 < Log Kd < 6.5 L/kg). Sorption generally increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature but there was no effect of particle size on sorption affinity. For mineral phase rich biochars, sorption generally increased after acid demineralization. When considering all materials together, the sorbent aromaticity

  10. Using thermal power plants waste for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduik, R. S.; Smoliakov, A. K.; Timokhin, R. A.; Batarshin, V. O.; Yevdokimova, Yu G.

    2017-10-01

    The recycled use of thermal power plants (TPPs) wastes in the building materials production is formulated. The possibility of using of TPPs fly ash as part of the cement composite binder for concrete is assessed. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis as well as and materials photomicrographs are presented. It was revealed that the fly ash of TPPs of Russian Primorsky Krai is suitable for use as a filler in cement binding based on its chemical composition.

  11. Vertical Flume Testing of WIPP Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Schuhen, M.; Kicker, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. The DOE demonstrates compliance with 40 CFR 194 by means of performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. WIPP PA calculations estimate the probability and consequences of radionuclide releases for a 10,000 year regulatory period. Human intrusion scenarios include cases in which a future borehole is drilled through the repository. Drilling mud flowing up the borehole will apply a hydrodynamic shear stress to the borehole wall which could result in erosion of the waste and radionuclides being carried up the borehole. WIPP PA uses the parameter TAUFAIL to represent the shear strength of the degraded waste. The hydrodynamic shear strength can only be measured experimentally by flume testing. Flume testing is typically performed horizontally, mimicking stream or ocean currents. However, in a WIPP intrusion event, the drill bit would penetrate the degraded waste and drilling mud would flow up the borehole in a predominantly vertical direction. In order to simulate this, a flume was designed and built so that the eroding fluid enters an enclosed vertical channel from the bottom and flows up past a specimen of surrogate waste material. The sample is pushed into the current by a piston attached to a step motor. A qualified data acquisition system controls and monitors the fluid's flow rate, temperature, pressure, and conductivity and the step motor's operation. The surrogate materials used correspond to a conservative estimate of degraded TRU waste at the end of the regulatory period. The recipes were previously developed by SNL based on anticipated future states of the waste

  12. Environmental impact assessment of Gonabad municipal waste landfill site using Leopold Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Aliakbari, Zohreh; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed; Rasouli, Seyedeh Samira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction An environmental impact assessment (EIA) before embarking on any project is a useful tool to reduce the potential effects of each project, including landfill, if possible. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of the current municipal solid waste disposal site of Gonabad by using the Iranian Leopold matrix method. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of a landfill site in Gonabad in 2015 by an Iranian matrix (modified Leopold matrix). This study was conducted based on field visits of the landfill, and collected information from various sources and analyzing and comparing between five available options, including the continuation of the current disposal practices, construction of new sanitary landfills, recycling plans, composting, and incineration plants was examined. The best option was proposed to replace the existing landfill. Results The current approach has a score of 2.35, the construction of new sanitary landfill has a score of 1.59, a score of 1.57 for the compost plant, and recycling and incineration plant, respectively, have scores of 1.68 and 2.3. Conclusion Results showed that continuation of the current method of disposal, due to severe environmental damage and health problems, is rejected. A compost plant with the lowest negative score is the best option for the waste disposal site of Gonabad City and has priority over the other four options. PMID:28465797

  13. Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  15. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ou

    Every year, biomass waste materials are produced in large quantity. The combustibles in biomass waste materials make up over 70% of the total waste. How to utilize these waste materials is important to the nation and the world. The purpose of this study is to test optimum processes and conditions of compacting a number of biomass waste materials to form a densified solid fuel for use at coal-fired power plants or ordinary commercial furnaces. Successful use of such fuel as a substitute for or in cofiring with coal not only solves a solid waste disposal problem but also reduces the release of some gases from burning coal which cause health problem, acid rain and global warming. The unique punch-and-die process developed at the Capsule Pipeline Research Center, University of Missouri-Columbia was used for compacting the solid wastes, including waste paper, plastics (both film and hard products), textiles, leaves, and wood. The compaction was performed to produce strong compacts (biomass logs) under room temperature without binder and without preheating. The compaction conditions important to the commercial production of densified biomass fuel logs, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size, binder effects, and mold conditions were studied and optimized. The properties of the biomass logs were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. It was found that the compaction pressure and the initial moisture content of the biomass material play critical roles in producing high-quality biomass logs. Under optimized compaction conditions, biomass waste materials can be compacted into high-quality logs with a density of 0.8 to 1.2 g/cm3. The logs made from the combustible wastes have a heating value in the range 6,000 to 8,000 Btu/lb which is only slightly (10 to 30%) less than that of subbituminous coal. To evaluate the feasibility of cofiring biomass logs with coal, burn tests were

  16. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Materials and Waste Management in the United States Key Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year EPA produces a report called Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures. It includes information on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, recycling, composting, combustion with energy recovery and landfilling. The 2014 report provides information on historical tipping fees for MSW, and information on the construction and demolition debris generation, which is outside of the scope of MSW. The Facts and Figures website includes recent reports (2012 to 2014 as well as historical information on materials in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2014 (in tons). The reports for both current and historical waste prevention can be accessed at EPA's SMM website. The recent Annual Facts and Figures reports are accessible at the following link: https://www.epa.gov/smm/advancing-sustainable-materials-management-facts-and-figures-report. Historical data as well as studies and summary tables related to the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management Report are accessible here: https://www.epa.gov/smm/studies-summary-tables-and-data-related-advancing-sustainable-materials-management-report. An excel file containing the data from 1960 - 2014 is located here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/PUBLIC/OLEM/Materials_Municipal_Waste_Stream_1960_to_2014.xlsx. EPA also maintains a list of state and local waste characterization studies (reports are not available for all states). You can search for your state at https://www.epa.gov/smm/advancing-

  17. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  18. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  19. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  20. Fiber composite materials: A survey of fiber matrix interface mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Report is described which discusses mechanism of load transfer from matrix to fiber through interface and effects of interface on composite structural integrity. Theoretical considerations are supplemented with experimental data. General trends and significant points are illustrated graphically.

  1. Perspectives of flax processing wastes in building materials production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of using the flax boons for thermal insulation materials. The solution for systematization of materials based on flax boon is suggested. It based on the principle of building materials production using the flax waste with different types of binders. The purpose of the research is to obtain heat-insulating materials with different structure based on agricultural production waste - flax boon, mineral and organic binders. The composition and properties of organic filler - flax boons - are defined using infrared spectroscopy and standard techniques. Using the method of multivariate analysis the optimal ratio of flax boons and binders in production of pressed, porous and granular materials are determined. The effect of particles size distribution of flax boons on the strength of samples with the different composition is studied. As a result, the optimized compositions of pressed, porous and granular materials based on flax boons are obtained. Data on the physical and mechanical properties of these materials are given in the paper.

  2. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  3. No time to waste organic waste: Nanosizing converts remains of food processing into refined materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sharoon; Sarfraz, Muhammad; Farida, Verda; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; Keck, Cornelia M; Jacob, Claus

    2018-01-11

    Modern food processing results in considerable amounts of side-products, such as grape seeds, walnut shells, spent coffee grounds, and harvested tomato plants. These materials are still rich in valuable and biologically active substances and therefore of interest from the perspective of waste management and "up-cycling". In contrast to traditional, often time consuming and low-value uses, such as vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion, the complete conversion into nanosuspensions unlocks considerable potentials of and new applications for such already spent organic materials without the need of extraction and without producing any additional waste. In this study, nanosuspensions were produced using a sequence of milling and homogenization methods, including High Speed Stirring (HSS) and High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) which reduced the size of the particles to 200-400 nm. The resulting nanosuspensions demonstrated nematicidal and antimicrobial activity and their antioxidant activities exceeded the ones of the bulk materials. In the future, this simple nanosizing approach may fulfil several important objectives, such as reducing and turning readily available waste into new value and eventually closing a crucial cycle of agricultural products returning to their fields - with a resounding ecological impact in the fields of medicine, agriculture, cosmetics and fermentation. Moreover, up-cycling via nanosizing adds an economical promise of increased value to residue-free waste management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of phosphate glass recrystallization on the stability of a waste matrix to leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudintsev, S. V.; Pervukhina, A. M.; Mokhov, A. V.; Malkovsky, V. I.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    In Russia, highly radioactive liquid wastes from recycling of spent fuel of nuclear reactors are solidified into Na-Al-P glass for underground storage. The properties of the matrix including the radionuclide fixation will change with time due to crystallization. This is supported by the results of study of the interaction between glassy matrices, products of their crystallization, and water. The concentration of Cs in a solution at the contact of a recrystallized sample increased by three orders of magnitude in comparison with an experiment with glass. This difference is nearly one order of magnitude for Sr, Ce, and Nd (simulators of actinides) and U due to their incorporation into phases with low solubility in water. Based on data on the compositional change of solutions after passing through filters of various diameters, it is concluded that Cs occurs in the dissolved state in runs with a glass and recrystallized matrix. At the same time, Sr, lanthanides, and U occur in the dissolved state and in the composition of colloids in runs with glass, and mostly in colloid particles after contact with the recrystallized sample. These results should be regarded for substantiation of safety for geological waste storage.

  5. Corrosion of canister materials for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard [KIT Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2017-08-15

    In the period between 1980 and 2004, corrosion studies on various metallic materials have been performed at the Research Center Karlsruhe. The objectives of these experimental studies addressed mainly the performance of canister materials for heat producing, high-level wastes and spent nuclear fuels for a repository in a German salt dome. Additional studies covered the performance of steels for packaging wastes with negligible heat production under conditions to be expected in rocksalt and in the Konrad iron ore mine. The results of the investigations have been published in journals and conference proceedings but also in ''grey literature''. This paper presents a summary of the results of corrosion experiments with fine-grained steels and nodular cast steel.

  6. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  7. Serpentinitic waste materials: possible reuses and critical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The extraction and processing of marbles, rocks and granites produces a significant amount of waste materials, in the form of shapeless blocks, scraps, gravel and sludge. Current regulations and a greater concern to the environment promote the reuse of these wastes: quartz-feldspathic materials are successfully used for ceramics, crushed porphyry as track ballast, whereas carbonatic wastes for lime, cement and fillers. However, there are currently no reuses for serpentinitic materials: a striking example is represented by the Valmalenco area (central Alps, northern Italy), a relatively small productive district. In this area 22 different enterprises operate in the quarrying and/or processing of serpentinites with various textures, schistose to massive, and color shades; the commercial products are used all over the world and are known with many commercial names. The total volume extracted in the quarries is estimated around 68000 m3/yr. and the resulting commercial blocks and products can be estimated around the 40 - 50 % of the extracted material. The processing wastes can vary significantly according to the finished product: 35 % of waste can be estimated in the case of slab production, whereas 50 % can be estimated in the case of gang-saw cutting of massive serpentinite blocks. The total estimate of the processing rock waste in the Valmalenco area is about 12700 m3/yr; together with the quarry waste, the total amount of waste produced in the area is more than 43000 m3/yr. The sludge (approximately 12000 m3/yr, more than 95 % has grain size filter-pressed before disposal (water content ranging from 11.5 to 19.4 wt. %). All the different waste materials (85 samples) were characterized by quantitative XRPD (FULLPAT software), whole-rock geochemistry (ICP-AES, ICP-MS and Leco®) and SEM-EDS. The mineralogical composition is quite variable from quarry to quarry, with abundant antigorite (up to 90 wt. %) and olivine (up to 38 wt. %), and variable contents of diopside

  8. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO2, TiO2, SiO2) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 - 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm.

  9. Recycling ceramic industry wastes in sound absorbing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arenas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this investigation is to develop a material mainly composed (80% w/w of ceramic wastes that can be applied in the manufacture of road traffic noise reducing devices. The characterization of the product has been carried out attending to its acoustic, physical and mechanical properties, by measuring the sound absorption coefficient at normal incidence, the open void ratio, density and compressive strength. Since the sound absorbing behavior of a porous material is related to the size of the pores and the thickness of the specimen tested, the influence of the particle grain size of the ceramic waste and the thickness of the samples tested on the properties of the final product has been analyzed. The results obtained have been compared to a porous concrete made of crushed granite aggregate as a reference commercial material traditionally used in similar applications. Compositions with coarse particles showed greater sound absorption properties than compositions made with finer particles, besides presenting better sound absorption behavior than the reference porous concrete. Therefore, a ceramic waste-based porous concrete can be potentially recycled in the highway noise barriers field.

  10. Adsorption of heavy metals in waste water using biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candelaria Tejada-Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption is a process that allows active or passive uptake of metal ions due to the property that different living or dead biomass have to bind and accumulate these pollutants by different mechanisms. The application of low-cost materials obtained from different biomass from microbial flora, agro-industrial waste and algae has been investigated to replace the use of conventional methods for the removal of contaminants such as heavy metals. Some of the metals of greatest impact to the environment due to its high toxicity and difficult to remove are chromium, nickel, cadmium, lead, and mercury. In this paper, an overview of adsorption as an alternative process for the removal of contaminants in solution and biomass commonly used in these processes, as well as some of the modifications made to improve the efficiency of adsorption of these materials is presented. It was concluded that the use of adsorption in the removal of pollutants in aqueous solution using waste biomass is applicable to these decontamination processes avoiding subsequent problems such as the generation of chemical sludge, and generating an alternative to use materials considered as waste. It is further identified that such factors as the pH of the solution, particle size, temperature, and concentration of metal effect on the process.

  11. Power plant wastes capitalization as geopolymeric building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Litu, Loredana; Harja, Maria

    2017-11-01

    In this innovative study, we are present an investigation over the properties of geopolymeric materials prepared using ash supplied by power plant Iasi, Romania and sodium hydroxide solutions/pellets. Having as objective a minimum consumption of energy and materials was developed a class of advanced eco-materials. New synthesized materials can be used as a binder for cement replacement or for the removal/immobilization of pollutants from waste waters or soils. It offers an advanced and low cost-effective solution too many problems, where waste must be capitalized. The geopolymer formation, by hydrothermal method, is influenced by: temperature (20-600°C), alkali concentration (2M-6M), solid /liquid ratio (1-2), ash composition, time of heating (2-48 h), etc. The behaviour of the FTIR peak of 6M sample indicated upper quantity of geopolymer formation at the first stage of the reaction. XRD spectra indicated phases like sodalite, faujasite, Na-Y, which are known phases of geopolymer/zeolite. Advanced destroyed of ash particles due to geopolymerisation reaction were observed when the temperature was higher. At the constant temperature the percentage of geopolymer increases with increasing of curing time, from 4-48 h. Geopolymer materials are environmentally friendly, for its obtaining energy consumption, and CO2 emission is reduced compared to cement binder.

  12. Mechanical and magnetic properties of composite materials with polymer matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Grujić A.; Talijan N.; Stojanović D.; Stajić-Trošić J.; Burzić Z.; Balanović Lj.; Aleksić R.

    2010-01-01

    Many of modern technologies require materials with unusual combinations of properties that cannot be met by the conventional metal alloys, ceramics, and polymeric materials. Material property combinations and ranges have been extended by the development of composite materials. Development of Nd-Fe-B/polymer composite magnetic materials has significantly increased interest in research and development of bonded magnets, since particles of Nd-Fe-B alloys are proved to be very suitable for their ...

  13. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... recycling has been recognised as a backbone of circular economy, with constant measures and initiatives being proposed in order to increase the recycling rates of materials being consumed. Material cycles are complex and dynamic systems where chemicals are added and removed in production, manufacturing...

  14. Study of Material Flow of End-of-Life Computer Equipment (e-wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    makorede

    This delay or staggering in e-waste disposal would reduce the amount of e-waste disposed yearly and thus afford the country the time to make plans to accommodate and manage the e-wastes generated more efficiently. KEYWORDS: e-waste, material flow model, computer equipment, sensitivity analysis, transfer coefficient.

  15. Comparative studies on acid leaching of zinc waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz; Szatan, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    Three industrial waste materials were characterized in terms of their elemental and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 10% sulfuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effects. Slag from melting of mixed metallic scrap contained about 50% Zn and 10% Pb. It consisted mainly of various oxides and oxy-chlorides of metals. Zinc spray metallizing dust contained about 77% Zn in form of zinc and/or zinc-iron oxides, zinc metal and Zn-Fe intermetallic. Zinc ash from hot dip galvanizing was a mixture of zinc oxide, metallic zinc and zinc hydroxide chloride and contained about 80% Zn. Dissolution efficiency of zinc from the first material was 80% (independently on the solid to liquid ratio, 50–150 kg/m3), while decrease of the efficacy from 80% to 60% with increased solid to liquid ratio for the two remaining materials was observed. Both increase in the temperature (20 °C to 35 °C) and agitation rate (300 rpm to 900 rpm) did not improve seriously the leaching results. In all cases, transfer of zinc ions to the leachate was accompanied by different levels of solution contamination, depending on the type of the waste. Leaching of the materials was exothermic with the similar reaction heats for two high oxide-type products (slag, zinc ash) and higher values for the spray metallizing dust.

  16. Material Recover and Waste Form Development--2016 Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Terry A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vienna, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Paviet, Patricia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Material Recovery and Waste Form Development (MRWFD) Campaign under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is responsible for developing advanced separation and waste form technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress (April 2010). This MRWFD accomplishments report summarizes the results of the research and development (R&D) efforts performed within MRWFD in Fiscal Year (FY) 2016. Each section of the report contains an overview of the activities, results, technical point of contact, applicable references, and documents produced during the FY. This report briefly outlines campaign management and integration activities but primarily focuses on the many technical accomplishments of FY 2016. The campaign continued to use an engineering-driven, science-based approach to maintain relevance and focus.

  17. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts.

  18. Biodegradable packing materials from hydrolysates of collagen waste proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmaier, F; Mokrejs, P; Kolomaznik, K; Mladek, M

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of waste collagen proteins (H), from current industrial manufacture (leather, edible meat product casings, etc.) of mean molecular mass 20-30 kDa by a reaction with dialdehyde starch (DAS), produces hydrogels applicable as biodegradable (or even edible) packaging materials for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Thermo-reversibility of prepared hydrogels is given by concentrations of H and DAS in a reaction mixture. At concentrations of H 25-30% (w/w) and that of DAS 15-20% (related to weight of hydrolysate), thermo-reversible hydrogels arise, which can be processed into packaging materials by a technique similar to that of soft gelatin capsules (SGC). Exceeding the limit of 20% DAS leads to hydrogels that are thermo-reversible only in part, a further increase in DAS concentration then leads to thermo-irreversible gels whose processing into biodegradable packaging materials necessitates employment of other procedures.

  19. Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A. (eds.)

    1987-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A glass-ceramic material for fixation of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozadzhiev L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a starting mixture for the preparation of glass-ceramic material for radioactive waste (RW, consisting of 85-95 mass % basanite and 5-15 mass % oxides of elements in I-VIII group of the Periodical table of elements imitating RW, is proposed. The glass-ceramic material is obtained by melting the starting mixture in air at 1450°C for 1 hour and by further crystallization of the melts at 950°C for 30 minutes. It has been noticed that the texture of the glass-ceramic material is microgranular. The main mineral is pyroxene, while a mixture phases are magnetite, hematite and residual glass. It was shown that the RW elements are fixed in the pyroxene and partly in the admixture phases.

  1. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  2. Methods of Manufacturing Bioactive Gels from Extracellular Matrix Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, Kimberly (Inventor); Stuart, Katherine A. (Inventor); Janis, Abram D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of manufacturing bioactive gels from ECM material, i.e., gels which retain bioactivity, and can serve as scaffolds for preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. The manufacturing methods take advantage of a new recognition that bioactive gels from ECM material can be created by digesting particularized ECM material in an alkaline environment and neutralizing to provide bioactive gels.

  3. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems.

  4. Enhanced Materials from Nature: Nanocellulose from Citrus Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Mariño

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose is a relatively inexpensive, highly versatile bio-based renewable material with advantageous properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity. Numerous potential applications of nanocellulose, such as its use for the preparation of high-performance composites, have attracted much attention from industry. Owing to the low energy consumption and the addition of significant value, nanocellulose extraction from agricultural waste is one of the best alternatives for waste treatment. Different techniques for the isolation and purification of nanocellulose have been reported, and combining these techniques influences the morphology of the resultant fibers. Herein, some of the extraction routes for obtaining nanocellulose from citrus waste are addressed. The morphology of nanocellulose was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, while cellulose crystallinity indexes (CI from lyophilized samples were determined using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD measurements. The resultant nanofibers had 55% crystallinity, an average diameter of 10 nm and a length of 458 nm.

  5. Micromechanical Analyses of Debonding and Matrix Cracking in Dual-Phase Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Yang, Qingda

    2016-01-01

    Failure in elastic dual-phase materials under transverse tension is studied numerically. Cohesive zones represent failure along the interface and the augmented finite element method (A-FEM) is used for matrix cracking. Matrix cracks are formed at an angle of 55 deg - 60 deg relative to the loading...... direction, which is in good agreement with experiments. Matrix cracks initiate at the tip of the debond, and for equi-biaxial loading cracks are formed at both tips. For elliptical reinforcement the matrix cracks initiate at the narrow end of the ellipse. The load carrying capacity is highest for ligaments...

  6. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  7. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) WasteWise Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA’s WasteWise encourages organizations and businesses to achieve sustainability in their practices and reduce select industrial wastes. WasteWise is part of EPA’s...

  8. One Component Encapsulating Material Matrix as High Barrier Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for new flexible food packaging materials with effective high barrier against oxygen and moisture to protect food, minimize weight and...

  9. Integrating Molecular Computation and Material Production in an Artificial Subcellular Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold; Hadorn, Maik; Bönzli, Eva

    compartmentalized re- action compartments that interact and get delivered through vesicle trafficking. The European Commission funded project MatchIT (Matrix for Chemical IT) aims at creating an artificial cellular matrix that seamlessly integrates infor- mation processing and material production in much the same......Living systems are unique in that they integrate molecular recognition and information processing with material production on the molecular scale. Pre- dominant locus of this integration is the cellular matrix, where a multitude of biochemical reactions proceed simultaneously in highly...... way as its biological counterpart: the project employs addressable chemical containers (chemtainers) interfaced with electronic computers via mechano-electronic microfluidics....

  10. Acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of ceramic matrix composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosreis, Henrique L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of ceramic composite specimens with a lithium-alumino-silicate glass matrix reinforced with unidirectional silicon carbide (NICALON) fibers was conducted to evaluate their reserve of strength. Ceramic composite specimens with different amount of damage were prepared by four-point cyclic fatigue loading of the specimens at 500 C for a different number of cycles. The reserve of strength of the specimens was measured as the maximum bending stress recorded during four-pointed bending test with the load monotonically increased until failure occurs. It was observed that the reserve of strength did not correlate with the number of fatigue cycles. However, it was also observed that higher values of the stress wave factor measurements correspond to higher values of the reserve of strength test data. Therefore, these results show that the acousto-ultrasonic approach has the potential of being used to monitor damage and to estimate the reserve of strength of ceramic composites.

  11. Low Carbon Footprint mortar from Pozzolanic Waste Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmannavaz, Taha; Mehman navaz, Hossein Ali; Moayed Zefreh, Fereshteh; Aboata, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, Portland cement clinker leads to emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore causes greenhouse effect. Incorporating of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) as partial cement replacement materials into mix of low carbon mortar decreases the amount of cement use and reduces high dependence on cements compared to ordinary mortar. The result of this research supported use of the new concept in preparing low carbon mortar for industrial constructions. Strength of low carbon mortar with POFA and PFA replacement in cement was affected and changed by replacing percent finesse, physical and chemical properties and pozzolanic activity of these wastes. Waste material replacement instead of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was used in this study. This in turn was useful for promoting better quality of construction and innovative systems in construction industry, especially in Malaysia. This study was surely a step forward to achieving quality products which were affordable, durable and environmentally friendly. Disposing ash contributes to shortage of landfill space in Malaysia. Besides, hazard of ash might be another serious issue for human health. The ash disposal area also might create a new problem, which is the area's sedimentation and erosion.

  12. Using quartzofeldspathic waste to obtain foamed glass material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kazmina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a method for the processing of mine refuse non-ferrous metal ore in the production of foamed glass. The subject of this research is a low-temperature frit synthesis (<900 °C, allowing for the high-temperature glass melting process to be avoided. The technology for the production of frit without complete melting of the batch and without using glass-making units offers a considerable reduction in energy consumption and air pollution. It was found that material samples obtained with a density of up to 250 kg/m3 are of rigidity (up to 1.7 MPa in comparison with the conventional foamed glass (1 MPa. This increased rigidity was due to the presence of crystalline phase particles in its interpore partition of less than 2 µm in size. Material with a density of 300 kg/cm3 is recommended for thermal insulation for the industrial and construction sectors. At densities above 300 kg/cm3 and a strength of 2.5 MPa, the purpose becomes heat-insulating construction material. The proposed method for obtaining a porous material from waste widens our choice of raw materials for foamed glass, whilst saving resources and energy.

  13. Effects of waste eggshells and SiC addition on specific strength and thermal expansion of hybrid green metal matrix composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satpal; Dwivedi, Shashi Prakash

    2017-07-05

    Chicken eggshell waste is an industrial byproduct, and its disposal constitutes a serious environmental hazard. Chicken eggshell can be used in commercial products to produce new materials with low cost and density. Low density material which can sustain at higher temperature is a remarkable area of research. Keeping these facts in the mind, the present investigation aims to study the physical behaviour, specific strength and thermal expansion of AA2014/SiC/carbonized eggshell hybrid green metal matrix composites. Microstructure of hybrid green metal matrix shows that the reinforcement particles (SiC particulates and carbonized eggshells particles) are uniformly distributed in the matrix AA2014 alloy. Specific strength for the composites containing 2.5wt.% SiC and up to 7.5wt.% carbonized eggshell was observed to be higher than that of the other selected composites. While for the same composition (AA2014/2.5% SiC/7.5% carbonized eggshell composites), porosity was observed lower than other selected composites. The results revealed that sample of AA2014/2.5% SiC/7.5% carbonized eggshell showed minimum cross sectional area reduction after the thermal expansion at 450°C among all the selected samples. Overall costs of hybrid metal matrix composites were also calculated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ``Ceramics``, Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  15. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Newark, DE (United States); Whang, J.M. [DuPont Specialty Chemicals, Deepwater, NJ (United States); McDevitt, M.F. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs.

  16. Valorization of rice straw waste: an alternative ceramic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Guzmán A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of rice a large amount of solid residue is produced, for which alternative utilizations are scarce or are not commonly applied in industry. Rice straw (RS is a waste product of rice harvest that is generated in equal or greater quantities than the rice itself. RS is frequently burned in open air, which makes it a significant source of pollution. In the search for possible uses of RS, it should be noted that its ash (RSA is particularly rich in silica, alkaline and alkaline earth metals and may be used as a source of alkalis and silica for the production of triaxial ceramics. The present research work proposes the production of a ceramic raw material from RS for its use in the fabrication of ceramic materials for the construction industry. Based on the chemical and mineralogical composition of RSA created under different thermal conditions, the most suitable RSA for this purpose was that obtained from treating RS at a temperature of 800 ºC for a time of 2 h. The resulting RSA presented high contents of SiO2 (79.62%, alkaline oxides (K2O (10.53% and alkaline earth oxides (CaO (2.80%. It is concluded that RSA is a new alternative ceramic raw material that can be used as a replacement for the fluxing (mainly feldspar and inert (quartz materials that are used in the production of triaxial ceramics.

  17. Using tea waste as a new casing material in mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (L.) Sing.) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülser, Coşkun; Pekşen, Aysun

    2003-06-01

    In this study, the possibility of using tea production waste as a new casing material in mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) cultivation was investigated. Some physical and chemical characteristics of tea waste, fermented tea waste and a mixture of tea waste with peat were compared with that of peat casing, as were their effects on yield. The highest yield was obtained from peat casing. Using tea production waste alone as a casing was not acceptable for assured yield when it was compared with peat. But, a mixture of tea production waste with peat in 1:1 (v:v) ratio increased the yield. There was no significant difference between the mushroom yields of tea production waste+peat and peat casing materials at the end of 30 and 40 days. High salt content, organic and inorganic compounds in casing materials caused reduction of yields. However, a high iron content in casing material gave a significant positive correlation with total yield at 40 days.

  18. Material Recovery and Waste Form Development FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Terry Allen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Material Recovery and Waste Form Development (MRWFD) Campaign under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is responsible for developing advanced separation and waste form technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The FY 2015 Accomplishments Report provides a highlight of the results of the research and development (R&D) efforts performed within the MRWFD Campaign in FY-14. Each section contains a high-level overview of the activities, results, technical point of contact, applicable references, and documents produced during the fiscal year. This report briefly outlines campaign management and integration activities, but primarily focuses on the many technical accomplishments made during FY-15. The campaign continued to utilize an engineering driven-science-based approach to maintain relevance and focus. There was increased emphasis on development of technologies that support near-term applications that are relevant to the current once-through fuel cycle.

  19. Significance of Shrinkage Induced Clamping Pressure in Fiber-Matrix Bonding in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    inhomogeneity embedded in a matrix consisting of acementitious material undergoing shrinkage during hydration(autogenous shrinkage). Furthermore, the paperpresents the analysis necessary to perform an interpretation of the experimental results and which allows for thedetermination of the clamping pressure......The present paper accesses the significance of shrinkage inducedclamping pressure in fiber/matrix bonding mechanisms incementitious composite materials. The paper contains a description of an experimental setup whichallows mbox{measurement} of the clamping pressure which develops on anelastic...... acting on any elastic inhomogeneityembedded in the same cementitious matrix material. Fiber-shaped inhomogeneities are of special interest in cementitious composite material systems andresults are presented for the development of clamping pressure on three typical fiber types in two typical cementpastes...

  20. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhen Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and demolition wastes have increased rapidly due to the prosperity of infrastructure construction. For the sake of effectively reusing construction wastes, this paper studied the potential use of construction waste composite powder material (CWCPM as cementitious materials in small-scale prefabricated concretes. Three types of such concretes, namely, C20, C25, and C30, were selected to investigate the influences of CWCPM on their working performances, mechanical properties, and antipermeability and antifrost performances. Also the effects of CWCPM on the morphology, hydration products, and pore structure characteristics of the cement-based materials were analyzed. The results are encouraging. Although CWCPM slightly decreases the mechanical properties of the C20 concrete and the 7 d compressive strengths of the C25 and C30 concretes, the 28 d compressive strength and the 90 d flexural strength of the C25 and C30 concretes are improved when CWCPM has a dosage less than 30%; CWCPM improves the antipermeability and antifrost performances of the concretes due to its filling and pozzolanic effects; the best improvement is obtained at CWCPM dosage of 30%; CWCPM optimizes cement hydration products, refines concrete pore structure, and gives rise to reasonable pore size distribution, therefore significantly improving the durability of the concretes.

  2. A materials science vision of extracellular matrix mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, N.; Steele, J. A. M.; Fratzl, P.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    From an engineering perspective, skeletal tissues are remarkable structures because they are lightweight, stiff and tough, yet produced at ambient conditions. The biomechanical success of skeletal tissues is largely attributable to the process of biomineralization — a tightly regulated, cell-driven formation of billions of inorganic nanocrystals formed from ions found abundantly in body fluids. In this Review, we discuss nature's strategies to produce and sustain appropriate biomechanical properties in mineralizing (by the promotion of mineralization) and non-mineralizing (by the inhibition of mineralization) tissues. We review how perturbations of biomineralization are controlled over a continuum that spans from the desirable (or defective in disease) mineralization of the skeleton to pathological cardiovascular mineralization, and to mineralization of bioengineered constructs. A materials science vision of mineralization is presented with an emphasis on the micro- and nanostructure of mineralized tissues recently revealed by state-of-the-art analytical methods, and on how biomineralization-inspired designs are influencing the field of synthetic materials.

  3. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  4. Surface analysis of carbon black waste materials from tire residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Ko, Y. K.; Reucroft, P. J.; Zondlo, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to obtain surface chemical state information on two carbon black waste materials in terms of the surface element distribution/concentration and chemical structure. Small amounts of sulfur in the form of CS 2 were detected on the surface (less than 1.7 mass %). C-H/C-C was the major carbon functional component on the surface of carbon black samples but other functional forms of carbon were also present such as CO and C-O. The surface of the carbon black obtained from a hydropyrolysis process was highly oxidized primarily in the form of carbon based oxygen groups. On the other hand, surface oxygen atoms on the surface of the carbon black obtained from a pyrolysis process in the absence of H 2 were in the form of both metal oxides and carbon based oxygen groups.

  5. Renewable synthetic diesel fuel from triglycerides and organic waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillard, J.C.; Strassburger, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    A renewable, synthetic diesel fuel has been developed that employs ethanol and organic waste materials. These organic materials, such as soybean oil or animal fats, are hydrolized to yield a mixture of solid soap like materials and glycerol. These soaps, now soluble in ethanol, are blended with ethanol; the glycerol is nitrated and added as well as castor oil when necessary. The synthetic fuel is tailored to match petroleum diesel fuel in viscosity, lubricity and cetane quality and, therefore, does not require any engine modifications. Testing in a laboratory engine and in a production Oldsmobile Cutlass has revealed that this synthetic fuel is superior to petroleum diesel fuel in vehicle efficiency, cetane quality, combustion noise, cold start characteristics, exhaust odor and emissions. Performance characteristics are indistinguishable from those of petroleum diesel fuel. These soaps are added to improve the calorific value, lubricity and cetane quality of the ethanol. The glycerol from the hydrolysis process is nitrated and added to the ethanol as an additional cetane quality improver. Caster oil is added to the fuel when necessary to match the viscosity and lubricity of petroleum diesel fuel as well as to act as a corrosion inhibitor, thereby, precluding any engine modifications. The cetane quality of the synthetic fuel is better than that of petroleum diesel as the fuel carries its own oxygen. The synthetic fuel is also completely miscible with petroleum diesel.

