Hakozaki, K.; Wada, R.
Kobe Steel, Ltd. (KSL) and Transnuclear Tokyo (TNT) have jointly developed a new waste management system concept (called ''Inner packaging system'') for high dose rate wastes generated from nuclear power plants under cooperation with Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The inner packaging system is designed as a total management system dedicated to the wastes from nuclear plants in Japan, covering from the wastes conditioning in power plants up to the disposal in final repository. This paper presents the new waste management system concept
Pongrácz, E. (Eva)
Abstract In an attempt to construct a new agenda for waste management, this thesis explores the importance of the definition of waste and its impact on waste management, and the role of ownership in waste management. It is recognised that present legal waste definitions are ambiguous and do not really give an insight into the concept of waste. Moreover, despite its explicit wish of waste prevention, when according to present legislation a thing is assigned the label...
Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of agricultural products that may contain material that can benefit man but whose economic values are less than the cost of collection, transportation, and processing for beneficial use. Estimates of agricultural waste arising are rare, but they are ...
Three modes of reactor strategies are chosen and discussed; (1) Once-through type light water reactor, (2) U-Pu cycle light water reactor, and (3) U-Pu cycle fast breeder reactor. The arising of wastes in each mode of nuclear fuel cycle is first estimated for unit nuclear power generation of 1 GWe.year and the amount of wastes to be managed in each year is then calculated. Assuming the 2nd and the 3rd reprocessing plants are not operative, the decrease of waste arising is also estimated, which, nevertheless, claims the need for spent fuel storage pools. In addition, the arisings of decommissioning wastes are evaluated to identify their effect on waste management. Based on above fact, a generic logic of waste management is brought about, placing major emphasis on volume reduction, barrier- and decay-effects. According to the characteristics, the wastes arisen at each stage of nuclear fuel cycle can be categorized into (1) extremely low-level waste, (2) low- and intermediate-level waste, (3) alpha-waste and (4) high-level waste, and the suitable isolation periods for the specified categories can be set by the aid of hazard index, suggesting that the disposal options may possibly be selected. The waste disposal gives environmental impacts through dispersion and migration of contained nuclides into biosphere; the dispersion and migration paths are investigated and a mathematical expression to evaluate the impacts as dose commitment is presented. A multi-barrier concept is proposed since combined artificial and natural barriers have possibility of lengthening the migration path to enable safe disposal. Finally, items of research/development in waste management are represented from the viewpoints of (1) establishment of management system, (2) safety assessment covering verification of technology and system, and (3) regulation, giving recommendations for national policy making as well as for international co-operation. (JPN)
Brown, Sanford M., Jr.
Presents a brief review of the program planning process, and uses the example of a solid waste program to illustrate what has or has not been accomplished through the use of the planning process. (LK)
Oct 4, 2016 ... beneficial use. Their composition will depend on the system and type of agricultural activities and they can be in the form of liquids, slurries, or solids. Agricultural waste .... quickly captured which will greatly reduce the dissolved ..... limited time; however, it generally is better to cover the manure with a plastic.
The safety concept of the FRG concerning waste management is based on the ultimate aim of having in operation until 1985 nuclear power plants with a capacity of approx. 45,000 MWe, i.e. 50 nuclear power plants with an annual fuel consumption of 1,500 tons. A critical survey shows that there is still a great number of questions to be solved, concerning the fuel cycle in particular in terms of industrial standards, and that various problems ought to be the subject of R and D activities. Activities in the field of waste management so far are concerned only with project studies and details of project definition studies. On the one hand, the principles of the safety concept for waste management are to make possible and to guarantee the operation of nuclear facilities, and on the other hand, they are to subject those facilities which serve the purpose of waste disposal to similar safety regulations as the nuclear power plants are subjected to. The integrated waste disposal system of the Federal government for CWRs until the mid eighties is described. R+D activities are still necessary, in particular concerning reprocessing techniques, techniques in the reprocessing of Pu, the conditioning of highly active wastes, testing final storage techniques, and in the field of retention of gaseous radioactive nuclides (iodine, krypton, tritium) and of safeguarding waste disposal parks against terrorists and sabotage. The legal basis for the protection of the citizen is the Atomic Energy Act and its ordinances, EURATOM basic standards, and ICRP recommendations, some of which were tightened up for the FRG. Some recommendations of the Strahlenschutzkommision - radiation exposure, storage and separation of 85 Kr, 129 J, 131 J, and 133 Xe - are dealt with in detail. (HPH/LN) [de
In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.
This report supplements the treatment of waste management issues provided in the Generic Environmental Statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors (GESMO, NUREG-0002). Three recycle and three no-recycle options are described in this document. Management of the radioactive wastes that would result from implementation of either type of fuel cycle alternative is discussed. For five of the six options, wastes would be placed in deep geologic salt repositories for which thermal criteria are considered. Radiation doses to the workers at the repositories and to the general population are discussed. The report also covers the waste management schedule, the land and salt commitments, and the economic costs for the management of wastes generated
Bergeron, Francis C.
Waste is not a rejected item to dispose anymore but increasingly a secondary resource to exploit, influencing waste allocation among treatment operations in a waste management (WM) system. The aim of this methodological paper is to present a new method for the assessment of the WM system, the “analytical method of the waste allocation process” (AMWAP), based on the concept of the “waste allocation process” defined as the aggregation of all processes of apportioning waste among alternative waste treatment operations inside or outside the spatial borders of a WM system. AMWAP contains a conceptual framework and an analytical approach. The conceptual framework includes, firstly, a descriptive model that focuses on the description and classification of the WM system. It includes, secondly, an explanatory model that serves to explain and to predict the operation of the WM system. The analytical approach consists of a step-by-step analysis for the empirical implementation of the conceptual framework. With its multiple purposes, AMWAP provides an innovative and objective modular method to analyse a WM system which may be integrated in the framework of impact assessment methods and environmental systems analysis tools. Its originality comes from the interdisciplinary analysis of the WAP and to develop the conceptual framework. AMWAP is applied in the framework of an illustrative case study on the household WM system of Geneva (Switzerland). It demonstrates that this method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of WM. - Highlights: • The study presents a new analytical method based on the waste allocation process. • The method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of the waste management system. • The paper provides a reproducible procedure for professionals, experts and academics. • It may be integrated into impact assessment or environmental system analysis tools. • An illustrative case study is provided based on household waste
Bacmeister, Georg U.
Full text: This paper gives an overview on the waste management of NPP Stade during dismantling. The general idea is to reduce the radioactive waste to about three percentage of the complete dismantling mass. The NPP Stade in Germany was shut down in November 2003. After a transient phase the license for dismantling was given in 2005. In the following 8 years about 20.000 tones of steel and 120.000 tones of concrete will be put out by the dismantling. The yearly output of steel will by about 100 times higher than during the running time of the NNP. For this a new processes for waste management had to be installed. The waste management during dismantling focus on free release (about 97%). Beside some minor exception, the rest is deemed to be radioactive waste. This will be collected in 1000 packages, which are ready to be sent to a final storage. As until now in Germany no final storage is open (and sending of radioactive waste to another country is forbidden), the NNP Stade build an intermediate storage, where the packages may by saved for longest 40 years. The clearance procedure in Germany is regulated in the radiation protection ordinances. It is based on a nuclide specific set of clearance levels. To fulfil these demands the NNP Stade chose a semi automated system for characterization and documentation, which we develop in accordance to our release license. It guaranties a most accurate determination of the relevant nuclides for a set of dismantling material (some 10 to 100 tones). After the characterization only the gamma-activity of the material is measured in boxes of about 500 kg. A short comparison of the chosen procedure with other options, possible in Germany will be given and the decision from the collaboration with the NPP in Barsebaeck, Sweden, will be withdrawn. Beside the free release different options are used for waste management, like incineration, sending to landfill or reuse in nuclear industry. The waste management of the NNP Stade take
Jia Sin Tey
Full Text Available Sustainable concept has been a topic that is of broad and current interest in applying in many different areas of development. A sustainable concept encompasses three main criteria, namely environmental, social, and economic. This sustainable concept has usually been defined as the ability to develop something to meet the present needs yet it does not compromise the ability of future generation to meet their needs. Whereas waste management plays an important role in managing the municipal solid wastes produced. The landfill has been widely used in the disposal of solid wastes. However, the negative impacts caused by landfill have led to the need for application of sustainable concept. The acceptance of sustainable concept by stakeholders will determine the possibility of moving into sustainable waste management. This study aims at assessing the of acceptance by the stakeholders in the application of the sustainable concept into landfill. The research was conducted by reviewing of the past similar researches and through interview with ten waste management stakeholders. The results obtained show that there are some limitations in terms of understanding on the concept of sustainability and the willingness in accepting on this concept. Further action should taken in and moving towards sustainable waste management.
Recognition of the concept of responsibility to future generations seems, to imply the need to assume responsibility today for radioactive waste legacy of the past as well as for the waste that is currently being generated. However, this view of things, or more precisely this interpretation, is clouded by the lack of a clear definition of the concept of responsibility towards future generations. The concept has been used mainly in connection with long-lived radioactive wastes, which pose the greatest management problem as it so so far exceeds any human scale of reference. Consideration for future generations has to be a factor in the management of all types of radioactive waste, be it short, medium or long-lived waste or very low, low, intermediate or highly radioactive waste. As a general rule the concept of responsibility has made focus on long lived waste, whatever its level of radioactivity. The current alternatives for the management of radioactive waste may be: interim storage, final disposal, incineration, transmutation, to lower the radioactivity of the wastes. These different alternatives are discussed because they are not all genuine solutions and need to be deepened. (N.C.)
DOE has initiated a planning process in anticipation of upgrading all DOE waste management operations and facilities. The EM Configuration Study examines four areas: (1) planning considerations, (2) system configuration, (3) operational concepts, and (4) resource assessments. Each area is addressed by a different team. Objective of the Operational Concepts Team 3 study is to investigate, identify, define, and evaluate alternative ways to manage DOE waste management facilities, while taking into consideration the information gathered by the other EM Configuration teams. This report provides information and criteria for evaluating the relative effectiveness and efficiency of various organizational alternatives that can be used to operate and manage DOE waste facilities. Intent of this report is not to select one best management alternative but rather to provide recommendations, conclusions, and background information from which decisions will be made at a future date.
Moser, Corinne; Stauffacher, Michael; Krütli, Pius; Scholz, Roland W
The disposal of nuclear waste involves extensive time scales. Technical experts consider up to 1 million years for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste in their safety assessment. Yet nuclear waste is not only a technical but also a so-called sociotechnical problem and, therefore, requires interdisciplinary collaboration between technical, natural, social sciences, and the humanities in its management. Given that these disciplines differ in their language, epistemics, and interests, such collaboration might be problematic. Based on evidence from cognitive psychology, we suggest that, in particular, a concept like time is presumably critical and can be understood differently. This study explores how different scientific disciplines understand extensive time scales in general and then focuses on nuclear waste. Eighteen qualitative exploratory interviews were conducted with experts for time-related phenomena of different disciplines, among them experts working in nuclear waste management. Analyses revealed two distinct conceptions of time corresponding to idiographic and nomothetic research approaches: scientists from the humanities and social sciences tend to have a more open, undetermined conception of time, whereas natural scientists tend to focus on a more determined conception that includes some undetermined aspects. Our analyses lead to reflections on potential difficulties for interdisciplinary teams in nuclear waste management. We focus on the understanding of the safety assessment, on potential implications for communication between experts from different disciplines (e.g., between experts from the humanities and engineering for risk assessment and risk communication), and we reflect on the roles of different disciplines in nuclear waste management. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.
Thomauske, B.; Viehl, E.
The Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz, AtG) is the legal basis for the disposal of radioactive waste. In the framework of the plan approval procedure it requires the presentation of the plan to the public, followed by a hearing. According to the AtG, the plan approval authority is the hearing authority as well. In Lower Saxony with the sites of the Konrad mine and the Gorleben salt dome, the ministery of Environmental (NMU) is the authority. The plan approval authority has to discuss the objections with the applicant and those, who raised them. The enquiry for the Konrad repository project lasted from September 25 th , 1992 to March 06 th , 1993. Outside the plan approval procedure, the information of the public is a necessary part of site investigation activities
Full Text Available Regional concept of environmental protection and waste management represents a new methodology in spatial interventions which enable an integral view of all of the environmental parameters. In this way, contrary to the prevailing decentralized methodology of environmental protection and negation of the pollution aftereffects, it is recommended to form a unified database of main pollutants for the whole region. This database enables impact detection of specific factors (industrial facilities, waste dumps and other pollutants on a scale which transcends to neighboring municipalities, regions, or the overall country. The state of the environment and waste management in the South Morava region is directly impacted by an array of environmentally degradable factors, with economics being the most prominent one (industrial facilities, which represented the main pollutants in the past, applied little, if any, regard to the environmental protection, dumping their waste on improvised, unprotected waste dumps. On the other hand, low level of employment, rudimentary industrial technology made positive environmental effect in the past 5 to 10 years, because of lack of direct pollution. The subject of this paper will be based on recommendations for better organization on regional level in the environmental and waste management field, and based on examples from Jablanica and Pčinja district, which are located in the South Morava region.