  6. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of agricultural biomass wastes: preliminary study on characterization and valorisation in clay matrix bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Luisa; Andreola, Fernanda; Lancellotti, Isabella; Taurino, Rosa

    2013-11-01

    In this work the feasibility of using woody agricultural biomass wastes as grapes and cherries seeds, sawdust, as pore forming agent, and sugar cane ash, as silica precursor, in bricks, were reported. Sawdust and grapes and cherries seeds, thanks to their organic substances content, during their combustion, bring an energetic support in the bricks firing phase and act as pore forming agent. Usually the addition of this kind of waste is limited to 10wt.% in order to reach an equilibrium between positive (weight and shrinkage decrease and porosity increase) and negative (increase of water absorption and mechanical resistance decrease) effects. The results show that grapes and cherries seeds, added in a percentage of 5wt.% to a brick formulation, have better influence with respect to the sawdust, maintaining the mechanical properties of the fired brick (950°C), showing modulus of rupture around 21-23MPa with a weight reduction of 3-10% (respect to the standard one). Regarding the sugar cane ash, the addition of 5wt.% improves the mechanical properties (modulus of rupture around 27MPa) and no weight decrease is observed. These results confirmed the role played by this kind of agricultural waste, which thanks to its high silica content (61wt.%) is capable to demonstrate a filler and plasticity reducing effect on the brick bodies. Tests carried out highlighted that the addition of these by-products (5wt.%) do not change negatively the main technological properties measured (water absorption, linear shrinkage, flexural resistance, etc.) and permit to hypothesize their use to obtain bricks with both insulating and higher mechanical properties using a pore agent forming or silica carrier alternative raw materials, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of organic waste composts when producing forest planting material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Evgeny M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most seedlings and saplings of woody plants in the Russian Federation are produced in the open ground in forest nurseries. In order to produce high quality planting material it is necessary to support and preserve soil fertility, which can be obtained by using organic wastes and organic-based fertilizers. Our research is aimed at the assessment of the influence of non-conventional organic fertilizers on fertility of podzols and on the growth rate of seedlings and saplings of woody plants in forest nurseries. Our research shows, that the application of non-conventional organic fertilizers does not result in any accumulation of heavy metal salts in podzols, but optimizes hydro physical and agrochemical properties of the ploughed horizon. The efficiency of non-conventional organic fertilizers depends on their composition, physical and chemical characteristics of the original components, their doses applied and original fertility of soils. A combined application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and sand results in the optimization of practically all soil fertility parameters in middle clay-loam soils, while application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and clay is optimal for application on light soils. The optimal application dose of non-conventional fertilizers depends on soil texture, woody species and the fertilizer composition. An optimal application dose for Norway spruce on a light clay-loam soil is 50-80 tons/ha, and on a middle clay-loam soil is 149-182 tons/ha. It is 50 tons/ha for Scots pine growing on a sandy loam soil, and 100 tons/ha for the same species growing on a sandy soil or a light clay-loam. For Siberian larch growing on a light clay-loam soil the dose of fertilizer applied should be 150 tons/ha. It is recommended to apply composts containing over 50% (by weight of Category II wastes (substrate for the amelioration of light soils, and composts containing over 40% (by weight of Category I wastes (filler for the

  9. Waste-efficient materials procurement for construction projects: A structural equation modelling of critical success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Saheed O; Oyedele, Lukumon O

    2018-02-06

    Albeit the understanding that construction waste is caused by activities ranging from all stages of project delivery process, research efforts have been concentrated on design and construction stages, while the possibility of reducing waste through materials procurement process is widely neglected. This study aims at exploring and confirming strategies for achieving waste-efficient materials procurement in construction activities. The study employs sequential exploratory mixed method approach as its methodological framework, using focus group discussion, statistical analysis and structural equation modelling. The study suggests that for materials procurement to enhance waste minimisation in construction projects, the procurement process would be characterised by four features. These include suppliers' commitment to low waste measures, low waste purchase management, effective materials delivery management and waste-efficient Bill of Quantity, all of which have significant impacts on waste minimisation. This implies that commitment of materials suppliers to such measures as take back scheme and flexibility in supplying small materials quantity, among others, are expected of materials procurement. While low waste purchase management stipulates the need for such measures as reduced packaging and consideration of pre-assembled/pre-cut materials, efficient delivery management entails effective delivery and storage system as well as adequate protection of materials during the delivery process, among others. Waste-efficient specification and bill of quantity, on the other hand, requires accurate materials take-off and ordering of materials based on accurately prepared design documents and bill of quantity. Findings of this study could assist in understanding a set of measures that should be taken during materials procurement process, thereby corroborating waste management practices at other stages of project delivery process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, S.; Islam, S. T.; Banthia, N.

    2011-01-01

    Use of any recycled material helps to maintain a greener environment by keeping waste materials out of the landfills. Recycling practices also can decrease the environmental and economical impact of manufacturing the materials from virgin resources, which reduces the overall carbon footprint of industrial materials and processes. This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic mod...

  11. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  12. The Probabilistic Nature of Environmental Cracking in Candidate Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.M. Gordon; P.L. Andresen; L.M. Young

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this research is to determine the effects of material condition and applied stress on environmental cracking in candidate waste package materials for the Yucca Mountain Project. Time-to-failure experiments were performed on smooth bar tensile specimens in a hot, concentrated, mixed-salt solution chosen to simulate concentrated Yucca Mountain water. Smooth tensile specimens were individually loaded by the internal pressure of a 55-liter autoclave, where the applied stress varied with the individual specimen gauge cross section. The effects of material, applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatment were investigated for Alloy 22, Titanium Grade 7, and 316NG stainless steel. Testing of multiple specimens allowed statistical differences among material conditions to be determined. Sensitized 304SS specimens were included in the test matrix to provide benchmark data. Microstructural effects on time-to-failure were studied for Alloy 22, where heat treatments designed to produce topologically close-packed phases (TCP) and long-range ordering (LRO) were investigated. This research complements high-resolution crack-growth-rate experiments performed in a parallel research project.

  13. Managing Materials and Wastes for Homeland Security Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on waste management planning and preparedness before a homeland security incident, including preparing for the large amounts of waste that would need to be managed when an incident occurs, such as a large-scale natural disaster.

  14. Analysis of waste coal from the enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Akst, D. V.; Fomina, O. A.; Ivanov, A. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of waste coal from mining enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of building ceramics is given. The results of studies of material, chemical and mineralogical compositions of waste coal from Abashevskaya processing plant (Novokuznetsk) are presented. It was established that the chemical composition of waste coal refers to aluminosilicate raw materials with a high content of alumina and coloring oxides, the residual carbon content in the wastes is 12-25 %. According to the granulometric composition the waste coal is basically a sandy-dusty fraction with a small amount of clay particles (1-3 %). Additional grinding of coal waste and the introduction of a clay additive in an amount of up to 30 % are recommended. The results of the study of the mineral composition of waste coal are presented. Clay minerals are represented in the descending order by hydromuscovite, montmorillonite and kaolinite, minerals-impurities consist of quartz, feldspar fine-dispersed carbonates. The results of the investigation of ceramic-technological properties of waste coal, which belong to the group of moderately plastic low-melting raw materials, are given. As a result of a comprehensive study it was been established that with chemical, granulometric and mineralogical compositions waste coal with the reduced residual carbon can be used in the production of ceramic bricks.

  15. Biohydrometallurgical methods for metals recovery from waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Willner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article draws attention to recently conducted research of bacterial leaching of metals from various polymetallic waste. These wastes are the carriers of valuable metals: base metals, precious and platinum group metals (e.g. electronic waste, spent catalysts or rare earth elements.

  16. Trends in building materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapiravana, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available of light-weight ultra-high performance concretes, Portland cement replacement, cement matrix and polymer matrix composites, recycling and reuse of waste materials, smart building materials, nanotechnology materials, green energy efficient building... on cement and concrete, composites, waste recycling and reuse and recently nanotechnology materials. To significantly impact on cost reduction and delivery lead time, it is recommended that building materials research and development priorities...

  17. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  18. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  19. Hazardous materials and waste management a guide for the professional hazards manager

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    1995-01-01

    The management of hazardous materials and industrial wastes is complex, requiring a high degree of knowledge over very broad technical and legal subject areas. Hazardous wastes and materials are diverse, with compositions and properties that not only vary significantly between industries, but within industries, and indeed within the complexity of single facilities. Proper management not only requires an understanding of the numerous and complex regulations governing hazardous materials and waste streams, but an understanding and knowledge of the treatment, post-treatment, and waste minimizatio

  20. Thermal modelling of normal distributed nanoparticles through thickness in an inorganic material matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latré, S.; Desplentere, F.; De Pooter, S.; Seveno, D.

    2017-10-01

    Nanoscale materials showing superior thermal properties have raised the interest of the building industry. By adding these materials to conventional construction materials, it is possible to decrease the total thermal conductivity by almost one order of magnitude. This conductivity is mainly influenced by the dispersion quality within the matrix material. At the industrial scale, the main challenge is to control this dispersion to reduce or even eliminate thermal bridges. This allows to reach an industrially relevant process to balance out the high material cost and their superior thermal insulation properties. Therefore, a methodology is required to measure and describe these nanoscale distributions within the inorganic matrix material. These distributions are either random or normally distributed through thickness within the matrix material. We show that the influence of these distributions is meaningful and modifies the thermal conductivity of the building material. Hence, this strategy will generate a thermal model allowing to predict the thermal behavior of the nanoscale particles and their distributions. This thermal model will be validated by the hot wire technique. For the moment, a good correlation is found between the numerical results and experimental data for a randomly distributed form of nanoparticles in all directions.

  1. Standard test method for translaminar fracture toughness of laminated and pultruded polymer matrix composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of translaminar fracture toughness, KTL, for laminated and pultruded polymer matrix composite materials of various ply orientations using test results from monotonically loaded notched specimens. 1.2 This test method is applicable to room temperature laboratory air environments. 1.3 Composite materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by type of polymer matrix or fiber, provided that the specimen sizes and the test results meet the requirements of this test method. This test method was developed primarily from test results of various carbon fiber – epoxy matrix laminates and from additional results of glass fiber – epoxy matrix, glass fiber-polyester matrix pultrusions and carbon fiber – bismaleimide matrix laminates (1-4, 6, 7). 1.4 A range of eccentrically loaded, single-edge-notch tension, ESE(T), specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but planar size may be variable and adjusted, with asso...

  2. Metal- and Polymer-Matrix Composites: Functional Lightweight Materials for High-Performance Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan

    2014-06-01

    The special topic "Metal- and Polymer-Matrix Composites" is intended to capture the state of the art in the research and practice of functional composites. The current set of articles related to metal-matrix composites includes reviews on functionalities such as self-healing, self-lubricating, and self-cleaning capabilities; research results on a variety of aluminum-matrix composites; and investigations on advanced composites manufacturing methods. In addition, the processing and properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer-matrix composites and adhesive bonding of laminated composites are discussed. The literature on functional metal-matrix composites is relatively scarce compared to functional polymer-matrix composites. The demand for lightweight composites in the transportation sector is fueling the rapid development in this field, which is captured in the current set of articles. The possibility of simultaneously tailoring several desired properties is attractive but very challenging, and it requires significant advancements in the science and technology of composite materials. The progress captured in the current set of articles shows promise for developing materials that seem capable of moving this field from laboratory-scale prototypes to actual industrial applications.

  3. A post-contract project analysis of material waste and cost overrun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of a dearth of empirical research and low level of awareness, the majority of managers of construction projects in Nigeria pay hardly any attention to material waste issues that affect cost overrun. This article examines the material waste issues that affect cost overruns at the post-contract stage of building projects.

  4. A post-contract project analysis of material waste and cost overrun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    construction industry. These problems occur at both pre- and post-contract stages of a construction project. As a result of a dearth of empirical research and low ..... Saidu & Shakantu • A post-contract project analysis of material waste... 85. Causes of material waste related to the causes of cost overruns with respect to the.

  5. A post-contract project analysis of material waste and cost overrun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    material waste and cost overruns at the post- contract stage of a project. The collected data were analysed manually, using the deductive approach. This involves constant comparative analysis of the data to generate common patterns on material waste and cost overrun. The research found that poor quality-of- procurement.

  6. Modelling the Solid Waste Flow into Sungai Ikan Landfill Sites by Material Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Latifah A.; Ali, Nora’aini; Hassan, Nur Syafiqah A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the material flow of solid waste flows at Kuala Terengganu by using Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method, generated by STAN Software Analysis. Sungai Ikan Landfill has been operated for about 10 years. Average, Sungai Ikan Landfill receive an amount around 260 tons per day of solid waste. As for the variety source of the solid waste coming from, leachates that accumulated has been tested and measured. Highest reading of pH of the leachate is 8.29 which is still in the standard level before discharging the leachate to open water which pH in between 8.0-9.0. The percentages of the solid waste has been calculated and seven different types of solid waste has been segregated. That is, plastics, organic waste, paper, polystyrene, wood, fabric and can. The estimation of the solid waste that will be end as a residue are around 244 tons per day.

  7. Comparison of Material Behavior of Matrix Graphite for HTGR Fuel Elements upon Irradiation: A literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Cho, Moon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The fuel elements for the HTGRs (i.e., spherical fuel element in pebble-bed type core design and fuel compact in prismatic core design) consists of coated fuel particles dispersed and bonded in a closely packed array within a carbonaceous matrix. This matrix is generally made by mixing fully graphitized natural and needle- or pitchcoke originated powders admixed with a binder material (pitch or phenolic resin), The resulting resinated graphite powder mixture, when compacted, may influence a number of material properties as well as its behavior under neutron irradiation during reactor operation. In the fabrication routes of these two different fuel element forms, different consolidation methods are employed; a quasi-isostatic pressing method is generally adopted to make pebbles while fuel compacts are fabricated by uni-axial pressing mode. The result showed that the hardness values obtained from the two directions showed an anisotropic behavior: The values obtained from the perpendicular section showed much higher micro hardness (176.6±10.5MPa in average) than from the parallel section ((125.6±MPa in average). This anisotropic behavior was concluded to be related to the microstructure of the matrix graphite. This may imply that the uni-axial pressing method to make compacts influence the microstructure of the matrix and hence the material properties of the matrix graphite.

  8. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  9. Recycling Roof Tile Waste Material for Wall Cover Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on roof tile waste treatment has attempted to find the appropriate technology to reuse old roof tile waste by  create  wall  cladding  materials  from  it.  Through  exploration  and  experimentation,  a  treatment  method  has  been discovered  to  transform  the  tile  fragments  into  artificial  stone  that  resembles  the  shape  of  coral.  This  baked  clay artificial stone material is then processed as a decorative element for vertical surfaces that are not load-bearing, such as on the interior and exterior walls of a building. Before applying the fragments as wall tiles, several steps must be taken: 1  Blunting,  which  changes  the  look  of  tile  fragments  using  a  machine  created  specifically  to  blunt  the  roof-tile fragment  edges,  2  Closing  the  pores  of  the  blunted  fragments  as  a  finishing  step  that  can  be  done  with  a  transparent coat or a solid color of paint, 3 Planting the transformed roof-tile fragments on a prepared tile body made of concrete. In this study, the second phase is done using the method of ceramics glazing at a temperature of 700 °C. The finishing step is the strength of this product because it produces a rich color artificial pebble.

  10. Can hazardous waste become a raw material? The case study of an aluminium residue: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan

    2012-05-01

    The huge number of research studies carried out during recent decades focused on finding an effective solution for the waste treatment, have allowed some of these residues to become new raw materials for many industries. Achieving this ensures a reduction in energy and natural resources consumption, diminishing of the negative environmental impacts and creating secondary and tertiary industries. A good example is provided by the metallurgical industry, in general, and the aluminium industry in this particular case. The aluminium recycling industry is a beneficial activity for the environment, since it recovers resources from primary industry, manufacturing and post-consumer waste. Slag and scrap which were previously considered as waste, are nowadays the raw material for some highly profitable secondary and tertiary industries. The most recent European Directive on waste establishes that if waste is used as a common product and fulfils the existing legislation for this product, then this waste can be defined as 'end-of-waste'. The review presented here, attempts to show several proposals for making added-value materials using an aluminium residue which is still considered as a hazardous waste, and accordingly, disposed of in secure storage. The present proposal includes the use of this waste to manufacture glass, glass-ceramic, boehmite and calcium aluminate. Thus the waste might effectively be recovered as a secondary source material for various industries.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Matrix Inclusions on the Fracture Toughness of Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wakeel, Shahlaa A.

    This dissertation studies the impact of microstructure on macro-scale fracture parameters. Experimental and theoretical investigations of fracture toughness are carried out on a representative particulate composite material and reconciled by explicitly considering inclusions within the matrix. The reliability of any structure is a function of its resistance to fracture. Cracks resulting from stress concentrations are the major sources of fracture whether the material is classified as ductile, brittle, or quasi-brittle. The spatial distribution of inclusions in particulate composite materials, such as concrete and other heterogeneous materials, plays an important role in determining material fracture behavior due to the localized stress generated by the inclusion arrangement when cracks open. By controlling the spatial statistics of the inclusion microstructure in the matrix of a composite material, it is possible to control the amount or direction of crack development and may be possible to improve the material's reliability. As steps towards this goal this dissertation investigates the discrepancy between the micro-scratch and macro-scale three-point bending test methods due to the presence of matrix inclusions, applies the theoretical equations for fracture toughness which consider inclusions in the case of micro-particles in cement, and investigates how spatial statistic descriptions may be used to capture the impact of inclusions in a simple closed-form approach. The results of this work allow us to move towards a forward design method to design particulate composite micro-structures for improved resilience to local damage without fracturing.

  12. Potential for energy recovery and greenhouse gas mitigation from municipal solid waste using a waste-to-material approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu

    2016-12-01

    Energy recovery and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastes are getting noticed in recent years. This study evaluated the potential for energy recovery and GHG mitigation from municipal solid waste (MSW) with a waste-to-material (WTM) approach. Waste generated in Taiwan contains a large amount of paper, food waste, and plastics, which previously were mostly sent to waste-to-energy (WTE) plants for incineration. However, the mitigation of GHGs by the WTM approach has been especially successful in the recycling of metals (averaging 1.83×106kgCO2-eq/year) and paper (averaging 7.38×105kgCO2-eq/year). In addition, the recycling of paper (1.33×1010kWh) and plastics (1.26×1010kWh) has contributed greatly to energy saving. Both metal and glass are not suitable for incineration due to their low energy content. The volumes of paper and food waste contained in the MSW are positively related to the carbon concentration, which may contribute to increased GHGs during incineration. Therefore, the recycling of paper, metals, and food waste is beneficial for GHG mitigation. Measures to reduce GHGs were also suggested in this study. The development of the WTM approach may be helpful for the proper management of MSW with regards to GHG mitigation. The results of this study can be a successful example for other nations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.

    2013-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  14. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  15. Improvement of the material and transport component of the system of construction waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyshak, Mikhail; Lunyakov, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    Relevance of the topic of selected research is conditioned with the growth of construction operations and growth rates of construction and demolition wastes. This article considers modern approaches to the management of turnover of construction waste, sequence of reconstruction or demolition processes of the building, information flow of the complete cycle of turnover of construction and demolition waste, methods for improvement of the material and transport component of the construction waste management system. Performed analysis showed that mechanism of management of construction waste allows to increase efficiency and environmental safety of this branch and regions.

  16. Use of waste materials for Lactococcus lactis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Noelia; Torrado, Ana; Cortés, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-08-15

    Lactococcus lactis is an interesting microorganism with several industrial applications, particularly in the food industry. As well as being a probiotic species, L. lactis produces several metabolites with interesting properties, such as lactic acid (LA) and biosurfactants. Nevertheless, L. lactis is an especially demanding species since it has strong nutritional requirements, implying the use of complex and expensive culture media. The results showed the potential of L. lactis CECT-4434 as a LA and biosurfactant producer. The economical cost of L. lactis cultures can be reduced by replacing the MRS medium by the use of two waste materials: trimming vine shoots as C source, and 20 g L(-1) distilled wine lees (vinasses) as N, P and micronutrient sources. From the hemicellulosic fraction, 14.3 g L(-1) LA and 1.7 mg L(-1) surfactin equivalent were achieved after 74 h (surface tension reduction of 14.4 mN m(-1)); meanwhile, a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process allowed the generation of 10.8 g L(-1) LA and 1.5 mg L(-1) surfactin equivalent after 72 h, reducing the surface tension by 12.1 units at the end of fermentation. Trimming vine shoots and vinasses can be used as alternative economical media for LA and cell-bound biosurfactant production. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. An information system for sustainable materials management with material flow accounting and waste input–output analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Cheng Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable materials management focuses on the dynamics of materials in economic and environmental activities to optimize material use efficiency and reduce environmental impact. A preliminary web-based information system is thus developed to analyze the issues of resource consumption and waste generation, enabling countries to manage resources and wastes from a life cycle perspective. This pioneering system features a four-layer framework that integrates information on physical flows and economic activities with material flow accounting and waste input–output table analysis. Within this framework, several applications were developed for different waste and resource management stakeholders. The hierarchical and interactive dashboards allow convenient overview of economy-wide material accounts, waste streams, and secondary resource circulation. Furthermore, the system can trace material flows through associated production supply chain and consumption activities. Integrated with economic models; this system can predict the possible overloading on the current waste management facility capacities and provide decision support for designing strategies to approach resource sustainability. The limitations of current system are specified for directing further enhancement of functionalities.

  18. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  19. Green engineering: Green composite material, biodiesel from waste coffee grounds, and polyurethane bio-foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang-Fu

    In this thesis we developed several ways of producing green materials and energy resources. First, we developed a method to fabricate natural fibers composites, with the purpose to develop green textile/woven composites that could potentially serve as an alternative to materials derived from non-renewable sources. Flax and hemp fabrics were chosen because of their lightweight and exceptional mechanical properties. To make these textile/woven composites withstand moist environments, a commercially available marine resin was utilized as a matrix. The tensile, three-point bending, and edgewise compression strengths of these green textile/woven composites were measured using ASTM protocols. Secondly, we developed a chemical procedure to obtain oil from waste coffee grounds; we did leaching and liquid extractions to get liquid oil from the solid coffee. This coffee oil was used to produce bio-diesel that could be used as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel. Finally, polyurethane Bio-foam formation utilized glycerol that is the by-product from the biodiesel synthesis. A chemical synthesis procedure from the literature was used as the reference system: a triol and isocynate are mixed to produce polyurethane foam. Moreover, we use a similar triol, a by-product from bio-diesel synthesis, to reproduce polyurethane foam.

  20. A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysundara, U.G. Yasantha [Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla (Sri Lanka); Babel, Sandhya [Environmental Technology Program, School of Biochemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a matrix to select sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka, taking into consideration environmental, economic and social assessments of materials in a life cycle perspective. Five building elements, viz., foundations, roofs, ceilings, doors and windows, and floors are analyzed based on materials used for these elements. Environmental burdens associated with these elements are analyzed in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts such as global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Economic analysis is based on market prices and affordability of materials. Social factors that are taken into account are thermal comfort, interior (aesthetics), ability to construct quickly, strength and durability. By compiling the results of analyses, two building types with minimum and maximum impacts are identified. These two cases along with existing buildings are compared in a matrix of environmental, economic and social scores. Analysis of the results also indicates need for higher consideration of environmental parameters in decision-making over social and economic factors, as social and economic scores do not vary much between cases. Hence, this matrix helps decision-makers to select sustainable materials for buildings, meaningfully, and thus helps to move towards a more sustainable buildings and construction sector. (author)

  1. Copper matrix composites as heat sink materials for water-cooled divertor target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ha You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent high heat flux (HHF qualification tests of ITER divertor target mock-ups and the preliminary design studies of DEMO divertor target, the performance of CuCrZr alloy, the baseline heat sink material for DEMO divertor, seems to only marginally cover the envisaged operation regime. The structural integrity of the CuCrZr heat sink was shown to be affected by plastic fatigue at 20 MW/m². The relatively high neutron irradiation dose expected for the DEMO divertor target is another serious concern, as it would cause significant embrittlement below 250 °C or irradiation creep above 350 °C. Hence, an advanced design concept of the divertor target needs to be devised for DEMO in order to enhance the HHF performance so that the structural design criteria are fulfilled for full operation scenarios including slow transients. The biggest potential lies in copper-matrix composite materials for the heat sink. In this article, three promising Cu-matrix composite materials are reviewed in terms of thermal, mechanical and HHF performance as structural heat sink materials. The considered candidates are W particle-reinforced, W wire-reinforced and SiC fiber-reinforced Cu matrix composites. The comprehensive results of recent studies on fabrication technology, design concepts, materials properties and the HHF performance of mock-ups are presented. Limitations and challenges are discussed.

  2. From waste to sustainable materials management: Three case studies of the transition journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angie; Rosano, Michele; Stocker, Laura; Gorissen, Leen

    2017-03-01

    Waste policy is increasingly moving on from the 'prevention of waste' to a 'sustainable materials policy' focused agenda recognising individual wastes as a resource. In order to comparatively analyse policy developments in enhanced waste management, three case studies were selected; San Francisco's Zero Waste Program, Flanders's Sustainable Materials Management Initiative and Japan's Sound Material-Cycle Society Plan. These case studies were chosen as an opportunity to investigate the variety of leading approaches, governance structures, and enhanced waste policy outcomes, emerging globally. This paper concludes that the current transitional state of waste management across the world, is only in the first leg of the journey towards Circular Economy closed loop production models of waste as a resource material. It is suggested that further development in government policy, planning and behaviour change is required. A focus on material policy and incorporating multiple front runners across industry and knowledge institutions are offered as potential directions in the movement away from end-pipe land-fill solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tellurite glass as a waste form for a simulated mixed chloride waste stream: Candidate materials selection and initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-02-02

    Tellurite glasses have been researched widely for the last 60 years since they were first introduced by Stanworth. These glasses have been primarily used in research applications as glass host materials for lasers and as non-linear optical materials, though many other uses exist in the literature. Tellurite glasses have long since been used as hosts for various, and even sometimes mixed, halogens (i.e., multiple chlorides or even chlorides and iodides). Thus, it was reasonable to expect that these types of glasses could be used as a waste form to immobilize a combination of mixed chlorides present in the electrochemical separations process involved with fuel separations and processing from nuclear reactors. Many of the properties related to waste forms (e.g., chemical durability, maximum chloride loading) for these materials are unknown and thus, in this study, several different types of tellurite glasses were made and their properties studied to determine if such a candidate waste form could be fabricated with these glasses. One of the formulations studied was a lead tellurite glass, which had a low sodium release and is on-par with high-level waste silicate glass waste forms.

  4. Recyclable Materials (Waste) Management in Enterprise’s Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevskaia-Malevich, E. D.; Demidenko, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    Currently, in view of the increasing garbage crisis, the notion of a “new lease of life” for waste becomes even more relevant. Waste recycling makes it possible not only to solve obvious environmental problems, but also to offer new resource opportunities for industries. Among the obvious economic, social and environmental advantages, however, waste recycling meets various problems. These problems and solutions for them, as well as the problems of economic efficiency improvement and recycling activities’ appeal for industrial companies in Leningrad region, are discussed in the present study.

  5. Reuse of aluminosilicate waste materials to synthesize geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmiki Samadhi, Tjokorde; Wibowo, Nanda Tri; Athaya, Hana

    2017-08-01

    Geopolymer, a solid alkali-aluminosilicate bonding phase produced by reactions between aluminosilicate solids and concentrated alkali solution, is a potential substitute for ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Geopolymer offers environmental advantages since it can be prepared from various inorganic waste materials, and that its synthesis may be undertaken in mild conditions. This research studies the mechanical and physical characteristics of three-component geopolymer mortars prepared from coal fly ash (FA), rice husk ash (RHA), and metakaolin or calcined kaolin (MK). The ternary aluminosilicate blend formulations are varied according to an extreme vertices mixture experimental design with the RHA content limited to 15% mass. Temperature for initial heat curing of the mortars is combined into the experimental design as a 2-level process variable (30 °C and 60 °C). Compressive strengths of the mortars are measured after setting periods of 7 and 14 d. Higher heat curing temperature increases the strength of the mortar. Compositional shift towards RHA from either MK or FA reduces the strength. The highest strength is exhibited by FA-dominated composition (15.1 MPa), surpassing that of OPC mortar. The compressive strengths at 7 and 14 d are represented by a linear mixture model with a synergistic interaction between FA content and heat curing temperature. Geopolymer with the highest strength contains only FA heat-cured at 60 °C. Further studies are needed to be undertaken to confirm the relationship between biomass ash amorphosity and oxide composition to its geopolymerization reactivity, and to optimize the curing conditions.

  6. Matrix Assisted Ionization Vacuum (MAIV), a New Ionization Method for Biological Materials Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inutan, Ellen D.; Trimpin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for the mass spectrometric analysis of peptides and proteins had a dramatic impact on biological science. We now report that a wide variety of compounds, including peptides, proteins, and protein complexes, are transported directly from a solid-state small molecule matrix to gas-phase ions when placed into the vacuum of a mass spectrometer without the use of high voltage, a laser, or added heat. This ionization process produces ions having charge states similar to ESI, making the method applicable for high performance mass spectrometers designed for atmospheric pressure ionization. We demonstrate highly sensitive ionization using intermediate pressure MALDI and modified ESI sources. This matrix and vacuum assisted soft ionization method is suitable for the direct surface analysis of biological materials, including tissue, via mass spectrometry. PMID:23242551

  7. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-03-01

    A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dealing with emerging waste streams: used tyre assessment in Thailand using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Paul; Kashyap, Prakriti; Suparat, Tasawan; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Increasing urbanisation and automobile use have given rise to an increase in global tyre waste generation. A tyre becomes waste once it wears out and is no longer fit for its original purpose, and is thus in its end-of-life state. Unlike in developed countries, where waste tyre management has already become a significant issue, it is rarely a priority waste stream in developing countries. Hence, a large quantity of waste tyres ends up either in the open environment or in landfill. In Thailand, waste tyre management is in its infancy, with increased tyre production and wider use of vehicles, but low levels of recycling, leaving scope for more appropriate policies, plans and strategies to increase waste tyre recycling. This article describes the journey of waste tyres in Thailand in terms of recycling and recovery, and disposal. Material flow analysis was used as a tool to quantify the flows and accumulation of waste tyres in Thailand in 2012. The study revealed that, in Thailand in 2012, waste tyre management was still biased towards destructive technologies (48.9%), rather than material recovery involving rubber reclamation, retreading tyres and whole and shredded tyre applications (6.7%). Despite having both economic and environmental benefits, 44.4% of used tyres in 2012 were dumped in the open environment, and the remaining 0.05% in landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Monte Carlo simulations of radioactive waste encapsulated by bisphenol-A polycarbonate and effect of bismuth-III oxide filler material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Tonguç

    2017-06-01

    Radioactive waste generated from the nuclear industry and non-power applications should carefully be treated, conditioned and disposed according to the regulations set by the competent authority(ies). Bisphenol-a polycarbonate (BPA-PC), a very widely used polymer, might be considered as a potential candidate material for low level radioactive waste encapsulation. In this work, the dose rate distribution in the radioactive waste drum (containing radioactive waste and the BPA-PC polymer matrix) was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, the change of mechanical properties of BPA-PC was estimated and their variation within the waste drum was determined for the periods of 15, 30 and 300 years after disposal to the final disposal site. The change of the dose rate within the waste drum with different contents of bismuth-III oxide were also simulated. It was concluded that addition of bismuth-III oxide filler decreases the dose delivered to the polymeric matrix due to photoelectric effect.

  10. An Analysis of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Polymer Matrix Composite Sandwich Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Roberts, Gary D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Zheng, Diahua; Averbeck, Timothy; Roth, Donald J.; Jeanneau, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Structural sandwich materials composed of triaxially braided polymer matrix composite material face sheets sandwiching a foam core are being utilized for applications including aerospace components and recreational equipment. Since full scale components are being made from these sandwich materials, it is necessary to develop proper inspection practices for their manufacture and in-field use. Specifically, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques need to be investigated for analysis of components made from these materials. Hockey blades made from sandwich materials and a flat sandwich sample were examined with multiple NDE techniques including thermographic, radiographic, and shearographic methods to investigate damage induced in the blades and flat panel components. Hockey blades used during actual play and a flat polymer matrix composite sandwich sample with damage inserted into the foam core were investigated with each technique. NDE images from the samples were presented and discussed. Structural elements within each blade were observed with radiographic imaging. Damaged regions and some structural elements of the hockey blades were identified with thermographic imaging. Structural elements, damaged regions, and other material variations were detected in the hockey blades with shearography. Each technique s advantages and disadvantages were considered in making recommendations for inspection of components made from these types of materials.

  11. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management performance by material flow analysis: Theoretical approach and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccariello, Lucio; Cremiato, Raffaele; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2015-10-01

    The main role of a waste management plan is to define which is the combination of waste management strategies and method needed to collect and manage the waste in such a way to ensure a given set of targets is reached. Objectives have to be sustainable and realistic, consistent with the environmental policies and regulations and monitored to verify the progressive achievement of the given targets. To get the aim, the setting up and quantification of indicators can allow the measurement of efficiency of a waste management system. The quantification of efficiency indicators requires the developing of a material flow analysis over the system boundary, from waste collection to secondary materials selling, processing and disposal. The material flow analysis has been carried out with reference to a case study for which a reliable, time- and site-specific database was available. The material flow analysis allowed the evaluation of the amount of materials sent to recycling, to landfilling and to waste-to-energy, by highlighting that the sorting of residual waste can further increase the secondary materials amount. The utilisation of energy recovery to treat the low-grade waste allows the maximisation of waste diversion from landfill with a low production of hazardous ash. A preliminary economic balance has been carried out to define the gate fee of the waste management system that was in the range of 84-145 € t(-1) without including the separate collection cost. The cost of door-by-door separate collection, designed to ensure the collection of five separate streams, resulted in 250 € t(-1) ±30%. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Polynorbornene as a low loss matrix material for IR metamaterial applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrington, Christian Lew; Sinclair, Michael B.; Ginn, James Cleveland, III; Lee, Yun-Ju; Sanchez, Andrea E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Hines, Paul; Dirk, Shawn M.; Rasberry, Roger D.