In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.
Management concepts evolve through time. Health care managers can learn new concepts by evaluating classical management strategies, as well as modern-day strategies. Focusing on quality improvement and team building can help managers align the goals of their departments with the goals of the organization, consequently improving patient care.
Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew
The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....
The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities
Dreimanis, A.; Shatrovska, D.
Development of radioactive waste (RW) management concept is treated as a key component of a general process - elaboration of the overall RW management strategy for a certain country/region. We present indication of possible solutions for crucial RW management problems for Latvia being in the same time rather generic for other countries. The importance of the Concept for Latvia follows from the planned decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR) and from the recommended further upgrading of RW management organization in conditions of limited resources.The aim of this Concept is to stimulate the development of advanced, environmentally sound and population friendly system of RW management, in accord with the fair social system for the protection of human health and the environment, in line of international recommendations.The Concept foresees solutions for the safe management of RW for the period 2003-2010. The main problems to be analysed and solved in the Concept: 1.The increase of the RW quantity and a lack of the sufficient storage space. In addition to the traditional producers of RW such as medicine, industry, and science, there are two major operators in Latvia that have significantly increase the yearly amount of RW for disposal in recent years and will do so in nearest future - disposal off of the SRR decommissioning waste in the existing near-surface LILW-SL RW repository, which dictates the need for its enlargement. 2. The safety of the existent repository. To ensure protection of population and environment (including the Baltic sea) from exposure and radioactive contamination, proper measures shall be taken. The safety of RW repository should be upgraded via building long-term cover, according to recommendations of safety assessment (SA) by consortium CASSIOPEA. 3. Construction of a long term storage and the geological disposal site. Safe isolation of long-lived RW can be achieved by storage in the geological disposal site only, thereby; a
Thompson, M.L.; Berglund, R.C.
PRISM, a modular advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), has been designed conceptually by GE under the US Department of Energy sponsorship. The concept design and analyses have been primarily focused on passive safety and improved construction and operating costs. Significantly, the unique design of multiple modules and features of PRISM enhance waste management over conventional reactor systems. This paper provides an overview of PRISM of these enhancements. Inherent to the ALMR's, the sodium coolant precludes crud buildup on reactor surfaces and in components and waste for disposal. Preliminary evaluations indicate this fundamental feature results in factors of 2-4 less waste volume and 2-3 orders of magnitude less curies per megawatt-electric for ultimate disposal. For example, the tap designed for sodium cleanup is expected to be exchanged only once every thirty years. Also, inherent to ALMR's, burning waste actinides and selected fission products to preclude their accumulation and burial is very attractive. The hard neutron spectrum of ALMR burns the actinides efficiently and is not poisoned by the actinides and fission products. The modular design of PRISM components (and the fuel cycle equipment) permit replacement without expensive and potentially hazardous volume reduction. For example, the functional components of the reference electromagnetic pump and IHK can be removed intact for waste disposal. Although development of the reference metal fuel is not completed, it is estimated that (low-level) waste from recycle of the fuel will result in significantly less volume than would be generated by aqueous recycle of oxide fuel. 6 refs., 10 figs
Allan, C.J.; Stephens, M.E.
Over the last 15 years under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, AECL Research has developed and assessed a concept to dispose of nuclear fuel waste from Canada's CANDU reactors in a volt excavated in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. A robust concept has been developed, with option for the choice of materials and designs for the different components. AECL will submit an Environmental Impact Statement describing the concept in early 1994 for review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment and Review Process. If the review is completed by 1996, as currently expected, and if the concept is approved, disposal will not likely begin before about 2025
Croff, A.G.; Tedder, D.W.; Drago, J.P.; Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.
Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures
Full Text Available Accumulating operational experience in both aerobic and anaerobic mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT makes it increasingly obvious that controlled water management would substantially reduce the cost of MBT and also enhance resource recovery of the organic and inorganic fraction. The MBT plant at Gescher, Germany, is used as an example in order to determine the quantity and composition of process water and leachates from intensive and subsequent rotting, pressing water from anaerobic digestion and scrubber water from acid exhaust air treatment, and hence prepare an MBT water balance. The potential of, requirements for and limits to internal process water reuse as well as the possibilities of resource recovery from scrubber water are also examined. Finally, an assimilated process water management concept with the purpose of an extensive reduction of wastewater quantity and freshwater demand is presented.
Ostenak, C.A.; Whitty, W.J.; Dietz, R.J.
Preliminary concepts of materials accountability are presented for an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository. A hypothetical reference repository that receives nuclear waste for emplacement in a geologic medium serves to illustrate specific safeguards concepts. Nuclear wastes received at the reference repository derive from prior fuel-cycle operations. Alternative safeguards techniques ranging from item accounting to nondestructive assay and waste characteristics that affect the necessary level of safeguards are examined. Downgrading of safeguards prior to shipment to the repository is recommended whenever possible. The point in the waste cycle where international safeguards may be terminate depends on the fissile content, feasibility of separation, and practicable recoverability of the waste: termination may not be possible if spent fuels are declared as waste
The objective of the CEM Concept is to describe techniques for systematically identifying, evaluating, and influencing those technical, social, economic, political and institutional factors (i.e., events, trends and conditions) that are perceived as being probable uncertainties to the attainment of planned program objectives.
The objective of the CEM Concept is to describe techniques for systematically identifying, evaluating, and influencing those technical, social, economic, political and institutional factors (i.e., events, trends and conditions) that are perceived as being probable uncertainties to the attainment of planned program objectives
Elizar, Suripin, Wibowo, Mochamad Agung
Delays in construction sites occur due to systematic additions of time waste in various activities that are part of the construction process. Work-time waste is non-adding value activity which used to differentiate between physical construction waste found on site and other waste which occurs during the construction process. The aim of this study is identification using the concept of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to reduce of work-time waste as applied the smart construction management.VSM analysis is a method of business process improvement. The application of VSM began in the manufacturing community. The research method base on theoretically informed case study and literature review. The data have collected using questionnaire through personal interviews from 383 respondents on construction project in Indonesia. The results show that concept of VSM can identify causes of work-time waste. Base on result of questioners and quantitative approach analysis was obtained 29 variables that influence of work-time waste or non-value-adding activities. Base on three cases of construction project founded that average 14.88% of working time was classified as waste. Finally, the concept of VSM can recommend to identification of systematic for reveal current practices and opportunities for improvement towards global challenges. The concept of value stream mapping can help optimize to reduce work-time waste and improve quality standard of construction management. The concept is also can help manager to make a decision to reduce work-time waste so as to obtain of result in more efficient for performance and sustainable construction project.
Morissette, R.P.; Schneringer, P.E.; Lane, R.K.; Moore, R.L.; Young, K.A.
A Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) was initiated by DOE to solicit from industry new and novel ideas for improvements in the nuclear waste management system. GA Technologies Inc. was contracted to study a system utilizing a universal canister which could be loaded at the reactor and used throughout the waste management system. The proposed canister was developed with the objective of meeting the mission requirements with maximum flexibility and at minimum cost. Canister criteria were selected from a thorough analysis of the spent fuel inventory, and canister concepts were evaluated along with the shipping and storage casks to determine the maximum payload. Engineering analyses were performed on various cask/canister combinations. One important criterion was the interchangeability of the canisters between truck and rail cask systems. A canister was selected which could hold three PWR intact fuel elements or up to eight consolidated PWR fuel elements. One canister could be shipped in an overweight truck cask or six in a rail cask. Economic analysis showed a cost savings of the reference system under consideration at that time.
This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed
Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is researching a concept for disposal of immobilized nuclear fuel waste in a vault mined deep in stable plutonic rock. When protective barriers are eventually breached, radioactive and chemically toxic nuclides, carried by groundwater, may migrate from the vault to the biosphere. They may cycle through surface waters, soil, the atmosphere and the food chain. One of the objectives of the program is to assess the movement of nuclides using modelling techniques to calculate the radiological dose to humans and concentrations of contaminants in the environment. To achieve these goals a biosphere model, comprising four submodels, has been developed. This report describes the atmosphere submodel and the pathways through which nuclides may move through the atmosphere. The model describes the processes of nuclide suspension, dispersion and deposition. Surface water and soil are considered as primary sources of nuclide fluxes to the atmosphere. Some nuclides may be attached to contaminated suspended particulate matter, whereas others are mobile as gases. The model considers natural phenomena such as wind erosion of soil, forest fires, gaseous emissions from soil, and bubble bursting at lake surfaces. Anthropogenic processes such as wood burning for energy are also modelled, and nuclide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor air are calculated. The model combines a variety of techniques, including mass loading concepts, flux density estimates, numerical dispersion models and specific activity relationships. The model is probabilistic; transport is modelled using simple mass transfer equations, and variability is incorporated by distributing values for parameters. This report documents the model equations, the parameter values, and comparisons of pathways. (Author)
Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.; Whitaker, S.H.
This paper reports that in developing a concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste, AECL has faced challenges because the acceptability of the concept must be established before a site is selected, no agency has been made responsible for implementing the concept if it is selected, and many stakeholders in the review must be satisfied if the concept is to be accepted. The challenges have thus far been met by a program that is well-integrated technically and administratively. However, interactions with stakeholders reviewing the concept present a problem in communication. The authors believe the nature of the nuclear fuel waste disposal issue calls for a cooperative rather than an adversarial approach to problem solving to efficiently deal with the requirements of all the stakeholders
This report deals with the determination of the cost and the radiological impact associated with a near-surface disposal site (French concept) for low and medium-level radioactive waste generated during operation of a 20 GWe nuclear park composed of LWRs for 30 years. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria
Alter, U.; Mielke, H.G.; Wehner, G.
According to the Atomic Act, article 9a, paragraph 1, the licensees of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are obliged to provide for the management of radioactive wastes resulting from the operation of these plants. Concerning the provisions to be made for the management of such wastes, two concepts are discussed: nuclear reprocessing and final waste disposal center (Nukleares Entsorgungszentrum, NEZ); and the integrated spent fuel and waste management concept (Integriertes Entsorgungskonzept, IEK). Unlike the NEZ, the IEK-concept may have different sites for the following fuel cycle facilities: intermediate spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning and final disposal, and uranium and plutonium fuel element fabrication facilities. The fundamental differences of the pertinent transports are presented. Transport scenarios expected under the two alternatives NEZ and IEK have been elaborated for the purpose of a data collection covering the following aspects: materials to be shipped, number of packages shipped, number of packages shipped per transport, transport by rail or by road, transport routes and distances, and duration of transports
Silbermann, Georg [Hitachi Zosen Inova AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)
For several years, a rethinking in the tourist paradise Mallorca took place. Due to the limited land resources it was clear to the public authorities that the waste cannot be deposited unlimited and unsorted. An ambitious concept for the waste management has to be developed, and an integrated system has to be planned. The ambiguous goal is zero landfill: In future, as many waste materials as possible should be led back in the product cycle. The non-recyclable materials should be incinerated efficiently and utilized energetically.
Bird, G.A.; Stephenson, M.; Cornett, R.J.
A requirement in assessing the safety of Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept is the prediction of radiological doses to humans and other biota, which may occur far in the future as a result of releases of nuclides to the biosphere. A biosphere model has been developed, consisting of four integrated submodels describing surface water, soil, atmosphere, and food-dose components. This report documents the surface water submodel, which is a simple, generic mass balance model of a Canadian Shield lake. Nuclide input to the lake is the time-dependent mass output from the geosphere model. Nuclides enter the lake from compacted sediments. The surface water submodel calculates nuclide concentrations in lake water and sediment. These concentrations are used in the other biosphere submodels to predict the radiological dose to biota. Selection of parameter values for the model is based on the literature, our own data, and conservative assumptions to ensure that doses are not underestimated. MOst parameters are represented by log normal. This probabilistic approach of using distributed parameter values accounts for variability and uncertainty in parameter values, and short-term environmental fluctuations. Long-term environmental changes, such as glaciation, are not considered in the model. Sensitivity analysis indicates that nuclide concentrations in lake water and sediment are governed primarily by hydrological flushing, with lake catchment area being the most important parameter. When catchment area is held constant, as would occur at a specific site, lake area and nuclide transfer rate from water to sediment strongly influence concentrations in both water and sediment. Sediment accumulation rate also strongly influences sediment nuclide concentrations. Validation of model predictions using published studies and other data demonstrates that our model is realistic and suitable for assessing Canada's disposal concept. (Author)
The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.
The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described
The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de
Full Text Available This paper discusses the encouragement of creativity and innovation in creating opportunities for entrepreneurship turning useless materials into valuable resources. It is necessary to know the thought process and planning in the entrepreneurship idea to create a new business at this time. One of the brilliant philosophies about entrepreneurs is that they are those who can “turn garbage into gold”. This concept describes the important character of entrepreneurs who foresee business opportunities and have the intelligence to transform trash into cash. This means that they have the necessary ability to create innovation and value-added products for sale. The analyzed case study involves innovation in using fisheries waste specifically derived from crab industries in Indonesia. The study presents empirical perspectives including (1 potential business of crab shell waste (2 technology in innovative use of shell to added value product (3 business analysis and commercialization. Ultimately, we present the concept of a new business by linking theories of entrepreneurial innovation and technology transfer in order to gain environmental balance.
The term BPEO, introduced in 1976 by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (RCEP), is largely limited to use within the UK. The concept is easy to grasp (and assent to) as a general principle, but more difficult to pin down in practice and detail. The elasticity of the BPEO concept has led to its being invoked in a variety of contexts and interpreted in various ways, with a recent tendency towards more elaborate interpretations. In any practical BPEO assessment, it is necessary to set the scope and boundaries in a clear and well-considered manner. The boundaries are important limitations of the assessment and any conclusions it may reach. Decision-making in radioactive waste management involves an exercise of judgement. Although a practical BPEO assessment will include many judgements, the most important ones need to be explicit in the decision-making process itself. BPEO assessments thus need to be regarded as aids to decision-making rather than exercises that will themselves directly lead to decisions. It is useful to learn lessons from the development and application of the BPEO concept to date. The Environment Agency and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) have in progress a project to review current BPEO assessment methods for the management and disposal of radioactive waste, and to develop a preferred methodology suitable for use by regulators, site operators and consultants. (author)
Hugon, M.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Martin Bermejo, J.
This paper summarises the objectives of the research projects on Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of long lived radionuclides in nuclear waste and advanced systems for nuclear energy production in the key action on nuclear fission of the EURATOM Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) (1998-2002). As these FP5 projects cover the main aspects of P and T, they should provide a basis for evaluating the practicability, on an industrial scale, of P and T for reducing the amount of long lived radionuclides to be disposed of. Concerning advanced concepts, a cluster of projects is addressing the key technical issues to be solved before implementing High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) commercially for energy production. Finally, the European Commission(tm)s proposal for a New Framework Programme (2002-2006) is briefly outlined. (author)
Gadsby, R.D.; Allan, C.J.
AECL has maintained an active program in radioactive waste management since 1945, when the Canadian nuclear program commenced activities at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Waste management activities have included operation of waste management storage and processing facilities at AECL's CRL and Whiteshell Laboratories (WL); operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Office on behalf of Natural Resources Canada to resolve historic radioactive waste problems (largely associated with radioactive ore recovery, transport and processing operations) that are the responsibility of the Federal Government; development of the concept and related technology for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste; development of the Intrusion-Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS) disposal concept for low-level nuclear waste; development of dry storage technology for the interim storage of used fuel; and development and assessment of waste processing technology for application in CANDU nuclear power plants and at CRL and WL. Today these activities are continuing. In addition, AECL is: preparing to decommission the nuclear facilities at WL; carrying out a number of smaller decommissioning projects at CRL; putting in place projects to upgrade the low-level liquid waste processing capabilities of the CRL Waste Treatment Centre, recover and process highly active liquid wastes currently in storage, and recover, condition and improve the storage of selected fuel wastes currently stored in below-ground standpipes in the CRL waste management areas; and assessing options for additional remediation projects to improve the management of other wastes currently in storage and to address environmental contamination from past practices. (author)
Ribić, Bojan; Voća, Neven; Ilakovac, Branka
Improvement of the current waste management is one of the main challenges for most municipalities in Croatia, mainly due to legal obligations set in different European Union (EU) directives regarding waste management, such as reduction of waste generation and landfilling, or increase of separately collected waste and recycling rates. This paper highlights the current waste management in the city of Zagreb by analyzing the waste generation, collection, and disposal scenario along with the regulatory and institutional framework. Since the present waste management system mainly depends upon landfilling, with the rate of separate waste collection and recycling far from being adequate, it is necessary to introduce a new system that will take into account the current situation in the city as well as the obligations imposed by the EU. Namely, in the coming years, the Waste Framework and Landfill Directives of the European Union will be a significant driver of change in waste management practices and governance of the city of Zagreb. At present, the yearly separate waste collection makes somewhat less than 5 kg per capita of various waste fractions, i.e., far below the average value for the (28) capital cities of the EU, which is 108 kg per capita. This is possible to achieve only by better and sustainable planning of future activities and facilities, taking into account of environmental, economic, and social aspects of waste management. This means that the city of Zagreb not only will have to invest in new infrastructure to meet the targets, but also will have to enhance public awareness in diverting this waste at the household level. The solution for the new waste management proposed in this paper will certainly be a way of implementing circular economy approach to current waste management practice in the city of Zagreb. Municipal waste management in the developing countries in the EU (new eastern EU members) is often characterized by its limited utilization of recycling
The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)
This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)
Soni, Ajaykumar; Patil, Deepak; Argade, Kuldeep
Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...
The subject is discussed, with special reference to the UK, under the headings: radiation; origins of the waste (mainly from nuclear power programme; gas, liquid, solid; various levels of activity); dealing with waste (methods of processing, storage, disposal); high-active waste (storage, vitrification, study of means of eventual disposal); waste management (UK organisation to manage low and intermediate level waste). (U.K.)
Christensen, Thomas Højlund
Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....
Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.
The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)
Nwachukwu, Michael Amamechi; Feng, Huan; Achilike, Kennedy
More cities in developing countries now consider mechanic village (MV) as superior to the city wide auto-workshop practice following the increasing influx of used or waste automobile from industrialized nations. This is because of the numerous advantages of the mechanic village concept as a capacity building, and in poverty alleviation. Nevertheless, mechanic villages are poorly developed with no waste management plan. They are now identified with severe to excessive heavy metal soil pollution, causing ecological and public health hazards. This paper has a wider explanation of what it takes for a mechanic village to be environmentally friendly based on spectroscopic analysis and physical measurements conducted in three MVs. Heavy metal concentrations (mg kg( -1)) above background levels in the upper 100 cm soil profiles of the Okigwe, the Orji, and the Nekede MVs in the Imo River basin collectively range 748-70,606 for Fe; 99-1,090 for Pb; 186-600 for Mn; 102-1,001 for Cu; 8-23 for Cd; 4-27 for Cr; and 3-10 for Ni. The most abundant metals of environmental concerns are Pb, Mn, and Cu, in the order of Pb > Mn > Cu. Three-phase storm water treatment, emission testing, minimum safe farming distance (350 m), extended producer responsibility for disposal or recycling of used motor oil, phyto-remediation using local plants, groundwater monitoring wells, and continuous education of mechanics are recommended. Exporters of waste automobiles to developing countries and the United Nations may assist developing countries in establishing environmentally friendly MVs.
Chitrangsan, Nadrudee; Sawekngam, Wichai; Thongthew, Sumlee
This research aims to study and develop a curriculum management process by applying Lean concept for waste elimination to enhance curriculum implementation of primary school teacher. This study was conducted with a focus on qualitative data collection by dividing into 2 phases, including (1) analyze and synthesize relevant notions, theories,…
All activities using radionuclides must respected fundamental standards of radiation protection. The fundamental scientifical hypothesis is the linearity dose-response relationships, without threshold for low dose irradiation. So low dose irradiation controls are unjustifiably multiplicated. The exemption concept of radiation sources is a method of regulation control to solve de minimis threshold problem. 7 Refs
This paper discusses the encouragement of creativity and innovation in creating opportunities for entrepreneurship turning useless materials into valuable resources. It is necessary to know the thought process and planning in the entrepreneurship idea to create a new business at this time. One of the brilliant philosophies about entrepreneurs is that they are those who can “turn garbage into gold”. This concept describes the important character of entrepreneurs who foresee business opportunit...
This book contains the proceedings of the international waste management conference. Topics covered include: Quality assurance in the OCR WM program; Leading the spirit of quality; Dept. of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program; management of hazardous waste projects; and System management and quality assurance
Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.
This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation
This papers presents the concept of long-term underground retrievable storage (URS) of spent reactor fuel in unsaturated rock. Emplacement would be incremental and the system is planned to be experimental and flexible. The rationale for retrievability is examined, and a technical basis for 300-year retrievability is presented. Maximum isolation is the rationale for underground as opposed to surface storage. Although the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain Nevada would be suitable for a URS, alternate sites are discussed. The technical issues involved in licensing a URS for 300 years are simpler than licensing a 10,000 year repository. 16 refs
Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)
Iltis, A.; Snoussi, H.; Magalhaes, L. Rodrigues de; Hmissi, M. Z.; Zafiarifety, C. Tata; Tadonkeng, G. Zeufack; Morel, C.
During nuclear decommissioning or waste management operations, a camera that could make an image of the contamination field and identify and quantify the contaminants would be a great progress. Compton cameras have been proposed, but their limited efficiency for high energy gamma rays and their cost have severely limited their application. Our objective is to promote a Compton camera for the energy range (200 keV - 2 MeV) that uses fast scintillating crystals and a new concept for locating scintillation event: Temporal Imaging. Temporal Imaging uses monolithic plates of fast scintillators and measures photons time of arrival distribution in order to locate each gamma ray with a high precision in space (X,Y,Z), time (T) and energy (E). This provides a native estimation of the depth of interaction (Z) of every detected gamma ray. This also allows a time correction for the propagation time of scintillation photons inside the crystal, therefore resulting in excellent time resolution. The high temporal resolution of the system makes it possible to veto quite efficiently background by using narrow time coincidence (< 300 ps). It is also possible to reconstruct the direction of propagation of the photons inside the detector using timing constraints. The sensitivity of our system is better than 1 nSv/h in a 60 s acquisition with a 22Na source. The project TEMPORAL is funded by the ANDRA/PAI under the grant No. RTSCNADAA160019.
The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.
Radionuclides from nuclear fuel wastes immobilized in a vault in stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield may eventually dissolve in groundwater. A biosphere model, BIOTRAC, has been developed to model the migration of radionuclides and document the consequences in an environmental impact statement. This report describes the soil submodel of BIOTRAC., SCEMR1. The SCEMR1 soil model is a mechanistic time-dependent transport model. This report presents full descriptions of its major subroutines for water and nuclide transport, its input parameter values, its major assumptions, and quality assurance procedures used in development. SCEMR1 performed adequately during independently testing. The SCEMR1 code uses too much computer time for direct inclusion in BIOTRAC. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the important parameters to accurately predict water and nuclide transport were the soil solid/liquid partition coefficient K d , annual precipitation, soil texture, and soil depth. Using ranges of these four parameters relevant to the Shield and the disposal vault nuclide inventory, a database of steady-state soil concentrations was generated by running SCEMR1. This database covered a range of annual precipitation from 0.3 to 1.0 m, soil depth from 1.0 to 2.0 m, and soil K d values from 10 -2 to 10 2 L/kg for each of four major soil textures considered (sand, loam, clay and organic). Concentrations for contamination by way of groundwater and by irrigation were computed. A regression analysis of this database from SCEMR1 was coupled with a response function in BIOTRAC. This response function recreates the time dependence and incorporates radiological decay and ingrowth of daughters and losses of radionuclides from soil through degassing and cropping. The coupling of SCEMR1 and BIOTRAC is described and a sample calculation is shown. (Author)
The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)
Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.
Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options
Fareeduddin, S.; Hirling, J.
The international conference on radioactive waste management was held in Seattle, Washington, from 16 to 20 May 1983. The response was gratifying, reflecting world-wide interest: it was attended by 528 participants from 29 Member States of the IAEA and eight international organizations. The conference programme was structured to permit reviews and presentation of up-to-date information on five major topics: - waste management policy and its implementation: national and international approaches; legal, economic, environmental, and social aspects (four sessions with 27 papers from 16 countries and four international organizations); - handling, treatment, and conditioning of wastes from nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, including the handling and treatment of gaseous wastes and wastes of specific types (five sessions with 35 papers); - storage and underground disposal of radioactive wastes: general, national concepts, underground laboratories, and designs of repositories for high-level, and low- and intermediate-level waste disposal (five sessions with 35 papers); - environmental and safety assessment of waste management systems: goals methodologies, assessments for geological repositories, low- and intermediate-level wastes, and mill tailings (four sessions with 26 papers); - radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear operations: status and perspectives, environmental transport processes, and control of radioactive waste disposal into the environment (three sessions with 23 papers)
Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado
Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...
Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.
Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)
Sources of nuclear wastes are listed and the quantities of these wastes per year are given. Methods of processing and disposing of mining and milling wastes, low-level wastes, decommissioning wastes, high-level wastes, reprocessing wastes, spent fuels, and transuranic wastes are discussed. The costs and safeguards involved in the management of this radioactive wastes are briefly covered in this presentation
Bowyer, J. M.
Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.