    2010-11-01

    Novel low loss photopatternable matrix materials for IR metamaterial applications were synthesized using the ring opening metathesis polymerization reaction (ROMP) of norbornene followed by a partial hydrogenation to remove most of the IR absorbing olefin groups which absorb in the 8-12 {micro}m range. Photopatterning was achieved via crosslinking of the remaining olefin groups with alpha, omega-dithiols via the thiol-ene coupling reaction. Since ROMP is a living polymerization the molecular weight of the polymer can be controlled simply by varying the ratio of catalyst to monomer. In order to determine the optimum photopattenable IR matrix material we varied the amount of olefin remaining after the partial hydrogenation. Hydrogenation was accomplished using tosyl hydrazide. The degree of hydrogenation can be controlled by altering the reaction time or reaction stoichiometry and the by-products can be easily removed during workup by precipitation into ethanol. Several polymers have been prepared using this reduction scheme including two polymers which had 54% and 68% olefin remaining. Free standing films (approx. 12 {micro}m) were prepared from the 68% olefin material using draw-down technique and subsequently irradiated with a UV lamp (365 nm) for thirty minutes to induce crosslinking via thiol-ene reaction. After crosslinking, the olefin IR-absorption band disappeared and the Tg of the matrix material increased; both desirable properties for IR metamaterial applications. The polymer system has inherent photopatternable behavior primarily because of solubility differences between the pre-polymer and cross-linked matrix. Photopatterned structures using the 54% as well as the 68% olefin material were easily obtained. The synthesis, processing, and IR absorption data and the ramifications to dielectric metamaterials will be discussed.

  13. Utilization of Waste Materials for the Treatment of Waste Water Contaminated with Sulphamethoxazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    The activities were carried out to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of hazardous antibacterial, Sulphamethoxazole from the wastewater by adsorption technique. The selection of this method was done because of its economic viability. The method has the potency of eradicating the perilous chemicals which make their appearance in water and directly or indirectly into the whole biological system, through the ejection of effluents by the industries in flowing water. The adsorption technique was used to impound the precarious antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya an agricultural waste and Water Hyacinth a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10% to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents i.e. Deoiled Soya, Alkali treated Deoiled Soya, Water Hyacinth and Alkali treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Deoiled Soya (DOS) showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali treated Deoiled Soya (ADOS) exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 to 12 kJ/mol which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Various kinetic studies like order of reaction, mass transfer studies, mechanism of diffusion were also performed for the ongoing processes. The mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90% to 98%. Moreover the

  14. pilot-plant for energy recovery from tropical waste food materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1981-03-01

    Mar 1, 1981 ... of the generated biogas. The animal and food wastes used in this work are cow blood, cow rumen, boiled beans, garri and plantains. Five different set ups were used for these. Each waste material was first weighed and those in liquid form such as cow blood were then fed into the digester. Those in large ...

  15. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond energy efficiency, there are now urgent challenges around the supply of resources, materials, energy, food and water. After debating energy efficiency for the last decade, the focus has shifted to include further resources and material efficiency. In this context, urban farming has emerged as a valid urban design strategy, where food is produced and consumed locally within city boundaries, turning disused sites and underutilized public space into productive urban landscapes and community gardens. Furthermore, such agricultural activities allow for effective composting of organic waste, returning nutrients to the soil and improving biodiversity in the urban environment. Urban farming and resource recovery will help to feed the 9 billion by 2050 (predicted population growth, UN-Habitat forecast 2009. This paper reports on best practice of urban design principles in regard to materials flow, material recovery, adaptive re-use of entire building elements and components (‘design for disassembly’; prefabrication of modular building components, and other relevant strategies to implement zero waste by avoiding waste creation, reducing wasteful consumption and changing behaviour in the design and construction sectors. The paper touches on two important issues in regard to the rapid depletion of the world’s natural resources: the built environment and the education of architects and designers (both topics of further research. The construction and demolition (C&D sector: Prefabricated multi-story buildings for inner-city living can set new benchmarks for minimizing construction wastage and for modular on-site assembly. Today, the C&D sector is one of the main producers of waste; it does not engage enough with waste minimization, waste avoidance and recycling. Education and research: It’s still unclear how best to introduce a holistic understanding of these challenges and to better teach practical and affordable solutions to architects, urban

  16. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials......, phosphorous, potassium, and biogenic carbon recovery was estimated to be between 81% and 89% of the input. Biogenic and fossil carbon in the mixed household waste input was determined to 63% and 37% of total carbon based on 14C analyses. Additional recovery of metals and plastic was possible based on further...

  17. Nanofiber reinforcement of a geopolymer matrix for improved composite materials mechanical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, AKM Samsur

    Geopolymers have the potential to cross the process performance gap between polymer matrix and ceramic matrix composites (CMC), enabling high temperature capable composites that are manufactured at relatively low temperatures. Unfortunately, the inherently low toughness of these geopolymers limits the performance of the resulting fiber reinforced geopolymer matrix composites. Toughness improvements in composites can be addressed through the adjustments in the fiber/matrix interfacial strength and through the improvements in the inherent toughness of the constituent materials. This study investigates the potential to improve the inherent toughness of the geopolymer matrix material through the addition of nanofillers, by considering physical dimensions, mechanical properties, reinforcing capability and interfacial bond strength effects. A process optimization study was first undertaken to develop the ability to produce consistent, neat geopolymer samples, a critical precursor to producing nano-filled geopolymer for toughness evaluation. After that, single edge notched bend beam fracture toughness and un-notched beam flexural strength were evaluated for silicon carbide, alumina and carbon nanofillers reinforced geopolymer samples treated at various temperatures in reactive and inert environments. Toughness results of silicon carbide and carbon nanofillers reinforced geopolymers suggested that with the improved baseline properties, high aspect ratio nanofillers with high interfacial bond strength are the most capable in further improving the toughness of geopolymers. Among the high aspect ratio nanofillers i.e. nanofibers, 2vol% silicon carbide whicker (SCW) showed the highest improvement in fracture toughness and flexural strength of ~164% & ~185%, respectively. After heat treatment at 650 °C, SCW reinforcement was found to be effective, with little reduction in the performance, while the performance of alumina nanofiber (ANF) reinforced geopolymer significantly

  18. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  19. Processing and Material Characterization of Continuous Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Polymer Derived Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for high performance vehicles in the aerospace industry requires materials which can withstand high loads and high temperatures. New developments in launch pads and infrastructure must also be made to handle this intense environment with lightweight, reusable, structural materials. By using more functional materials, better performance can be seen in the launch environment, and launch vehicle designs which have not been previously used can be considered. The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer matrix composites can be used for temperatures up to 260C. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in the composites. In this study, continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. The oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing have been performed on test panels and the test results are presented.

  20. Femtosecond Laser Irradiation of Plasmonic Nanoparticles in Polymer Matrix: Implications for Photothermal and Photochemical Material Alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton A. Smirnov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the opportunities provided by the plasmonic nanoparticles inserted into the bulk of a transparent medium to modify the material by laser light irradiation. This study is provoked by the advent of photo-induced nano-composites consisting of a typical polymer matrix and metal nanoparticles located in the light-irradiated domains of the initially homogeneous material. The subsequent irradiation of these domains by femtosecond laser pulses promotes a further alteration of the material properties. We separately consider two different mechanisms of material alteration. First, we analyze a photochemical reaction initiated by the two-photon absorption of light near the plasmonic nanoparticle within the matrix. We show that the spatial distribution of the products of such a reaction changes the symmetry of the material, resulting in the appearance of anisotropy in the initially isotropic material or even in the loss of the center of symmetry. Second, we analyze the efficiency of a thermally-activated chemical reaction at the surface of a plasmonic particle and the distribution of the product of such a reaction just near the metal nanoparticle irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse.

  1. Structural Dimensions, Fabrication, Materials, and Operational History for Types I and II Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.J.

    2000-08-16

    Radioactive waste is confined in 48 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste will eventually be processed and transferred to other site facilities for stabilization. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks, including those with flaws and/or defects, will be required to be in service for another 15 to 20 years. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a leak-tight barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis event which include loading from both normal service and abnormal conditions.

  2. Leaching tests as a tool in waste management to evaluate the potential for utilization of waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloot, H.A. van der [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Kosson, D.S. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Several waste materials from large scale industrial processes possess technical properties that would allow their use in certain construction applications, e.g. coal fly ash, slags from large scale industrial melting and ore processing, and incinerator residues. The disposal of such materials requires space and controlled landfills to minimize long term environmental risks. The beneficial use of such bulk materials is an attractive alternative, if it can be shown that such applications are environmentally acceptable. For this management of wastes and the decision to either dispose or use, information on the environmental properties of materials is needed. Leaching tests have been developed to assess such properties. These have been designed typically in relation to regulatory tools, not as instruments to guide the management of wastes and the possibilities to improve material properties. New methods have been designed to address this aspect, in which maximum benefit can be derived from knowledge of the systematic behaviour of materials and the already existing knowledge in other countries producing similar residues. After initial detailed characterization, concise procedures can be used for control purposes focused on the typical aspects of a certain residue stream. Examples of existing knowledge in this field will be presented.

  3. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    .... In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol...

  4. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process.

  5. Tooth reduction guide using silicone registration material along with vacuum-formed thermoplastic matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Suk; Saglik, Berna; May, Kenneth B

    2010-01-01

    Adequate tooth reduction is a prerequisite for function, esthetics, and longevity of fixed restorations. A tooth reduction guide may be useful for establishing the proper angulation of the tooth and maximizing periodontal health and restorative success. This article describes a simple and versatile technique for an accurate evaluation of tooth reduction for fixed restorations by using a color-contrasting positive guide of a silicone occlusal registration material processed inside a vacuum-formed clear thermoplastic matrix.

  6. Novel CMC material based on a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rak, Z.S. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-08-01

    Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are potential candidates for low-temperature applications by substituting for conventional ferrous materials and light alloys in brake discs in transportation systems, for pump sealing in chemical engineering, etc. Here a new C/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite manufactured by an inexpensive method, consisting of a ceramic slurry infiltration followed by a liquid polymer infiltration and pyrolysis step, is described. (orig.)

  7. Macro-mechanical material model for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    CERN Document Server

    Banks-Sills, L

    1999-01-01

    The stress-strain behavior of a metal matrix composite reinforced with unidirectional, continuous and periodic fibers is investigated. Three-dimensional micro-mechanical analyses of a unit cell by means of the finite element method $9 and homogenization-localization are carried out. These calculations allow the determination of material behavior of the in-plane, as well as the fiber directions. The fibers are assumed to be elastic and the matrix elasto-plastic. $9 The matrix material is governed by a von Mises yield surface, isotropic hardening and an associated flow rule. With the aid of these analyses, the foundation to a macro-mechanical material model is presented which is employed to $9 consider an elementary problem. The model includes an anisotropic yield surface with isotropic hardening and an associated flow rule. A beam in bending containing square fibers under plane strain conditions is analyzed by means of $9 the model. Two cases are considered: one in which the fibers are symmetric with respect t...

  8. High insulation foam glass material from waste cathode ray tube panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Recycling of materials from obsolete equipment has become an important part of global waste management. With responsible collecting, dismantling and materials separation, majority of materials can be recycled. Cathode ray tube (CRT) glass represents as much as two-thirds of the weight of a TV...

  9. Utilizing waste materials to enhance mechanical and durability characteristics of concrete incorporated with silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction and demolition wastes are increasing significantly due to augmented boom of modern construction. Although the partial cement replacement materials do promote the idea of sustainable construction, the use of construction and demolition waste can also be considered to be viable option to advance the sustainability in modern construction practices. This paper investigates the use of industrial waste materials namely marble dust and crushed bricks as replacement of natural fine aggregates along with the use of silica fume as a partial cement replacement on the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of concrete. Partial replacement levels of waste materials were 10 and 20 percent by volume while the partial replacement level of silica fume was kept to 20 percent at all concrete samples. The results reported in this paper show that the use of marble dust as a replacement material to the natural fine aggregates resulted in an increase in the mechanical properties of concrete. However, the use of crushed bricks did not substantially contribute in the development of strength. Water permeability of concrete incorporated with both silica fume and waste materials (marble dust and crushed bricks decreased significantly. The decrease in water permeability of concrete was attributed to the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume with calcium hydroxide of cement and the filler effect of the waste materials of marble dust and crushed bricks. The use of waste materials also enhance the freeze and thaw resistance of concrete. Authors strongly suggest that the pozzolanic reaction and the development of the microstructure of the concrete through the use of waste materials are largely responsible from the advances in the durability of concrete.

  10. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... of this study was to quantify the importance of source separation for determination of emission factors for incineration of residual household waste. This was done by mimicking various source separation scenarios and based on waste composition data calculating resulting emission factors for residual waste...... waste; however the fossil carbon ratio of the waste after source separation was found to be appropriately correlated with the emission factor. Based on the results, it is recommended to carefully evaluate the source separation and collection systems behind reported literature values when comparing...

  11. On the Thermal Conductivity Change of Matrix Graphite Materials after Neutron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Kim, Eung-Seon; Sah, Injin; Park, Daegyu; Kim, Youngjun; Cho, Moon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this work, the variations of the thermal conductivity of the A3-3 matrix graphite after neutron irradiation is discussed as well as of the IG-110 graphite for comparison. Neutron irradiation of the graphite specimens was carried out as a part of the first irradiation test of KAERI's coated particle fuel specimens by use of Hanaro research reactor. This work can be summarized as follows: 1) In the evaluation of the specific heat of the graphite materials, various literature data were used and the variations of the specific heat data of all the graphite specimens are observed well agreed, irrespectively of the difference in specimens (graphite and matrix graphite and irradiated and un-irradiated). 2) This implies that it should be reasonable that for both structural graphite and fuel matrix graphite, and even for the neuron-irradiated graphite, any of these specific heat data set be used in the calculation of the thermal conductivity. 3) For the irradiated A3-3 matrix graphite specimens, the thermal conductivity decreased on both directions. On the radial direction, the tendency of variation upon temperature is similar to that of unirradiated specimen, i.e., decreasing as the temperature increases. 4) In the German irradiation experiments with A3-27 matrix graphite specimens, the thermal conductivity of the un-irradiated specimen shows a decrease and that of irradiated specimen is nearly constant as the temperature increases. 5) The thermal conductivity of the irradiated IG-110 was considerably decreased compared with that of un-irradiated specimens The difference of the thermal conductivity of un-irradiated and irradiated IG-110 graphite specimens is much larger than that of un-irradiated and irradiated A3-3 matrix graphite specimens.

  12. Matrix problems in the certification analysis of botanical materials by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.

    1995-01-01

    Plant materials often contain a mineral fraction as an inseparable part of the plant matrix. Methods for trace analysis in biological materials may not include the amount of determinand present in such mineral fractions, but for certification purposes it must be included. Instrumental methods...... of analysis, such as INAA,automatically include the total amount of an element, regardless of its chemical or physical form; other methods, including RNAA, determine only the amount of element in solution. For certification analysis either the entire sample has been completely dissolved, or the insoluble...

  13. The effect of space environment exposure on the properties of polymer matrix composite materials (A0180)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of various lengths of exposure to a space environment on the mechanical properties of selected commercial polymer matrix composite materials. Fiber materials will include graphite, boron, S-glass, and PRD-49. The mechanical properties to be investigated are orthotropic elastic constants, strength parameters (satisfying the tensor polynomial relation), coefficients of thermal expansion, impact resistance, crack propagation, and fracture toughness. In addition, the effect of laminate thickness on property changes will also be investigated.

  14. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery: Using slaughtering waste streams as starting material for biopolyester production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Shahid; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Koller, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co-products biodiesel (0.97 €/L) and MBM (350 €/t), respectively. The effect of fluctuating market prices for offal materials, biodiesel, and MBM on the final PHA production cost as well as the investment payback time have been evaluated. Depending on the current market situation, the calculated investment payback time varies from 3.25 to 4.5years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  16. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear Waste Management report 2011/2012. Material science for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear waste management section of the Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6 in Juelich is focused on research on radiochemistry aspects/materials science relevant for the long-term safety of nuclear waste storage and disposal. Studies on innovative waste management strategies include partitioning o actinides and the development of ceramic waste forms. Structural research is covering solid state chemistry, crystallography and computational science to model actinide containing compounds. With respect to waste management concepts nondestructive essay techniques, waste treatment procedures and product quality control strategies were developed.

  17. Application of material flow analysis to municipal solid waste in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-03-01

    Understanding waste flows within an urban area is important for identifying the main problems and improvement opportunities for efficient waste management. Assessment tools such as material flow analysis (MFA), an extensively applied method in waste management studies, provide a structured and objective evaluating process to characterize the waste management system best, to identify its shortcomings and to propose suitable strategies. This paper presents the application of MFA to municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The results included the identification and quantification of the main input and output flows of the MSWM system in 2007 and 2014, from the generation, material recovery and collection, to final disposal and the unaccounted flow of municipal solid waste (MSW). We estimated that the waste generation increased from 397×103 tonnes in 2007 to 437×103 tonnes in 2014, whereas the total material recovery was insignificant in both years - 3×103 and 7×103 tonnes, respectively. As for collection and final disposal, the official collection of waste to the local dumpsite in the inner city increased about threefold, from 76×103 to 253×106 tonnes. For waste unaccounted for, the estimates indicated a reduction during the study period from 300×103 to 158×103 tonnes, due to the increase of collection services. The emphasized aspects include the need for practical waste reduction strategies, the opportunity to explore the potential for material recovery, careful consideration regarding the growing trend of illegal dumping and the urgency in phasing-out from the harmful practice of open dumping.

  18. Corn gluten meal as a biodegradable matrix material in wood fibre reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, M.D.H. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand); Pickering, K.L. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)]. E-mail: klp@waikato.ac.nz; Weal, S.J. [Department of Materials and Process Engineering, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2005-12-05

    This study was undertaken to investigate corn gluten meal (CGM) as a biodegradable matrix material for wood fibre reinforced composites. CGM was used alone, as well as hybridized with polypropylene, and reinforced with radiata pine (Pinus Radiata) fibre using a twin-screw extruder followed by injection moulding. Tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to assess the composites. For composites from CGM and wood fibres, extrusion was carried out with the aid of the following plasticizers: octanoic acid, glycerol, polyethylene glycol and water. Windows of processability for the different plasticizers were obtained for all plasticizers. These were found to lie between 20 and 50 wt.% of plasticizer with a maximum of approximately 20% wood fibre reinforcement. The best mechanical properties were obtained with a matrix containing 10 wt.% octanoic acid and 30 wt.% water, which gave a tensile strength and Young's modulus of 18.7 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively. Hybrid matrix composites were compounded with a maleated polypropylene coupling agent and benzoyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. The highest tensile strength and Young's modulus obtained from hybrid matrix composites were 36.9 MPa and 5.8 GPa with 50 wt.% fibre.

  19. Assesment of hydraulics properties of technosoil constructed with waste material using Beerkan infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Peyneau, Pierre-Emmanuel; Beaudet, Laure; Cannavo, Patrice; Sere, Geoffroy

    2017-04-01

    For the characterization of hydraulics soils functions, in situ infiltration experiments are commonly used. The BEST method based on the infiltration through a single ring is well suited for soils containing coarse material. Technosols built from Civil engineering waste material such as brick waste, concrete waste, track ballast and demolition rubble wastes contain large part of coarse material. In this work, different materials made of civil engineering wastes mixed with organic wastes are tested for greening applications in an urban environment using in situ lysimeters. Beerkan infiltrations experiments were performed on these technosols. Experimental data are used to estimate hydraulics properties through the BEST method. The results shows from a hydraulic point of view that studied technosols can achieve the role of urban soil for greening application. Five combinations of artefacts were tested either as "growing material" (one combination) or "structural material" (4 combinations) - as support for traffic. Structural materials consisted in 27 wt.% earth material, 60 wt.% mineral coarse material and 3 wt.% organic material. These constructed technosols were studied in situ using lysimeters under two contrasted climatic conditions in two sites in France (Angers, in northwestern France and Homécourt, in northeastern France). Constructed technosols exhibited high porosities (31-48 vol% for structural materials, 70 vol% for the growing material). The dry bulk density of the growing material is estimated to 0.66 kg/m3 and 1.59 kg/m3 for structural material. The particle size distribution analysis, involving manual sieving (> 2 mm) and complemented by a grain size analysis (method (2006) for the estimation of the shape parameter n of hydraulics functions (Van-Genuchten -Mualem, 1980). This n parameter was estimated to 2.23 for growing materials and 2.29 for structural materials. Beerkan infiltrations experiments data were inversed using the BEST method, the results

  20. Burnt clay waste as a pozzolanic material in Kenya | Shihembetsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore, recommended that small scale production enterprises be set up in areas that produce burnt clay products in order to process the pozzolana from the wastes to produce alternative pozzolanic cement, hence reduce the cost of cement in construction. (Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: 2002 7: 27-44) ...

  1. Ecological aspects of recycling the polyethylene terephthalate waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T. Arlamova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The advantages and defects of modern technology treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PETF wastes, and amounts of the accumulation PETF-tares are analyses in article. Has been established that exploitative properties of experimental samples from secondary PETF, development by method compressed pressing, allowing their use in non-loading friction knots of the machines and mechanisms.

  2. Radioactive waste and recoverable material in France. Summary of the National Inventory 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Thorough knowledge is needed if the various types of radioactive waste are to be managed openly, consistently and in a safe manner. All French radioactive material users have subscribed to this process for many years. Under the terms of the French Act of Parliament of 30 December 1991, the Government commissioned the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (or ANDRA) to carry out a survey of all the radioactive waste present on French Territory. Through its efforts to collect and confirm information from many sources over the years, that is mainly from statements made by waste producers and handlers, ANDRA has built up a database on existing waste and its geographical location. This constantly updated resource has been regularly circulated. At the beginning of the century the Government decided to extend the areas covered by this database, in response to the recommendations made by the National Review Board (CNE) and the Parliamentary Office for Evaluating Scientific and Technology Options (OPECST). This is how the first edition of the National Inventory, published in 2004, came about. The National Inventory of Radioactive Waste and Recoverable Material, presents a full panorama of radioactive waste that it groups into waste families that present homogenous characteristics. It describes the state of the waste that may be conditioned (that is, in its final form) or may not be conditioned (that is, has not been put through sufficient treatments to arrive at its final form) at the end of 2004. Furthermore it presents not only a statistical and geographical summary, but a predictive summary, as it provides waste quantity forecasts for 2010, 2020 and beyond. The Inventory also includes recoverable materials that contain radioactivity. They are always accounted for separately because of their special nature. The data is presented in a synthesis report. This summary is the general public version of the report. The synthesis report offers more in

  3. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.

  4. Compressive Strength of Construction Materials Containing Agricultural Crop Wastes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Pa Nik Nadia Amira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of industrialization and development of urban life made an increase in demand for cement, concrete and bricks. Exploitation on the non-renewable natural resources for raw materials will keep increased in order to meet the demands for construction materials. At the same time, the problems regarding the agricultural crop wastes such as rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, palm oil fuel waste and elephant grass has become an important issue nowadays. Consequently, there are many researchers who have been studying the viability of using these agricultural wastes as construction materials to meet the industry demands in order to decrease the current use of non-renewable natural resources. This paper reviewing on how agricultural waste could be utilized as replacement materials for construction activities from various researchers. The idea of using agricultural crop wastes was promoted by studying upon their engineering properties. This paper focusing on the compressive strength of the construction materials containing agricultural crop wastes, which was the common parameter considered by most researcher as required by various standards.

  5. The Application of Metal Matrix Composite Materials in Propulsion System Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszar, John; Shah, Sandeep; Kashalikar, Uday; Rozenoyer, Boris

    2003-01-01

    Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) materials have been developed and used in many applications to reduce the weight of components where weight and deflection are the driving design requirement. MMC materials are being developed for use in some propulsion system components, such as turbo-pumps and thrust chambers. However, to date, no propulsion system valves have been developed that take advantage of the materials unique properties. The stiffness of MMC's could help keep valves light or improve life where deflection is the design constraint (such as seal and bearing locations). The low CTE of the materials might allow the designer to reduce tolerances and clearances producing better performance and lighter weight valves. Using unique manufacturing processes allow parts to be plated/coated for longer life and allow joining either by welding or threading/bolting. Additionally, casting of multi part pre-forms to form a single part can lead to designs that would be hard or impossible to manufacture with other methods. Therefore, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed and tested a prototype propulsion system valve that utilizes these materials to demonstrate these advantages. Through design and testing, this effort will determine the best use of these materials in valves designed to achieve the goal of a highly reliable and lightweight propulsion system. This paper is a continuation of the paper, The Application of Metal Matrix Composite Materials In Propulsion System Valves, presented at the JANNAF Conference held in April, 2002. Fabrication techniques employed, valve development, and valve test results will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clean emissions containing particulate asbestos material before they escape to, or are vented to, the... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free...

  8. Effects of LDEF flight exposure on selected polymer matrix resin composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemp, Wayne S.; Young, Philip R.; Witte, William G., Jr.; Shen, James Y.

    1992-01-01

    The characterization of selected graphite fiber reinforced epoxy (934 and 5208) and polysulfone (P1700) matrix resin composites materials which received over five years and nine months of exposure to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment in experiment AO134 on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is reported. The changes in mechanical properties of ultimate tensile strength and tensile modulus for exposed flight specimens are compared to the three sets of control specimens. Marked changes in surface appearance are discussed, and resin loss is reported. The chemical characterization including infrared, thermal, and selected solution property measurements showed that the molecular structure of the polymetric matrix had not changed significantly in response to this exposure.

  9. Cytocompatibility and biologic characteristics of synthetic scaffold materials of rabbit acellular vascular matrix combining with human-like collagen I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqian; Wang, Jie; Dong, Fusheng; Song, Peng; Tian, Songbo; Li, Hexiang; Hou, Yali

    2017-10-01

    Scaffold material provides a three-dimensional growing environment for seed cells in the research field of tissue engineering. In the present study, rabbit arterial blood vessel cells were chemically removed with trypsin and Triton X-100 to prepare rabbit acellular vascular matrix scaffold material. Observation by He&Masson staining revealed that no cellular components or nuclei existed in the vascular intima and media after decellularization. Human-like collagen I was combined with acellular vascular matrix by freeze-drying to prepare an acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I scaffold to compensate for the extracellular matrix loss during the decellularization process. We next performed a series of experiments to test the water absorbing quality, biomechanics, pressure resistance, cytotoxicity, and ultra-micro structure of the acellular vascular matrix composite material and natural rabbit artery and found that the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I material behaved similarly to natural rabbit artery. In conclusion, the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I composite material provides a new approach and lays the foundation for novel scaffold material research into tissue engineering of blood vessels.

  10. An efficient method of material recycling of municipal plastic waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Michálková, Danuše; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2004), s. 975-979 ISSN 0141-3910. [IUPAC Microsymposium on Degradation, Stabilisation and Recycling of Polymers /42./. Prague, 14.07.2003-17.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4050008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : recycling * municipal plastic waste * compatibilisation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2004

  11. Numerical homogenization of elastic and thermal material properties for metal matrix composites (MMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stefan; Mergheim, Julia; Zimmermann, Marco; Aurich, Jan C.; Steinmann, Paul

    2017-01-01

    A two-scale material modeling approach is adopted in order to determine macroscopic thermal and elastic constitutive laws and the respective parameters for metal matrix composite (MMC). Since the common homogenization framework violates the thermodynamical consistency for non-constant temperature fields, i.e., the dissipation is not conserved through the scale transition, the respective error is calculated numerically in order to prove the applicability of the homogenization method. The thermomechanical homogenization is applied to compute the macroscopic mass density, thermal expansion, elasticity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity for two specific MMCs, i.e., aluminum alloy Al2024 reinforced with 17 or 30 % silicon carbide particles. The temperature dependency of the material properties has been considered in the range from 0 to 500°C, the melting temperature of the alloy. The numerically determined material properties are validated with experimental data from the literature as far as possible.

  12. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RECOVERY OF CRITICAL MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, T. E.; Diaz, L. A.; Clark, G. G.; Keller, P.

    2016-09-01

    As electronic technology continues to evolve there is a growing need to develop processes which recover valuable material from antiquated technology. This need follows from the environmental challenges associated with the availability of raw materials and fast growing generation of electronic waste. Although just present in small quantities in electronic devices, the availability of raw materials, such as rare earths and precious metals, becomes critical for the production of high tech electronic devices and the development of green technologies (i.e. wind turbines, electric motors, and solar panels). Therefore, the proper recycling and processing of increasing volumes of electronic waste present an opportunity to stabilize the market of critical materials, reducing the demand of mined products, and providing a proper disposal and treatment of a hazardous waste stream. This paper will describe development and techno-economic assessment of a comprehensive process for the recovery of value and critical materials from electronic waste. This hydrometallurgical scheme aims to selectively recover different value segments in the materials streams (base metals, precious metals, and rare earths). The economic feasibility for the recovery of rare earths from electronic waste is mostly driven by the efficient recovery of precious metals, such as Au and Pd (ca. 80 % of the total recoverable value). Rare earth elements contained in magnets (speakers, vibrators and hard disk storage) can be recovered as a mixture of rare earths oxides which can later be reduced to the production of new magnets.

  13. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürü, Metin, E-mail: mguru@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Eng. Fac., Chem. Eng. Depart., 06570 Maltepe-Ankara (Turkey); Çubuk, M. Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S. Ali [Gazi University, Eng. Fac., Civil Eng. Depart., 06570 Maltepe-Ankara (Turkey); Bilici, İbrahim [Hitit University, Eng. Fac., Chem. Eng. Depart., 19100 Çorum (Turkey)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We derived two novel additive materials from PET bottle waste: TLPP and VPP. • We used them to modify the base asphalt separately. • The additives improved both the asphalt and the asphalt mixture performance. • TLPP, VPP offer a beneficial way about disposal of ecologically hazardous PET waste. - Abstract: This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material.

  14. Application of ion beams in materials science of radioactive waste forms: focus on the performance of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, Frederico [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Batiments 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)]. E-mail: garrido@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Nowicki, Lech [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Thome, Lionel [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Ba-hat timents 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2005-10-15

    Ion beam techniques provide unique tools for the qualification of radioactive waste forms. They address three major issues: (i) the simulation by ion irradiation of the stability of a matrix submitted to radiative environment; (ii) the doping of a material with stable or radioactive elements which simulate the species to be confined; (iii) the characterisation of a material via nuclear microanalysis techniques. Among various classes of nuclear matrices the spent nuclear fuel is widely considered as a potential candidate for the stabilisation of radioactive wastes in scenarios of long term interim storage or final geological disposal. Illustrative examples revealing the potentialities of the use of ion beams either as a pure characterisation tool - to investigate the chemical stability of the UO{sub 2} matrix under an oxygen potential - or in a combined way (e.g. irradiation/characterisation, doping/characterisation) - to explore the radiation stability and the behaviour of foreign species - are presented. Transformations (stoichiometry, depth and structure of growing hyperstoichiometric U{sub 4}O{sub 9}/U{sub 3}O{sub 7} oxides) occurring during low-temperature air oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals are reported. Swift heavy ion irradiation of UO{sub 2} single crystals leads to a peculiar single crystal-polycrystal transformation (i.e. polygonisation of the fluorite-type structure of the material). Irradiation of UO{sub 2} at low energy shows that the damage production is directly linked to the energy deposited in nuclear elastic collisions. The lattice location of helium atoms (generated in large amount during the storage period) in interstitial octahedral positions is discussed.

  15. A traveling wave ultrasonic motor with a metal/polymer-matrix material compound stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinbang; Liu, Shuo; Zhou, Ningning; Yu, Aibing; Cui, Yuguo; Chen, Pengfei

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a traveling wave ultrasonic motor with a metal/polymer-matrix material compound stator. The stator is composed of a metal ring and polymer-matrix teeth. The resonance frequency of the stator with different structural dimensions was analyzed by the finite element method. From the results, the structure parameters of the metal ring were obtained. The effects of the density and elastic modulus of the tooth material on the resonance frequency were also investigated. A viscoelastic contact model was built to explore the contact state between the compound stator and rotor. Considering the density, elastic modulus and tribological properties, the tooth material was prepared by a molding process. The load–torque and efficiency–torque characteristics of the motor with different tooth thicknesses were measured under different preloads using a preload controlled ultrasonic motor test device. The maximum no-load speed of the motor was about 85 r min‑1 with a tooth thickness of 3 mm and a preload of 100 N, the maximum stall torque of the motor was about 0.5 N · m with a tooth thickness of 4 mm and a preload of 125 N, and a maximum efficiency of about 5.5% occurred with a tooth thickness of 4 mm, a preload of 100 N and a torque of 0.3 N · m. The main merits of the proposed ultrasonic motor are low cost, light weight, high processing efficiency and long life.

  16. Investigation of Effects of Material Architecture on the Elastic Response of a Woven Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2012-01-01

    To develop methods for quantifying the effects of the microstructural variations of woven ceramic matrix composites on the effective properties and response of the material, a research program has been undertaken which is described in this paper. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, CVI SiC/SiC, composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents and collect relevant statistics such as within ply tow spacing. This information was then used to build two dimensional finite element models that approximated the observed section geometry. With the aid of geometrical models generated by the microstructural characterization process, finite element models were generated and analyses were performed to quantify the effects of the microstructure and its variation on the effective stiffness and areas of stress concentration of the material. The results indicated that the geometry and distribution of the porosity appear to have significant effects on the through-thickness modulus. Similarly, stress concentrations on the outer surface of the composite appear to correlate to regions where the transverse tows are separated by a critical amount.