After the Law of the Republic of Lithuania was passed on Radioactive Waste Management on May 20, 1999, much more attention is being given to the disposal of this kind of waste in our country and especially at Ignalina NPP, the facility that generates most of it. The key principle of radioactive waste management is to manage it in such a manner that it would pose no danger to the public and the environment, and would not become an additional burden to future generations. This principle is followed in managing radioactive waste in Lithuania too. (author)
Sweden has a well-functioning organization for managing various types of radioactive waste. There is an interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, a final repository for low and intermediate level waste, and a specially-built vessel with transport casks and containers for shipping the radioactive waste between the nuclear installations. (author)
The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers
Kowalczyk, D. [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany); Wachtendorf, A. [M-I SWACO Deutschland GmbH, Celle (Germany)
The installation of a new drilling system on Mittelplate platform (owned by RWE Dea AG as managing company and Wintershall AG in 50 percent shares) in late 2005 made it possible to implement a continuous drilling programme in deeper strata. A new logistic and waste management concept was developed and implemented in order to meet the new logistic requirements of this offshore installation in the national park ''Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer'' while optimizing the successful Mittelplate HSE safety package. In the conception phase, commercial technologies in the fields of drilling cutting, transport, marine logistics, flushing and waste management were collected world-wide and were analyzed with a view to their applicability in this ecologically sensitive region. The optimum technical solution, which is also economically efficient, in accordance with the safety and environmental protection philosophy of the consortium, and also optimizes the supply and waste management process relating to drilling, comprises three interacting elements, i.e. a cutting transport system, a cutting logistic centre, and a flushing tank store. (orig.)
Buckingham, J.S. [ed.
This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.
It is the Court's consideration of the repercussions the regulation on waste management of Sect. 9a of the Atomic Energy Law will have, relating to the licensing of a plant according to Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law which is noteworthy. Overruling its former legal conception, the Administrative Court Schleswig now assumes, together with the public opinion, that the problem of waste management being brought to a point only with the initial operation of a nuclear power station is accordingly to be taken into account in line with the discretion of licensing according to Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law. In addition, the Administrative Court expressed its opinion on the extent to the right of a neighbour to a nuclear power station to file suit. According to the Sections 114 and 42 (2) of the rules of Administrative Courts it is true that a plaintiff cannot take action to set aside the licence because public interests have not been taken into account sufficiently, but he may do so because his own interests have not been included in the discretionary decision. The Administrative Court is reserved when qualifying the regulation on waste management with regard to the intensity of legal control. The Court is not supposed to replace controversial issues of technology and natural sciences on the part of the executive and its experts by its own assessment. According to the proceedings, the judicial review refers to the finding as to whether decisions made by authorities are suited - according to the way in which they were made - to guarantee the safety standard prescribed in Subdivision 3 of Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law. (HSCH) [de
Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.
Wilson, D.C.; Velis, C.A.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.
This paper uses the lens of ‘integrated sustainable waste management’ to examine how cities in developing countries have been tackling their solid waste problems. The history of related concepts and terms is reviewed, and ISWM is clearly differentiated from integrated waste management, used mostly
Greenberg, Harris R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blink, James A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. This Lessons Learned task is part of a multi-laboratory effort, with this LLNL report providing input to a Level 3 SNL milestone (System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW). The work package number is: FTLL11UF0328; the work package title is: Technical Bases / Lessons Learned; the milestone number is: M41UF032802; and the milestone title is: “LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW”. The system-wide integration effort will integrate all aspects of waste management and disposal, integrating the waste generators, interim storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal at a repository site. The review of international experience in these areas is required to support future studies that address all of these components in an integrated manner. Note that this report is a snapshot of nuclear power infrastructure and international waste management programs that is current as of August 2011, with one notable exception. No attempt has been made to discuss the currently evolving world-wide response to the tragic consequences of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan on March 11, 2011, leaving more than 15,000 people dead and more than 8,000 people missing, and severely damaging the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex. Continuing efforts in FY 2012 will update the data, and summarize it in an Excel spreadsheet for easy comparison and assist in the knowledge management of the study cases.
Quesada, Hilda; Salas, Juan Carlos; Romero, Luis Guillermo
The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author) [es
The Waste Management Glossary defines over 300 terms in the English language that have special meanings when they are used in the context of radioactive waste management. The Glossary is intended to provide a consistent reference for these terms for specialists in this field. It also will assist non-specialists who read IAEA reports dealing with waste management. This is the second edition of the Glossary. It is intended to update and replace its predecessor, TECDOC-264, that was issued in 1982. (author)
Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)
Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.
This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.
Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface
Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.
This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP
Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.
Science Teacher, 1973
Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…
Servais, F.; Woiche, Ch.; Hunin, Ch.
This chapter concerns the radiation protection in relation with the radioactive waste management. Three articles make the matter of this file, the management of radioactive medical waste into hospitals, a new concept of waste storage on site, the protection devices on the long term with some lessons for the radioactive waste management. (N.C.)
In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This report is a summary and compilation of the information contained in the data base. The WMDB contains information and data on several aspects of waste management and offer a ready source of information on such activities as R and D efforts, waste disposal plans and programmes, important programme milestones, waste volume projections, and national and regulatory policies. This report is divided into two parts. Part one describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States between August 1989 and December 1990 in response to a questionnaire sent by the Agency. However, if a Member State did not respond to the questionnaire, data from IAEA sources, such as technical assistance mission reports, were used - where such data exist. The WMDB system became operational in January 1991. The type of information contained in the data base includes radioactive waste management plans, policies and activities in Member States
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...
Husin Nur Illiana
Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.
All Member States have to a large or small extent nuclear activities that generate radioactive wastes. Hospitals, research in biomedicine or in agriculture, and some industrial applications, beside other large nuclear activities such as Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Research, generate unconditioned liquid or solid radioactive wastes that have to be treated, conditioned and stored prior final disposal. Countries with small nuclear activities require of organizations and infrastructure as to be able to manage, in a safe manner, the wastes that they generate. Predisposal management of radioactive waste is any step carried out to convert raw waste into a stable form suitable for the safe disposal, such as pre-treatment, treatment, storage and relevant transport. Transport of radioactive waste do not differ, in general, from other radioactive material and so are not considered within the scope of this fact sheet (Nevertheless the Agency, within the Nuclear Safety Department, has created a special Unit that might give advise Member States in this area). Predisposal management is comprised of a set of activities whose implementation may take some time. In most of the cases, safety issues and strategic and economical considerations have to be solved prior the main decisions are taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance for the management of radioactive waste at national and operating level, in the definition and/or implementation of the projects. The services could include, but are not limited to guidance in the definition of national waste management strategy and its implementation, definition of the most adequate equipment and practices taking into account specific Member State conditions, as well as assisting in the procurement, technical expertise for the evaluation of current status of operating facilities and practical guidance for the implementation of corrective actions, assistance in the definition of waste acceptance criteria for
The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies
Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.
To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository
This bibliography is a review of the Canadian literature on radioactive waste management from 1953 to the present. It incorporates the references from the previous AECL--6186 revisions, and adds the current data and some of the references that had been omitted. Publications from outside organizations of concern to the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Program are included in addition to AECL Research reports and papers. This report is intended as an aid in the preparation of the Concept Assessment Document and is complementary to AECL Research's internal document-ready references on the MASS-11 word processing systems
Sharma, D R; Pradhan, B; Pathak, R P; Shrestha, S C
The management of healthcare liquid waste is an overlooked problem in Nepal with stern repercussions in terms of damaging the environment and affecting the health of people. This study was carried out to explore the healthcare liquid waste management practices in Kathmandu based central hospitals of Nepal. A descriptive prospective study was conducted in 10 central hospitals of Kathmandu during the period of May to December 2008. Primary data were collected through interview, observation and microbiology laboratory works and secondary data were collected by records review. For microbiological laboratory works,waste water specimens cultured for the enumeration of total viable counts using standard protocols. Evidence of waste management guidelines and committees for the management of healthcare liquid wastes could not be found in any of the studied hospitals. Similarly, total viable counts heavily exceeded the standard heterotrophic plate count (p=0.000) with no significant difference in such counts in hospitals with and without treatment plants (p=0.232). Healthcare liquid waste management practice was not found to be satisfactory. Installation of effluent treatment plants and the development of standards for environmental indicators with effective monitoring, evaluation and strict control via relevant legal frameworks were realized.
Alfredson, P.G.; Levins, D.M.
Present and future methods of managing radioactive wastes in the nuclear industry are reviewed. In the stages from uranium mining to fuel fabrication, the main purpose of waste management is to limit and control dispersal into the environment of uranium and its decay products, particularly radium and radon. Nuclear reactors produce large amounts of radioactivity but release rates from commercial power reactors have been low and well within legal limits. The principal waste from reprocessing is a high activity liquid containing essentially all the fission products along with the transuranium elements. Most high activity wastes are currently stored as liquids in tanks but there is agreement that future wastes must be converted into solids. Processes to solidify wastes have been demonstrated in pilot plant facilities in the United States and Europe. After solidification, wastes may be stored for some time in man-made structures at or near the Earth's surface. The best method for ultimate disposal appears to be placing solid wastes in a suitable geological formation on land. (author)
Nosovs'kij, A.V.; Aljeksjejeva, Z.M.; Borozenets', G.P.; Vasilenko, T.M.; Vasil'chenko, V.M.; Pavlenko, A.O.
The main issues of the radioactive waste safe management are covered in the monograph. The international knowledge, as well as the national experience in this field are summarized. The technologies and methods used for the safety objective achievement are described. The main attention is paid to the safety norms and rules, to the descriptions of the radwaste management facilities under operation
Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables
Wildi, Walter; Dermange, Francois [Univ. of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Appel, Detlef [PanGeo, Hannover (Germany); Buser, Marcos [Buser and Finger, Zurich (Switzerland); Eckhardt, Anne [Basler and Hofmann, Zurich (Switzerland); Hufschmied, Peter [Emch and Berger, Bern (Switzerland); Keusen, Hans-Rudolf [Geotest, Zollikofen (Switzerland); Aebersold, Michael [Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE), CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland)
At the beginning of 1999, talks between the Swiss Federal Government, the siting Cantons (Cantons in which nuclear power plants are located and Canton Nidwalden), environmental organisations and the nuclear power plant operators on the lifetime of the existing power plants and solution of the waste management problem failed to reach a satisfactory outcome. In view of this, the Head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (UVEK) decided to set up the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA) in June 1999. EKRA then worked on providing the background for a comparison of different waste management concepts. The group developed the concept of monitored long-term geological disposal and compared this with geological disposal, interim storage and indefinite storage. The aspects of active and passive safety, monitoring and control, as well as retrievability of waste were at the fore-front of these deliberations. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of EKRA.
Wildi, Walter; Dermange, Francois; Appel, Detlef; Buser, Marcos; Eckhardt, Anne; Hufschmied, Peter; Keusen, Hans-Rudolf; Aebersold, Michael
At the beginning of 1999, talks between the Swiss Federal Government, the siting Cantons (Cantons in which nuclear power plants are located and Canton Nidwalden), environmental organisations and the nuclear power plant operators on the lifetime of the existing power plants and solution of the waste management problem failed to reach a satisfactory outcome. In view of this, the Head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (UVEK) decided to set up the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA) in June 1999. EKRA then worked on providing the background for a comparison of different waste management concepts. The group developed the concept of monitored long-term geological disposal and compared this with geological disposal, interim storage and indefinite storage. The aspects of active and passive safety, monitoring and control, as well as retrievability of waste were at the fore-front of these deliberations. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of EKRA
Communaux, M.; Lantes, B.
Since December 31, 1990, the management of the nuclear wastes for all the power stations has been computerized, using the DRA module of the Power Generation and Transmission Group's data processing master plan. So now EDF has a software package which centralizes all the data, enabling it to declare the characteristics of the nuclear wastes which are to be stored on the sites operated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Among other uses, this application makes it possible for EDF, by real time data exchange with ANDRA, to constitute an inventory of validated, shippable packs. It also constitutes a data base for all the wastes produced on the various sites. This application was developed to meet the following requirements: give the producers of radioactive waste a means to fully manage all the characteristics and materials that are necessary to condition their waste correctly; guarantee the traceability and safety of data and automatically assure the transmission of this data in real time between the producers and the ANDRA; give the Central Services of EDF an operation and statistical tool permitting an experienced feed-back based on the complete national production (single, centralized data base); and integrate the application within the products of the processing master plan in order to assure its maintenance and evolution
Disposal facilities for very-low-level (VLL) waste have been designed to accommodate both residues originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and used components. Those residues have very low specific-activity levels that lie below a few hundreds of becquerels per gram (Bq/g). As for the average activity found in any disposal facility, it never exceeds more than a few tens of becquerels per gram. In that case, waste disposal involves no special processing or conditioning, except for handling requirements or volume-gain purposes. The main barrier against radionuclide dispersion is provided by the geological formation being used for waste disposal. Basic disposal concept The design and construction provisions allow for the optimal operation of the disposal facility without any risk of altering the required safety level. They also ensure a satisfactory containment level for several centuries at the end of the operating lifetime. Hence, the natural materials in their original context constitute a particular advantage for the safety demonstration over the long term. With due account of the nature of VLL waste, their containment envelope (drums, big bags, etc.) has no role in confining radioactivity, but rather in facilitating handling and disposal operations, while protecting operators. Approximately 30% of all waste received at the CSTFA undergo a specific treatment before disposal. Low-density residues (plastics, thermal-insulation materials, etc.) are first compacted by a baling press, then strapped and wrapped in clear plastic-sheet. Another bundle press is used to reduce the volume of scrap metal. Some waste, such as the polluted waters generated on site or the sludges sent by producers, are processed in the solidification and stabilisation unit. Disposal cells are excavated progressively, as needed, directly in the clay formation down to a depth of 8 m and are operated in sequence. Cell design has evolved to maximize the disposal volume, and now
As the prime contractor to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) provides comprehensive waste management services to all contractors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) through the Waste Management (WM) Program. This Program Management Plan (PMP) provides an overview of the Waste Management Program objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. This document will be reviewed at least annually and updated as needed to address revisions to the Waste Management's objectives, organization and management practices, and scope of work. Waste Management Program is managed by LMITCO Waste Operations Directorate. The Waste Management Program manages transuranic, low-level, mixed low-level, hazardous, special-case, and industrial wastes generated at or transported to the INEEL
Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.