  17. AN APPROACH FOR ENHANCING NUCLEAR MATERIALS TRACKING AND REPORTING IN WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. L. LONGMIRE; S. L. SEITZ; B. J. SINKULE

    2001-06-01

    Recent policy from the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) has identified the need to report nuclear materials in waste in a manner that is consistent with the Department of Energy's Nuclear Materials Information System (NMIS), which uses Form 471 as its official record. NMIS is used to track nuclear material inventories while they are subject to safeguards. This requirement necessitates the reevaluation of existing business practices that are used to track and report these nuclear materials. This paper provides a methodology for applying a systems approach to the evaluation of the flow of nuclear waste materials from a generating facility through to permanent disposal. This methodology can be used to integrate existing systems and leverage data already gathered that support both the waste reporting requirements and the NMIS requirements. In order to consider an active waste reporting system that covers waste management through to final disposal, the requirements for characterization, certification, and transportation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are used as an example. These requirements are found in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP/WAC) and associated requirement documents. This approach will prevent inconsistencies in reported data and address current and future needs. For example, spent fuel (which the U.S. intends to dispose of as high-level waste) has not been viewed as particularly attractive in terms of proliferation in comparison to materials associated with other parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, collecting high-level waste (or some types of defense waste) in one location where it will be left for hundreds or thousands of years presents proliferation and safeguards issues that need to be considered as part of a systems evaluation. This paper brings together information on domestic and international safeguards practices and considers the current system of documentation used by the

  18. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  19. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-07

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.

  20. Waste-based materials; capability, application and impact on indoor environment – literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Rode, Carsten; Kolarik, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses various sustainable materials utilizing waste products with the focus on their properties having an impact on the indoor environmental conditions and indoor air quality (IAQ). Materials included in the review are selected considering the following aspects...

  1. Desulphurization of hot metal and nickel pig iron using waste materials from the aluminum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.D.; McLean, A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Hasegawa, M.; Iwase, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Energy Science and Technology, Ferrous Metallurgy Research Group; Ren, M.L.; Zhang, D.F. [China Aluminum Co. Ltd., Shandong (China)

    2009-07-01

    The aluminium and steel industries are both energy-intensive and have significant impacts on the environment. The desulphurization of hot metal and nickel pig iron using waste materials from the aluminium industry was evaluated in this study. A simple processing technique using dross and white mud was developed to desulphurize hot metals. Waste materials with a high oxide content were combined with an aluminium instant reduction method and then used for hot metal desulphurization. The presence of nickel in the hot metals showed a negative effect on the desulphurization process as the nickel reduced carbon solubility in an iron-based metal solution. It was concluded that the use of waste slags and solids residuals from the aluminium industry within the steel industry will reduce the disposal of waste and provide significant economic benefits to both industries. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  2. Development of a poly(dimethylacrylamide) based matrix material for solid phase high density peptide array synthesis employing a laser based material transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridder, Barbara [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Foertsch, Tobias C. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Welle, Alexander [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mattes, Daniela S. [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bojnicic-Kninski, Clemens M. von; Loeffler, Felix F.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Meier, Michael A.R., E-mail: m.a.r.meier@kit.edu [Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Breitling, Frank, E-mail: frank.breitling@kit.edu [Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • New matrix material for peptide array synthesis from a ‘solid solvent’. • Resolution was increased with possible spot densities of up to 20.000 spots per cm{sup 2}. • The coupling depth and the effectiveness of washing steps analyzed by ToF-SIMS. • Adaptations and custom changes of the matrix material are possible. - Abstract: Poly(dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) based matrix materials were developed for laser-based in situ solid phase peptide synthesis to produce high density arrays. In this specific array synthesis approach, amino acid derivatives are embedded into a matrix material, serving as a “solid” solvent material at room temperature. Then, a laser pulse transfers this mixture to the target position on a synthesis slide, where the peptide array is synthesized. Upon heating above the glass transition temperature of the matrix material, it softens, allowing diffusion of the amino acid derivatives to the synthesis surface and serving as a solvent for peptide bond formation. Here, we synthesized PDMA six-arm star polymers, offering the desired matrix material properties, using atom transfer radical polymerization. With the synthesized polymers as matrix material, we structured and synthesized arrays with combinatorial laser transfer. With densities of up to 20,000 peptide spots per cm{sup 2}, the resolution could be increased compared to the commercially available standard matrix material. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry experiments revealed the penetration behavior of an amino acid derivative into the prepared acceptor synthesis surface and the effectiveness of the washing protocols.

  3. Waste glass from end-of-life fluorescent lamps as raw material in geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Rui M; Ascensão, G; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays the stunning volume of generated wastes, the exhaustion of raw materials, and the disturbing greenhouse gases emission levels show that a paradigm shift is mandatory. In this context, the possibility of using wastes instead of virgin raw materials can mitigate the environmental problems related to wastes, while reducing the consumption of the Earth's natural resources. This innovative work reports the incorporation of unexplored waste glass coming from end-of-life fluorescent lamps into geopolymers. The influence of the waste glass incorporation level, NaOH molarity and curing conditions on the microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymers was evaluated. Results demonstrate that curing conditions are the most influential factor on the geopolymer characteristics, while the NaOH molarity is less important. Geopolymers containing 37.5% (wt) waste glass were successfully produced, showing compressive strength of 14MPa (after 28days of curing), suggesting the possibility of their use in non-structural applications. Porous waste-based geopolymers for novel applications were also fabricated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Materials in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2012 (in tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years. We use this information to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. Our trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. These materials include items such as packaging, food scraps, grass clippings, sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. MSW does not include industrial, hazardous, or construction waste. The data in Materials and Products in the Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2012, provides estimated data in thousands of tons discarded after recycling and compost recovery for the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. In this data set, discards include combustion with energy recovery. This data table does not include construction & demolition debris, industrial process wastes, or certain other wastes. Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

  5. Materials Discarded in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009 (in tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years. We use this information to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. Our trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. These materials include items such as packaging, food scraps, grass clippings, sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. MSW does not include industrial, hazardous, or construction waste. The data on Materials Discarded in the Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009, provides estimated data in thousands of tons discarded after recycling and compost recovery for the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2009. In this data set, discards include combustion with energy recovery. This data table does not include construction & demolition debris, industrial process wastes, or certain other wastes. The Other category includes electrolytes in batteries and fluff pulp, feces, and urine in disposable diapers. Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

  6. Influence of limestone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Omar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. Limestone waste is obtained as a by-product during the production of aggregates through the crushing process of rocks in rubble crusher units. Using quarry waste as a substitute of sand in construction materials would resolve the environmental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of river and mining sands. This paper reports the experimental study undertaken to investigate the influence of partial replacement of sand with limestone waste (LSW, with marble powder (M.P as an additive on the concrete properties. The replacement proportion of sand with limestone waste, 25%, 50%, and 75% were practiced in the concrete mixes except in the concrete mix. Besides, proportions of 5%, 10% and 15% marble powder were practiced in the concrete mixes. The effects of limestone waste as fine aggregate on several fresh and hardened properties of the concretes were investigated. The investigation included testing of compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and permeability. It was found that limestone waste as fine aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh concretes. But the unit weight concretes were not affected. However, the good performance was observed when limestone waste as fine aggregate was used in presence of marble powder.

  7. Recycling waste brick from construction and demolition of buildings as pozzolanic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Wu, Hsiu-Hsien; Shie, Je-Lueng; Hwang, Chao-Lung; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolic characteristics of pastes that contain waste brick from building construction and demolition wastes. The TCLP leaching concentrations of waste brick for the target cations or heavy metals were all lower than the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. Waste brick had a pozzolanic strength activity index of 107% after 28 days. It can be regarded as a strong pozzolanic material. The compressive strengths of waste brick blended cement (WBBC) that contain 10% waste brick increased from 71.2 MPa at 28 days to 75.1 MPa at 60 days, an increase of approximately 5% over that period. At 28 days, the pozzolanic reaction began, reducing the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and increasing the densification. The intensity of the peak at 3640 cm(- 1) associated with Ca(OH)(2) is approximately the same for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The hydration products of all the samples yield characteristics peaks at 978 cm(-1) associated with C-S-H, and at ~3011 cm(-1) and 1640 cm(-1) associated with water. The samples yield peaks at 1112 cm(-1), revealing the formation of ettringite. In WBBC pastes, the ratio Q(2)/Q(1) increases with curing time. These results demonstrate that increasing the curing time increases the number of linear polysilicate anions in C-S-H. Experimental results reveal that waste brick has potential as a pozzolanic material in the partial replacement of cement.

  8. Matt waste from glass separated collection: an eco-sustainable addition for new building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignozzi, M C; Saccani, A; Sandrolini, F

    2009-01-01

    Matt waste (MW), a by-product of purification processes of cullet derived from separated glass waste collection, has been studied as filler for self-compacting concrete and as an addition for newly blended cement. Properties of self-compacting concrete compared to reference samples are reported. They include characteristics at the fresh and hardened states, and the compressive strength and porosity of mortar samples that were formulated with increasing amounts of MW to be used as cement replacement (up to 50wt.%). The effects of matt waste are discussed with respect to the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the resulting new materials.

  9. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laili, Zalina, E-mail: liena@nm.gov.my [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Wahab, Mohd Abdul [Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  10. Awareness about biomedical waste management and knowledge of effective recycling of dental materials among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Pathak, Ruchi; Singh, Dhirendra K; Jalaluddin, Md; Kore, Shobha A; Kore, Abhijeet R

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical waste management has become a concern with increasing number of dental practitioners in India. Being health care professionals, dentists should be aware regarding safe disposal of biomedical waste and recycling of dental materials to minimize biohazards to the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess awareness regarding biomedical waste management as well as knowledge of effective recycling and reuse of dental materials among dental students. This cross-sectional study was conducted among dental students belonging from all dental colleges of Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India) from February 2016 to April 2016. A total of 500 students (208 males and 292 females) participated in the study, which was conducted in two phases. A questionnaire was distributed to assess the awareness of biomedical waste management and knowledge of effective recycling of dental materials, and collected data was examined on a 5-point unipolar scale in percentages to assess the relative awareness regarding these two different categorizes. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyzed collected data. Forty-four percent of the dental students were not at all aware about the management of biomedical waste, 22% were moderately aware, 21% slightly aware, 7% very aware, and 5% fell in extremely aware category. Similarly, a higher percentage of participants (61%) were completely unaware regarding recycling and reusing of biomedical waste. There is lack of sufficient knowledge among dental students regarding management of biomedical waste and recycling or reusing of dental materials. Considering its impact on the environment, biomedical waste management requires immediate academic assessment to increase the awareness during training courses.

  11. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  12. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E., E-mail: david@icsi.ro [National Institute for Research and Development for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, P.O Raureni, P.O. Box 7, 240050 Rm. Valcea (Romania); Kopac, J., E-mail: Janez.Kopac@fs.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askerceva 6, P.O. Box 394, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrolysis of aluminum dross in tap water generates pure hydrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum particles from dross are activated by mechanically milling technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process is completely greenhouse gases free and is cleanly to environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrolysis process leads to recycling of waste aluminum by hydrogen production. - Abstract: A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 {mu}m. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation.

  13. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  14. Use of waste plastic materials for road construction in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kwabena Appiah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper forms part of research to solve two main problems in Ghana: firstly, the management of municipal solid waste (MSW, particularly with regards to used plastics which have overwhelmed major cities and towns; secondly, the formation of potholes onroads due to excessive traffic and axle weight. This study examines the effect of blending waste thermoplastic polymers, namely High density polyethylene (HDPE and Polypropylene (PP in Conventional AC-20 graded bitumen, at various plastic compositions. The plastics were shredded and blended with the bitumen ‘in-situ’, with a shear mixer at a temperature range of 160 °C–170 °C. Basic rheological parameters such as penetration, ring & ball softening point and viscosity tests were employed to determine the resulting changes from base bitumen.FTIR spectroscopy was also employed to study the chemical functionalities present in the bitumen composite. The properties of the unmodified bitumen were found to be enhanced with the changes recorded in the rheological properties of the polymer modified bitumen (PMB. It was observed that polypropylene polymer, showed profound effect on homogeneity and compatibility with slight linear increment in the viscosity, softening and penetration values as against relatively high changes for HDPE modified bitumen.The viscosity of unmodified bitumen was enhanced with the addition of the polymers and thixotropic effect was observed for both HDPE and PP at 60 °C. For all modified binders prepared, the penetration values decrease as polymer-bitumen ratio increases whiles softening temperature generally increases as polymer ratio increases. The most compatible and incompatible blends for HDPE were respectively observed at 2% and 3% polymer loading. The most enhanced, homogenous blend is achieved with PP at 3% polymer loading. Three prominent peaks were identified in the spectrum of the unmodified bitumen, occurring at the 3000–2850 cm−1 IR frequency range

  15. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2012-03-30

    A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 μm. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilization of chemically treated municipal solid waste (spent coffee bean powder) as reinforcement in cellulose matrix for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagamani, Senthil Muthu Kumar; Nagarajan, Rajini; Jawaid, Mohammad; Anumakonda, Varadarajulu; Siengchin, Suchart

    2017-11-01

    As the annual production of the solid waste generable in the form of spent coffee bean powder (SCBP) is over 6 million tons, its utilization in the generation of green energy, waste water treatment and as a filler in biocomposites is desirable. The objective of this article is to analyze the possibilities to valorize coffee bean powder as a filler in cellulose matrix. Cellulose matrix was dissolved in the relatively safer aqueous solution mixture (8% LiOH and 15% Urea) precooled to -12.5°C. To the cellulose solution (SCBP) was added in 5-25wt% and the composite films were prepared by regeneration method using ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. Some SCBP was treated with aq. 5% NaOH and the composite films were also prepared using alkali treated SCBP as a filler. The films of composites were uniform with brown in color. The cellulose/SCBP films without and with alkali treated SCBP were characterized by FTIR, XRD, optical and polarized optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. The maximum tensile strength of the composite films with alkali treated SCBP varied between (106-149MPa) and increased with SCBP content when compared to the composites with untreated SCBP. The thermal stability of the composite was higher at elevated temperatures when alkali treated SCBP was used. Based on the improved tensile properties and photo resistivity, the cellulose/SCBP composite films with alkali treated SCBP may be considered for packaging and wrapping of flowers and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Porous Material Made from Industrial and Municipal Waste for Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a new method for usage of the hazardous waste coming from recycling industry. Two hazardous wastes – aluminium recycling final dross or non-metallic product (NMP and lead – silica glass (LSG were investigated. It is generally considered that NMP is a process waste and subject to disposal after residual metal has been recovered from primary dross. NMP is impurities which are removed from the molten metal in dross recycling process and it could be defined as a hazardous waste product in aluminium recycling industry. LSG comes from fluorescence lamp recycling plant and could be classified as hazardous waste due to high amount of lead in the composition and re-melting problems. The new alkali activated material, which can be defined as porous building material, was created. Composition of this material consisted of aluminium recycling waste, recycled fluorescent lamp LSG, sintered kaolin clay as well as commercially available alkali flakes (NaOH and liquid glass (Na2SiO3 + nH2O. Physical and mechanical properties of the obtained material were tested. Density of the obtained material was from (460 – 550 kg/m3 and the total porosity was from 82 % – 83 %. The compressive strength of the material was in range from 1.1 MPa to 2.3 MPa. The thermal conductivity was determined. The pore microstructure was investigated and the mineralogical composition of porous material was determined. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4330

  18. High Velocity Impact Interaction of Metal Particles with Porous Heterogeneous Materials with an Inorganic Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazunov, A. A.; Ishchenko, A. N.; Afanasyeva, S. A.; Belov, N. N.; Burkin, V. V.; Rogaev, K. S.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Khabibulin, M. V.; Yugov, N. T.

    2016-03-01

    A computational-experimental investigation of stress-strain state and fracture of a porous heterogeneous material with an inorganic matrix, used as a thermal barrier coating of flying vehicles, under conditions of a high-velocity impact by a spherical steel projectile imitating a meteorite particle is discussed. Ballistic tests are performed at the velocities about 2.5 km/s. Numerical modeling of the high-velocity impact is described within the framework of a porous elastoplastic model including fracture and different phase states of the materials. The calculations are performed using the Euler and Lagrange numerical techniques for the velocities up to 10 km/s in a complete-space problem statement.

  19. Development and Application of a Tool for Optimizing Composite Matrix Viscoplastic Material Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Naghipour Ghezeljeh, Paria; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2018-01-01

    This document describes a recently developed analysis tool that enhances the resident capabilities of the Micromechanics Analysis Code with the Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) and its application. MAC/GMC is a composite material and laminate analysis software package developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. The primary focus of the current effort is to provide a graphical user interface (GUI) capability that helps users optimize highly nonlinear viscoplastic constitutive law parameters by fitting experimentally observed/measured stress-strain responses under various thermo-mechanical conditions for braided composites. The tool has been developed utilizing the MATrix LABoratory (MATLAB) (The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA) programming language. Illustrative examples shown are for a specific braided composite system wherein the matrix viscoplastic behavior is represented by a constitutive law described by seven parameters. The tool is general enough to fit any number of experimentally observed stress-strain responses of the material. The number of parameters to be optimized, as well as the importance given to each stress-strain response, are user choice. Three different optimization algorithms are included: (1) Optimization based on gradient method, (2) Genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization and (3) Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The user can mix and match the three algorithms. For example, one can start optimization with either 2 or 3 and then use the optimized solution to further fine tune with approach 1. The secondary focus of this paper is to demonstrate the application of this tool to optimize/calibrate parameters for a nonlinear viscoplastic matrix to predict stress-strain curves (for constituent and composite levels) at different rates, temperatures and/or loading conditions utilizing the Generalized Method of Cells. After preliminary validation of the tool through comparison with experimental results, a detailed virtual parametric study is

  20. Matrix Effects in Proficiency Testing Materials Influence the Accurate Measurement of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Wang, Jianbing; Huang, Xianzhang; Zeng, Ruili; Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Lin, Haibiao; Han, Liqiao; Ke, Peifeng; Zhuang, Junhua

    2016-10-01

    A consensus on an accurate method to measure γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity for clinical purposes has not been achieved among practicing clinical laboratories. To improve analytical trueness, we evaluated the influences of matrix effects in proficiency testing (PT) materials on the measurement of GGT activity in human serum samples. Five fresh frozen human samples (FFS1-5) and five lyophilized proficiency testing materials (Lyo1-5) were distributed to 23 participating clinical laboratories for the measurement of GGT activity. Target GGT activity values for the samples were obtained by using previously approved reference methods. The results obtained by the Beckman Coulter Unicel DxC 800 Synchron analyzer were compared to the target values assigned by two reference laboratories, and the commutability of the lyophilized materials was evaluated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline EP14-A2. The relative bias between the results obtained by the Beckman Coulter analyzer and the reference target values ranged from -27.2% to -18.0% for FFS1-5 and from 9.1% to 2.5% for Lyo1-5. Non-commutability of all lyophilized samples falling outside of the 95% prediction interval was observed. The results obtained for the lyophilized PT materials were deemed acceptable within the total allowable errors, suggesting that matrix effects may impart a false sense of confidence that clinical analytical systems are performing very well. A primary reference measurement procedure on fresh frozen serum provides a valuable method for evaluating the trueness of results measured by PT.

  1. Homogeneously embedded Pt nanoclusters on amorphous titania matrix as highly efficient visible light active photocatalyst material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vipul; Kumar, Suneel; Krishnan, Venkata, E-mail: vkn@iitmandi.ac.in

    2016-08-15

    A novel and facile technique, based on colloidal synthesis route, has been utilized for the preparation of homogeneously embedded Pt nanoclusters on amorphous titania matrix. The material has been thoroughly characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, powder x-ray diffraction, optical and Raman spectroscopic techniques to understand the morphology, structure and other physical characteristics. The photocatalytic activity of the material under visible light irradiation was demonstrated by investigations on the degradation of two organic dyes (methylene blue and rhodamine B). In comparison to other Pt−TiO{sub 2} based nanomaterials (core-shell, doped nanostructures, modified nanotubes, decorated nanospheres and binary nanocomposites), the embedded Pt nanoclusters on titania was found to be highly efficient for visible light active photocatalytic applications. The enhanced catalytic performance could be attributed to the efficient charge separation and decreased recombination of the photo generated electrons and holes at the Pt-titania interface and the availability of multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces due to homogeneous embedment of Pt nanoclusters on amorphous titania. In essence, this work illustrates that homogeneous embedment of noble metal nanoparticles/nanoclusters on semiconductor metal oxide matrices can lead to tuning of the photophysical properties of the final material and eventually enhance its photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Homogeneously embedded Pt nanoclusters on amorphous titania matrix has been prepared. • Facile low temperature colloidal synthesis technique has been used. • Enhanced catalytic performance could be observed. • Work can pave way for tuning photocatalytic activity of composite materials.

  2. Preparation of sustainable photocatalytic materials through the valorization of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    A new value-added material was developed from wastes to aim for appropriate waste management and sustainable development. This paper reports the valorization of industrial sandblasting operation wastes (SOWs) as new photocatalytic materials. This waste is composed of Fe2 O3 (60.7 %), SiO2 (29.1 %), and Al2 O3 (3.9 %) as the main components. The high presence of iron oxides was used to develop photocatalytic properties through their thermal transformation into α-Fe2 O3 . The new product, SOW-T, exhibited a good behavior towards the photochemical degradation of organic dyes. The preparation of advanced photocatalytic materials that exhibit self-cleaning and depolluting properties was possible by the inclusion of SOW-T and TiO2 in a cement-based mortar. The synergy observed between both materials enhanced their photocatalytic action. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the use of transformed wastes based on iron oxide for the photochemical oxidation of NOx gases. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioactive iodine waste (5) I-129 fixation by silica-coated zeolite distributed in extremely low solubility non-organic matrix-multi-layered distributed waste-form for I-129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, Ichiro [Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Izumi, Jun; Oka, Nobuki; Tomonaga, Nariyuki [Nagasaki Research and Development Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Ngasaki (Japan); Kitao, Hideo [Omiya Research and Development Department, Nuclear Development Corporation, Saitama (Japan); Neyama, Atsushi [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Katurai, Kiyomichi [Nuclear Systems Engineering Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    A multi-layered distributed waste-form concept for I-129 fixation has been proposed and experiments have been carried out in order to select iodine-bearing adsorbents. The goal of this waste-form development is to realize a very low releasing rate of I-129 for a long period of more than hundred thousands years. The waste-form consists of iodine-bearing zeolite particles and extremely low solubility matrix such as apatite. With a screening test of inorganic iodine adsorbents, Ca-Ag-A type zeolite (Ag exchange rate: 20%) was selected as a suitable iodine-bearing adsorbent. (author)

  5. Effect of enamel matrix proteins on the periodontal connective tissue-material interface after wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R G; Kallur, S P; Inoue, M; Rosenberg, P A; LeGeros, R Z

    2004-04-01

    The periodontal ligament has the potential to regenerate a complete periodontal connective tissue attachment, starting with the deposition of cementum, on pathologically exposed root surfaces as well as several materials including titanium oxide. However, most commonly used dental materials result in a fibrous encapsulation or a chronic inflammatory response after periodontal wound healing rather than the formation of a periodontal connective tissue attachment. Recently, an extract of porcine enamel matrix (Emdogain(R), EMD) has been reported inductive of cementum formation in both in vivo and in vitro studies. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of EMD, when applied to materials previously reported not supportive of periodontal connective tissue formation, on the periodontal connective tissue-material interface obtained with these materials in vivo. Bilateral osteotomies were performed on the mandible of a Yucatan minipig exposing the buccal root surface of four premolars. A series of four preparations were placed in each root surface that were subsequently filled with calcium hydroxide, gutta percha, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), or left unfilled. One side, in addition, received an application of EMD prior to surgical closure. A bioabsorbable surgical barrier membrane was placed over the osteotomy sites to exclude gingival connective tissue from the wound-healing environment. The mucoperiosteal flaps were then readapted and sutured in position. The animal was euthanized 10 weeks after the procedure, block sections obtained and prepared for light microscopy. Results demonstrated complete regeneration of alveolar bone and periodontal ligament in all four teeth from the EMD-treated side. Fibers from the periodontal ligament were observed to insert into a mineralized matrix consistent with cementum on all four root preparations. In contrast, massive root resorption without regeneration of alveolar bone was found on all teeth from the side not

  6. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  7. Soil and Waste Matrix Affects Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacteria Filtration during Unsaturated Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Unc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Discontinuous flows resulting from discrete natural rain events induce temporal and spatial variability in the transport of bacteria from organic waste through soils in which the degree of saturation varies. Transport and continuity of associated pathways are dependent on structure and stability of the soil under conditions of variable moisture and ionic strength of the soil solution. Lysimeters containing undisturbed monoliths of clay, clay loam or sandy loam soils were used to investigate transport and pathway continuity for bacteria and hydrophobic fluorescent microspheres. Biosolids, to which the microspheres were added, were surface applied and followed by serial irrigation events. Microspheres, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens were enumerated in drainage collected from 64 distinct collection areas through funnels installed in a grid pattern at the lower boundary of the monoliths. Bacteria-dependent filtration coefficients along pathways of increasing water flux were independent of flow volume, suggesting: (1 tracer or colloid dependent retention; and (2 transport depended on the total volume of contiguous pores accessible for bacteria transport. Management decisions, in this case resulting from the form of organic waste, induced changes in tortuosity and continuity of pores and modified the effective capacity of soil to retain bacteria. Surface application of liquid municipal biosolids had a negative impact on transport pathway continuity, relative to the solid municipal biosolids, enhancing retention under less favourable electrostatic conditions consistent with an initial increase in straining within inactive pores and subsequent by limited re-suspension from reactivated pores.

  8. Screening of heavy metal containing waste types for use as raw material in Arctic clay-based bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2016-01-01

    In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid...

  9. Physical and mechanical properties of composite materials of different compositions based on waste products

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Burdonov; V.V. Barakhtenko; E.V. Zelinskaya; E.O. Suturina; A.V. Burdonova; A.V. Golovnina

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of mineral filler on the polymer composite material based on waste products of heat and power engineering - fly ash. This type of waste products has never been used for the production of polymer-mineral composites. Depending on the type of ash, its chemical composition and its quantity in the material, we can adjust the properties of the resulting composites. The use of fly ash as a filler will not only make a product less expensive, but it also will ...

  10. The Circular Economy of E-Waste in the Netherlands: Optimizing Material Recycling and Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Golsteijn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste is an important point for discussion on the circular economy agenda. This paper shows the Dutch example of how “waste” can be turned into a resource, and the climate change benefits from appropriate collection and recycling. It describes the avoided emissions of CO2-equivalents due to e-waste recycling and appropriate removal and destruction of (HCFCs contained in cooling and freezing appliances. Six different e-waste categories were included, and the results of 2016 were compared to previous years (2009–2015. In 2016, 110,000 tonnes of e-waste were collected. 80% of this was recycled to useful materials. Additionally, it resulted in 17% energy recovery. That year, the recycling of e-waste and the removal of (HCFKs resulted in approximately 416,000 tonnes of avoided emissions of CO2-equivalents. Although the phasing out of cooling and freezing appliances with (HCFKs led to a general decrease in the quantity of avoided CO2 emissions over time, removal of (HCFKs still explained most of the avoided CO2 emissions. Material recycling appeared particularly beneficial for cooling and freezing appliances and small and large household appliances. The paper ends with reasons to further close the loop and ways forward to do so.

  11. In Vitro – In Vivo Evaluation of Sustained – Release Lithium Carbonate Matrix Tablets: Influence of Hydrophilic Matrix Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Emami

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional Lithium carbonate (LC tablets produce rapid and relatively high peak blood levels resulting in adverse effects. These drawbacks can be overcome by designing a suitable sustained or controlled-release LC preparation. Methods: Sustained-release matrix tablets were therefore developed using different types and ratios of polymers including carbomer (CP, Na carboxymethylcellulose (Na CMC and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, to assess the release profiles and in vivo performance of the formulations. The tablets were prepared by either direct compression (DC or wet granulation (WG. In the DC method, 69% (450 mg LC, 5, 10 or 15% CP or Na CMC (of total tablet weight, lactose and /or Avicel (to maintain constant tablet weight were mixed and directly compressed. In the WG method, 450 mg LC and 10, 20, or 30% HPMC were granulated with Eudragit S100 solution, dried, and then compressed to formulate the tablets. In vitro and in vivo, newly formulated sustained-release LC tablets were compared with sustained-release commercial tablets (Eskalith and Priadel. In vivo studies were conducted in nine healthy subjects in a cross-over design, with a 3x3 Latin square sequence, and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using classical methods. Results: The matrix tablets containing 15% CP exhibited suitable release kinetics and uniform absorption characteristics comparable to that of Eskalith. In vivo, this formulation produced a smooth and extended absorption phase very much similar to that of Eskalith with the identical elimination half-life and extent of absorption. Conclusion: The matrix tablets containing 15% CP reduces the incidence of side effects often associated with high serum concentration of Lithium and blood level variations. Direct correlation between the dissolution profiles and the relative bioavailability of the formulations could be observed. Keywords: Lithium carbonate, Matrix tablets, Sustained-release, In vitro

  12. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rodella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu. This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  14. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

  15. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  16. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thekdi, Arvind [E3M, Inc. North Potomac, MD (United States); Rogers, Benjamin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kafka, Orion L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  17. The contributions of construction material waste to project cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation included ongoing building construction projects within Abuja, Nigeria, from which a sample of 31 public and private projects was purposefully selected (project value of ₦1.6 billion Naira and above). The data for this research were sourced from the field investigation (measurement of the volume of material ...

  18. Processing waste flower bulb for cardboard material using adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    Tober, E.; S. Veldhuis; Posthuma de Boer, A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of NL 1001959 (C2) Process for converting agricultural products, especially flower bulbs such as tulip bulbs and narcissus bulbs, into useful products, comprises subjecting a combination of agricultural materials as source of starch, water and cellulose to a hot pressing treatment at elevated pressure and temperature for a predetermined period of time.

  19. Processing waste flower bulb for cardboard material using adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tober, E.; Veldhuis, S.; Posthuma de Boer, A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of NL 1001959 (C2) Process for converting agricultural products, especially flower bulbs such as tulip bulbs and narcissus bulbs, into useful products, comprises subjecting a combination of agricultural materials as source of starch, water and cellulose to a hot pressing treatment at

  20. A joint European and African research & innovation agenda on waste management. Waste as a resource: Recycling & recovery of raw materials (2014-2020)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 A joint European and African research & innovation agenda on waste management. Waste as a resource: Recycling & recovery of raw materials (2014-2020) Edited by Godfrey, L. and Mena-Abela, C. Abstract Europe has the know-how, technology...

  1. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  2. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1978. [Advanced solvent extraction; accidents; pyrochemical; radwaste in metal matrix; waste migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R. E.

    1979-12-01

    Fuel cycle studies reported include development of centrifugal contactors for Purex processes. Tricaprylmethyl-ammonium nitrate and di-n-amyl-n-amylphosphonate are being evaluated as Thorex extractants. Dispersion of uranium and plutonium by fires, and mechanisms for subdividing and dispersing liquids and solids were reviewed. In the pyrochemical and dry processing program, a facility for testing containment materials is under construction; a flowsheet for carbide fuel processing has been designed and studies of carbide reactions in bismuth are underway; salt transport processes are being studied; process-size refractory metal vessels are being fabricated; the feasibility of AIROX reprocessing is being determined; the solubility of UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/ + fission products, and PuO/sub 2/ in molten alkali metal nitrates, has been investigated; a flowsheet was developed for reprocessing actinide oxides in molten salts; preparation of Th-U carbide from the oxide is being studied; new flowsheets based on the Dow Aluminum Pyrometallurgical process for reprocessing of spent uranium metal fuel have been prepared; the chloride volitility processing of thorium-based fuels is being studied; the reprocessing of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in KCl-LiCl-ThCl/sub 4/-Th is being studied; and a flowsheet for processing spent nuclear fuel in molten tin has been constructed. Leach rates of simulated encapsulated waste forms in a metal matrix were studied. Nine criteria for handling waste cladding hulls were established. Strontium and tin migration in glauconite columns was measured. Radioactive Sr in a stream of water moved through oolitic limestone as rapidly as water, but in a stream of water equilibrated with the limestone, Sr moved through the limestone one-tenth as fast. Migration of trace quantities of Cs and I through kaolinite was studied. 88 figures, 53 tables.

  3. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated...... in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability...... of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable...

  4. Dentin matrix gelatin (DMG) as a possible "universal" grafting material in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, T R; Westbury, L; Tillman, J

    1982-01-01

    The ideal of periodontal surgery is the total regeneration of the lost periodontal complex. A promising new osseous grafting material is Dental Matrix Gelation (DMG). DMG was prepared by a method similar to that of Conover and Urist (1979). This consisted of sequential extraction in 1:1 chloroform-methanol, 25 degrees C for 1 hour; 0.6 N HCl, 2 degrees C for 24 hours with constant agitation; 2 M CaCl2, 2 degrees C for 1 hour; 0.5 M EDTA pH 7.4, 2 degrees C for 1 hour; washed in distilled water 1 hour. Twelve rats were anesthetized, had heads shaved, midline flaps reflected, and 2 mm holes drilled through the right and left parietal bones. This type of osseous defect normally heals only by fibrous scarring and has been used to define osteoinductive materials. The DMG was cut into pieces about 1 mm square and placed into the right side defect while the left side remained open as a control. The animals were sacrificed on a schedule of two rats every 2 weeks until the 10th week when four rats were killed. The results showed complete osseous closure of the DMG site while the control healed by fibrous scarring. DMG seems to have strong osteoinductive power, and used allogenically has great potential as a commercially viable implant material.