The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)
A final decision on waste management options at the back end of the fuel cycle will be taken by the West German government in the mid-1980s. To assist decision making, the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre has undertaken a comparative study of the alternative waste management routes: disposal and reprocessing. The criteria for comparison are technical feasibility, radiological impacts, raw material requirements and proliferation hazards. The study and criteria are discussed in relation to the storage and processing of irradiated fuel elements, their conditioning prior to disposal, and their eventual disposal. (author)
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established two separate special bank accounts: the Nuclear Waste Fund (NWF) was established to finance all of the Federal Government activities associated with the disposal of High-Level Waste (HLW) or Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The Interim Storage Fund (ISF) is the financial mechanism for the provision of Federal Interim Storage capacity, not to exceed 1900 metric tons of SNF at civilian power reactors. The management of these funds is discussed. Since the two funds are identical in features and the ISF has not yet been activated, the author's remarks are confined to the Nuclear Waste Fund. Three points discussed include legislative features, current status, and planned activities
1 INTRODUCTION. Waste management refers to the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials produced by human activity. The focus of this paper is on the role local government plays in waste management. Traditionally this has been the collection and transport of waste to landfill sites ...
Radioactive waste management practices at nuclear power plants are summarized. The types of waste produced and methods for treating various types of wastes are described. The waste management systems, including simplified flow diagrams, for typical boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are discussed. (U.S.)
Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and economic growth in developing countries make management of municipal solid waste more complex comparing with developed countries. Furthermore, the conventional municipal solid waste management approach often is reductionists, not tailored to handle complexity. Therefore, the need to a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach regarding the municipal solid waste management problems is increasing. The concept of integrated solid waste management is accepted for this aim all over the world. This paper analyzes the current situation as well as opportunities and challenges regarding municipal solid waste management in Isfahan according to the integrated solid waste management framework in six aspects: environmental, political/legal, institutional, socio-cultural, financial/economic, technical and performance aspects. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, the main suggestions for future integrated solid waste management of Isfahan are as i promoting financial sustainability by taking the solid waste fee and reducing the expenses through the promoting source collection of recyclable materials, ii improving compost quality and also marketing the compost products simultaneously, iii promoting the private sector involvements throughout the municipal solid waste management system.
Zach, R.; Sheppard, S.C.
The food chain and dose submodel, CALDOS, for assessing Canada's nuclear fuel management (NFWM) concept of disposal in a vault deep in the Canadian Shield is presented. Together with the surface water, soil and atmosphere submodels, CALDOS is integrated into a comprehensive, probabilistic biosphere model for post-closure assessment. This model is representative of the Canadian Shield in Ontario and CALDOS is fully generic. CALDOS calculates radionuclide transfer through the environment to make dose predictions for man. It considers 68 radionuclides explicitly and takes into account another 28 short-lived daughters in the dose calculations. Nine potentially toxic elements are also considered. CALDOS is of the multiplicative chain type for most of the radionuclides, but some, such as 3H , 129I and 222R n, are treated specially. The model accounts for all the major internal exposure pathways, including root uptake, leaf deposition, terrestrial animal's drinking water, terrestrial animal soil ingestion, freshwater fish ingestion, human drinking water, human soil ingestion and human inhalation. External exposure from air immersion, water immersion, ground and building materials are also considered. Dose predictions are based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP 26) methodologies, ICRP reference man (ICRP 23) and the critical group concept. CALDOS considers ingrowth of some radioactive daughters, radionuclide availability in soil, recycling and depletion. The model has numerous parameters, some element, radionuclide or food type specific. Sensitivity analysis is used to assess parameter importance in dose prediction. Quality assurance is addressed through general literature, model and parameter evaluations, specifically designed for environmental assessment models. This also involves validation and code comparison studies. (author). 43 refs., 36 tabs., 24 figs
Radioactive waste management is a controversial and emotive subject. This report discusses radioactivity hazards which arise from each stage of the fuel cycle and then relates these hazards to the New Zealand situation. There are three appendices, two of which are detailed considerations of a paper by Dr. B.L.Cohen
Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.
This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.
A waste classification system designed to quantify the total hazard of a waste has been developed by the Low-Level Waste Management Program. As originally conceived, the system was designed to deal with mixed radioactive waste. The methodology has been developed and successfully applied to radiological and chemical wastes, both individually and mixed together. Management options to help evaluate the financial and safety trade-offs between waste segregation, waste treatment, container types, and site factors are described. Using the system provides a very simple and cost effective way of making quick assessments of a site's capabilities to contain waste materials. 3 references
Schenato, Flavia; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe Jose Ruperti
The chapter 8 presents the waste management of the mineral industries as the main problem pointed out by the inspections, due to the the inadequate deposition with consequences to the human populations and the environment. The concepts about the criteria of exemption and the related legislation are also presented. Several different technical solutions for de NORM waste deposition are mentioned. Finally, the reutilization and recycling of NORM are covered.
American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.
A primary goal of the American Chemical Society Task Force on Laboratory Waste Management is to provide laboratories with the information necessary to develop effective strategies and training programs for managing laboratory wastes. This book is intended to present a fresh look at waste management from the laboratory perspective, considering both…
In accordance with its policy of sustainable development and continuous progress, AREVA is permanently seeking to reduce the impact of the management of its waste, of whatever type, and its radioactive waste in particular. This goal is taken into consideration very early in industrial projects and concerns all the phases in the life of the installations and all the activities of the Group. The resulting actions aim to guarantee that an exhaustive inventory is made of the radioactive materials and waste, to optimise how they are characterised, to ensure their traceability and to determine the best management methods. Past and future progress relies primarily on the effectiveness of zoning (in particular the concept of radiological cleanness), how work is organized, the account taken of operating experience feedback, the search for recycling solutions or appropriate removal routes, optimisation of waste storage and, whenever possible, online processing, plus of course the professionalism of all those involved. A participatory approach by the Group will enable the focus areas and required actions to be defined: networks and multidisciplinary working groups, whenever possible in association with other stake-holders or partners from the nuclear industry. (author)
Aleksandra Anić Vučinić; Andrea Hublin; Nikola Ružinski
The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as cri...
Lytle, J.E.; Eyman, L.D.; Burton, D.W.; McBrayer, J.F.
The US Department of Energy manages wastes that are both chemically hazardous and radioactive. These mixed wastes are often unique and many have national security implications. Management practices have evolved over the more than forty years that the Department and its predecessor agencies have been managing these wastes, both in response to better understanding of the hazards involved and in response to external, regulatory influences. The Department has recently standarized its waste management practices and has initited an R and D program to address priority issues identified by its operating contractor organizations. The R and D program is guided by waste management strategy that emphasizes reduction of human exposure to hazardous wastes in the environment, reduction of the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, treatment of wastes that are generated to reduce volumes and toxicities, and identification of alternatives to land disposal of wastes that remain hazardous following maximum practicable treatment
The waste management section of this report deals with two sectors: land disposal of solid waste and wastewater treatment. It provides background information on the type of emissions that contribute to the greenhouse gases from these two sectors, presents both sector current status in Lebanon, describes the methodology followed to estimate the corresponding emissions, and presents the results obtained regarding greenhouse emissions. The total methane emissions from solid waste disposal on land are 42.804 Gg approximately. There are no emissions from wastewater and industrial handling systems because, for the target year 1994, there was no treatment facilities in Lebanon. The wastewater (municipal, commercial and industrial) was directly discharged into the sea, rivers, ravines or septic tanks which indicate that methane or nitrous oxide emissions are significant if not nonexistent. Note that this situation will change in the future as treatment plants are being constructed around the country and are expected to come into operation by the year 2000
Gulden, W.; Ponti, C.; Guetat, P.; Butterworth, G.J.
Studies are under way to quantify and qualify radioactive wastes to be expected from NET (Next European Torus) and to identify a tentative strategy for its handling, conditioning and disposal. Waste management and disposal strategies developed for fission plants can be applied to low and medium level fusion wastes, provided that tritium has been sufficiently removed and/or immobilized. Handling and treatment of dismantled first wall and blanket segments (high level waste) will involve more complex procedures because of their volume, weight, afterheat and activation level. Assuming AISI-316 as structural material, an initial decay time in a short-term storage is needed before the spent components can be fragmented, compacted, detritiated and conditioned for intermediate and/or final storage. A first evaluation indicates that the steel components in NET have a total mass of about 7000 tonnes. For decommissioning the corresponding waste volume will be about 2,000 m 3 after packaging to be disposed of in a deep geological repository. (author). 10 refs.; 2 figs
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)
The IAEA has been concerned with radioactive waste management since its inception. Its programme in this area was expanded in the mid 1970s as questions related to the management and disposal of radioactive wastes came into focus in conjunction with the further industrial development of nuclear power. The objectives of the Agency's wastes management programme are to assist its Member States in the safe and effective management of wastes by organizing the exchange and dissemination of information, providing guidance and technical assistance and supporting research. The current programme addresses all aspects of the industrial use of nuclear power under the aspects (a) technology of handling and treatment of wastes, (b) underground disposal of wastes, (c) environmental aspects of nuclear energy, including sea disposal of radioactive wastes. Systematic reviews have been made and publications issued concerning the technology of handling, treating, conditioning, and storing various categories of wastes, including liquid and gaseous wastes, wastes from nuclear power plants, spent fuel reprocessing and mining and milling of uranium ores, as well as wastes from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As waste disposal is the current issue of highest interest, an Agency programme was set up in 1977 to develop a set of guidelines on the safe underground disposal of low-, intermediate- and high-level wastes in shallow ground, rock cavities or deep geological repositories. This programme will continue until 1990. Eleven Safety Series and Technical documents and reports have been published under this programme so far, which also addresses safety and other criteria for waste disposal. The environmental part of the waste management programme is concerned with the assessment of radiological and non-radiological consequences of discharges from nuclear facilities, including de minimis concepts in waste disposal and environmental models and data for radionuclide releases. The Agency
Herbst, H.; Roy, J.C.
This paper describes waste management in hospitals and other waste producers. Low-level radioactive wastes are collected by ANDRA (French Agency for radioactive waste management) and informations on waste processing or regulations on radiation sources are given
Silva, Ana Cristina Lourenco da; Nunes Neto, Carlos Antonio
Radioactive waste management is to be included in the Integrated Management System (IMS) which pursues the continuous improvement of the company's quality, occupational safety and health, and environment protection processes. Radioactive waste management is based on the following aspects: optimization of human and material resources for execution of tasks, including the provision of a radiation protection supervisor to watch over the management of radioactive waste; improved documentation (management plan and procedures); optimization of operational levels for waste classification and release; maintenance of generation records and history through a database that facilitates traceability of information; implementation of radioactive waste segregation at source (source identification, monitoring and decontamination) activities intended to reduce the amount of radioactive waste; licensing of initial storage site for radioactive waste control and storage; employee awareness training on radioactive waste generation; identification and evaluation of emergency situations and response planning; implementation of preventive maintenance program for safety related items; development and application of new, advanced treatment methodologies or systems. These aspects are inherent in the concepts underlying quality management (establishment of administrative controls and performance indicators), environment protection (establishment of operational levels and controls for release), occupational health and safety (establishment of operational controls for exposure in emergency and routine situations and compliance with strict legal requirements and standards). It is noted that optimizing the addressed aspects of a radioactive waste management system further enhances the efficiency of the Integrated Management System for Quality, Environment, and Occupational Safety and Health. (author)
Terminology used in documents published by the IAEA is frequently defined in glossaries in the separate documents so that understanding is enhanced, particularly for terms having unique meanings in the field of radioactive waste management. This has been found to be a good practice but frequently a burdensome one, too. In addition, terms in various documents occasionally were used differently. Thus, a common glossary of terms for radioactive waste management documents is believed to have merit. This glossary has been developed for use in IAEA documentation on radioactive waste management topics. The individual items have been compiled by selecting terms and definitions from thirty sources, listed on the next page, and numerous people. An effort has been made to use the definitions in internationally-accepted glossaries (e.g. ICRP, ICRU, ISO), with minimum modification; similarly, definitions in recently published IAEA documents have been respected. Nevertheless, when modifications were believed appropriate, they have been made. The glossary, stored on magnetic tape, is intended to be used as a standard for terminology for IAEA use; it is hoped that some benefits of common international terminology may result from its use in IAEA documentation
Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.
This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)
Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide
Lifecycle assessment (LCA) modeling provides a quantitative statement about resource issues and environmental issues in waste management useful in evaluating alternative management systems and in mapping where major loads and savings take place within existing systems. Chapter 3.1 describes...... the concepts behind LCA modeling and Chapter 3.2 gives an overview of existing models and shows examples of their application. A recent comprehensive review of publicly available LCA studies (WRAP, 2006) concluded that, on a material basis, LCA modeling in general confirms the validity of the waste hierarchy...... combinations of waste recycling, biological treatment, incineration, mechanical–biological treatment and landfilling. The purpose is to compare waste management on a system level and to indentify the steps and treatments within the system contributing the most to the environmental performance of waste...
The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.
The primary purpose of this technical report is to present concepts for retrieval operations, equipment to be used, scenarios under which waste retrieval operations will take place, methods for responding to potential retrieval problems, and compliance with the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and (b) [DIRS 156605] during the retrieval of waste packages from the subsurface repository. If a decision for retrieval is made for any or all of the waste, the waste to be retrieved would be dispositioned in accordance with the regulations applicable at the time. The secondary purpose is to present concepts for the design, construction, and operation of an alternate storage facility. The alternate storage facility would temporarily house the retrieved waste until final disposition is established. The concept presented is consistent with current practices and regulations for the protection of public health and safety and the environment, it demonstrates the feasibility of such a facility, if required, and it is based on the consideration for keeping radiation exposure as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA)
This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste
West, M.L.; Fisher, L.A.; Frost, M.L.; Rast, D.M.
Historically waste management within the Department of Energy complex has evolved around the operating principle of packaging waste generated and storing until a later date. In many cases wastes were delivered to onsite waste management organizations with little or no traceability to origin of generation. Sites then stored their waste for later disposition offsite or onsite burial. While the wastes were stored, sites incurred additional labor costs for maintaining, inspecting and repackaging containers and capital costs for storage warehouses. Increased costs, combined with the inherent safety hazards associated with storage of hazardous material make these practices less attractive. This paper will describe the methods used at the Department of Energy's Fernald site by the Waste Programs Management Division to integrate with other site divisions to plan in situ waste characterization prior to removal. This information was utilized to evaluate and select disposal options and then to package and ship removed wastes without storage
The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Joinville, i.e. in the same area as the Bure underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne. Therefore, the discussion focuses more on the local impacts of the setting up of a waste disposal facility (environmental aspects, employment, economic development). (J.S.)
Reports and other Canadian literature on radioactive waste processing and disposal covering the period 1953-1979 are listed. A selected list of international conferences relating to waste management (1959-1979) is attached. (LL)
The State of New York, some 15 years ago, became a party to an attempt to commercialize the reprocessing and storage of spent nuclear fuels at the West Valley Reprocessing Facility operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS). That attempted commercialization, and the State of New York, have fallen victim to changing Federal policies in the United States, leaving an outstanding and unique radioactive waste management problem unresolved. At the beginning of construction in 1963, the AEC assured both NFS and New York State of the acceptability of long-term liquid tank storage for high level wastes, and New York State ERDA therefore agreed to become the responsible long-lived stable institution whose oversight was needed. It was understood that perpetual care and maintenance of the wastes, as liquid, in on-site underground tanks, would provide for safe and secure storage in perpetuity. All that was thought to be required was the replacement of the tanks near the end of their 40-year design life, and the transferring of the contents; for this purpose, a perpetual care trust fund was established. In March of 1972, NFS shut West Valley down for physical expansion, requiring a new construction permit from the AEC. After four years of administrative proceedings, NFS concluded that changes in Federal regulations since the original operating license had been issued would require about 600 million dollars if operations were to resume. In the fall of 1976, NFS informed the NRC, of its intention of closing the reprocessing business. The inventories of wastes left are listed. The premises upon which the original agreements were based are no longer valid. Federal responsibilities for radioactive wastes require Federal ownership of the West Valley site. The views of New York State ERDA are discussed in detail
This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.
This reference document is produced in cooperation with partners in the Union Latine, an international organization dedicated to promoting the Romance languages. In 1992 acting on a request submitted by the Montreal Environment Section of the Translation Bureau, the Terminology and Standardization Directorate published an in-house glossary containing 2500 entries on nuclear waste management. The glossary was produced by scanning bilingual terms in the reports submitted to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited by the Siting Process Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Because the scale of the nuclear waste management problem has grown considerably since then, the glossary needed to be expanded and revised. The Vocabulary contains some 1000 concepts for a total of approximately 3000 terms in each of the three languages, english, french and spanish. Special attention has been given to defining basic physical concepts, waste classifications and disposal methods
The article presents the required management competences from the perspective of contemporary management concepts. As the main concepts we have presented: knowledge management and learning organization, Total Quality Management, processes management, Kaizen and elimination of waste, virtual and network management and time based management. The most important management competences connected with above concepts are: focus on outside and effectiveness, care about efficie...
National infrastructures are needed to safely and economically manage radioactive wastes. Considerable experience has been accumulated in industrialized countries for predisposal management of radioactive wastes, and legal, regulatory and technical infrastructures are in place. Drawing on this experience, international organizations can assist in transferring this knowledge to developing countries to build their waste management infrastructures. Infrastructure needs for disposal of long lived radioactive waste are more complex, due to the long time scale that must be considered. Challenges and infrastructure needs, particularly for countries developing geologic repositories for disposal of high level wastes, are discussed in this paper. (author)
Bush, R.P.; Smith, G.M.; White, I.F
Carbon-14 occurs in nature, but is also formed in nuclear reactors. Because of its long half-life and the biological significance of carbon, releases from nuclear facilities could have a significant radiological impact. Waste management strategies for carbon-14 are therefore of current concern. Carbon-14 is present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. A reliable picture of the production and release of carbon-14 from various reactor systems has been built up for the purposes of this study. A possible management strategy for carbon-14 might be the reduction of nitrogen impurity levels in core materials, since the activation of 14 N is usually the dominant source of carbon-14. The key problem in carbon-14 management is its retention of off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. Three alternative trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates have been suggested. The results show that none of the options considered need be rejected on the grounds of potential radiation doses to individuals. All exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. If, on these grounds, retention and disposal of carbon-14 is found to be beneficial, then, subject to the limitations noted, appropriate retention, immobilization and disposal technologies have been identified
Castaldi, Marco J
Sustainable waste management is a goal that all societies must strive to maintain. Currently nearly 80% of global wastes are sent to landfill, with a significant amount lacking proper design or containment. The increased attention to environmental impacts of human activities and the increasing demand for energy and materials have resulted in a new perspective on waste streams. Use of waste streams for energy and materials recovery is becoming more prevalent, especially in developed regions of the world, such as Europe, the United States, and Japan. Although currently these efforts have a small impact on waste disposal, use of waste streams to extract value very likely will increase as society becomes more aware of the options available. This review presents an overview of waste management with a focus on following an expanded waste hierarchy to extract value specifically from municipal solid waste streams.
This document is the proceedings of the debate that took place at the French Senate on April 13, 2005 about the long-term French policy of radioactive wastes management. The different points tackled during the debate concern: the 3 axes of research of the 1991 law, the public acceptance about the implementation of repositories, the regional economic impact, the cost and financing, the lack of experience feedback, the reversibility or irreversibility of the storage, the share of nuclear energy in the sustainable development policy, the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project, the privatization of Electricite de France (EdF) etc. (J.S.)
Daniel, Simon E.
The paper describes the problem of wastes in Lebanon and their management according to international (European and French) descriptions. It presents the situation in Lebanon including the policies taken by the ministry of environment towards the treatment of different types of wastes especially solid wastes. It is estimated that the production of wastes in Lebanon is 5854 tones per day and it is distributed as follows: Domestic wastes 3200 t/d; industrial wastes 1300 t/d; commercial wastes 1000 t/d; slaughter-houses 150 t/d; waste oils 100 t/d; hospital wastes 64 t/d; vehicle wheels 40 t/d. The annual production within regions is also presented in tables. Collection, transportation, recycling, composting and incineration of wastes are included
This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only
Mahendra R.R Raj
The importance of waste disposal management is a very essential and integral part of any health care system. Health care providers have been ignorant or they did not essentially know the basic aspect of the importance and effective management of hospital waste.This overview of biomedical waste disposal/management gives a thorough insight into the aspects of the guidelines to be followed and adopted according to the international WHO approved methodology for a cleaner, disease-free, and health...
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.13 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.13 Waste management. (a) Universal waste batteries. A small quantity handler of universal waste must manage...
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.33 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.33 Waste management. (a) Universal waste batteries. A large quantity handler of universal waste must manage...
The project 'Safety Studies-Nuclear Waste Management' (PSE) is a research project performed by order of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology, the general purpose of which is to deepen and ensure the understanding of the safety aspects of the nuclear waste management and to prepare a risk analysis which will have to be established in the future. Owing to this the project is part of a series of projects which serve the further development of the concept of nuclear waste management and its safety, and which are set up in such a way as to accompany the realization of that concept. This report contains the results of the first stage of the project from 1978 to mid-1981. (orig./RW) [de
Lee, Ik Hwan
In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig
A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)
This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next
Windfeld, Elliott Steen; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling
This paper examines medical waste management, including the common sources, governing legislation and handling and disposal methods. Many developed nations have medical waste legislation, however there is generally little guidance as to which objects can be defined as infectious. This lack of clarity has made sorting medical waste inefficient, thereby increasing the volume of waste treated for pathogens, which is commonly done by incineration. This review highlights that the unnecessary classification of waste as infectious results in higher disposal costs and an increase in undesirable environmental impacts. The review concludes that better education of healthcare workers and standardized sorting of medical waste streams are key avenues for efficient waste management at healthcare facilities, and that further research is required given the trend in increased medical waste production with increasing global GDP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Passant, F.H.; Maul, P.R.
The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) produces low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the process of operating its eight Magnox and five Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) nuclear power stations. Future wastes will also arise from a programme of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) and the decommissioning of existing reactors. The paper gives details of how the UK waste management strategy is put into practice by the CEGB, and how general waste management principles are developed into strategies for particular waste streams. (author)
This chapter outlines the attractive environmental features of nuclear fusion, presents an integral scheme to manage fusion activated materials during operation and after decommissioning, compares the volume of fusion and fission waste, covers the recycling, clearance, and disposal concepts and their official radiological limits, and concludes with a section summarizing the newly developed strategy for fusion power plants
When I first became concerned with radioactive waste management, in the early 1950's, very little was really known about the subject. There was a general feeling that it was a serious 'problem'. Articles were appearing in the press and talks were being given on the radio suggesting that the wastes generated by the proposed nuclear power reactors might be a serious menace to humanity. The prophets pointed with alarm to the enormous quantities of fission products that would accumulate steadily over the years in tank farms associated with reactor fuel reprocessing plants, and calculations were made of the possible results from rupture of the tanks due to corrosion, earthquakes or enemy attack. Responsible people suggested seriously that the waste disposal problem might be fatal to the development of a nuclear power industry, and this attitude was reinforced by the popular outcry that arose from experience with fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The Canadian nuclear power industry was not critically involved in this controversy because our heavy-water reactors are fuelled with natural uranium, and reprocessing of the fuel is not necessary. The spent fuel contains plutonium, a potential fuel, but the cost of recovering it was such that it was not competitive with natural uranium, which is not in short supply in Canada. Our spent fuel is not dissolved in acid - it is stored. still in its zirconium cladding, under water at the reactor site, or placed in sealed concrete-and-steel pipes below ground. If the price of uranium rises sufficiently it will become profitable to recover the plutonium, and only then shall we have an appreciable amount of waste from this source. However. during the first five or six years of research and development at Chalk River we did investigate fuel processing methods, and like everybody else we grad stainless steel tanks containing high and medium level wastes. These were located quite close to the Ottawa River, and we worried about what
The general demands for radioactive waste management, the key problem of nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Various processes have been developed to solidify highly radioactive, long-lived wastes of the reprocessing plants in the form of borosilicate or phosphate glasses. Wastes of medium and low activity are generally solidified using either cement or bitumen or polyethylene as matrices. The alternatives of final waste disposal are reviewed according to French, Soviet, American, British, Swedish, Indian and Japanese experiences. (V.N.)
This book presents the papers given at a symposium on radioactive waste management. Topics considered at the symposium included the status of radioactive waste disposal, the status of international nuclear waste management, waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, legal and liability issues, risk perceptions and public involvement, waste transportation, waste processing, remedial action, decontamination, predisposal processing and treatment processes, low-level and mixed waste management, and mixed chemical and radioactive waste disposal
This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.
IT Corporation operates an analytical laboratory in St. Louis capable of analyzing environmental samples that are contaminated with both chemical and radioactive materials. Wastes generated during these analyses are hazardous in nature; some are listed wastes others exhibit characteristic hazards. When the original samples contain significant quantities of radioactive material, the waste must be treated as a mixed waste. A plan was written to document the waste management program describing the management of hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes. This presentation summarizes the methods employed by the St. Louis facility to reduce personnel exposures to the hazardous materials, minimize the volume of mixed waste and treat the materials prior to disposal. The procedures that are used and the effectiveness of each procedure will also be discussed. Some of the lessons that have been learned while dealing with mixed wastes will be presented as well as the solutions that were applied. This program has been effective in reducing the volume of mixed waste that is generated. The management program also serves as a method to manage the costs of the waste disposal program by effectively segregating the different wastes that are generated
The purpose of the Guide is to provide facility managers, state and tribal regulators, and the interested public with recommendations and tools to better address the management of land-disposed, non-hazardousindustrial wastes.
Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a by product of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. The purpose of this study is to develop regulations for radioactive waste management for low and intermediate radioactive level waste (LILW), and other purpose of regulations is to establish requirements with which all organizations must comply in Sudan from LILW in particular disused/spent sources, not including radioactive waste for milling and mining practices. The national regulations regarding the radioactive waste management, should prescribe the allocation of responsibilities and roles of the Country, the regulatory body, user/owner, waste management organization, including regulations on transport packaging of waste and applied a quality assurance programme, to ensure that radioactive waste management is done safely and securely. (author)
In this second part, the program of waste management of non-military origin of the following countries: USA, United Kingdom, France, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan, is presented. For each country, a brief overview on its nuclear program, to identify the reason of the major emphasis done by this country for a specific waste management, is presented. The legislation control, the classification, the treatment and, the options for waste disposal are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt
Paine, D.; Uresk, V.; Schreckhise, R.G.
Ecological studies of the 200 Area plateau waste management environs have provided preliminary answers to questions concerning the environmental health of associated biota, potential for radionuclide transport through the biotic system and risk to man. More importantly creation of this ecological data base provides visible evidence of environmental expertise so essential for maintenance of continued public confidence in waste management operations
Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)
This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs
This paper introduces a series that will review the present situation in the field of long-term management of radioactive wastes. Both the meaning and the purposes of an industrial management of radioactive wastes are specified. This short introduction is complemented by outline of data on the French problem [fr
Ten papers are presented, dealing with the management and environmental impact of radioactive wastes, environmental considerations related to uranium mining and milling, the management of uranium refining wastes, reactor waste management, proposals for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes, disposal of nuclear fuel wastes, federal government policy on radioactive waste management, licensing requirements, environmental assessment, and internatioal cooperation in wast management. (LL)
Industrial waste and industrial waste management are described, with economic considerations and recommendations for an industrial waste management program applicable in Lebanon. Different conceptual systems for industrial waste management are presented: - The O effluent industrial plant, an electric manufacturing plant with mass and energy balance. - The industrial complexing concept where environmentally balanced and compatible, industries are located in one area. Waste effluents from one plant can be used as raw material for another plant. - A standard petroleum waste recovery plant to cope with local requirements complementary to the proposed sanitary waste treatment plant in Lebanon. Major sources of industrial waste in Lebanon are analyzed:local process industries, hospitals, laboratories, petroleum industries and power generation, are the major sources cited. For each source the level of treatment is indicated. Tables and appendixes on waste treatment and management along with the ISO 9000 series are presented. 10 refs. 3 figs
This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all
Oelofse, Suzanna HH
Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...
The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases
Full Text Available The responsibility of the Coordinating Committee in the management of wildlife, including caribou, in northern Quebec is self-evident. Since its establishment in 1975 the committee has attempted to fulfil this responsibility. Initially the committee was hampered in its efforts largely due to a different interpretation of this responsibility among the parties. However, a three stage process for reviewing and discussing management initiatives has evolved over the years which has been shown to be effective. Through trial and error over the years, the committee has come to fulfil its intended role - that of "coordinating" wildlife management in northern Quebec in conjunction with the responsible governments.
The purpose of this Five-Year Plan is to establish an agenda for compliance and cleanup against which progress will be measured. DOE is committed to an open and participatory process for developing a national priority system for expenditure of funds. This system will be based on scientific principles and risk reduction in terms that are understandable to the public. The Plan will be revised annually, with a five-year planning horizon. For FY 1991--1995, this Plan encompasses total program activities and costs for DOE Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, Waste Management Operations, and Applied R ampersand D. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. It also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in the management of those wastes. The Plan does not include the Safety and Health Program (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health) or programs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. It does include the annual Defense Programs contribution to the Nuclear Waste Fund for disposal of defense high-level waste and research toward characterizing the defense waste form for repository disposal
Moray, N. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors.
Peori, R.; Hulley, V.
Every nuclear facility has it, they wish that they didn't but they have generated and do possess m ixed waste , and until now there has been no permanent disposition option; it has been for the most been simply maintained in interim storage. The nuclear industry has been responsibly developing permanent solutions for solid radioactive waste for over fifty years and for non-radioactive, chemically hazardous waste, for the last twenty years. Mixed waste (radioactive and chemically hazardous waste) however, because of its special, duo-hazard nature, has been a continuing challenge. The Hazardous Waste and Segregation Program (HW and SP) at AECL's CRL has, over the past ten years, been developing solutions to deal with their own in-house mixed waste and, as a result, have developed solutions that they would like to share with other generators within the nuclear industry. The main aim of this paper is to document and describe the early development of the solutions for both aqueous and organic liquid wastes and to advertise to other generators of this waste type how these solutions can be implemented to solve their mixed waste problems. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and in particular, CRL has been satisfactorily disposing of mixed waste for the last seven years. CRL has developed a program that not only disposes of mixed waste, but offers a full service mixed waste management program to customers within Canada (that could eventually include U.S. sites as well) that has developed the experience and expertise to evaluate and optimize current practices, dispose of legacy inventories, and set up an efficient segregation system to reduce and effectively manage, both the volumes and expense of, the ongoing generation of mixed waste for all generators of mixed waste. (author)
Pangea Resources Australia Pty. Ltd. is engaged in a study to investigate the feasibility of constructing and operating an international radioactive waste repository in Australia. Western Australia in particular has a unique combination of geology, topography and climate which makes it eminently suitable for a deep geological repository for the safe and permanent disposal of radioactive waste. Australia also has the political, social, legal and financial systems, together with the technical capability to make it acceptable as a host nation for an international repository. This paper reviews the origins of the Pangea concept, describes the high isolation approach to site selection, the Pangea integrated waste management system, together with its potential economic impact on Australia
considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of radioactive waste management, including decommissioning and environmental remediation, to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied.
Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made
Ghinea, C.; Petraru, M.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Gavrilescu, M.
Life cycle concept was applied to analyse and assess some municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios in terms of environmental impacts, particularised for Iasi city, Romania, where approximately 380 kg/cap/yr of waste are generated. Currently, the management processes include temporary
Mahendra R.R Raj
Full Text Available The importance of waste disposal management is a very essential and integral part of any health care system. Health care providers have been ignorant or they did not essentially know the basic aspect of the importance and effective management of hospital waste.This overview of biomedical waste disposal/management gives a thorough insight into the aspects of the guidelines to be followed and adopted according to the international WHO approved methodology for a cleaner, disease-free, and healthier medical services to the populace, i.e., to the hospital employees, patients, and society.
Elder, H.K.; Murphy, E.S.
Decommissioning of nuclear facilities involves the management of significant quantities of radioactive waste. This paper summarizes information on volumes of waste requiring disposal and waste management costs developed in a series of decommissioning studies performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These studies indicate that waste management is an important cost factor in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Alternatives for managing decommissioning wastes are defined and recommendations are made for improvements in waste management practices
The question of what to do with radioactive wastes is discussed. The need to resolve this issue promptly is pointed out. Two significant events which have occurred during the Carter administration are discussed. An Interagency Review Group (IRG) on waste management was formed to formulate recommendations leading to the establishment of a National policy for managing radioactive wastes. The technical findings in the IRG report are listed. The author points out some issues not addressed by the report. President Carter issued a national policy statement on Radioactive Waste Management in February 1980. The most significant elements of this statement are summarized. The cancellation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is currently meeting opposition in Congress. This and other items in the National Policy Statement are discussed
In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.52 Section 273...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Universal Waste Transporters § 273.52 Waste management. (a) A universal waste transporter must comply with all applicable U.S. Department of...
Kuhn, K.D.; Willax, H.O.
After a short description of the WAK plant and its reprocessing and intervention activities, types and sources of WAK wastes are described. Roughly half of the waste volume is generated during reprocessing, the other half during intervention periods. Most of the waste is transported to KfK for conditioning. Only waste from the head end cell is cementated on the spot. HLLW is stored in stainless steel tanks. Some results from analyzing this stuff are given. The corrosion behavior is acceptable for medium term storage. (orig.)
Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)
This DCP establishes an interim plan for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) technical baseline until the results of the OCRWM Document Hierarchy Task Force can be implemented. This plan is needed to maintain continuity in the Program for ongoing work in the areas of Waste Acceptance, Transportation, Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) and Yucca Mountain Site Characterization
DOE is responsible for interim storage for some radioactive wastes and for the disposal for most of them. Of the wastes that have to be managed a significant part are a result of treatment systems and devices for cleaning gases. The long term waste management objectives place minimal reliance on surveillance and maintenance. Thus, the concerns about the chemical, thermal, and radiolytic degradation of wastes require technology for converting the wastes to forms acceptable for long term isolation. The strategy of the DOE airborne radioactive waste management program is to increase the service life and reliability of filters; to reduce filter wastes; and in anticipation of regulatory actions that would require further reductions in airborne radioactive releases from defense program facilities, to develop improved technology for additional collection, fixation, and long-term management of gaseous wastes. Available technology and practices are adequate to meet current health and safety standards. The program is aimed primarily at cost effective improvements, quality assurance, and the addition of new capability in areas where more restrictive standards seem likely to apply in the future
Servais, F. [CHR Hopital de Warquignies, Service de Medecine Nucleaire (Belgium); Woiche, Ch. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service Interne et de Prevention et Protection (Belgium); Hunin, Ch. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire, Service Controle Etablissements Classes, Brexelles (Belgium)] [and others
This chapter concerns the radiation protection in relation with the radioactive waste management. Three articles make the matter of this file, the management of radioactive medical waste into hospitals, a new concept of waste storage on site, the protection devices on the long term with some lessons for the radioactive waste management. (N.C.)
The scope of this report is limited to technology for management of past-fission wastes produced in the commercial nuclear power light water reactor fuel cycle. Management of spent fuel (as a waste), high-level and other transuranic wastes, and gaseous wastes are characterized. Non-transuranic wastes are described, but management of these wastes, except for gaseous wastes, is excluded from the scope of this report. Volume 1 contains the summary and the bases and background information
The discipline of 'Solid Waste Management' is as old as human civilization itself. The problem had been felt when the human beings commenced living together in the form of communities. The situation got worsened with ever-increasing population and growing industrialization. The developed nations have endeavored to tackle the issue of the industrial and municipal wastes according to the principles of engineering and environment. Most of the developing countries have not dealt with the 'Third Pollution' in the eco-friendly manner. Ironically Pakistan is facing this serious menace because of ever-expanding population (2.2% per annum) and ill management of the wastes and effluents being generated from multifarious activities. These pollutants are degrading the land, air and water resources at alarming rates. In Pakistan about 7,250 tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of this quantity only 60-70% is collected and the remaining quantity is allowed to burn indiscriminately or decay in situ. Unfortunately the industrial waste, animal dung and hospital waste are allowed to mix with the municipal waste, which adds to inefficiency of the existing 'Solid Waste Management System'. Scores of faecal, fly, rodent and mosquito born diseases are caused due to open dumping of the waste besides aesthetic impairment of the surroundings. None of the scientifically recognized methods of disposal is practiced. It is not based on administrative, financial, environmental and technical consideration. There is dire necessity of educating the masses to adopt clean habits and resort to generation of minimum waste. Further, nothing is waste as the so-called 'waste material' is the raw material after reuse and recycling for another process. (author)
Harries, J.; Dimitrovski, L.; Hart, K.; Levins, D.
Full text: The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) site at Lucas Heights has operated as a nuclear site for over 40 years and most of the waste generated is still stored at the site. The 10 MW heavy water research reactor (HIFAR) has operated at Lucas Heights for over 40 years with associated radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities. HIFAR is scheduled to shut down in 2005 and a contract has been signed for a multipurpose 20 MW research reactor which, amongst other uses, will provide continued radiopharmaceutical production and neutron beam research. In addition to these activities, a wide range of nuclear science and technology R and D is carried out at the site. In 1995, ANSTO issued its radioactive waste management policy which made a commitment to: (a) complying with all regulatory requirements; (b) ensuring that radiation dose rates were kept as low as reasonably achievable (the ALARA principle); (c) disposing of waste when appropriate disposal routes are available; and (d) being in accord with international best practice. An extensive audit was earned out of ANSTO's waste management facilities and practices. The recommendations arising from this audit became the basis for an integrated five year Waste Management Action Plan, which began in 1996. The Plan dealt with legacy issues that had arisen from the accumulation of the radioactive waste at Lucas Heights. It involved construction and operation of improved storage facilities for low- level radioactive waste, better monitoring of existing storage facilities for spent research reactor fuel and intermediate level liquid wastes, and conversion of liquid and solid wastes into more stable forms suitable for prolonged storage. Solidification of the intermediate level liquid waste has been a major priority of the Waste Management Action Plan. This acidic waste is generated during the production of molybdenum-99 for radiopharmaceutical use. A hot cell process was
The ERDA commercial waste program is summarized. It consists of three parts: terminal storage, processing, and preparation of the Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Emplacement in geologic formations is the best disposal method for high-level waste; migration would be essentially zero, as it was in the Oklo event. Solidification processes are needed. Relations with the states, etc. are touched upon
The author discusses the type, production and amount of radioactive waste produced in a nuclear power station (LWR) as well as its conditioning and disposal. The mobile system developed by STEAG for the solidification of medium-activity waste and sludge is referred to in this connection. (HR) [de
EPA is developing data and tools to reduce waste, manage risks, reuse and conserve natural materials, and optimize energy recovery. Collaboration with states facilitates assessment and utilization of technologies developed by the private sector.