  5. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher...... fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations...... of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management...

  6. Study of the biodisintegration of a bioplastic material waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasa, Judith; Gracia, Jose M; Javierre, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodisintegration degree of different pieces made of a biodegradable thermoplastic material, the polylactic acid (PLA) with and without corn in its composition, is studied. The pieces of different shapes and thicknesses were obtained by both injection and extrusion processes, where also a specific foaming additive of polystyrene was added. The PLA and PLA-corn manufactured pieces were subjected to aerobic degradation at a constant temperature of 58+/-2 degrees C for 90 days, following EN 14806 and ISO 20200:2004 Norms. It was found that the pieces made of PLA and PLA with foaming agent had an average biodisintegration degree of 63.6%. With regard to the pieces made of PLA-corn, an average biodisintegration degree of 79.7% was obtained. In this case, the percentage of non degraded material was independent of the size, shape and thickness of the original pieces.

  7. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L{sup -1} and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process.

  8. Axially substituted phthalocyanine/naphthalocyanine doped in glass matrix: an approach to the practical use for optical limiting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hua; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuangqing; Hu, Rui; Li, Shayu; Yang, Guoqiang

    2016-05-02

    A novel glass matrix doped with phthalocyanine or naphthalocyanine is prepared by a modified sol-gel technique. The photophysical and optical limiting properties of the phthalocyanine compounds both in glass matrix and in THF solution were investigated. The obtained glass matrix is homogeneous and transparent, as well as mechanically and thermodynamically stable enough to withstand very high laser fluence; the optical limiting performances of these compound samples are better than that of benchmark materials like C60 in toluene, carbon black in water, and graphene oxide in water or ethanol under nanosecond pulsed laser at 532 nm. Two prototypes of optical limiters doped in the glass matrix have very good optical limiting performances, which may provide potential practical use for optical limiting materials in a near future.

  9. Feasibility study on production of a matrix reference material for cyanobacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingdale, Christie; Thomas, Krista; Lewis, Nancy; Békri, Khalida; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    The worldwide increase in cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes and rivers is of great concern as many cyanobacteria produce potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins (cyanotoxins). Such toxins pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems, livestock, and drinking water supplies. In addition, dietary supplements prepared from cyanobacteria can pose a risk to consumers if they contain toxins. Analytical monitoring for toxins in the environment and in consumer products is essential for the protection of public health. Reference materials (RMs) are an essential tool for the development and validation of analytical methods and are necessary for ongoing quality control of monitoring operations. Since the availability of appropriate RMs for cyanotoxins has been very limited, the present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of producing a cyanobacterial matrix RM containing various cyanotoxins. The first step was large-scale culturing of various cyanobacterial cultures that produce anatoxins, microcystins, and cylindrospermopsins. After harvesting, the biomass was lyophilized, blended, homogenized, milled, and bottled. The moisture content and physical characteristics were assessed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the production process. Toxin levels were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and ultraviolet detection. The reference material was found to be homogeneous for toxin content. Stability studies showed no significant degradation of target toxins over a period of 310 days at temperatures up to +40 °C except for the anatoxin-a, which showed some degradation at +40 °C. These results show that a fit-for-purpose matrix RM for cyanotoxins can be prepared using the processes and techniques applied in this work.

  10. Nanostructured oxide materials and modules for high temperature power generation from waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2013-01-01

    are not easily satisfied by conventional thermoelectric materials. Not only they must possess a sufficient thermoelectric performance, they should also be stable at high temperatures, nontoxic and low-cost comprising elements, and must be also able to be processed and shaped cheaply. Oxides are among......A large amount of thermal energy that emitted from many industrial processes is available as waste heat. Thermoelectric power generators that convert heat directly into electricity can offer a very promising way for waste heat recovery. However, the requirements for this task place in the materials...... the strongest candidate materials for this purpose. In this review, the progress in the development of two representative p- and n-type novel oxide materials based on Ca3Co4O9 and doped-ZnO is presented. Thermoelectric modules built up from these oxides were fabricated, tested at high temperatures, and compared...

  11. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source... Federal Register of August 2, 2011 soliciting stakeholder input regarding the efficacy and scope of the...

  12. 76 FR 46290 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... AGENCY EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...: EPA is soliciting stakeholder input regarding the efficacy and scope of the MSW Characterization... adequately support this expanded scope of use. EPA is interested in obtaining stakeholder input regarding the...

  13. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Farcas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain (BGS is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  14. Material flow analysis and market survey for securing the disposal of waste oils; Stoffstrom- und Marktanalyse zur Sicherung der Altoelentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, Knut; Jepsen, Dirk; Zangl, Stephanie; Schilling, Stephanie [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    This research project had two main topics: 1. A material flow analysis of the German waste oil flow adapted to the current situation 2. An analysis of the German waste oil recovery market, possible recent market changes and the potential influences of different factors. In order to determine the German waste oil mass flows the German Ministry of Environment applies a calculation model which is based on a backwards calculation approach (Rueckrechnungsmodell, backward calculation model). The performed analysis of this model revealed that it is suitable for the calculation of the German waste oil material flows. Aiming at a further qualification some elements of the model have been updated respectively adapted to new developments. In the course of the market analysis the basic economic parameter like supply, demand, prices resp. price differences of the German waste oil management market were considered. It was analysed how the changing market conditions affect the waste oil material flows and the waste oil recovery. Furthermore it was examined whether the given circumstances are sufficient to maintain a secure and sustainable waste oil disposal. The research results showed that the German waste oil market performs well and is reacting flexible on price signals of the respective (primary) reference products. During the timeframe investigated (2000-2004) an increasing majority of the available waste oil was used for the production of secondary mineral oil products. 30% of the available waste oil has been submitted to energy recovery operations. During these years the waste oil ordinance (Altoelverordnung) and the directive to promote processing of waste oil into base oil (Foerderrichtlinie) entered into force and relevant investments in waste oil treatment facilities were executed. The reliability of the future waste oil management is therefore approved and sufficient capacity reserves are available in all waste oil related management areas. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of gum mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) as a microencapsulating and matrix forming material for sustained drug release

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh M. Morkhade

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a natural gum mastic was evaluated as a microencapsulating and matrix-forming material for sustained drug release. Mastic was characterized for its physicochemical properties. Microparticles were prepared by oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. Matrix tablets were prepared by wet and melt granulation techniques. Diclofenac sodium (DFS) and diltiazem hydrochloride (DLTZ) were used as model drugs. Mastic produced discrete and spherical microspheres with DLTZ and microcapsules w...

  16. LEATHER WASTE VALORISATION THROUGH MATERIAL INNOVATION: SOME PROPERTIES OF LEATHER WOOD FIBREBOARD

    OpenAIRE

    Axel M. RINDLER; Pia SOLT; Marius C. BARBU; Thomas SCHNABEL

    2015-01-01

    Due to the ever-increasing scarcity of resources and raw materials in the wood panels industry, it is imperative to look for suitable alternatives to the established resources. Therefore a combination of the traditionally used and newly explored sources may reveal highly innovative ways. The objective of this study is to provide an insight into the behavior of the material and possible new applications of those fiber/particle wood and waste leather composites. For this reason e...

  17. Solid waste initiative Macro Material Flow Modeling conceptual description and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a Macro Material Flow Modeling (MMFM) concept and approach that are being adopted to develop a predictive modeling capability that can be used as the basis for evaluating potential impacts from various solid waste management system configurations and operating scenarios, as well as the impacts of various policies on solid waste quantities and compositions. This capability, as part of a broader Solid Waste Initiative at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is intended to provide an increased understanding of solid waste as a disposal, energy, and resource problem on a national and global scale, particularly over the long term. The results of this increased understanding will eventually have an impact on a variety of US federal government activities, as well as on the activities of other entities. This increased understanding will also help provide the basis for subsequent activities under the Solid Waste Initiative. The report describes current solid waste management practices and their context, defines questions of interest relating to these practices, and proposes an approach that could be employed to analyze these practices and possible alternatives to them. A preliminary review, analysis, and summary of available data to support this approach are also provided.

  18. Magnetic mesoporous materials for removal of environmental wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Jinwoo; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Jaeyun; Joo, Jin; Lee, Jin Hyung; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Changha; Lee, Hongshin; Addleman, R Shane; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-09-15

    We have synthesized two different magnetic mesoporous materials that can be easily separated from aqueous solutions by applying a magnetic field. Synthesized magnetic mesoporous materials, Mag-SBA-15 (magnetic ordered mesoporous silica) and Mag-OMC (magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon), have a high loading capacity of contaminants due to high surface area of the supports and high magnetic activity due to the embedded iron oxide particles. Application of surface-modified Mag-SBA-15 was investigated for the collection of mercury from water. The mercury adsorption using Mag-SBA-15 was rapid during the initial contact time and reached a steady-state condition, with an uptake of approximately 97% after 7h. Application of Mag-OMC for collection of organics from water, using fluorescein as an easily trackable model analyte, was explored. The fluorescein was absorbed into Mag-OMC within minutes and the fluorescent intensity of solution was completely disappeared after an hour. In another application, Mag-SBA-15 was used as a host of tyrosinase, and employed as recyclable catalytic scaffolds for tyrosinase-catalyzed biodegradation of catechol. Crosslinked tyrosinase in Mag-SBA-15, prepared in a two step process of tyrosinase adsorption and crosslinking, was stable enough for catechol degradation with no serious loss of enzyme activity. Considering these results of cleaning up water from toxic inorganic and organic contaminants, magnetic mesoporous materials have a great potential to be employed for the removal of environmental contaminants and potentially for the application in large-scale wastewater treatment plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: net recovery and transport intensity indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of bio based plastic materials for packaging from soybeans waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A.; Rashidi, A. R.; Roslan, A.; Idris, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Demands of plastic material which increase with the increasing of human population encourage researchers to find alternative solution to replace petro based plastic. Thus, in the present study, a novel "green bioplastic" packaging was developed using soybean waste which is a major waste in soy sauce food industry. The evaluation of the effect of ratio of starch, soy waste and plasticizer in this bioplastic production was studied and their characteristics were compared with available bioplastics. Characteristics study was done in terms of burning test, water absorption capacity, thermal and tensile strength measurement and the result obtained were analyzed. The glass transition temperature (Tg) for soy waste bioplastic is 117˚C. The water absorption test shows that an increase in mass up to 114.17% which show large amount of water uptake capacity of this bioplastics. And about 38% of percentage loss was observed when compared with other novel bioplastics. The results clearly show that the amount of glycerol as a plasticizer had an inversely proportional relationship with the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg). The average maximum force value for tensile strength test is 6.71 N. The burning test show that the soy wastes bioplastic release a very faint smell of soy and glue-like substance. The flame ignited a Yellowish-Orange colour and released some sparks. Based on the overall results, soy-based have been proven to become an excellent bio-based packaging materials.

  1. Waste processing: new near infrared technologies for material identification and selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesetti, M.; Nicolosi, P.

    2016-09-01

    The awareness of environmental issues on a global scale increases the opportunities for waste handling companies. Recovery is set to become all the more important in areas such as waste selection, minerals processing, electronic scrap, metal and plastic recycling, refuse and the food industry. Effective recycling relies on effective sorting. Sorting is a fundamental step of the waste disposal/recovery process. The big players in the sorting market are pushing for the development of new technologies to cope with literally any type of waste. The purpose of this tutorial is to gain an understanding of waste management, frameworks, strategies, and components that are current and emerging in the field. A particular focus is given to spectroscopic techniques that pertains the material selection process with a greater emphasis placed on the NIR technology for material identification. Three different studies that make use of NIR technology are shown, they are an example of some of the possible applications and the excellent results that can be achieved with this technique.

  2. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sorption of mercury onto waste material derived low-cost activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Jatindra N.; Rana, Sukanta; Lahiri, Susmita; Munekage, Yukihiro

    2017-03-01

    The present study was performed to develop the low-cost activated carbon (AC) from some waste materials as potential mercury (Hg) sorbent to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. The ACs were prepared from banana peel, orange peel, cotton fiber and paper wastes by pyrolysis and characterized by analyzing physico-chemical properties and Hg sorption capacity. The Brunauer Emmett and Teller surface areas (cotton 138 m2/g; paper 119 m2/g), micropore surface areas (cotton 65 m2/g; paper 54 m2/g) and major constituent carbon contents (cotton 95.04 %; paper 94.4 %) were higher in ACs of cotton fiber and paper wastes than the rest two ACs. The Hg sorption capacities and removal percentages were greater in cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs compared to those of the banana and orange peels. The results revealed that elevated Hg removal ability of cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs is largely regulated by their surface area, porosity and carbon content properties. Therefore, ACs of cotton and paper wastes were identified as potential sorbent among four developed ACs to remove high amount of Hg from aqueous phase. Furthermore, easily accessible precursor material, simple preparation process, favorable physico-chemical properties and high Hg sorption capacity indicated that cotton and paper wastes-derived ACs could be used as potential and low-cost sorbents of Hg for applying in practical field to control the severe effect of Hg contamination in the aquatic environment to avoid its human and environmental health risks.

  4. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  5. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: the potential for energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental

  6. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  7. Development of a highly efficient burnable poison matrix material for cycle lifetime extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulenko, J.S. [Florida Univ., 202 Nuclear Science Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Baney, R.H.; Pressley, L. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The University of Florida (UF) is carrying out basic research on a new class of thermally stable boron containing materials that from early indications appear to have special properties that will greatly enhance the performance of Burnable Poison Rod Assemblies (BPRA(tm)s) and address one of the major disadvantages of the use of boron shims. The new class of polymer materials, poly-acetylenic carbonyl-siloxane, termed ''Carborane'', were developed by Dr. T. Keller of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Dr. T. Keller is cooperating in this research effort. Other classes of boron containing polymer materials are also under review. Displacement of water by the boron shims incurs an ''end of cycle reactivity penalty'' since at the end of cycle the moderator coefficient is strongly negative. ''Carborane'' has the property of being able to contain a tailored amount of boron while maintaining an extremely high hydrogen content, and at the same time being extremely stable to high temperatures and to neutron irradiation. Tests run by the NRL have shown that ''Carborane'' is stable to about 1000 C. The high hydrogen and carbon content contained in the ''Carborane'' Polymer offsets the large fuel cycle reactivity penalty which occurs with current generation BPRA(tm)s, as a result of the reactivity loss resulting from the BPRA(tm)s displacement of moderator water in the guide tubes of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies. Current generation BPRA utilize B{sub 4}C in an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix. In an attempt to minimize the reactivity penalty from water displacement, Westinghouse has developed a costly annular BPRA, called the Wet Annular Burnable Absorber (WABA) assembly. This burnable poison rod design reduces the moderator displacement by 22% by the use of a central annular water hole. The ''Carborane'' matrix proposed by the University of Florida

  8. A Damage Resistance Comparison Between Candidate Polymer Matrix Composite Feedline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T

    2000-01-01

    As part of NASAs focused technology programs for future reusable launch vehicles, a task is underway to study the feasibility of using the polymer matrix composite feedlines instead of metal ones on propulsion systems. This is desirable to reduce weight and manufacturing costs. The task consists of comparing several prototype composite feedlines made by various methods. These methods are electron-beam curing, standard hand lay-up and autoclave cure, solvent assisted resin transfer molding, and thermoplastic tape laying. One of the critical technology drivers for composite components is resistance to foreign objects damage. This paper presents results of an experimental study of the damage resistance of the candidate materials that the prototype feedlines are manufactured from. The materials examined all have a 5-harness weave of IM7 as the fiber constituent (except for the thermoplastic, which is unidirectional tape laid up in a bidirectional configuration). The resin tested were 977-6, PR 520, SE-SA-1, RS-E3 (e-beam curable), Cycom 823 and PEEK. The results showed that the 977-6 and PEEK were the most damage resistant in all tested cases.

  9. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Çubuk, M Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S Ali; Bilici, İbrahim

    2014-08-30

    This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Trotter, D.R.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification technology is one of the most widely used techniques for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Cement-based products, commonly referred to as grouts, are the predominant materials of choice because of their low associated processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. This blend is mixed with 106-AN at a mix ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents the final results of efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  11. Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

    2003-10-01

    A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron

  12. Feasibility study for producing a carrot/potato matrix reference material for 11 selected pesticides at EU MRL level: material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Helena; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Ulberth, Franz; Emons, Hendrik; Zeleny, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    The feasibility for producing a matrix reference material for selected pesticides in a carrot/potato matrix was investigated. A commercially available baby food (carrot/potato-based mash) was spiked with 11 pesticides at the respective EU maximum residue limits (MRLs), and further processed by either freezing or freeze-drying. Batches of some 150 units were produced per material type. First, the materials were assessed for the relative amount of pesticide recovered after processing (ratio of pesticide concentration in the processed material to the initially spiked pesticide concentration). In addition, the materials' homogeneity (bottle-to-bottle variation), and the short-term (1 month) and mid-term (5 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. For this, an in-house validated GC-EI-MS method operated in the SIM mode with a sample preparation procedure based on the QuEChERS ("quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe") principle was applied. Measurements on the frozen material provided the most promising results (smallest analyte losses during production), and also freeze-drying proved to be a suitable alternative processing technique for most of the investigated pesticides. Both the frozen and the freeze-dried material showed to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use, and storage at -20°C for 5 months did not reveal any detectable material degradation. The results constitute an important step towards the development of a pesticide matrix reference material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of performance indicators applied to a material recovery facility fed by mixed packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Cremiato, Raffaele; Zaccariello, Lucio; Lotito, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    Most of the integrated systems for municipal solid waste management aim to increase the recycling of secondary materials by means of physical processes including sorting, shredding and reprocessing. Several restrictions prevent from reaching a very high material recycling efficiency: the variability of the composition of new-marketed materials used for packaging production and its shape and complexity are critical issues. The packaging goods are in fact made of different materials (aluminium, polymers, paper, etc.), possibly assembled, having different shape (flat, cylindrical, one-dimensional, etc.), density, colours, optical properties and so on. These aspects limit the effectiveness and efficiency of the sorting and reprocessing plants. The scope of this study was to evaluate the performance of a large scale Material Recovery Facility (MRF) by utilizing data collected during a long period of monitoring. The database resulted from the measured data has been organized in four sections: (1) data related to the amount and type of inlet waste; (2) amount and composition of output products and waste; (3) operating data (such as worked hours for shift, planned and unscheduled maintenance time, setting parameters of the equipment, and energy consumption for shift); (4) economic data (value of each product, disposal price for the produced waste, penalty for non-compliance of products and waste, etc.). A part of this database has been utilized to build an executive dashboard composed by a set of performance indicators suitable to measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the MRF operations. The dashboard revealed itself as a powerful tool to support managers and engineers in their decisions in respect to the market demand or compliance regulation variation as well as in the designing of the lay-out improvements. The results indicated that the 40% of the input waste was recovered as valuable products and that a large part of these (88%) complied with the standards of

  14. Method and apparatus for fabricating a composite structure consisting of a filamentary material in a metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.

    1975-10-21

    A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure.

  15. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. The process of nanostructuring of metal (iron) matrix in composite materials for directional control of the mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsova, Elena; Yurchuk, Denis; Smirnov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1) preparation of porous metal matrix; (2) surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3) pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 1-50 nm. This material can be represented as the material type "frame in the frame" that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based) materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology.

  17. The Process of Nanostructuring of Metal (Iron Matrix in Composite Materials for Directional Control of the Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zemtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We justified theoretical and experimental bases of synthesis of new class of highly nanostructured composite nanomaterials based on metal matrix with titanium carbide nanowires as dispersed phase. A new combined method for obtaining of metal iron-based composite materials comprising the powder metallurgy processes and the surface design of the dispersed phase is considered. The following stages of material synthesis are investigated: (1 preparation of porous metal matrix; (2 surface structuring of the porous metal matrix by TiC nanowires; (3 pressing and sintering to give solid metal composite nanostructured materials based on iron with TiC nanostructures with size 1–50 nm. This material can be represented as the material type “frame in the frame” that represents iron metal frame reinforcing the frame of different chemical compositions based on TiC. Study of material functional properties showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials based on iron with TiC dispersed phase despite the presence of residual porosity are comparable to the properties of the best grades of steel containing expensive dopants and obtained by molding. This will solve the problem of developing a new generation of nanostructured metal (iron-based materials with improved mechanical properties for the different areas of technology.

  18. Utilization of ethyl cellulose polymer and waste materials for roofing tile production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Suubitaa Spencer; Ng, ChoonAun; Chee, Swee Yong; Habib, NoorZainab; Nadeem, Humayon; Teoh, Wei Ping

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to utilize ethyl cellulose, mixture of waste engine oil and waste vegetable oil as a binder in the environmental friendly roofing tile production. The waste engine-vegetable oil wasmix together with ethyl cellulose, fly ash, coarse aggregates, fine aggregatesand a catalyst. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that the oil mixture added with ethyl cellulose has the relatively high binding effect due to the presence of strong carbonyl group especially after being heat cured at 1900C for 24 hours. The mixed proportion of materials with different amount of ethyl cellulose used was studied in the production of tile specimen. The results showed that the ethyl cellulose composed roofing tile specimens passed the transverse breaking strength, durability, permeabilityand the ultraviolet accelerated test. The shrinkage on the tile can be overcome by adding temperature resistance polymer on the exterior of the tile.

  19. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: a life-cycle costing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarutto, Antonio; de Carli, Alessandro; Graffi, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Techniques of material-flow-specific residual waste treatment; Techniken der stoffstromspezifischen Restabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maak, D.; Collins, H.J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig, Leichtweiss - Inst. fuer Wasserbau (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The success achieved with large-scale plants for mechanical-biological residual waste treatment has led to a change of course in waste pretreatment. In view of the low emissions via the water and gas routes from landfilled wastes and the low costs of waste treatment some authorising authorities have meanwhile issued special licences pursuant to clause no. 2.4 of the Technical Code on Household Waste, thus enabling mechanical-biological residual waste treatment plants to continue operations beyond the year 2005. Beside offering a means of treatment and disposal, cost-effective mechanical-biological pretreatment also provides an opportunity for going over to material-flow-specific residual waste treatment. These process stages permit recirculating valuable materials and using other materials for energy production. They can be retrofitted on a modular basis in existing plants. If these advantages of the present innovative pretreatment methods are not used, then mechanical-biological pretreatment can still serve as a preparatory stage for thermal treatment. To date there has been no practical experience with this innovative method of residual waste treatment. However, industrial-scale trials have shown that each individual treatment stage is capable of being carried out successfully. [Deutsch] Die guten Erfolge im grosstechnischen Betrieb von Anlagen zur mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung haben zu einer Kursaenderung bei der Vorbehandlung von Abfaellen gefuehrt. Geringe Emissionen der deponierten Abfaelle auf dem Gas- und Wasserpfad sowie geringe Kosten fuer die Behandlung der Abfaelle haben dazu gefuehrt, dass inzwischen bereits einige Genehmigungsbehoerden eine Ausnahmegenehmigung nach Nr. 2.4 der TA Siedlungsabfall erteilt haben und damit der Betrieb von mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlungsanlagen auch nach 2005 ermoeglicht wird. Neben der alleinigen Behandlung und Deponierung bietet die kostenguenstige Vorbehandlung mit mechanisch

  1. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: Net recovery and transport intensity indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font Vivanco, David, E-mail: font@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Puig Ventosa, Ignasi [ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Gabarrell Durany, Xavier [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy

  2. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the use of nuclear energy about 17.000 t (27.000 m{sup 3}) of high level waste and about 300.000 m{sup 3} of low and intermediated level waste will have accumulated in Germany until 2022. Research in the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Division focuses on fundamental and applied aspects of the safe management of nuclear waste - in particular the nuclear aspects. In principle, our research in Forschungszentrum Juelich is looking at the material science/solid state aspects of nuclear waste management. It is organized in several research areas: The long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal is a key issue when it comes to the final disposal of high level nuclear waste in a deep geological formation. We are contributing to the scientific basis for the safety case of a nuclear waste repository in Germany. In Juelich we are focusing on a fundamental understanding of near field processes within a waste repository system. The main research topics are spent fuel corrosion and the retention of radionuclides by secondary phases. In addition, innovative waste management strategies are investigated to facilitate a qualified decision on the best strategy for Germany. New ceramic waste forms for disposal in a deep geological formation are studied as well as the partitioning of long-lived actinides. These research areas are supported by our structure research group, which is using experimental and computational approaches to examine actinide containing compounds. Complementary to these basic science oriented activities, IEK-6 also works on rather applied aspects. The development of non-destructive methods for the characterisation of nuclear waste packages has a long tradition in Juelich. Current activities focus on improving the segmented gamma scanning technique and the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis. Furthermore, the waste treatment group is developing concepts for the safe management of nuclear

  3. Investigation of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    2002-01-01

    The improvement in weld quality by the friction stir welding (FSW) process invented by TWI of Cambridge, England, patented in 1991, has prompted investigation of this process for advanced structural materials including Al metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) materials. Such materials can have high specific stiffness and other potential beneficial properties for the extreme environments in space. Developments of discontinuous reinforced Al-MMCs have found potential space applications and the future for such applications is quite promising. The space industry has recognized advantages of the FSW process over conventional welding processes such as the absence of a melt zone, reduced distortion, elimination of the need for shielding gases, and ease of automation. The process has been well proven for aluminum alloys, and work is being carried out for ferrous materials, magnesium alloys and copper alloys. Development work in the FSW welding process for joining of Al-MMCs is relatively recent and some of this and related work can be found in referenced research publications. NASA engineers have undertaken to spear head this research development work for FSW process investigation of Al-MMCs. Some of the reported related work has pointed out the difficulty in fusion welding of particulate reinforced MMCs where liquid Al will react with SiC to precipitate aluminum carbide (Al4C3). Advantages of no such reaction and no need for joint preparation for the FSW process is anticipated in the welding of Al-MMCs. The FSW process has been best described as a combination of extrusion and forging of metals. This is carried out as the pin tool rotates and is slowly plunged into the bond line of the joint as the pin tool's shoulder is in intimate contact with the work piece. The material is friction-stirred into a quality weld. Al-MMCs, 4 in. x 12 in. plates of 0.25 in. (6.35mm) thickness, procured from MMCC, Inc. were butt welded using FSW process at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using

  4. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina, E-mail: magda@pep.ufrj.br [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz, E-mail: fabio@pep.ufrj.br [Program of Production Engineering, School and Research in Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ► It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ► The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further......Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...

  6. Finite element analysis of ion transport in solid state nuclear waste form materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.

    2017-09-01

    Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.

  7. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon materials derived from waste tires as high-performance anodes in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Jia, Yufeng; Li, Na; Ying, Xianbin; Chen, Ting; Zhou, Yuyang; Guo, Jiayun; Zhou, Mengjiao

    2017-10-15

    In this study, carbonized waste tires were directly used as a high-performance anode material in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The effect of the pyrolysis temperature used for waste tire carbonization on the current output performance was investigated to determine the optimal pyrolysis temperature. Thermal gravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry showed that tire carbonization started at 200°C and ended at about 500°C; the weight loss was about 64%. When used in an MFC, the electrode obtained from waste tires carbonized at 800°C gave a current density of 23.1±1.4Am(-2), which is much higher than that achieved with traditional graphite felt anodes (5.5±0.1Am(-2)). The results of this study will be useful in optimizing the design of carbonized waste tire anodes for enhancing MFC performances and will alleviate the environmental problems caused by waste tires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vasques Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 °C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.

  10. Industrial wastes as alternative raw materials to produce eco-friendly fired bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quero, V.; Maza-Ignacio, O. T.; Guerrero-Paz, J.; Campos-Venegas, K.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) and silica fume (SF) wastes as an alternative raw material into clay bricks, replacing clay by up to 40 wt.%. Fly ash (FA) was used as reference. The plasticity of the batches was determined by Atterberg’s consistency limits. Bricks were produced by uniaxial pressing and fired a 900 and 1000°C. Physical properties (fired shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and Initial water absorption rate) and mechanical properties (compressive strength and flexural strength) as function of the firing temperature and type waste were investigated. The results showed that wastes into clay body increase its global plasticity. 80%Clay-20%SCBA mixture has the lower linear shrinkage. After firing process, the brick produced with clay-SCBA show the higher water absorption and apparent porosity, regardless of the firing temperature. The brick produced with 60%clay-40%SF show the water absorption and apparent porosity similar to control bricks. The SCBA waste additions tend to decrease the mechanical strength of the clay bricks, therefore amounts of 40% SCBA waste should be avoided because it reduce the mechanical strength of the red fired bricks. The fired bricks with 40% SF, firing a 900°C show mechanical properties similar control bricks.

  11. Leaching characteristics of encapsulated controlled low-strength materials containing arsenic-bearing waste precipitates from refractory gold bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzalakos, S; Dudeney, A W L; Chan, B K C

    2016-07-01

    We report on the leaching of heavy elements from cemented waste flowable fill, known as controlled low-strength materials (CLSM), for potential mine backfill application. Semi-dynamic tank leaching tests were carried out on laboratory-scale monoliths cured for 28 days and tested over 64 days of leaching with pure de-ionised water as leachant. Mineral processing waste include flotation tailings from a Spanish nickel-copper sulphide concentrate, and two bioleach neutralisation precipitates (from processing at 35°C and 70°C) from a South African arsenopyrite concentrate. Encapsulated CLSM formulations were evaluated to assess the reduction in leaching by encapsulating a 'hazardous' CLSM core within a layer of relatively 'inert' CLSM. The effect of each bioleach waste in CLSM core and tailings in CLSM encapsulating medium, are assessed in combination and in addition to CLSM with ordinary silica sand. Results show that replacing silica sand with tailings, both as core and encapsulating matrix, significantly reduced leachability of heavy elements, particularly As (from 0.008-0.190 mg/l to 0.008-0.060 mg/l), Ba (from 0.435-1.540 mg/l to 0.050-0.565 mg/l), and Cr (from 0.006-0.458 mg/l to 0.004-0.229 mg/l), to below the 'Dutch List' of groundwater contamination intervention values. Arsenic leaching was inherently high from both bioleach precipitates but was significantly reduced to below guideline values with encapsulation and replacing silica sand with tailings. Tailings proved to be a valuable encapsulating matrix largely owing to small particle size and lower hydraulic conductivity reducing diffusion transport of heavy elements. Field-scale trials would be necessary to prove this concept of encapsulation in terms of scale and construction practicalities, and further geochemical investigation to optimise leaching performance. Nevertheless, this work substantiates the need for alternative backfill techniques for sustainable management of hazardous finely-sized bulk

  12. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  13. The usage of plastic waste as a secondary raw material for the modification of sandcrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Daukšys, M.; Venčkauskas, L.

    2015-03-01

    Recently the usage of various industry wastes as a secondary raw material tends to increase its relevancy. One of possible options to decrease the amount of waste is to use them to produce new products or materials. The operation of various secondary raw materials (tire rubber, tire cord, ground glass shards, ground ceramic waste products) during the concrete mixture preparation allows to change its as well as cured concrete properties. Recently polymer and steel fibers are used for concrete reinforcement. This study analyses the usage possibility of plastic shavings for the reinforcement of concrete. The technological properties of cement slurry (sand, fraction of 0/4 and 10 kg/m3, 15 kg/m3 and 20 kg/m3 of plastic shavings) as well as mechanical, physical and porosity properties of cured sandcrete were established during the experimental research. The geometric characteristics of mill-shredded plastic shavings were established. Experimental results revealed that the usage of plastic shavings decreased slurry slump and density. The minor decrease of cured sandcrete density (~2200 kg/m3) was noticed with the addition of plastic shavings within the limits of 10 - 20 kg/m3. The flexural strength of cured sandcrete increased from 36 % to 57 % compared with reference specimen (without plastic shavings). The dependence of flexural force and deflection was obtained. Study revealed that the residual strength after crack opening is bigger with the usage of plastic shavings as a secondary raw material compared with reference specimen.

  14. A hazardous waste from secondary aluminium metallurgy as a new raw material for calcium aluminate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan; Pérez, Carlos; Alguacil, Francisco José; López, Félix Antonio

    2009-06-15

    A solid waste coming from the secondary aluminium industry was successfully vitrified in the ternary CaO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2) system at 1500 degrees C. This waste is a complex material which is considered hazardous because of its behaviour in the presence of water or moisture. In these conditions, the dust can generate gases such as H(2), NH(3), CH(4), H(2)S, along with heat and potential aluminothermy. Only silica sand and calcium carbonate were added as external raw materials to complete the glasses formula. Different nominal compositions of glasses, with Al(2)O(3) ranging between 20% and 54%, were studied to determine the glass forming area. The glasses obtained allow the immobilisation of up to 75% of waste in a multicomponent oxide system in which all the components of the waste are incorporated. The microhardness Hv values varied between 6.05 and 6.62GPa and the linear thermal expansion coefficient, alpha, varied between (62 and 139)x10(-7)K(-1). Several glasses showed a high hydrolytic resistance in deionised water at 98 degrees C.

  15. Formulation of portland composite cement using waste glass as a supplementary cementitious material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manullang, Ria Julyana; Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki; Purbasari, Aprilina

    2017-09-01

    Utilization of waste glass in cement is an attractive options because of its pozzolanic behaviour and the market of glass-composite cement is potentially available. The objective of this research is to evaluate the formulation of waste glass as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) by an extreme vertices mixture experiment, in which clinker, waste glass and gypsum proportions are chosen as experimental variables. The composite cements were synthesized by mixing all of powder materials in jar mill. The compressive strength of the composite cement mortars after being cured for 28 days ranges between 229 to 268 kg/cm2. Composite cement mortars exhibit lower compressive strength than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortars but is still capable of meeting the SNI 15-7064-2004 standards. The highest compressive strength is obtained by shifting the cement blend composition to the direction of increasing clinker and gypsum proportions as well as reducing glass proportion. The lower compressive strength of composite cement is caused by expansion due to ettringite and ASR gel. Based on the experimental result, the composite cement containing 80% clinker, 15% glass and 5% gypsum has the highest compressive strength. As such, the preliminary technical feasibility of reuse of waste glass as SCM has been confirmed.

  16. Development and characterization of hybrid materials based on biodegradable PLA matrix, microcrystalline cellulose and organophilic silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Abbate dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to investigate the production and properties of hybrid materials based on poly(lactic acid (PLA, employing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC and organophilic silica (R972 as fillers. The composites were obtained by solution casting to form films. Each nanoparticle was incorporated at 3 wt. %, relative to the polymer matrix. In this experiment, four films were obtained (PLA, PLA/MCC, PLA/R972 and PLA/MCC/R972. The films properties were evaluated by X-ray diffractometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mechanical properties. The results showed that each nanoparticle, added individually or both combined, had different effect on the final properties of the films. Microcrystalline cellulose can act as nucleating agent for the crystallization of PLA. Silica promoted an increase in rigidity, due to the strong intermolecular forces, while MCC addition promoted an increase in the molecular mobility of the polymeric chains. The PLA/MCC/R972 film showed the highest crystallinity degree and tensile modulus. This film presented a T1H value between both values found for PLA/MCC and PLA/R972 films. The results indicated that silica R972 could promote a decrease of the surface tension between PLA and cellulose.

  17. Chitin-Lignin Material as a Novel Matrix for Enzyme Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Zdarta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovative materials were made via the combination of chitin and lignin, and the immobilization of lipase from Aspergillus niger. Analysis by techniques including FTIR, XPS and 13C CP MAS NMR confirmed the effective immobilization of the enzyme on the surface of the composite support. The electrokinetic properties of the resulting systems were also determined. Results obtained from elemental analysis and by the Bradford method enabled the determination of optimum parameters for the immobilization process. Based on the hydrolysis reaction of para-nitrophenyl palmitate, a determination was made of the catalytic activity, thermal and pH stability, and reusability. The systems with immobilized enzymes were found to have a hydrolytic activity of 5.72 mU, and increased thermal and pH stability compared with the native lipase. The products were also shown to retain approximately 80% of their initial catalytic activity, even after 20 reaction cycles. The immobilization process, using a cheap, non-toxic matrix of natural origin, leads to systems with potential applications in wastewater remediation processes and in biosensors.

  18. Extracellular matrix elasticity and topography: material-based cues that affect cell function via conserved mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Isaac A; Putnam, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Chemical, mechanical, and topographic extracellular matrix (ECM) cues have been extensively studied for their influence on cell behavior. These ECM cues alter cell adhesion, cell shape, and cell migration and activate signal transduction pathways to influence gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation. ECM elasticity and topography, in particular, have emerged as material properties of intense focus based on strong evidence these physical cues can partially dictate stem cell differentiation. Cells generate forces to pull on their adhesive contacts, and these tractional forces appear to be a common element of cells' responses to both elasticity and topography. This review focuses on recently published work that links ECM topography and mechanics and their influence on differentiation and other cell behaviors. We also highlight signaling pathways typically implicated in mechanotransduction that are (or may be) shared by cells subjected to topographic cues. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the potential implications of these commonalities for cell based therapies and biomaterial design. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chemically Linked Metal-Matrix Nanocomposites of Boron Nitride Nanosheets and Silver as Thermal Interface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Charles C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagabandi, Nirup [Texas A& M University; Yegin, Cengiz [Texas A& M University; Oh, Jun Kyun [Texas A& M University; Scholar, Ethan Adam [Texas A& M University; Akbulut, Mustafa [Texas A& M University

    2018-01-31

    Herein, novel hybrid nanocomposite thermal interface materials (TIMs) relying on the chemical linkage of silver, boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs), and organic ligands are reported. These TIMs were prepared using a co-electrodeposition/chemisorption approach where the electrolytic reduction of silver ions into silver nano-/micro-crystals was coupled with the conjugation of ligand-coated nanosheets onto silver crystals. Furthermore, the influence of bond strength of silver/nanosheet links on the thermal, mechanical, and structural properties is investigated using a combination of techniques; including laser flash analysis, phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectance, nanoindentation, and electron microscopy. Internal nanostructure was found to be strongly dependent on the linker chemistry. While the chemical grafting of 4-cyano-benzoyl chloride (CBC) and 2-mercapto-5-benzimidazole carboxylic acid (MBCA) on BNNSs led to the uniform distribution of functionalized-nanosheets in the silver crystal matrix, the physical binding of 4-bromo-benzoyl chloride (BBC) linkers on nanosheets caused the aggregation and phase separation. The thermal conductivity was 236-258 W/m-K and 306-321 W/m-K for physically and chemically conjugated TIMs, respectively, while their hardness varied from 495 to 400 MPa and from 240 to 360 MPa, respectively. The corresponding ratio of thermal conductivity to hardness, which is a critical parameter controlling the performance of TIMs, was ultrahigh for the chemically conjugated TIMs: 1.3x10-6 m2/K-s for MBCA-BNNS and 8.5x10-7 m2/K-s for CBC-BNNS. We anticipate that these materials can satisfy some of the emerging thermal management needs arising from the improved performance and efficiency, miniaturization, and/or high throughput of electronic devices, energy storage devices, energy conversion systems, light-emitting diodes, and telecommunication components.

  20. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Miron, Y. [Bureau of Mines (United States)

    1994-01-01

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  1. Matrix Vesicle Enzyme Activity and Phospholipid Content in Endosteal Bone Following Implantation of Osseointegrating and Non-Osseointegrating Implant Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    et al., 1978), and renal calcifications (Ganote et al., 1975). Membrane-associated mineralization is nonspecific to eucaryotic cells alone. A variety...limb. The collected hemopoietic material was a combination of cells , fractured cell debris, and matrix vesicles. This material was utilized for the...polymorphonucleocytes, lymphoid cells and macrophages, allowing for the formation of a fibroblastic procallus. The dense connective tissue is then infiltrated by

  2. Research about the pozzolanic activity of waste materials from calcined clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To recycle and reutilise waste materials and find definite applications for their use, it is necessary to have a deep knowledge of them. The aim of this study is to study the possibility of using waste materials from calcined clay, actually ceramic tile, once crushed and grounded, as pozzolanic material. For this purpose, different tests are carried out in order to establish the pozzolanic activity of this material. At the same time, these results are compared to those of other industrial by-products, fly ash and silica fume, which are pozzolanic materials usually employed to elaborate mortars and concretes.

    Para llevar a cabo labores encaminadas al reciclado y revalorización de residuos es necesario un conocimiento profundo de los mismos, de forma que se busquen aplicaciones concretas de uso. El objetivo de este estudio es investigar la posibilidad de utilizar materiales de desecho procedentes de arcilla cocida, concretamente teja cerámica, una vez triturada y molida, como puzolana. Para ello, se efectúan diferentes ensayos dirigidos a establecer la actividad puzolanica del material. A su vez, estos resultados son comparados con otros residuos industriales, ceniza volante y humo de sílice, habituales en la elaboración de morteros y hormigones.

  3. Valorisation of agricultural waste with adsorption/nanofiltration hybrid process: from materials to sustainable process design

    OpenAIRE

    Didaskalou, Christos; Buyuktiryaki, Sibel; Kecili, Rustem; Pereira Da Fonte, Claudio; Szekely, Gyorgy

    2017-01-01

    Downstream processing is considered to be the bottleneck in pharmaceutical manufacturing because its development has not kept pace with upstream production. In some cases, the lack of efficient downstream processing capacity can seriously affect both the sustainability and profitability of a pharmaceutical product and even result in its failure. Process intensification through minimising solvent and raw material consumption, as well as utilising waste, can make a significant difference toward...

  4. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval,Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investig...

  5. The Strength of Ethical Matrixes as a Tool for Normative Analysis Related to Technological Choices: The Case of Geological Disposal for Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Céline; Depaus, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    The ethical matrix is a participatory tool designed to structure ethical reflection about the design, the introduction, the development or the use of technologies. Its collective implementation, in the context of participatory decision-making, has shown its potential usefulness. On the contrary, its implementation by a single researcher has not been thoroughly analyzed. The aim of this paper is precisely to assess the strength of ethical matrixes implemented by a single researcher as a tool for conceptual normative analysis related to technological choices. Therefore, the ethical matrix framework is applied to the management of high-level radioactive waste, more specifically to retrievable and non-retrievable geological disposal. The results of this analysis show that the usefulness of ethical matrixes is twofold and that they provide a valuable input for further decision-making. Indeed, by using ethical matrixes, implicit ethically relevant issues were revealed-namely issues of equity associated with health impacts and differences between close and remote future generations regarding ethical impacts. Moreover, the ethical matrix framework was helpful in synthesizing and comparing systematically the ethical impacts of the technologies under scrutiny, and hence in highlighting the potential ethical conflicts.

  6. Impact of Waste Materials and Organic Amendments on Soil Properties and Vegetative Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. McGeehan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials, and materials derived from wastes, possess many characteristics that can improve soil fertility and enhance crop performance. These materials can be particularly useful as amendments to severely degraded soils associated with mining activities. This study evaluated biosolids, composts, log yard wastes, and two organic soil treatments for improved soil fertility and vegetative performance using side-by-side comparisons. Each plot was seeded with a standardized seed mix and evaluated for a series of soil chemical and physical parameters, total vegetation response, species diversity, ecological plant response, and invasion indices. All treatments were successful at improving soil fertility and promoting a self-sustaining vegetative cover. The level of available nitrogen had a strong impact on vegetative coverage, species distribution, and extent of unseeded vegetation. For example, high nitrogen treatments promoted a grass-dominated (low forb plant community with a low content of unseeded vegetation. In contrast, low nitrogen treatments promoted a more balanced plant community with a mixture of grass and forb species and greater susceptibility to unseeded vegetation establishment.

  7. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of nuclear material in scrap and waste by passive-Active neutron counting using 252Cf shuffler

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the nondestructive assay of scrap and waste items for U, Pu, or both, using a 252Cf shuffler. Shuffler measurements have been applied to a variety of matrix materials in containers of up to several 100 L. Corrections are made for the effects of matrix material. Applications of this test method include measurements for safeguards, accountability, TRU, and U waste segregation, disposal, and process control purposes (1, 2, 3). 1.1.1 This test method uses passive neutron coincidence counting (4) to measure the 240Pu-effective mass. It has been used to assay items with total Pu contents between 0.03 g and 1000 g. It could be used to measure other spontaneously fissioning isotopes such as Cm and Cf. It specifically describes the approach used with shift register electronics; however, it can be adapted to other electronics. 1.1.2 This test method uses neutron irradiation with a moveable Cf source and counting of the delayed neutrons from the induced fissions to measure the 235U equiva...

  8. Evolution of cement based materials in a repository for radioactive waste and their chemical barrier function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Metz, Volker; Schlieker, Martina; Bohnert, Elke [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2015-07-01

    The use of cementitious materials in nuclear waste management is quite widespread. It covers the solidification of low/intermediate-level liquid as well as solid wastes (e.g. laboratory wastes) and serves as shielding. For both high-level and intermediate-low level activity repositories, cement/concrete likewise plays an important role. It is used as construction material for underground and surface disposals, but more importantly it serves as barrier or sealing material. For the requirements of waste conditioning, special cement mixtures have been developed. These include special mixtures for the solidification of evaporator concentrates, borate binding additives and for spilling solid wastes. In recent years, low-pH cements were strongly discussed especially for repository applications, e.g. (Celine CAU DIT COUMES 2008; Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). Examples for relevant systems are Calcium Silicate Cements (ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based) or Calcium Aluminates Cements (CAC). Low-pH pore solutions are achieved by reduction of the portlandite content by partial substitution of OPC by mineral admixtures with high silica content. The blends follow the pozzolanic reaction consuming Ca(OH){sub 2}. Potential admixtures are silica fume (SF) and fly ashes (FA). In these mixtures, super plasticizers are required, consisting of polycarboxilate or naphthalene formaldehyde as well as various accelerating admixtures (Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). The pH regime of concrete/cement materials may stabilize radionuclides in solution. Newly formed alteration products retain or release radionuclides. An important degradation product of celluloses in cement is iso-saccharin acid. According to Glaus 2004 (Glaus and van Loon 2004), it reacts with radionuclides forming dissolved complexes. Apart from potentially impacting radionuclide solubility limitations, concrete additives, radionuclides or other strong complexants compete for surface sites for sorbing onto cement phases. In

  9. Screening of heavy metal containing waste types for use as raw material in Arctic clay-based bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2016-01-01

    particulate waste materials, were fired and material properties and heavy metal leaching tests were conducted before and after firing. Remediation techniques (washing in distilled water and electrodialytical treatment) applied to the fly ash reduced leaching before firing. The mine tailings and bottom ash......In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid...... waste incineration (MSWI) fly and bottom ashes and mine tailings (i.e., residues from the mineral resource industry) from Greenland were screened in order to determine their suitability as secondary resources in clay-based brick production. Small clay discs, containing 20 or 40% of the different...

  10. MATRIX 2 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-10-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to generate supplemental validation data that could be used to determine the applicability of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model to expanded DWPF glass composition regions of interest based on higher WLs. Two specific flowsheets were used in this study to provide such insight: (1) Higher WL glasses (45 and 50%) based on future sludge batches that have (and have not) undergone the Al-dissolution process. (2) Coupled operations supported by the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), which increase the TiO{sub 2} concentration in glass to greater than 2 wt%. Glasses were also selected to address technical issues associated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, nepheline formation, and homogeneity issues for coupled operations. A test matrix of 28 glass compositions was developed to provide insight into these issues. The glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), TL measurement and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) TiO{sub 2} concentrations up to {approx} 3.5 wt% were retained in DWPF type glasses, where retention is defined as the absence of crystalline TiO{sub 2} (i.e., unreacted or undissolved) in the as-fabricated glasses. Although this TiO{sub 2} content does not bound the projected SWPF high output flowsheet (up to 6 wt% TiO{sub 2} may be required in glass), these data demonstrate the potential for increasing the TiO{sub 2} limit in glass above the current limit of 2 wt

  11. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  12. Feasibility of Solid Waste Tuna Loin of Yellowfin Thunnus albacares Raw Materials for The Product Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Kantun Kantun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one country in the world exporters of tuna in the form of fresh, frozen andprocessed. Tuna exported in processed form large enough to leave waste for exporting companies.The purpose of this study was to determine a feasibility study on solid waste exported tuna loin forraw material diversification. This research was conducted in Majene Makassar Strait. The study wasconducted using descriptive exploratory method by taking a sample of 3 times and each samplewas tested 3 times resulting in 9 times of testing for each of the observed variables. Chemical testwhich includes moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates, and histamine. Microbiological test thatis E. coli, Salmonella and the total number of bacteria. Data were analyzed by descriptive qualitativeand quantitative display via Tables, Graphics and Image in the form of average value. The resultsshowed that the chemical solid waste tuna loin has a water content ranged from 78.34 to 78.78%,protein content ranged from 14.32 to 16.41%, fat ranged from 1.56 to 1.66%, ash content rangedfrom 5.18 to 5. 58%, carbohydrate content ranged from 1.29 to 1.34%, and histamine ranged from2.08 to 3.21 mg / kg. Solid waste microbiologically tuna loin contains E.coli range from 1.2 to 1.9(<2, Salmonella negative and TPC ranged from 1.4 to 1.8 x 105 kol/g. The results of chemical andmicrobiological testing showed solid waste tuna loin still suitable as raw material diversificationproducts.

  13. BENTONITE-QUARTZ SAND AS THE BACKFILL MATERIALS ON THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    OpenAIRE

    Raharjo Raharjo

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the contribution of quartz sand in the bentonite mixture as the backfill materials on the shallow land burial of radioactive waste has been done. The experiment objective is to determine the effect of quartz sand in a bentonite mixture with bentonite particle sizes of -20+40, -40+60, and -60+80 mesh on the retardation factor and the uranium dispersion in the simulation of uranium migration in the backfill materials. The experiment was carried out by the fixed bed metho...

  14. Researches regarding structural modifications that appears in the material of tools used for rubber waste attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dobrotă

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tools commonly used for shredding rubber waste, currently produced, are made of neatly cast iron in the composite is to avoid the presence of sulfur and phosphorus. In this paper are presented the main structural material changes that occur in different areas, located at different distances from the active surface of tools. Structural changes occurred mainly refers to the transformation of white iron surface layer to gray cast iron and graphite separations appearance, which causes the crack primers and cracking corrosion phenomena in tools material.

  15. Reliable classification of moving waste materials with LIBS in concrete recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Han; Bakker, M C M

    2014-03-01

    Effective discrimination between different waste materials is of paramount importance for inline quality inspection of recycle concrete aggregates from demolished buildings. The moving targeted materials in the concrete waste stream are wood, PVC, gypsum block, glass, brick, steel rebar, aggregate and cement paste. For each material, up to three different types were considered, while thirty particles of each material were selected. Proposed is a reliable classification methodology based on integration of the LIBS spectral emissions in a fixed time window, starting from the deployment of the laser shot. PLS-DA (multi class) and the hybrid combination PCA-Adaboost (binary class) were investigated as efficient classifiers. In addition, mean centre and auto scaling approaches were compared for both classifiers. Using 72 training spectra and 18 test spectra per material, each averaged by ten shots, only PLS-DA achieved full discrimination, and the mean centre approach made it slightly more robust. Continuing with PLS-DA, the relation between data averaging and convergence to 0.3% average error was investigated using 9-fold cross-validations. Single-shot PLS-DA presented the highest challenge and most desirable methodology, which converged with 59 PC. The degree of success in practical testing will depend on the quality of the training set and the implications of the possibly remaining false positives. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Application of pristine and doped SnO2 nanoparticles as a matrix for agro-hazardous material (organophosphate) detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naushad; Athar, Taimur; Fouad, H.; Umar, Ahmad; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    With an increasing focus on applied research, series of single/composite materials are being investigated for device development to detect several hazardous, dangerous, and toxic molecules. Here, we report a preliminary attempt of an electrochemical sensor fabricated using pristine Ni and Cr-doped nano tin oxide material (SnO2) as a tool to detect agro-hazardous material, i.e. Organophosphate (OP, chlorpyrifos). The nanomaterial was synthesized using the solution method. Nickel and chromium were used as dopant during synthesis. The synthesized material was calcined at 1000 °C and characterized for morphological, structural, and elemental analysis that showed the formation of agglomerated nanosized particles of crystalline nature. Screen-printed films of powder obtained were used as a matrix for working electrodes in a cyclic voltammogram (CV) at various concentrations of organophosphates (0.01 to 100 ppm). The CV curves were obtained before and after the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on the nanomaterial matrix. An interference study was also conducted with hydroquinone to ascertain the selectivity. The preliminary study indicated that such material can be used as suitable matrix for a device that can easily detect OP to a level of 10 ppb and thus contributes to progress in terms of desired device technology for the food and agricultural-industries.

  17. Treatment of nitrate-rich water in a baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) employing waste derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhankar; Singh, Saurabh K; Tewari, Prahlad K; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2014-12-15

    Nitrate removal in submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is limited as intensive aeration (for maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels and for membrane scouring) deters the formation of anoxic zones essential for biological denitrification. The present study employs baffled membrane bioreactor (BMBR) to overcome this constraint. Treatment of nitrate rich water (synthetic and real groundwater) was investigated. Sludge separation was achieved using ceramic membrane filters prepared from waste sugarcane bagasse ash. A complex external carbon source (leachate from anaerobic digestion of food waste) was used to maintain an appropriate C/N ratio. Over 90% COD and 95% NO3-N reduction was obtained. The bagasse ash filters produced a clear permeate, free of suspended solids. Sludge aggregates were observed in the reactor and were linked to the high extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content. Lower sludge volume index (40 mL/g compared to 150 mL/g for seed sludge), higher settling velocity (47 m/h compared to 10 m/h for seed sludge) and sludge aggregates (0.7 mm aggregates compared to waste-derived materials viz. food waste leachate and bagasse ash filters in water treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The raw material and waste activity balance in the projected nuclear power of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamov, E.O.; Ganev, I.Kh.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Muratov, V.G.; Orlov, V.V. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Under discussion is the management of long-lived high-level wastes in the nuclear energy sector of Russia, the development of which on a large scale in the next century is motivated by the need for arresting the increasing consumption of fossil fuels. The prerequisites for the nuclear power growth consists in the design of naturally safe reactors and development of a transmutational nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology. The choice of operations in such a cycle and of their quantitative characteristics, is aimed at minimizing the wastes to approach the radiation balance with the natural uranium extracted and put to use. The paper discusses the way the approximation to the balance between the raw material and waste activity is influenced by introduction of the transmutational NFC (in case 2), inclusion of transmutation reactors into the energy mix (case 1), partial disposal of actinide wastes into outer space, and by recycling of protactinium (case 3). It is shown that such a balance can be sustained for a considerable time in cases 2 and 3 or throughout the operation stage of the future nuclear power (case 1). (orig.) 17 refs.

  19. Improving mechanical properties of lightweight Porcelanite aggregate concrete using different waste material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheelan M. Hama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete using waste material is the goal of this work to get both structural and environmental advantage besides cost saving. Porcelanite aggregate was used as lightweight aggregate. First plastic bottles were cut into slices and used as fibers with these percentages: 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25% and 1.5% by volume. The results of tests under compression and tensile stress showed that mix 1% plastic fiber (PF gave the best results when compared to reference mix without PF. Eggshell (rich with CaO and glass wastes (rich of silca were crashed and powdered to desired size and used as partial replacement of cement with these percentage: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Compressive strength, flexural strength, density, absorption and modulus of elasticity were tested. Comparison was made with reference mix (without waste powder to figure the efficiency of using these waste in lightweight Porcelanite concrete. The results of tests showed that mixes with 1% PF and 5% eggshell powder (ESP gave results so close to reference mix. Using more than 5% ESP made no improvement in lightweight concrete, while the mix with 1% PF with any glass powder (GP percentages used in this research gave good improvement in the tested properties especially at 20% GP.

  20. The role of laboratory analog experiments in assessing the performance of waste package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-12-31

    There is an immediate need to begin to validate models that can be used for assessing the performance of waste package materials in an unsaturated repository environment. This paper examines available testing information and testing approaches that could support validation of models for engineering barrier system (EBS) radionuclide release. The content is presented in the context of the general methodology that has been proposed for validating performance assessment models. Available experimental observations are used to test some of the EBS release rate modeling premises. These observations include evidence of fluid film formation on waste glass surfaces in isothermal humid environments, accelerated waste glass reaction rates under repository service conditions of large glass surface area to water volume ratio, and mobilization of radionuclides as solutes and colloids. It is concluded that some important modeling premises may not be consistent with available experimental information. However, it is also concluded that future laboratory testing, which simulates the integrated waste package systems, is needed to evaluate the significance of these inconsistencies and to test the system level models. A small-scale apparatus which was developed and tested to examine the feasibility of laboratory analog testing for the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository environment is described. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  3. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  4. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  5. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  6. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material

  7. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 3 - Ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume discusses ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites in prospective aerospace systems, monolithic ceramics, transformation-toughened and whisker-reinforced ceramic composites, glass-ceramic matrix composites, reaction-bonded Si3N4 and SiC composites, and chemical vapor-infiltrated composites. Also discussed are the sol-gel-processing of ceramic composites, the fabrication and properties of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites with directed metal oxidation, the fracture behavior of ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), the fatigue of fiber-reinforced CMCs, creep and rupture of CMCs, structural design methodologies for ceramic-based materials systems, the joining of ceramics and CMCs, and carbon-carbon composites.

  9. Asphalt dust waste material as a paste volume in developing sustainable self compacting concrete (SCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Isham; Shahidan, Shahiron; Bahari, Nur Amira Afiza Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixtures are usually designed to have high workability during the fresh state through the influence of higher volumes of paste in concrete mixtures. Asphalt dust waste (ADW) is one of disposed materials obtained during the production of asphalt premix. These fine powder wastes contribute to environmental problems today. However, these waste materials can be utilized in the development of sustainable and economical SCC. This paper focuses on the preliminary evaluations of the fresh properties and compressive strength of developed SCC for 7 and 28 days only. 144 cube samples from 24 mixtures with varying water binder ratios (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and ADW volume (0% to 100%) were prepared. MD940 and MD950 showed a satisfactory performance for the slump flow, J-Ring, L-Box and V-Funnel tests at fresh state. The compressive strength after 28 days for MD940 and MD950 was 36.9 MPa and 28.0 MPa respectively. In conclusion, the use of ADW as paste volume should be limited and a higher water binder ratio will significantly reduce the compressive strength.

  10. Leaching capacity of metals-metalloids and recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvilotidou, Vasiliki; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of Directive 2012/19/EU which is related to WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment), also known as "e-waste", is to contribute to their sustainable production and consumption that would most possibly be achieved by their recovery, recycling and reuse. Under this perspective, the present study focused on the recovery of valuable materials, metals and metalloids from LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays). Indium (In), arsenic (As) and stibium (Sb) were selected to be examined for their Leaching Capacity (R) from waste LCDs. Indium was selected mainly due to its rarity and preciousness, As due to its high toxicity and wide use in LCDs and Sb due to its recent application as arsenic's replacement to improve the optimal clarity of a LCD screen. The experimental procedure included disassembly of screens along with removal and recovery of polarizers via thermal shock, cutting, pulverization and digestion of the shredded material and finally leaching evaluation of the aforementioned elements. Leaching tests were conducted under various temperatures, using various solid:liquid (S/L) ratios and solvents (acid mixtures), to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining the maximum leaching capacities. The examined elements exhibited different leaching behaviors, mainly due to the considerable diversity in their inherent characteristic properties. Indium demonstrated the highest recovery percentages (approximately 60%), while the recovery of As and Sb was unsuccessful, obtaining poor leaching percentages (0.16% and 0.5%, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Matrix composition regulates three-dimensional network formation by endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells in collagen/fibrin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rameshwar R; Peterson, Alexis W; Ceccarelli, Jacob; Putnam, Andrew J; Stegemann, Jan P

    2012-06-01

    Co-cultures of endothelial cells (EC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in three-dimensional (3D) protein hydrogels can be used to recapitulate aspects of vasculogenesis in vitro. MSC provide paracrine signals that stimulate EC to form vessel-like structures, which mature as the MSC transition to the role of mural cells. In this study, vessel-like network formation was studied using 3D collagen/fibrin (COL/FIB) matrices seeded with embedded EC and MSC and cultured for 7 days. The EC:MSC ratio was varied from 5:1, 3:2, 1:1, 2:3 and 1:5. The matrix composition was varied at COL/FIB compositions of 100/0 (pure COL), 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 0/100 (pure FIB). Vasculogenesis was markedly decreased in the highest EC:MSC ratio, relative to the other cell ratios. Network formation increased with increasing fibrin content in composite materials, although the 40/60 COL/FIB and pure fibrin materials exhibited the same degree of vasculogenesis. EC and MSC were co-localized in vessel-like structures after 7 days and total cell number increased by approximately 70%. Mechanical property measurements showed an inverse correlation between matrix stiffness and network formation. The effect of matrix stiffness was further investigated using gels made with varying total protein content and by crosslinking the matrix using the dialdehyde glyoxal. This systematic series of studies demonstrates that matrix composition regulates vasculogenesis in 3D protein hydrogels, and further suggests that this effect may be caused by matrix mechanical properties. These findings have relevance to the study of neovessel formation and the development of strategies to promote vascularization in transplanted tissues.

  12. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education safety guide

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the > fulfilment of the safety requirements established in Safety Standards > Series No. WS-R-2, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, > Including Decommissioning. It covers the roles and responsibilities of > different bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive > waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It > is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive > waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis for and the > regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.  > Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the > environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety > considerations; 5. Predisposal management of radioactive waste; 6. > Acceptance of radioactive waste in disposal facilities; 7. Record > keeping and reporting; 8. Management systems; Appendix I: Fault > schedule for safety assessment and environmental impact assessment; > Ap...

  13. Critical review of real-time methods for solid waste characterisation: Informing material recovery and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, C; Longhurst, P J; Wagland, S T

    2017-03-01

    Waste management processes generally represent a significant loss of material, energy and economic resources, so legislation and financial incentives are being implemented to improve the recovery of these valuable resources whilst reducing contamination levels. Material recovery and waste derived fuels are potentially valuable options being pursued by industry, using mechanical and biological processes incorporating sensor and sorting technologies developed and optimised for recycling plants. In its current state, waste management presents similarities to other industries that could improve their efficiencies using process analytical technology tools. Existing sensor technologies could be used to measure critical waste characteristics, providing data required by existing legislation, potentially aiding waste treatment processes and assisting stakeholders in decision making. Optical technologies offer the most flexible solution to gather real-time information applicable to each of the waste mechanical and biological treatment processes used by industry. In particular, combinations of optical sensors in the visible and the near-infrared range from 800nm to 2500nm of the spectrum, and different mathematical techniques, are able to provide material information and fuel properties with typical performance levels between 80% and 90%. These sensors not only could be used to aid waste processes, but to provide most waste quality indicators required by existing legislation, whilst offering better tools to the stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recycling of construction and demolition waste materials: a chemical-mineralogical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, G; Marrocchino, E; Tassinari, R; Vaccaro, C

    2005-01-01

    Building activity is currently demanding remarkable amounts of inert materials (such as gravel and sand) that are usually provided by alluvial sediments. The EU directives and Italian Legislation are encouraging the re-use of construction and demolition waste provided by continuous urban redevelopment. The re-utilisation of building waste is a relatively new issue for Italy: unfortunately the employment of recycled inert materials is still limited to general bulk and drainage fills, while a more complete re-evaluation is generally hampered by the lack of suitable recycling plants. In this paper, chemical-mineralogical characterization of recycled inert materials was carried out after preliminary crushing and grain-size sorting. XRF and XRD analysis of the different grain-size classes allowed us to recognise particular granulometric classes that can be re-utilised as first-order material in the building activity. Specifically, the presented chemical-mineralogical appraisal indicates that the recycled grain-size fraction 0.6-0.125 mm could be directly re-employed in the preparation of new mortar and concrete, while finer fractions could be considered as components for industrial processing in the preparation of cements and bricks/tiles.

  15. Viability of utilization of waste materials from ceramic products in precast concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The recycled and re-valuation process of waste materials involves studies lead to a deep acknowledges of them, finding applications for their intended use. The waste materials from ceramic products can be recycled into the construction sector, as arid or pozzolanic materials. The current work deals with the incorporation of ceramic materials in these two different ways, checking the behaviour of the elaborated mortar by mean of laboratory tests. Also, tests are developed in factory, using these as components for precast concrete tiles.

    Todo proceso de reciclado y revalorización de residuos implica estudios encaminados a un conocimiento profundo de los mismos, de forma que se busquen aplicaciones concretas de uso. Los materiales de desecho procedentes de productos cerámicos pueden ser reciclados dentro del sector de la construcción, ya sea como áridos o como materiales puzolánicos. El presente trabajo aborda la incorporación de materiales cerámicos desde estas dos vertientes, comprobando, en cada caso, el comportamiento de los morteros elaborados mediante ensayos de laboratorio. También se llevan a cabo pruebas en fábrica, siendo utilizados como componentes en prefabricados de hormigón.

  16. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  17. Municipal household waste used as complement material for composting chicken manure and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume L. Amadji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few organic materials available as agricultural soil amendment because their low chemical content means that large quantities are required. In order to improve the availability of raw materials for composting, as well as the quality of the compost produced, municipal solid waste (MW was added to cotton-seed residue (CSR and to the association of CSR with chicken manure (M in different weight/weight (MW/added materials ratios of 5:1 and 2:1. Aerobic composting was processed and compost yield was determined, as well as compost particle size and pH. Also, the compost bulk density and its water holding capacity were determined as well as contents of total nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, calcium (Ca, magnesium and heavy metals. According to its pH and carbon/nitrogen ratio values, the municipal waste of Cotonou was judged to be a good raw material for composting in order to improve availability of the organic source of nutrients. The composts produced with MW+M+CSR had the highest potential for amending Ferralsols, especially with a mixture of 2:1 (200 kg MW+100 kg M+100 kg CSR that could be applied at 10 t ha–1. However, further improvement in composting methods was suggested to increase Ca++ and reduce mercury contents, respectively. Moreover, potassium balance should be improved in the produced compost.

  18. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes II: Influence of raw material composition under catalytic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A; Torres, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the results obtained in catalytic pyrolysis of three plastic waste streams which are the rejects of an industrial packing wastes sorting plant are presented. The samples have been pyrolysed in a 3.5 dm(3) reactor under semi-batch conditions at 440 °C for 30 min in nitrogen atmosphere. Commercial ZSM-5 zeolite has been used as catalyst in liquid phase contact. In every case, high HHV gases and liquids which can be useful as fuels or source of chemicals are obtained. A solid fraction composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials and some char formed in the pyrolysis process is also obtained. The zeolite has shown to be very effective to produce liquids with great aromatics content and C3-C4 fraction rich gases, even though the raw material was mainly composed of polyolefins. The characteristics of the pyrolysis products as well as the effect of the catalyst vary depending on the composition of the raw material. When paper rich samples are pyrolysed, ZSM-5 zeolite increases water production and reduces CO and CO(2) generation. If stepwise pyrolysis is applied to such sample, the aqueous liquid phase can be separated from the organic liquid fraction in a first low temperature step. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Use of alternative waste materials in producing ultra-high performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shamsad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a corrosive environment similar to that of the Arabian Gulf, use of high-performance concrete is one of the options to ensure a target service life of concrete structures. However, in absence of good quality coarse aggregates, it is a challenging task to produce high-performance concrete. Recently, the possibility of producing ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC has been widely reported in the literature. UHPC is produced without coarse aggregates at very low water to cementitious materials ratio, high amounts of cement, mineral admixtures, and superplasticizer along with fine quartz sand as aggregate, quartz powder as micro-filler, a nd steel fibres for fracture toughness. In the present work, an effort was made to utilize local waste materials as alternative mineral admixtures and local dune sand as aggregate in producing different UHPC mixtures without addition of quartz powder. The mechanical properties, shrinkage, and durability characteristics of the UHPC mixtures were studied. Test results indicate that it is possible to produce UHPC mixtures using alternative waste materials, which would have targeted flow, strength, toughness, and resistance against reinforcement corrosion. The information presented in the paper would help in optimum selection of a mixture of UHPC considering the availability of local materials, exposure conditions and structural requirements.

  2. Confirmatory investigations on the flux effect and associated unstable matrix damage in RPV materials exposed to high neutron fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R., E-mail: rachid.chaouadi@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gérard, R. [Tractebel Engineering, Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-06-15

    This paper provides additional experimental data on the neutron flux effect on RPV hardening and embrittlement and on the so-called unstable matrix damage that was suggested to occur at high flux. Six materials taken from the first irradiation surveillance capsules of Belgian PWRs with a fluence not exceeding about 1.5 × 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} were further irradiated in the BR2 high flux reactor to additional fluences ranging between about 1 and 1.5 × 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} at 290 °C. Eight additional RPV materials were selected to investigate the flux effect on irradiation hardening. No statistically-significant difference in irradiation hardening for low and high flux could be evidenced from the null hypothesis test applied with the general linear model. This is confirmed by additional experiments where fourteen irradiated specimens of various RPV materials consisting of low to high Cu and Ni contents were annealed at 350 °C for 5 h to eventually reveal some recovery of the unstable matrix damage. The results did not show any recovery upon heat treatment, which indicates that unstable matrix defects did not appear in these materials during irradiation at high flux.

  3. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial corrosion of metallic materials in a deep nuclear-waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoulil J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study summarises current knowledge on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The first part evaluates the general impact of microbial activity on corrosion mechanisms. Especially, the impact of microbial metabolism on the environment and the impact of biofilms on the surface of structure materials were evaluated. The next part focuses on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The study aims to suggest the development of the repository environment and in that respect the viability of bacteria, depending on the probable conditions of the environment, such as humidity of bentonite, pressure in compact bentonite, the impact of ionizing radiation, etc. The last part is aimed at possible techniques for microbial corrosion mechanism monitoring in the conditions of a deep repository. Namely, electrochemical and microscopic techniques were discussed.

  5. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  6. Construction demolition wastes, Waelz slag and MSWI bottom ash: a comparative technical analysis as material for road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, I; Ibañez, J A; San José, J T; Urzelai, A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the technical suitability of using secondary materials from three waste flows (construction and demolition waste (CDW), Waelz slag and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash), under the regulations and standards governing the use of materials for road construction. A detailed technical characterization of the materials was carried out according to Spanish General Technical Specifications for Road Construction (PG3). The results show that Waelz slag can be adequate for using in granular structural layers, while CDW fits better as granular material in roadbeds. Likewise, fresh MSWI bottom ash can be used as roadbed material as long as it does not contain a high concentration of soluble salts. This paper also discusses the adequacy of using certain traditional test methods for natural soils when characterizing secondary materials for use as aggregates in road construction.

  7. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrados, A., E-mail: aitziber.adrados@ehu.es [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering of Bilbao, Alameda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); De Marco, I.; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A.; Caballero, B.M.; Laresgoiti, M.F. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering of Bilbao, Alameda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the influence of materials in the pyrolysis of real plastic waste samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic compounds remain unaltered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components give rise to an increase in char formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components promote the production of aqueous phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components increase CO and CO{sub 2} contents in the gases. - Abstract: In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm{sup 3} reactor, swept with 1 L min{sup -1} N{sub 2}, at 500 Degree-Sign C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg{sup -1}). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO{sub 2}; their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg{sup -1}. The amount of CO-CO{sub 2} increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  8. Flow behavior and mobility of contaminated waste rock materials in the abandoned Imgi mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. W.; Wu, Y.-H.; Cho, Y. C.; Ji, S. W.

    2018-01-01

    Incomplete mine reclamation can cause ecological and environmental impacts. This paper focuses on the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials, which are mainly composed of sand-size particles, potentially resulting in mass movement (e.g., slide or flow) and extensive acid mine drainage. To examine the potential for contaminant mobilization resulting from physicochemical processes in abandoned mines, a series of scenario-based debris flow simulations was conducted using Debris-2D to identify different hazard scenarios and volumes. The flow behavior of waste rock materials was examined using a ball-measuring rheometric apparatus, which can be adapted for large particle samples, such as debris flow. Bingham yield stresses determined in controlled shear rate mode were used as an input parameter in the debris flow modeling. The yield stresses ranged from 100 to 1000 Pa for shear rates ranging from 10- 5 to 102 s- 1. The results demonstrated that the lowest yield stress could result in high mobility of debris flow (e.g., runout distance > 700 m from the source area for 60 s); consequently, the material contaminants may easily reach the confluence of the Suyoung River through a mountain stream. When a fast slide or debris flow occurs at or near an abandoned mine area, it may result in extremely dynamic and destructive geomorphological changes. Even for the highest yield stress of debris flow simulation (i.e., τy = 2000 Pa), the released debris could flow into the mountain stream; therefore, people living near abandoned mines may become exposed to water pollution throughout the day. To maintain safety at and near abandoned mines, the physicochemical properties of waste materials should be monitored, and proper mitigation measures post-mining should be considered in terms of both their physical damage and chemical pollution potential.

  9. Screening for halogenated flame retardants in European consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Šimon; Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Komprdová, Klára; Kohoutek, Jiří; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2017-02-01

    To fulfill national and international fire safety standards, flame retardants (FRs) are being added to a wide range of consumer products and building materials consisting of flammable materials like plastic, wood and textiles. While the FR composition of some products and materials has been identified in recent years, the limited global coverage of the data and the large diversity in consumer products necessitates more information for an overall picture of the FR composition in common products/materials. To address this issue, 137 individual samples of various consumer products, building materials and wastes were collected. To identify and characterize potential sources of FRs in indoor environment, all samples were analyzed for content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs). The most frequently detected were HBCDDs (85%), with the highest median concentration of Σ4HBCDDs of 300 mg kg-1 in polystyrenes. The highest median concentration of Σ10PBDEs was found in recycled plastic materials, reaching 4 mg kg-1. The lowest concentrations were observed for NFRs, where the median of Σ12NFRs reached 0.4 mg kg-1 in the group of electrical & electronic equipment wastes. This suggests that for consumer products and building materials that are currently in-use, legacy compounds still contribute to the overall burden of FRs. Additionally, contrasting patterns of FR composition in recycled and virgin plastics, revealed using principle component analysis (PCA), suggest that legacy flame retardants are reentering the market through recycled products, perpetuating the potential for emissions to indoor environments and thus for human exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical and plasma surface modification of lignocellulose coconut waste for the preparation of advanced biobased composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Suheyla; Karaman, Mustafa; Gursoy, Mehmet; Ahmetli, Gulnare

    2017-03-01

    In this study, surface-modified grinded coconut waste (CW) particles were used as bio-fillers to prepare polymeric composite materials with enhanced properties. Epoxy resin modified with acrylated and epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was used as the polymer matrix. Two different strategies, namely chemical treatment and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were utilized to modify the surface of CW particles for using them as compatible bio-fillers in composite preparation. Chemical modification involved the treatment of CW particles in a highly alkali NaOH solution, while PECVD modification involved coating of a thin film of hydrophobic poly(hexafluorobutyl acrylate) (PHFBA) around individual CW particle surfaces. Untreated and surface-modified CW particles were used in 10-50wt% for preparation of epoxy composites. FTIR analysis was performed to study the effect of modification on the structures of particles and as-prepared composites. The composite morphologies were investigated by XRD and SE. TGA test was conducted to study the thermal behavior of the composites. Also, the effects of CW particle surface modification on the mechanical and water sorption properties of epoxy resin composites were investigated in detail. It was observed that PECVD-treated CW particles had much more positive effects on the thermal, mechanical, wettability and flammability properties of composites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Examination of the possibilities of the application of waste materials (gypsum, fly ash and bottom ash in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Prvoslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of the application of waste gypsum (citrogypsum, nitrogyosum and sulphogypsum, fly ash and bottom ash in construction: for production of gypsum binders (a-calcium sulphate hemihydrate, b-calcium sulphata hemihydrate and b-anhydrite, for obtaining construction products (bricks and blocks and as component materials for road layers were presented in this work. Also, the possibilities of the application of sulphogypsum (or FGD gypsum for solidification and stabilization of fly ash were presented. The obtained results could have great importance in both ecological and economic views (elimination of important pollutants of water, air and soil, replacement of natural by waste materials, reduction of waste disposal cost.

  12. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.C

    2006-07-01

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  13. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management report 2013/2014. Material science for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumeier, S.; Klinkenberg, M.; Bosbach, D. (eds.)

    2016-07-01

    This is the third bi-annual report of the Nuclear Waste Management section of the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) at Forschungszentrum Juelich since 2009 - almost a tradition. Our institute has seen two more years with exciting scientific work, but also major changes regarding nuclear energy in Germany and beyond. After the reactor accident in Fukushima (Japan) in 2011, it was decided in Germany to phase out electricity production by nuclear energy by 2022. It seems clear, that the decommissioning of the nuclear power plants will take several decades. The German nuclear waste repository Konrad for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation (all low level and some of the intermediate level radioactive waste) will start operation in the next decade. The new site selection act from 2013 re-defines the selection procedure for the German high level nuclear waste repository. Independently of the decision to stop electricity production by nuclear energy, Germany has to manage and ultimately dispose of its nuclear waste in a safe way. Our basic and applied research for the safe management of nuclear waste is focused on radiochemistry and materials chemistry aspects - it is focused on the behaviour of radionuclides and radioactive waste materials within the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Itis organized in four areas: (1) research supporting the scientific basis of the safety case of a deep geological repository for high level nuclear waste, (2) fundamental structure research of radionuclide containing (waste) materials (3) R and D for waste management concepts for special nuclear wastes and (4) international safeguards. A number of excellent scientific results have been published in more than 80 papers in international peer-reviewed scientific journals in 2013 - 2014. Here, I would like to mention four selected scientific highlights - more can be found in this report: (1) The retention of radionuclides within a nuclear waste repository system by

  14. Carbon-mineral adsorbents prepared by pyrolysis of waste materials in the presence of tetrachloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboda, Roman; Charmas, Barbara; Skubiszewska-Zieba, Jadwiga; Chodorowski, Stanislaw; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Gun'ko, Vladimir M; Pokrovskiy, Valery A

    2005-04-01

    Natural bentonite spent in the process of plant oil bleaching was used as an initial material for preparation of carbon-mineral adsorbents. The spent bleaching earth was treated using four procedures: T (thermal treatment); H (hydrothermal treatment); C (thermal treatment with addition of CCl4 vapor); M (modification of porous structure). Raw bentonite, RB (raw bleaching earth), and carbon materials prepared using plant oil were compared. The physicochemical characteristics of the adsorbents were determined using different methods: nitrogen adsorption/desorption, XRD, TEM, and MS-TPD. Carbon-mineral adsorbents contain from 5.23 to 19.92% C (w/w) and carbon adsorbents include from 84.2 to 91.18% C (w/w). Parallel processes of organic substance carbonization, porous structure modification, sublimation or evaporation of metal chlorides, and removal of hydrogen chloride take place during pyrolysis of waste mineral materials in the CCl4 atmosphere.

  15. Development of a Lightweight Low-Carbon Footprint Concrete Containing Recycled Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of waste materials such as crushed glass, ground tire rubber, and recycled aggregate in concrete. Compressive strength and elastic modulus were the primary parameters of interest. Results demonstrated that ground tire rubber introduced significant amounts of air into the mix and adversely affected the strength. The introduction of a defoamer was able to successfully remove part of the excess air from the mix, but the proportional strength improvements were not noted implying that air left in the defoamed mixture had undesirable characteristics. Freeze-thaw tests were next performed to understand the nature of air in the defoamed mixtures, and results demonstrated that this air is not helpful in resisting freeze-thaw resistance either. Overall, while lightweight, low-carbon footprint concrete materials seem possible from recycled materials, significant further optimization remains possible.

  16. Cutin from agro-waste as a raw material for the production of bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Heredia, Antonio; Domínguez, Eva; Cingolani, Roberto; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Benítez, José J

    2017-11-09

    Cutin is the main component of plant cuticles constituting the framework that supports the rest of the cuticle components. This biopolymer is composed of esterified bi- and trifunctional fatty acids. Despite its ubiquity in terrestrial plants, it has been underutilized as raw material due to its insolubility and lack of melting point. However, in recent years, a few technologies have been developed to obtain cutin monomers from several agro-wastes at an industrial scale. This review is focused on the description of cutin properties, biodegradability, chemical composition, processability, abundance, and the state of art of the fabrication of cutin-based materials in order to evaluate whether this biopolymer can be considered a source for the production of renewable materials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and parameter optimization of recycling organic materials from waste tantalum capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyang; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2018-01-15

    Recycling rare metal tantalum from waste tantalum capacitors (WTCs) is significant to alleviate the shortage of tantalum resource. However, environmental problems will be caused if the organic materials from WTCs are improperly disposed. This study presented a promising vacuum pyrolysis technology to recycle the organic materials from WTCs. The organics removal rate could reach 94.32wt% according to TG results. The optimal parameters were determined as 425°C, 50Pa and 30min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM). The oil yield and residual rate was 18.09wt% and 74.94wt%, respectively. All pyrolysis products can be recycled through a reasonable route. Besides, to deeply understand the pyrolysis process, the pyrolysis mechanism was also proposed based on the product and free radical theory. This paper provides an efficient process for recycling the organic material from WTCs, which can facilitate the following tantalum recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Material stream management of biomass wastes for the optimization of organic wastes utilization; Stoffstrommanagement von Biomasseabfaellen mit dem Ziel der Optimierung der Verwertung organischer Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, Florian; Boess, Andreas; Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Vogt, Regine [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Dehoust, Guenter; Schueler, Doris; Wiegmann, Kirsten; Fritsche, Uwe [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The effective use of the valuable substances found in waste materials can make an important contribution to climate protection and the conservation of fossil and mineral resources. In order to harness the potential contribution of biomass waste streams, it is necessary to consider the potential of the waste in connection with that of the total biomass. In this project, relevant biogenous material streams in the forestry, the agriculture as well as in several industries are studied, and their optimization potentials are illustrated. Scenarios are then developed, while taking various other environmental impacts into considerations, to explore possible optimized utilization of biomass streams and biomass waste substances for the future. Straw that is not needed for humus production and currently left on the field can be used for its energy content. The realisation of this potential would be significant contribution towards climate protection. The energetic use of liquid manure without negatively influencing its application as commercial fertilizer can also be similarly successful because of its large volume. The results of our study also support an increased energetic use of saw residues as fuel (in form of pellets) in small furnaces. For household organic wastes, the report suggests the fermentation with optimized energy use and intensified marketing of the aerobically treated compost as peat substitution. While for waste cooking fat that is currently disposed in the residual waste, a separate collection and direct use in motors that are used as combined heat and power generation are recommended. For meat and bone meal and communal sludge that are not being used substantial currently or in the future, phosphorus can be recovered with promising success from the ash produced when the waste is burnt in mono incinerators. These technical options should however be tested against disposal standard. (orig.)

  19. Converting inert plastic waste into energetic materials: A study on the light-accelerated decomposition of plastic waste with the Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Wong, Wing-Leung; Chan, Ching-Wan; Chan, Chung-Sum

    2018-01-30

    Better treatment and management strategies than landfilling are needed to address the large quantities of unrecycled plastic waste generated by daily human activities. Waste-to-energy conversion is an ideal benchmark for developing future large-scale waste management technologies. The present study explores a new approach for producing energetic materials by converting inert plastic waste into energy (thermal and mechanical energies) via a light-controlled process through the simple chemical activation of plastic waste, including polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride. The inert and non-polar polymer surfaces of the plastics were modified by generating a number of sulfonic groups (SO 3 - ) using chlorosulfuric acid, followed by grafting of Fe(III) catalyst onto the polymer chains to obtain activated polymer. Elemental analyses of these activated materials showed that the carbon-to-sulfur ratio ranged from 3:1 to 5:1. The FTIR spectra indicated the presence of CC bonds (v C=C : 1615-1630 cm -1 ) and SO bonds (v S=O : 1151-1167 cm -1 ) in the activated polymers after chemical reaction. These activated materials were energetic, as light could be used to convert them into thermal (1800-3200 J/g) and mechanical energies (380-560 kPa/g) using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant under ambient conditions within 1 h. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curits, P.C.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90{degrees}C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron- absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. the stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on it chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high- chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. the results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  1. LEATHER WASTE VALORISATION THROUGH MATERIAL INNOVATION: SOME PROPERTIES OF LEATHER WOOD FIBREBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel M. RINDLER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-increasing scarcity of resources and raw materials in the wood panels industry, it is imperative to look for suitable alternatives to the established resources. Therefore a combination of the traditionally used and newly explored sources may reveal highly innovative ways. The objective of this study is to provide an insight into the behavior of the material and possible new applications of those fiber/particle wood and waste leather composites. For this reason exclusively fibers of spruce were used for the trials. Wet white (WW leather particles and wet blue (WB leather particles were mixed with the wooden materials for the production of high density fibreboards. Besides the mechanical properties such as the internal bond (IB the bending strength (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE was analyzed. Further physical property as thickness swelling after 24h watering was investigated. To analyze how the density influences the behavior under thermal conditions, fiberboards with the densities 500, 700 and 900 kg/m³ were tested. The results of the material properties were influenced by the leather content of the panels. The results for the UF-bonded HDF boards show enhancement of the transverse IB with increasing wet blue leather content, whereas the other mechanical properties decline meanwhile. The thickness swelling showed higher values compared to the wood fibreboard. The results of this study underline the usefulness of integrating leather shavings to HDF and give an overview of their influence in wood fiber materials. The combination of the natural resource wood fiber and the leather waste products (Wet Blue and Wet White gives a very interesting new material, its mechanical properties allow a variety of possible application in future applications.

  2. Acellular Dermal Matrix as an Adjunct Material in Cleft Le Fort I Osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; MacIsaac, Zoe M; Swanson, Edward; Davidson, Edward; Kumar, Anand

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the use of acellular dermal matrix in the management of nasal lining deficiency at the time of Le Fort I osteotomy. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with residual/recurrent oronasal fistulae who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy. In instances where there was an inadequate volume of nasal mucosa for tension-free closure or for defects >1 cm in width, the acellular dermal matrix was used for augmentation. Demographic and cleft-related factors were recorded. Complications (recurrent fistula, infection, seroma, and wound dehiscence) were recorded. Over the 3-year period, the authors used acellular dermal matrix to augment nasal lining in 8 subjects. The sample's mean age was 18.7 ± 3.1 years; 5 subjects were male. Six patients had bilateral cleft defects. The mean follow-up time was 20.2 ± 3.2 years. There were no episodes of infection, seroma, wound dehiscence, or recurrent fistula. Acellular dermal matrix is a useful adjunct for managing nasal liningdeficiency at the time of Le Fort I osteotomy. There were no episodes of bone graft extrusion, infection, tooth loss, or bone graft loss. The Enemark scores improved significantly across both subsets (P managed at the time of Le Fort I osteotomy using allograft bone and acellular dermal matrix.

  3. Recycling of hazardous solid waste material using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Meier, A.; Wuillemin, D.; Hoffelner, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2003-03-01

    A novel high-temperature solar chemical reactor is proposed for the thermal recycling of hazardous solid waste material using concentrated solar power. A 10 kW solar reactor prototype was designed and tested for the carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The reactor was subjected to mean solar flux intensities of 2000 kW/m2 and operated in both batch and continuous mode within the temperature range 1120-1400 K. Extraction of up to 99% and 90% of the Zn originally contained in the EAFD was achieved in the residue for the batch and continuous solar experiments, respectively. The condensed off-gas products consisted mainly of Zn, Pb, and Cl. No ZnO was detected when the O{sub 2} concentration remained below 2 vol.-%. The use of concentrated solar energy as the source of process heat offers the possibility of converting hazardous solid waste material into valuable commodities for processes in closed and sustainable material cycles. (author)

  4. Characterization of the carbonaceous materials obtained from different agro-industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensuncho-Muñoz, A E; Carriazo, J G

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of carbonaceous materials obtained from three types of vegetable wastes provided by agricultural industries. Soft carbonization (280°C) and H3PO4-activation procedures were used to convert the agricultural wastes to carbon powders with high adsorbent capacities. This process is excellent for eliminating and exploiting the huge masses (many tons) of vegetable residues remaining after each harvest every year in several Colombian agro-industries. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption isotherms. XRD and IR verified the formation of carbons, and SEM showed small particles (20-500 µm) with characteristic morphology for each type of residue used and abundant cavities of different sizes. The N2-adsorption analyses showed that the carbons had high adsorption capacities with important surface area values and large pore volumes. The use of the activated carbonaceous materials as adsorbent of azo dyes (allura red and sunset yellow) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. The results showed a good adsorption capacity indicating the potentiality of these materials as pollutant adsorbents in food industry wastewaters. These results indicate that these powders can be used as potential adsorbents for different gaseous or liquid pollutants.

  5. Biomass waste carbon materials as adsorbents for CO2 capture under post-combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Muñoz, Elisa; García-Mateos, Francisco José; Rosas, Juana; Rodríguez-Mirasol, José; Cordero, Tomás

    2016-05-01

    A series of porous carbon materials obtained from biomass waste have been synthesized, with different morphologies and structural properties, and evaluated as potential adsorbents for CO2 capture in post-combustion conditions. These carbon materials present CO2 adsorption capacities, at 25 ºC and 101.3 kPa, comparable to those obtained by other complex carbon or inorganic materials. Furthermore, CO2 uptakes under these conditions can be well correlated to the narrow micropore volume, derived from the CO2 adsorption data at 0 ºC (VDRCO2). In contrast, CO2 adsorption capacities at 25 ºC and 15 kPa are more related to only pores of sizes lower than 0.7 nm. The capacity values obtained in column adsorption experiments were really promising. An activated carbon fiber obtained from Alcell lignin, FCL, presented a capacity value of 1.3 mmol/g (5.7 %wt). Moreover, the adsorption capacity of this carbon fiber was totally recovered in a very fast desorption cycle at the same operation temperature and total pressure and, therefore, without any additional energy requirement. Thus, these results suggest that the biomass waste used in this work could be successfully valorized as efficient CO2 adsorbent, under post-combustion conditions, showing excellent regeneration performance.

  6. Biomass waste carbon materials as adsorbents for CO2 capture under post-combustion conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M Calvo-Muñoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of porous carbon materials obtained from biomass waste have been synthesized, with different morphologies and structural properties, and evaluated as potential adsorbents for CO2 capture in post-combustion conditions. These carbon materials present CO2 adsorption capacities, at 25 ºC and 101.3 kPa, comparable to those obtained by other complex carbon or inorganic materials. Furthermore, CO2 uptakes under these conditions can be well correlated to the narrow micropore volume, derived from the CO2 adsorption data at 0 ºC (VDRCO2. In contrast, CO2 adsorption capacities at 25 ºC and 15 kPa are more related to only pores of sizes lower than 0.7 nm. The capacity values obtained in column adsorption experiments were really promising. An activated carbon fiber obtained from Alcell lignin, FCL, presented a capacity value of 1.3 mmol/g (5.7 %wt. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of this carbon fiber was totally recovered in a very fast desorption cycle at the same operation temperature and total pressure and, therefore, without any additional energy requirement. Thus, these results suggest that the biomass waste used in this work could be successfully valorized as efficient CO2 adsorbent, under post-combustion conditions, showing excellent regeneration performance.

  7. BENTONITE-QUARTZ SAND AS THE BACKFILL MATERIALS ON THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharjo Raharjo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the contribution of quartz sand in the bentonite mixture as the backfill materials on the shallow land burial of radioactive waste has been done. The experiment objective is to determine the effect of quartz sand in a bentonite mixture with bentonite particle sizes of -20+40, -40+60, and -60+80 mesh on the retardation factor and the uranium dispersion in the simulation of uranium migration in the backfill materials. The experiment was carried out by the fixed bed method in the column filled by the bentonite mixture with a bentonite-to-quartz sand weight percent ratio of 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25, and 100/0 on the water saturated condition flown by uranyl nitrate solution at concentration (Co of 500 ppm. The concentration of uranium in the effluents in interval 15 minutes represented as Ct was analyzed by spectrophotometer, then using Co and Ct, retardation factor (R and dispersivity ( were determined. The experiment data showed that the bentonite of -60+80 mesh and the quartz sand of -20+40 mesh on bentonite-to-quartz sand with weight percent ratio of 50/50 gave the highest retardation factor and dispersivity of 18.37 and 0.0363 cm, respectively.   Keywords: bentonite, quartz sand, backfill materials, radioactive waste

  8. Mathematical modeling of the emission of heavy metals into water bodies from building materials derived from production waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time industrial waste is considered to be an alternative to primary natural resources when producing construction materials and products. The use of industrial waste in the construction branch allows reducing ecological load on the environment and population as a result of reducing the amount of unrecyclable waste and reducing the use of primary natural resources. Though when involving waste products as raw material in the preparation of building materials there occur environmental risks of anthropogenic impact increase on the environment. These risks are related to possible emission of heavy metals from construction materials in use. The article describes a tool which allows predicting this issue, depending on the acidity of the medium, the residence time of the material in the environment. The experimental data obtained in determining the migration activity of metals from cement concretes to aqueous solutions served as the basis for the mathematical model. The proposed model allows us to make a prediction of anthropogenic impact on the environment and commensurate this impact with the possibility of assimilation of the environment area where the building materials are applied. This will allow conducting an effective assessment of the created and applied technologies of waste disposal, taking into account the operating conditions of the materials produced.

  9. Application of material flow analysis to estimate the efficiency of e-waste management systems: the case of Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurauskiene, Inga; Stasiskiene, Zaneta

    2011-07-01

    Electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has penetrated everyday life. The EEE industry is characterized by a rapid technological change which in turn prompts consumers to replace EEE in order to keep in step with innovations. These factors reduce an EEE life span and determine the exponential growth of the amount of obsolete EEE as well as EEE waste (e-waste). E-waste management systems implemented in countries of the European Union (EU) are not able to cope with the e-waste problem properly, especially in the new EU member countries. The analysis of particular e-waste management systems is essential in evaluation of the complexity of these systems, describing and quantifying the flows of goods throughout the system, and all the actors involved in it. The aim of this paper is to present the research on the regional agent based material flow analysis in e-waste management systems, as a measure to reveal the potential points for improvement. Material flow analysis has been performed as a flow of goods (EEE). The study has shown that agent-based EEE flow analysis incorporating a holistic and life cycle thinking approach in national e-waste management systems gives a broader view to the system than a common administrative one used to cover. It helps to evaluate the real efficiency of e-waste management systems and to identify relevant impact factors determining the current operation of the system.

  10. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of functional criteria for buffer material in a high-level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Chun, Kwan Sik; Lee, Jae Owan; Kang, Mun Ja

    1997-11-01

    This study is intended to analyze the requirements of buffer material that is one of the major components of the engineered barriers in a high-level waste repository. Based on the results, it is intended to suggest the quantitative functional criteria that is necessary to establish the preliminary concept for the domestic geological repository. The criteria are composed of seven major items, such as hydraulic conductivity, retardation capacity, swelling potential and swelling pressure, thermal conductivity, longevity, organic carbon content, and mechanical properties. (author). 87 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Radiolytically-induced novel materials and their application to waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimo Bertino, Akira Tokuhiro, Tadashi Tokuhiro

    2007-12-05

    In the present NEER project we investigated two different types of gel materials with respect to potential applications in environmental remediation, including mixed waste generated from the nuclear fuel cycles. The materials under study were: (1) silica-polymer based aerogel composites into which specific metallic cations diffuse into and remain, and (2) polymer gels made of thermo-sensitive polymer networks, whose functional groups can be ''tailored'' to have a preferred affinity for specific cations, again diffusing into and remaining in the network under a volumetrically, contractive phase-transition. The molecular, diffusion of specific cations, including those of concern in low-level waste streams, into the gel materials studied here indicates that a scaled, engineered system can be designed so that it is passive; that is, minimal (human) intervention and risk would be involved in encapsulating LLW species. In addition, the gel materials hold potential significance in environmental remediation of and recovery of metallic cations identified in respective domains and physico-chemical processes. In brief, silica gels start as aqueous/liquid solutions of base catalyzed silica hydrogels and metal ions (targeted species), such as silver. The metal ions are reduced radiolytically and migrate through the solution to form clusters. Upon post-irradiation processing, aerogel monoliths, extremely lightweight but mechanically strong, that encapsulate the metals are produced. Interestingly the radiolytic or photonic source can be gamma-rays and/or other rays from ''artificial sources'', such as reactors, or ''inherent sources'' like those characterizing mixed waste. Polymer gels, in contrast exhibit thermally-induced volumetric contraction at 20-50 C by expelling water from the gels physical state. Further, some functional groups that capture di- or tri-valent cations from aqueous solutions can be incorporated

  13. USE OF LOCAL NATURAL SILICEOUS RAW MATERIAL AND WASTES FOR PRODUCTION OF HEAT-INSULATING FOAMCONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. U. Matsapulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the resource base, reserves and the use of siliceous rocks, their economic feasibility of the use for production of building materials of new generation with low-energy and other costs. Presented are the results of laboratory research and testing technology of production of insulating foam from a composition based on an aqueous solution of sodium silicate obtained from the local siliceous rocks (diatomite and the liquid alkali component - soapstock, hardener from ferrochrome slag and waste carbonate rock able to harden at a low temperature processing ( 100-110 ° C.

  14. Waste Materials from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Polymer Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Martínez-López; Gonzalo Martínez-Barrera; Carlos Barrera-Díaz; Fernando Ureña-Núñez; Witold Brostow

    2015-01-01

    Different concentrations (from 1 to 6 wt%) and sizes (0.85, 1.40, and 2.36 mm) of waste Tetra Pak particles replaced partially silica sand in polymer concrete. As is well known, Tetra Pak packages are made up of three raw materials: cellulose (75%), low density polyethylene (20%), and aluminum (5%). The polymer concrete specimens were elaborated with unsaturated polyester resin (20%) and silica sand (80%) and irradiated by using gamma rays at 100 and 200 kGy. The obtained results have shown t...

  15. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  16. Preliminary waste form characteristics report Version 1.0. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, R.B.; Leider, H.R. [eds.

    1991-10-11

    This report focuses on radioactive waste form characteristics that will be used to design a waste package and an engineered barrier system (EBS) for a suitable repository as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The term waste form refers to irradiated reactor fuel, other high-level waste (HLW) in various physical forms, and other radioactive materials (other than HLW) which are received for emplacement in a geologic repository. Any encapsulating of stabilizing matrix is also referred to as a waste form.

  17. Survival of bacteria in nuclear waste buffer materials. The influence of nutrients, temperature and water activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Motamedi, M. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Karnland, O. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The concept of deep geological disposal of spent fuel is common to many national nuclear waste programs. Long-lived radioactive waste will be encapsulated in canisters made of corrosion resistant materials e.g. copper and buried several hundred meters below ground in a geological formation. Different types of compacted bentonite clay, or mixtures with sand, will be placed as a buffer around the waste canisters. A major concern for the performance of the canisters is that sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be present in the clay and induce corrosion by production of hydrogen sulphide. This report presents data on viable counts of SRB in the bedrock of Aespoe hard rock laboratory. A theoretical background on the concept water activity is given, together with basic information about SRB. Some results on microbial populations from a full scale buffer test in Canada is presented. These results suggested water activity to be a strong limiting factor for survival of bacteria in compacted bentonite. As a consequence, experiments were set up to investigate the effect from water activity on survival of SRB in bentonite. Here we show that survival of SRB in bentonite depends on the availability of water and that compacting a high quality bentonite to a density of 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}, corresponding to a water activity (a{sub w}) of 0.96, prevented SRB from surviving in the clay. 24 refs.

  18. A comprehensive review on removal of arsenic using activated carbon prepared from easily available waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Monoj Kumar; Garg, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic contamination in water bodies is a serious problem and causes various health problems due to which US Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) set its maximum permissible limit of 10 ppb. The present review article starts with the removal of toxic arsenic using adsorbents prepared from easily available waste materials. Adsorbent either commercial or low-cost adsorbent can be used for arsenic removal but recent research was focused on the low-cost adsorbent. Preparation and activation of various adsorbents were discussed. Adsorption capacities, surface area, thermodynamic, and kinetics data of various adsorbents for As(III) and As(V) removal were compiled. Desorption followed by regeneration and reuse of adsorbents is an important step in adsorption and leads to economical process. Various desorbing and regenerating agents were discussed for arsenic decontamination from the adsorbent surface. Strong acids, bases, and salts are the main desorbing agents. Disposal of arsenic-contaminated adsorbent and arsenic waste was also a big problem because of the toxic and leaching effect of arsenic. So, arsenic waste was disposed of by proper stabilization/solidification (S/S) technique by mixing it in Portland cement, iron, ash, etc. to reduce the leaching effect.

  19. Removal and recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from wastes, soils and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.

    1993-07-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites (Figure 1). In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (uranium trioxide) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

  20. Urban Biomining: Biological Extraction of Metals and Materials from Electronics Waste Using a Synthetic Biology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina-Navarrete, J.; Rothschild, L.

    2016-12-01

    End-of-life electronics waste (e-waste) containing toxic and valuable materials is a rapidly progressing human health and environmental issue. Using synthetic biology tools, we have developed a recycling method for e-waste. Our innovation is to use a recombinant version of a naturally-occurring silica-degrading enzyme to depolymerize the silica in metal- and glass- containing e-waste components, and subsequently, to use engineered bacterial surfaces to bind and separate metals from a solution. The bacteria with bound metals can then be used as "bio-ink" to print new circuits using a novel plasma jet electronics printing technology. Here, we present the results from our initial studies that focus on the specificity of metal-binding motifs for a cognate metal. The candidate motifs that show high affinity and specificity will be engineered into bacterial surfaces for downstream applications in biologically-mediated metal recycling. Since the chemistry and role of Cu in metalloproteins is relatively well-characterized, we are using Cu as a proxy to elucidate metal and biological ligand interactions with various metals in e-waste. We assess the binding parameters of 3 representative classes of Cu-binding motifs using isothermal titration calorimetry; 1) natural motifs found in metalloproteins, 2) consensus motifs, and 3) rationally designed peptides that are predicted, in silico, to bind Cu. Our results indicate that naturally-occurring motifs have relative high affinity and specificity for Cu (association constant for Cu Ka 104 M-1, Zn Ka 103 M-1) when competing ions are present in the aqueous milieu. However, motifs developed through rational design by applying quantum mechanical methods that take into account complexation energies of the elemental binding partners and molecular geometry of the cognate metal, not only show high affinity for the cognate metal (Cu Ka 106 M-1), but they show specificity and discrimination against other metal ions that would be

  1. Utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in in situ remediation and their sustainability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favara, Paul; Gamlin, Jeff

    2017-12-15

    In the ramp-up to integrating sustainability into remediation, a key industry focus area has been to reduce the environmental footprint of treatment processes. The typical approach to integrating sustainability into remediation projects has been a top-down approach, which involves developing technology options and then applying sustainability thinking to the technology, after it has been conceptualized. A bottom-up approach allows for systems thinking to be included in remedy selection and could potentially result in new or different technologies being considered. When using a bottom-up approach, there is room to consider the utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in remediation technology-all of which generally have a smaller footprint than processed materials and traditional forms of energy. By integrating more systems thinking into remediation projects, practitioners can think beyond the traditional technologies typically used and how technologies are deployed. To compare top-down and bottom-up thinking, a traditional technology that is considered very sustainable-enhanced in situ bioremediation-is compared to a successful, but infrequently deployed technology-subgrade biogeochemical reactors. Life Cycle Assessment is used for the evaluation and shows the footprint of the subgrade biogeochemical reactor to be lower in all seven impact categories evaluated, sometimes to a significant degree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy and cost impact of materials separation on municipal waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Moses, D.O. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1991-01-01

    New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for new municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and emission guidelines for existing MWCs have been promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A 25 wt % materials separation requirement was included in the standards (new sources) and guidelines (existing sources), but was subsequently dropped. In proposing the requirements, EPA believed that there would be both direct air emissions reduction, and nonair quality benefits considering net costs, energy, and other environmental impacts. In this paper, we assessed the energy impact and associated costs of materials separation. Impact from a national perspective and from the perspective of the MWC owner was assessed. From a national perspective, the energy required to recycle must be compared against the energy needed for extraction and manufacture from virgin raw materials, and this in turn must be compared against the energy value of the combustible MSW fraction. At times, the economics of material separation and recycling appear poor because of competing efficiencies of scale of traditional extraction and processing of virgin raw materials, as well as a lack of markets for recovered materials. In this analysis, we address these issues. 8 refs., 5 figs. , 3 tabs.

  3. Polyfluorides and Neat Fluorine as Host Material in Matrix-Isolation Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosi, Felix; Vent-Schmidt, Thomas; Kieninger, Stefanie; Schlöder, Tobias; Beckers, Helmut; Riedel, Sebastian

    2015-11-09

    The use of neat fluorine in matrix isolation is reported, as well as the formation of polyfluoride monoanions under cryogenic conditions. Purification procedures and spectroscopic data of fluorine are described, and matrix shifts of selected molecules and impurities in solid fluorine are compared to those of common matrix gases (Ar, Kr, N2 , Ne). The reaction of neat fluorine and IR-laser ablated metal atoms to yield fluorides of chromium (CrF5 ), palladium (PdF2 ), gold (AuF5 ), and praseodymium (PrF4 ) has been investigated. The fluorides have been characterized in solid fluorine by IR spectroscopy at 5 K. Also the fluorination of Kr and the photo-dismutation of XeO4 have been studied by using IR spectroscopy in neat fluorine. Formation of the [F5 ](-) ion was obtained by IR-laser ablation of platinum in the presence of fluorine and proven in a Ne matrix at 5 K by two characteristic vibrational bands of [F5 ](-) at $\\tilde \

  4. Application of a dynamic-mixture shock-wave model to the metal-matrix composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grujicic, M., E-mail: gmica@clemson.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Pandurangan, B.; Bell, W.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B.A. [Army Research Laboratory, Survivability Materials Branch, Aberdeen, Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States)

    2011-10-25

    Highlights: {yields} Propagation of shocks within metal matrix composites is analyzed computationally. {yields} A dynamic mixture model is employed to account for the composite material behavior. {yields} The approach is applied to SiC-reinforced aluminum-matrix composites. {yields} The results are in reasonably good agreement with their experimental counterparts. - Abstract: The so-called 'dynamic mixture' model is applied to a prototypical metal matrix composite (MMC) system (consisting of an aluminum matrix and SiC particulates) in order to investigate the propagation of planar (i.e. one directional), longitudinal (i.e. uniaxial strain), steady (i.e. time-invariant) structured shock waves. Waves of this type are typically generated during blast-wave loading or ballistic impact and play a major role in the way blast/ballistic impact loads are introduced into a structure. Hence, the knowledge of their propagation behavior is critical for designing structures with superior blast and impact protection capacities. To validate the computational procedure used, the structured shock-wave analysis is first applied to a homogeneous (i.e. single component) metallic system (commercially pure niobium). Next, the analysis is applied to the aforementioned MMC (in the limit of intermediate to strong shocks) when the contribution of the stress deviator to the total stress state can be neglected. Finally, the computational results are compared with their experimental counterparts available in the open literature in order to validate the dynamic-mixture method used.

  5. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, D; Muzeau, B; Stefan, L; Sanchez-Canet, J; Monguillon, C

    2017-03-15

    Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recycling systems and material flows from the viewpoint of thermal waste treatment; Kreislaufwirtschaft- und Stoffstrombetrachtungen aus Sicht der thermischen Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnke, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Mast, P.G. [Tauw Umwelt GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Material stream analysis can serve as a basis for decisions on which materials should be kept in circulation, and in what quantity, and which materials it is better to remove from the recycling system and dispose of as waste. Wastes destined for disposal are mostly transferred to waste treatment plants and landfills. The role of thermal treatment as part of the disposal system is to destroy or decompose organic pollutants contained in the waste, concentrate and remove inorganic pollutants, make the heat arising during the treatment process available for use as energy, and make the greatest possible physical use of the treatment residues. The present paper reviews the current regulations for the promotion of recycling and investigates selected material streams and the fate of these materials. In connection with the residue quality of household waste incineration slag as a thermal waste treatment product it also considers the influence of waste management measures on wastes destined for disposal. [Deutsch] Stoffstrombetrachtungen koennen als Grundlage fuer Entscheidungen dienen, welche Stoffe in welchem Umfang im Kreislauf verbleiben oder wieder integriert werden sollten und welche besser als Abfall zur Beseitigung aus dem Kreislaufsystem auszuschleusen sind. Fuer Abfaelle zur Beseitigung wird diese Aufgabe i.d.R. von thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen und Deponien uebernommen. Im Rahmen der Entsorgung kommt der thermischen Behandlung dabei die Aufgabe zu, die im Abfall zur Beseitigung enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe zu zerstoeren oder abzubauen, anorganische Schadstoffe aufzukonzentrieren und auszuschleusen, die bei dem Behandlungsprozess entstehende Waerme einer weitgehenden Energienutzung zuzufuehren und die Rueckstaende aus der Behandlung so weit wie moeglich stofflich zu verwerten. Nachfolgend sollen insbesondere die Regelungen zur Unterstuetzung der Kreislaufwirtschaft, ausgewaehlte Stofffluesse und der Verbleib dieser Stoffe und Materialien und der

  7. Mechanical Properties of Composite Waste Material Based Styrofoam, Baggase and Eggshell Powder for Application of Drone Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Mastariyanto; Prastiawan; Hadi, Syafrul

    2017-12-01

    The garbage issue becomes a very serious problem at the moment. Much research has been done to make waste into useful materials. One of the utilization of waste is as the basic material of composite material that can be applied in the field of engineering. Some of the wastes generated are styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell. Styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell can be applied to a composite material. Styrofoam serves as a composite binder material while the bagasse and eggshells serve as a reinforcement. Volume fraction between styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell are 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25%. The aims of research are determine the mechanical properties of composite material based waste materials from styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell. Mechanical properties tested in this study are bending strength and toughness of composite materials. The results showed bending strength of composite for each volume fraction of 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25% are 5.07 MPa, 8.45 MPa, 8.68 MPa, and 11.01 MPa, respectively. Toughness of composite materials for each volume fraction of 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25% are 0.33 J/mm2, 0.42 J/mm2, 0.75 J/mm2, and 0.75 J/mm2, respectively. Composite materials based on waste materials from styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell can be used as an alternative material for drone frames.

  8. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  9. Recycling of inorganic waste in monolithic and cellular glass‐based materials for structural and functional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Acacio; Marangoni, Mauro; Cetin, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The stabilization of inorganic waste of various nature and origin, in glasses, has been a key strategy for environmental protection for the last decades. When properly formulated, glasses may retain many inorganic contaminants permanently, but it must be acknowledged that some criticism remains, mainly concerning costs and energy use. As a consequence, the sustainability of vitrification largely relies on the conversion of waste glasses into new, usable and marketable glass‐based materials, in the form of monolithic and cellular glass‐ceramics. The effective conversion in turn depends on the simultaneous control of both starting materials and manufacturing processes. While silica‐rich waste favours the obtainment of glass, iron‐rich wastes affect the functionalities, influencing the porosity in cellular glass‐based materials as well as catalytic, magnetic, optical and electrical properties. Engineered formulations may lead to important reductions of processing times and temperatures, in the transformation of waste‐derived glasses into glass‐ceramics, or even bring interesting shortcuts. Direct sintering of wastes, combined with recycled glasses, as an example, has been proven as a valid low‐cost alternative for glass‐ceramic manufacturing, for wastes with limited hazardousness. The present paper is aimed at providing an up‐to‐date overview of the correlation between formulations, manufacturing technologies and properties of most recent waste‐derived, glass‐based materials. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27818564

  10. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  11. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker's cooperatives: an alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city's main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers' cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of high temperature phase change materials for improved efficiency in waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Xu, Haoxin; Nardin, Gioacchino; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    This study reports the thermal analysis of a novel thermal energy storage based on high temperature phase change material (PCM) used to improve efficiency in waste-to-energy plants. Current waste-to-energy plants efficiency is limited by the steam generation cycle which is carried out with boilers composed by water-walls (i.e. radiant evaporators), evaporators, economizers and superheaters. Although being well established, this technology is subjected to limitations related with high temperature corrosion and fluctuation in steam production due to the non-homogenous composition of solid waste; this leads to increased maintenance costs and limited plants availability and electrical efficiency. The proposed solution in this paper consists of replacing the typical refractory brick installed in the combustion chamber with a PCM-based refractory brick capable of storing a variable heat flux and to release it on demand as a steady heat flux. By means of this technology it is possible to mitigate steam production fluctuation, to increase temperature of superheated steam over current corrosion limits (450°C) without using coated superheaters and to increase the electrical efficiency beyond 34%. In the current paper a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis has been carried out in order to compare the performance of the PCM-based refractory brick against the traditional alumina refractory bricks. The PCM considered in this paper is aluminium (and its alloys) whereas its container consists of high density ceramics (such as Al 2 O 3 , AlN and Si 3 N 4 ); the different coefficient of linear thermal expansion for the different materials requires a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis to be carried out to ascertain the feasibility of the proposed technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of Controlled Low Strength Material Utilizing Waste Paper Sludge Ash and Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the best method to make the concrete industry more sustainable was using the waste materials to replace the natural resources. Currently waste paper sludge is a major economic and environmental problem in this country. In this research, the alternative method is to dwindle the usage of natural resources and the usage of cement in the construction. This method is to replace the usage of cement with the waste paper sludge ash (WPSA and to use the recycle aggregate collected from the construction is used. The WPSA has ingredient likely cement such as self-cementation but for a low strength. The research was conducted at heavy laboratory UITM Pulau Pinang. Meanwhile, the WPSA is collected at MNI Industries at Mentakab, Pahang. The recycle aggregate is a separated half, which were fine aggregate and the coarse aggregate with the specific size. In this research, the ratio is divided into two (2 which is 1:1 and 1:2 for the aggregate and difference percentage levels of WPSA. The percentage levels of WPSA that use in this research are 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%. A total of 36 cubes were prepared. Aim of this research is to develop a simple design approach for the mixture proportioning of WPSA and recycle concrete aggregate (RCA within the concrete and to assess the effect of concrete mix with different percentage of WPSA and RCA ratio on the properties. It is found that the best design mix that achieves control low strength material (CLSM is on 30% of WPSA with the ratio 1:2 on day 28 of compression test.

  14. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Tellurite glass as a waste form for mixed alkali-chloride waste streams: Candidate materials selection and initial testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J., E-mail: brian.riley@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Rieck, Bennett T. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Sundaram, S.K. [Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide the first standardized chemical durability test on tellurite glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The glasses we studied showed a wide variety of chemical durability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best-performing glass showed good halide retention following melting and durability testing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These glasses have very high densities resulting in high volumetric waste loading ability. - Abstract: Tellurite glasses have historically been shown to host large concentrations of halides. They are here considered for the first time as a waste form for immobilizing chloride wastes, such as may be generated in the proposed molten alkali salt electrochemical separations step in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Key properties of several tellurite glasses are determined to assess acceptability as a chloride waste form. TeO{sub 2} glasses with other oxides (PbO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, WO{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, or ZnO) were fabricated with and without 10 mass% of a simulated (non-radioactive) mixed alkali, alkaline-earth, and rare earth chloride waste. Measured chemical durability is compared for the glasses, as determined by the product consistency test (PCT), a common standardized chemical durability test often used to validate borosilicate glass waste forms. The glass with the most promise as a waste form is the TeO{sub 2}-PbO system, as it offers good halide retention, a low sodium release (by PCT) comparable with high-level waste silicate glass waste forms, and a high storage density.

  16. Applications of waste material in the pervious concrete pavement: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakrani, Shahrul Azwan; Ayob, Afizah; Rahim, Mohd Asri Ab

    2017-09-01

    Pervious concrete pavement is one of the innovative structures designed in order to manage the quantity and quality of urban stormwater for a sustainable development. In general, pervious concrete pavement enables water to permeate through its structure and have a capability to cater dynamic loads at the same time. However, the conventional pervious concrete pavement lacks a superior strength while performing as pavement structure. Thus, an extensive research has been carried out in order to explore the possible materials to be incorporated into the pervious concrete pavement for better physical, structural and mechanical properties. The objectives of this paper are to review the waste materials used in the pervious concrete pavement along with their mechanical, durability and permeability performance.

  17. Waste Materials from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martínez-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations (from 1 to 6 wt% and sizes (0.85, 1.40, and 2.36 mm of waste Tetra Pak particles replaced partially silica sand in polymer concrete. As is well known, Tetra Pak packages are made up of three raw materials: cellulose (75%, low density polyethylene (20%, and aluminum (5%. The polymer concrete specimens were elaborated with unsaturated polyester resin (20% and silica sand (80% and irradiated by using gamma rays at 100 and 200 kGy. The obtained results have shown that compressive and flexural strength and modulus of elasticity decrease gradually, when either Tetra Pak particle concentration or particle size is increased, as regularly occurs in composite materials. Nevertheless, improvements of 14% on both compressive strength and flexural strength as well as 5% for modulus of elasticity were obtained when polymer concrete is irradiated.

  18. Value-added materials from the hydrometallurgical processing of jarosite waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite is a leach residue that can be produced by industrial bulk metal treatment processes and typically has the chemical formula MxFe3(SO42(OH6, where M normally represents a metal cation. The largest source of jarosite is electrolytic zinc processing [1], which worldwide has an annual production of 11-12 Mt and an associated jarosite waste of 5-6 Mt that can cause important challenges due to its classification as a problem waste. Moreover, as zinc ore typically contains many other commercial/critical metals, the content of valuable materials in this material is significant. An analysis of jarosite from Kokkola, Finland shows that it contained as much metal as many present day commercial ores: ~15% iron, 2% zinc, 3 % lead, 150 g/t silver, 0.5 g/t gold, 100 g/t indium and 40 g/t gallium. Until now, jarosite related research has concentrated on its use in landfill and construction purposes [2], though there is increasing interest in finding methods to efficiently reprocess/recycle jarosite into valuable products [3, 4]. The hydrometallurgical process currently under development by VTT and Aalto University exploits jarosite powdery nature to undertake wet chemical processing. This low cost and energy efficient operation is targeted at the recovery of concentrates which contain the major value-added metals.

  19. Material flow and sustainability analyses of biorefining of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents material flow and sustainability analyses of novel mechanical biological chemical treatment system for complete valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW). It integrates material recovery facility (MRF); pulping, chemical conversion; effluent treatment plant (ETP), anaerobic digestion (AD); and combined heat and power (CHP) systems producing end products: recyclables (24.9% by mass of MSW), metals (2.7%), fibre (1.5%); levulinic acid (7.4%); recyclable water (14.7%), fertiliser (8.3%); and electricity (0.126MWh/t MSW), respectively. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) and non-recyclable other waste, char and biogas from MRF, chemical conversion and AD systems, respectively, are energy recovered in the CHP system. Levulinic acid gives profitability independent of subsidies; MSW priced at 50Euro/t gives a margin of 204Euro/t. Global warming potential savings are 2.4 and 1.3kg CO2 equivalent per kg of levulinic acid and fertiliser, and 0.17kg CO2 equivalent per MJ of grid electricity offset, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge banding operation. A wide array of mixtures varying from 100% ABS to 50% ABS: 50% shavings were used to produce eight variants of boards. Density was determined for each board and the method for the determination of ABS particle size distribution by oscillating screen method using sieve apertures up to 4mm was also applied, in order to establish the particle fractions and the distribution of their sizes. Based on ABS properties, several technologies of manufacturing wood-plastic composites from the waste materials were tested and one of them was selected. The results of the first stage analysis, when the physical integrity and the compactness of the panels’ structures were tested, have shown that a maximum proportion of 30% of wood shavings is accepted in the mixture. On the other hand, the low density of the boards and their porous structure recommend further investigations for thermal and sound insulation applications

  1. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; F. Hua

    2005-04-12

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the first 10,000-years after repository closure. This paper provides an overview of the degradation of the waste packages and drip shields in the repository after permanent closure of the facility. The degradation modes discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on the degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are considered. It is concluded that the materials and design adopted will provide sufficient safety margins for at least 10,000-years after repository closure.

  3. From hazardous waste to valuable raw material: hydrolysis of CCA-treated wood for the production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakola, Maija; Kallioinen, Anne; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Solid wood, metal finnish: Instead of burning waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenite (CCA) or disposing of it in landfills, the CCA-treated wood can be used as a raw material for the production of chemicals. Catalytic or alkaline oxidation together with very mild sulfuric acid extraction produces an easily enzymatically hydrolyzable material. Usage as a raw material for the chemical industry in this manner demonstrates a sustainable and value-added waste management process. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  5. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  6. Impact Strength of Composite Materials Based on EN AC-44200 Matrix Reinforced with Al2O3 Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurzawa A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of impact strength of aluminum alloy EN AC-44200 based composite materials reinforced with alumina particles. The research was carried out applying the materials produced by the pressure infiltration method of ceramic preforms made of Al2O3 particles of 3-6μm with the liquid EN AC-44200 Al alloy. The research was aimed at determining the composite resistance to dynamic loads, taking into account the volume of reinforcing particles (from 10 to 40% by volume at an ambient of 23°C and at elevated temperatures to a maximum of 300°C. The results of this study were referred to the unreinforced matrix EN AC-44200 and to its hardness and tensile strength. Based on microscopic studies, an analysis and description of crack mechanics of the tested materials were performed. Structural analysis of a fracture surface, material structures under the crack surfaces of the matrix and cracking of the reinforcing particles were performed.

  7. The Integration of EIS parameters and bulk matrix characterization in studying reinforced cement-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion in reinforced concrete is a major and costly concern, arising from the higher complexity of involved phenomena on different levels of material science (e.g. electrochemistry, concrete material science) and material properties (macro/micro/ nano). Reinforced cement-based systems (e.g.

  8. The integration of eis parameters and bulk matrix characteristics in studying reinforced cement-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion in reinforced concrete is a major and costly concern, arising from the higher complexity of involved phenomena on different levels of material science (e.g. electrochemistry, concrete material science) and material properties (macro/micro/ nano). Reinforced cement-based systems (e.g.

  9. To Knit a Wall, knit as matrix for composite materials for architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Hicks, Toni

    2008-01-01

    and their material specifications, thepaper traces the findings of a series of projects under theheading Knit as Building Material. The paper asks howtextiles as a technology and a material challenges theprogrammatic and technological basis of architecturalthinking. How can the thinking of inhabitation andprogramme...

  10. Removal of selenium species from waters using various surface-modified natural particles and waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, Nevzat O.; Tozum, Seda [Department of Environmental Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    Waste red mud and natural pumice/volcanic slag particles were surface modified and their selenium adsorption from waters was investigated. Acid activation/heat treatment of original red mud (ORM) particles significantly increased their micropore and external surface area and cumulative volume of pores. Iron oxide coating of pumice/slags and acid activation of ORM decreased their pH{sub pzc} values and increased surface acidity. Selenite/selenate adsorption on iron oxide surfaces and acid activated red mud (AARM) was very fast with approximately first-order adsorption kinetics. Iron oxide coating of pumice/slag and acid activation of ORM particles significantly enhanced their selenite and selenate uptakes. Maximum Se adsorption capacities as high as 6.3 (mg Se/g adsorbent) were obtained by AARM. The extent of selenate uptakes by the surface modified particles was generally lower than those of selenite. Due to competition among Se species and other background water matrix for iron oxide adsorption sites, reduced selenite/selenate uptakes were found in natural water compared to single solute tests. Higher Se uptakes by iron oxide surfaces were found at pH 7.5 compared to pH 8.9, due to increased electrostatic repulsion among iron oxides and Se species at higher pH. The most effective adsorbents among the tested 17 different particles for Se uptake were AARM and iron oxide coated pumice. Se concentrations less than drinking water standards (5-10 {mu}g/L) can be achieved by these particles. These low-cost, natural, or recyclable waste particles appear to be promising adsorbents for Se removal after their surface modification. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    ... into productive urban landscapes and community gardens. Furthermore, such agricultural activities allow for effective composting of organic waste, returning nutrients to the soil and improving biodiversity in the urban environment...

  12. Al-NiTi Metal Matrix Composites for Zero CTE Materials: Fabrication, Design, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Chen, Xiang; Pritchard, Joshua; Dapino, Marcelo J.; Anderson, Peter M.

    Al-NiTi composites fabricated via ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) provide a light-weight solution for low thermal expansion applications. It is shown that the thermal expansion of Al 6061 can be reduced by over 50% by incorporating a 13% volume fraction of NiTi fibers. This reduction in thermal expansion occurs from the contraction of the NiTi fiber during heating, thereby offsetting the thermal expansion of the Al matrix. Al-NiTi composites are made possible by low temperature UAM process. Successful implementation of these composites requires a careful design approach that includes the processing characteristics as well as the thermo-mechanical response of the shape memory fibers and matrix. This is achieved using a NiTi microstructure based FEA model implemented that captures the underlying thermomechanical response of the NiTi fibers and calculates the complex stress state within the composite.

  13. Review: Potential Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste with Substitution of Local Waste Materials with High-Temperature Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, S.; Bayuaji, R.; Darmawan, M. S.; Husin, N. A.; Wibowo, B.; Anugraha, B.; Irawan, S.; Dibiantara, D.

    2017-11-01

    This research provided an overview of the potential fly ash based geopolymer paste for application in building construction. Geopolymer paste with various variations of fly ash substitution with local waste material and high-temperature influence exploited with the fresh and hardened condition. The local waste material which utilized for this study were sandblasting waste, carbide waste, shell powder, bagasse ash, rice husk and bottom ash. The findings of this study indicated that fly-based geopolymer paste with local waste material substitution which had high-temperature influence ash showed a similar nature of OPC binders potentially used in civil engineering applications.

  14. SOLID WASTE-SILICA COMPOSITE FOR HIGH STRENGTH AND LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masturi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid waste composite was successfully made. Preliminary, the composite was synthesized using polyurethane as binder mixed with the solid waste using simple mixing method and then hot-pressed at at pressure of 4 metric-tons and temperature of 100°C for 20 minutes. To enhance its strength, silica nanoparticles with varied content then were added in the polyurethane-solid waste mixture. From the compressive strength test, it was obtained that polyurethane-solid waste composite with solid waste volume fraction of 87.15% had optimum compressive strength of 160 MPa. Meanwhile, for silica addition with the fraction of 0.4975%, the compressive strength became 200 MPa, or increased 23% of that without nanosilica. The enhancement was also briefly confirmed from FTIR Spectroscopy where some polyurethane spectra shifted small due to silica addition, especially in amine and carbonyl groups as its active groups. The strength is better than of brick (80 MPa, shalestone (73 MPa, silstone (92 MPa and other stones. From density measurement, the composite-produced has density about 0.7 g/cm3 that comparable to Jati (Tectona grandis and Mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla having densities about 0.8 g/cm3 and 0.7 g/cm3 respectively. Therefore, this composite is very adequate for building material application to compete the woods.  Komposit sampah sudah berhasil dibuat. Mula-mula, komposit disintesis dengan menggunakan poliuretan sebagai pengikat yang dicampur dengan sampah melalui metode pencamnpuran sederhana (simple mixing, kemudian dihot-press pada tekanan 4 metric ton dan suhu 100°C selama 20 menit. Untuk meningkatkan kekuatan mekaniknya, nanopartikel silica dengan berbagai komposisi ditambahkan dalam campuran poliuretan-sampah. Dengan menggunakan uji kekuatan tekan, didapatkan komposit poliuretan-sampah dengan fraksi volume sampah sebesar 87,15% memiliki kekuatan tekan sebesar 160 MPa. Selanjutnya, dengan penambahan silica sebesar 0,4975% (v/v kekuatan tekan

  15. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  16. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  17. A novel culture device for the evaluation of three-dimensional extracellular matrix materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhyari, Payam; Ziegler, Heiko; Gwanmesia, Patricia; Barth, Mareike; Schilp, Soeren; Huelsmann, Joern; Hoffmann, Stefanie; Bosch, Julia; Kögler, Gesine; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2014-09-01

    Cell-matrix interactions in a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) are of fundamental importance in living tissue, and their in vitro reconstruction in bioartificial structures represents a core target of contemporary tissue engineering concepts. For a detailed analysis of cell-matrix interaction under highly controlled conditions, we developed a novel ECM evaluation culture device (EECD) that allows for a precisely defined surface-seeding of 3D ECM scaffolds, irrespective of their natural geometry. The effectiveness of EECD was evaluated in the context of heart valve tissue engineering. Detergent decellularized pulmonary cusps were mounted in EECD and seeded with endothelial cells (ECs) to study EC adhesion, morphology and function on a 3D ECM after 3, 24, 48 and 96 h. Standard EC monolayers served as controls. Exclusive top-surface-seeding of 3D ECM by viable ECs was demonstrated by laser scanning microscopy (LSM), resulting in a confluent re-endothelialization of the ECM after 96 h. Cell viability and protein expression, as demonstrated by MTS assay and western blot analysis (endothelial nitric oxide synthase, von Willebrand factor), were preserved at maintained levels over time. In conclusion, EECD proves as a highly effective system for a controlled repopulation and in vitro analysis of cell-ECM interactions in 3D ECM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. THE UTILIZATION OF Fe(III WASTE OF ETCHING INDUSTRY AS QUALITY ENHANCHEMENT MATERIAL IN CERAMIC ROOFTILE SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vaulina Yulistia Delsy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste is produced from various industrial activities. FeCl3 used in this study as an addition to the material quality in synthesis of ceramic rooftile from Kalijaran village clay, Purbalingga. Etching industrial waste FeCl3 contacted with clay. Waste being varied waste as diluted and undiluted while clay grain size varied as 60, 80, 100, 140, and 230 mesh. Both clay and waste are contacted at 30-100 minutes. The results showed that the optimum of time and grain size variation is clay with 80 mesh grain size within 70 minutes. While physical properties of the rooftile contained Fe meet all ISO standards and are known to tile, the best quality is to use clay that has been in contact with the waste that is created 1000 times dilution. The stripping test of Fe (III by rain water and sea water showed that the average rate of Fe-striped of the tile body that is made with soaked with diluted waste are 0.068 ppm/day and 0.055 ppm/day while for tile bodies soaked with waste is not diluted are 0.0722 ppm/day and 0.0560 ppm/day.

  19. Hyperspectral data influenced by sample matrix: the importance of building relevant reference spectral libraries to map materials of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, James C K; Bezerra, Leonardo; Del Pilar Sosa Peña, María; Neu-Baker, Nicole M; Brenner, Sara A

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and mapping are increasingly used for visualization and identification of nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of matrices, including aqueous suspensions and biological samples. Reference spectral libraries (RSLs) contain hyperspectral data collected from materials of known composition and are used to detect the known materials in experimental samples through a one-to-one pixel "mapping" process. In some HSI studies, RSLs created from raw NPs were used to map NPs in experimental samples in a different matrix; for example, RSLs created from NPs in suspension to map NPs in biological tissue. Others have utilized RSLs created from NPs in the same matrix. However, few studies have systematically compared hyperspectral data as a function of the matrix in which the NPs are found and its impact on mapping results. The objective of this study is to compare RSLs created from metal oxide NPs in aqueous suspensions to RSLs created from the same NPs in rat tissues following in vivo inhalation exposure, and to investigate the differences in mapping that result from the use of each RSL. Results demonstrate that the spectral profiles of these NPs are matrix dependent: RSLs created from NPs in positive control tissues mapped to experimental tissues more appropriately than RSLs created from NPs in suspension. Aqueous suspension RSLs mapped 0-602 out of 500,424 pixels per tissue image while tissue RSLs mapped 689-18,435 pixels for the same images. This study underscores the need for appropriate positive controls for the creation of RSLs for mapping NPs in experimental samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; P. Pasupathi; N. Brown; K. Mon

    2005-09-19

    The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced

  1. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G G

    2001-03-28

    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  2. BioWaste-to-Liquid. An ecologic-economic consideration of pyrolysis oil based on biogenic residual materials and wastes; BioWaste-to-Liquid. Oekologisch-oekonomische Betrachtung von Pyrolyseoel auf Basis biogener Rest- und Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liemen, Franziska; Zech, Konstantin; Kroeger, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The joint research project BioWaste-to-Liquid, which is carried out by Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), focuses on the provision of alternative fuels by means of fast pyrolysis. Alongside the various tests and technical analyses, an ecologic and economic assessment was carried out, that examines the performance of different raw materials in terms of GHG-emissions and production costs. The herein examined raw materials were Rape straw, Sunflower straw, residues of corn harvesting, hay, waste wood, bark and driftwood from river Rhine. The results show a good performance of waste wood and draft wood both in ecologic and economic terms, whilst especially Sunflower straw can be considered rather unsuitable since it is particularly affected by the negative effects of the compensatory fertilization. The other raw materials perform varyingly in the ecologic and economic assessments. (orig.)

  3. Screening for perfluoroalkyl acids in consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Vojta, Šimon; Komprdová, Klára; Klánová, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large group of important chemical compounds with unique and useful physico-chemical properties, widely produced and used in many applications. However, due to the toxicity, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential of certain PFASs, they are of significant concern to scientists and policy makers. To assess human exposure to PFASs, it is necessary to understand the concentrations of these emerging contaminants in our environment, and particularly environments where urban population spend most of their time, i.e. buildings and vehicles. A total of 126 samples of building materials, consumer products, car interior materials and wastes were therefore analyzed for their content of key PFASs - 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). At least one of the target PFAAs was detected in 88% of all samples. The highest concentration of Σ15PFAAs was found in textile materials (77.61 μg kg(-1)), as expected, since specific PFAAs are known to be used for textile treatment during processing. Surprisingly, PFAAs were also detected in all analyzed composite wood building materials, which were dominated by perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids with 5-8 carbons in the chain (Σ4PFCAs up to 32.9 μg kg(-1)). These materials are currently widely used for building refurbishment, and this is the first study to find evidence of the presence of specific PFASs in composite wood materials. Thus, in addition to consumer products treated with PFASs, materials used in the construction of houses, schools and office buildings may also play an important role in human exposure to PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  5. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  6. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tabasso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  7. A new technology for recycling materials from waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yihui; Qiu, Keqiang

    2010-03-15

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) contain lots of valuable resources together with plenty of hazardous materials, which are considered both an attractive secondary resource and an environmental contaminant. In this research, a new process of "centrifugal separation+vacuum pyrolysis" for the combined recovery of solder and organic materials from WPCBs was investigated. The results of centrifugal separation indicated that the separation of solder from WPCBs was complete when WPCBs were heated at 240 degrees C, and the rotating drum was rotated at 1400 rpm for 6 min intermittently. The results of vacuum pyrolysis showed that the type-A of WPCBs without solder pyrolysed to form an average of 69.5 wt% residue, 27.8 wt% oil, and 2.7 wt% gas; and pyrolysis of the type-B of WPCBs without solder led to an average mass balance of 75.7 wt% residue, 20.0 wt% oil, and 4.3 wt%