Syed Abd Malik Syed Zain
This article briefs out the strategic management of radioactive wastes in Malaysia. The criteria and methods discussed are those promoted by UTN (Nuclear Energy Unit) which has been given the authority to carry out local research programs in nuclear energy
Reza Basirian Jahromi
Full Text Available Information Management is the process of information identification, production, classification, storage, dissemination and utilization considering the organizational, cultural, social as well as technological components. Given this, information management would require teamwork and well-defined task description for each and every individual. In order to fulfill their special tasks to secure the four pillars of information management (Production, Organization, Storage and Dissemination and finally application Information managers are at the mercy of crucial factors such as technology, organization and social-cultural makeup of corporations. The present paper explores the concept of information management and would delve further into strategic information management, personal information management, interpersonal information management as well as effective information management. In the conclusion it would make a case from the standpoint of information ecology.
An IWMP outlines how the tribe will reduce, manage, and dispose of its waste. It identifies existing waste systems, assesses needs, and sets forth the ways to design, implement, and monitor a more effective and sustainable waste management program.
Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (au)
McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.
This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.
McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.
This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases
One of the key questions asked about nuclear power production is whether the industry can manage its waste safely and economically. Management must take account of long term safety, since some radioisotopes take a very long time to decay. This long term decay, which can take millions of years, focused attention for the first time on the need for some wastes to be managed for a very long time beyond the lifetime of those who generated the waste. This paper reviews what the different types of waste are, what the technical consensus is on the requirements for their safe management, and how the present state of knowledge developed. It describes how radioactive waste management is practised and planned within the fuel cycle and indicates the moderate scale of the costs in relation to the total cost of producing electricity. Country annexes give more information about what is being done in a selection of countries, in order to indicate how radioactive waste management is carried out in practice. (Author)
The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.
Rummery, T.E.; Rosinger, E.L.J.
The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is now well established. This report outlines the generic research and technological development underway in this program to assess the concept of immobilization and subsequent disposal of nuclear fuel waste deep in a stable plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. The program participants, funding, schedule and associated external review processes are briefly outlined. The major scientific and engineering components of the program, namely, immobilization studies, geoscience research and environmental and safety assessment, are described in more detail
Iuga, Anca N.
Applying the principles of sustainable development in Romania involves a new approach to ecological waste using basic concepts of circular economy to weigh accurately the proposed projects in this area taking into account existing environmental resources and zero waste objectives. The paper is focused on: quantitative and qualitative measures of waste prevention in Romania, the changing status of the waste by selling it as product, the mechanisms for paying for treatment and / or disposal which discourage waste generation and the use of financial resources obtained from secondary raw materials for the efficiency of waste management.
A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)
Godfrey, Linda K
Full Text Available by issues of population growth and urbanisation; increasing quantity and complexity of waste; climate change; carbon economics; resource scarcity; commodity prices; energy security; globalisation; job creation; and tightening regulation (DST, 2014a...
The first part of this paper briefly describes the nuclear industry in Belgium and the problem of radioactive wastes with regard to their quality and quantity. The second part emphasizes the recent guidelines regarding the management of the nuclear industry in general and the radioactive wastes in particular. In this respect, important tasks are the reinforcement of administrative structures with regard to the supervision and the control of nuclear activities, the establishment of a mixed company entrusted with the covering of the needs of nuclear plants in the field of nuclear fuels and particularly the setting up of a public autonomous and specialized organization, the 'Public Organization for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials', in short 'O.N.D.R.A.F.'. This organization is in charge of the management of the transport, the conditioning, the storage and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (Auth.)
The problem of radioactive waste management is both scientifically and technically complex and also deeply emotional issue. In the last twenty years the first two aspects have been mostly resolved up to the point of safe implementation. In the Republic of Slovenia, certain fundamentalist approaches in politics and the use of radioactive waste problem as political marketing tool, make things even more complex. Public involvement in planning and development of radioactive waste management program must be perceived as essential for the success of the program. Education is a precursor to public comprehension and confidence which lead to adequate waste management decisions that will protect the public health, safety and environment without jeopardizing further progress and development. (author) [sl
The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented
The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.
Askarian, Mehrdad; Heidarpoor, Peigham; Assadian, Ojan
Healthcare waste comprises all wastes generated at healthcare facilities, medical research centers and laboratories. Although 75-90% of these wastes are classified as household waste posing no potential risk, 10-25% are deemed to be hazardous, representing a potential threat to healthcare workers, patients, the environment and even the general population, if not disposed of appropriately. If hazardous and non-hazardous waste is mixed and not segregated prior to disposal, costs will increase substantially. Medical waste management is a worldwide issue. In Iran, the majority of problems are associated with an exponential growth in the healthcare sector together with low- or non-compliance with guidelines and recommendations. The aim of this study was to reduce the amounts of infectious waste by clear definition and segregation of waste at the production site in Namazi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. Namazi Hospital was selected as a study site with an aim to achieving a significant decrease in infectious waste and implementing a total quality management (TQM) method. Infectious and non-infectious waste was weighed at 29 admission wards over a 1-month period. Before the introduction of the new guidelines and the new waste management concept, weight of total waste was 6.67 kg per occupied bed per day (kg/occupied bed/day), of which 73% was infectious and 27% non-infectious waste. After intervention, total waste was reduced to 5.92 kg/occupied bed/day, of which infectious waste represented 61% and non-infectious waste 30%. The implementation of a new waste management concept achieved a 26% reduction in infectious waste. A structured waste management concept together with clear definitions and staff training will result in waste reduction, consequently leading to decreased expenditure in healthcare settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)
The management of long lived waste, and the decommissioning of nuclear power plants represent major economic challenges. Power production is an activity that produces benefits now, but considerable costs will appear up to one or two generations later. Who should pay for such inevitable costs? How do you guarantee a lifetime ahead that money will be available when needed? The issues of inter-generational equity and management of the uncertainties involved in estimating future costs decommissioning and waste management, the development of the concept of trust funds and the overseeing of long-term financial liabilities in this field are discussed. The paper contains an overview of how such challenges are met in different countries. Information for the general public about economics in connection with nuclear waste management needs to combine the conflicting demands of accuracy and simplification. Systems for financing future costs are discussed, together with proposed guarantees and suggestions for the efficient organisation of such funding. The present Swedish system is explained. This basically requires license holders to pay a yearly fee to cover the costs of the safe handling and final disposal of nuclear fuel used in the reactor, the safe decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor, and the R and D activities required to achieve this. With recent suggestions for improving the reliability of the 1981 Swedish nuclear waste management funding system as a basis, five information messages rom the Government and responsible authorities are discussed. (author)
Black, R.L.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.
The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Management Plan to determine if it meets applicable DOE requirements. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, sets forth requirements and guidelines for the establishment of a Waste Management Plan. The primary purpose of a Waste Management Plan is to describe how waste operations are conducted, what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming year
Han, Pil Jun
This book tell US that management situation and prospect of radioactive waste matter, which includes importance of energy, independence, limitation of fossil fuel energy, density of nuclear energy, strategy of supply of energy resource in Korea, nuclear energy development and radioactive waste matter, summary of management of radioactive waste, statistics of radioactive waste, disposal principle of radioactive waste, management on radioactive waste after using, disposal of Trench, La Marche in French, and Asse salt mine in Germany.
Aim: To assess (1) Awareness towards waste management policy and practices. (2) Approach towards waste management policy and practices. (3) Performance in waste management policy and practices among the private dental practitioners in the city of Mangalore, India. Study Design: A cross sectional study.
The Nuclear Waste Policy Acts requires that DOE enter into contracts with nuclear utilities and others to accept their nuclear wastes at some unspecified date, at some unspecified rate, hopefully starting in 1998. Contracts between DOE and the states, and with civilian and other government agencies must be sufficiently detailed to secure competitive bids on definable chunks of work at a fixed-cost basis with incentives. The need is stressed for a strong central program for the selection of contractors on the basis of competitive bidding on a fixed price basis to perform the task with defined deliverables
This paper addresses three topics relevant to the technology of waste management: an overview describing the types of waste and the status of technologies used to manage them, a review of high-level waste management, and final disposition of the waste
Drum, D.A.; Lauber, J.
A number of political action groups, environmental groups, and waste management industries have purposely used medical waste data and municipal solid waste test results to mislead public officials and communities. Waste management schemes and waste treatment technologies must be measured and compared by the same test criteria. For example, anti-incineration groups often use the toxic dioxin/furan data and/or toxic metal arguments to oppose waste-to-energy incineration technologies. Comparable test data on waste management techniques such as waste composting, autoclaving, and landfilling are either nonexistent or often inappropriately applied. Integrated waste management systems require technologically accurate and complete data, environmentally-appropriate designed systems, and fiscal responsibility. The primary emphasis of waste management and treatment practices must be directed toward minimization, reuse, destruction, and detoxification of municipal solid wastes and medical wastes. The issues and alternatives will be examined
Houy, J.C.; Rimbert, J.C.; Bouvet, C.; Laugle, S.
radioactive wastes which do not correspond to the disposal standards will be processed by ANDRA (National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management)
The presentation covers overall status of nuclear waste management in Korea from low level radioactive waste to spent nuclear fuel, especially the construction of LILW repository of which site had been selected in November 2005. The expansion of on-site spent fuel storage capacity, transshipment between neighboring plants, construction of space-efficient dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel and application of vitrification technology for the treatment of LILW will be included in the discussion. (author)
Aggarwal, B. [Global Engineering Services Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)
The separation of municipal garbage into pulp, compost (animal feed, or ethanol), metals, tin and glass was discussed. The separation process and complete diversion from sanitary landfills is currently possible. This paper briefly described some of the documented processes and the equipment which is currently available. Global Engineering Services Ltd. has combined two existing processes to produce a single integrated waste disposal and recovery system. In this system, a normal composting plant has been combined with a hydro-pulping unit and other methods to process separated materials. This paper focused on the theme of integration and on the principles of conservation of natural resources. It was emphasized that integrated waste processing can be accomplished by implementing various technologies. It was also emphasized that most importantly, principles of conservation must be adopted to reduce energy use and the production of liquid and solid waste. Integrated waste processing methods can then be implemented. The author also suggested the possibility of using existing processes to use recycled materials for the low cost housing projects in Canada and in other developing countries.
Culler, F.L. Jr.; Platt, A.M.; Blomeke, J.O.
One of the central problems in nuclear energy is the disposal of wastes. This problem is international in scope; its solution will require intense international cooperation and exchange of data and test results. By the year 2000, worldwide use of nuclear power is estimated to reach between 2000 and 2500 gigawatts (GWe) of electrical generating capacity in countries excluding the USSR and China. Nuclear power stations and supporting fuel cycle facilities will exist on each continent. Safe and internationally accepted methods for the management and isolation of fission products and actinide wastes from these facilities must be developed and demonstrated. Many sites, and hopefully several different geologic formations, will have to be tested and approved for storage of these wastes until they decay to safe levels. This paper estimates the quantity of the various radioactive wastes that will be produced worldwide. The methods for treatment, concentration, fixation, and final storable forms are presented, with particular attention to both the recycle and the disposal of actinides. The transportation of wastes across international boundaries will be required. Estimates of the magnitude of and the complexity of waste movement from points of generation to long-term isolation centers, and the current state of technology available, are given. Ultimately, each type of waste will require a long-term, safe, and publicly accepted repository. This paper concludes with a review of the current programs proposed for ultimate waste isolation, with particular emphasis on storage in geologic formations
Abdel Ghani, A.H.
The management of radioactive wastes is one area of increasing interest especially in developing countries having more and more activities in the application of radioisotopes in medicine, research and industry. For a better understanding of radioactive waste management in developing countries this work will discuss the following items:Classification of countries with respect to waste management programs. Principal Radionuclides used in medicine, biological research and others and the range of radioactivity commonly used. Estimation of radioactive waste volumes and activities. Management of liquid wastes Collection. Treatment. Management of small volumes of organic liquid waste. Collection Treatment. Packaging and storage of radioactive wastes
An International Symposium on the Management of Wastes from the LWR Fuel Cycle was held in Denver, Colo., on July 11 to 16, 1976. The symposium covered a broad range of topics, from policy issues to technology. Presentations were made by national and international speakers involved in all aspects of waste management, government and agency officials; laboratory managers, directors, and researchers; and industrial representatives. Many speakers advocated pragmatic action on programs for the management of commercial nuclear wastes to complete the light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. The industrialized nations' demand for increasing supplies of energy and their increasing dependence on nuclear energy to fulfill this demand will necessitate the development of an acceptable solution to the disposal of nuclear wastes within the next decade for some industrial nations. Waste-disposal technology should be implemented on a commercial scale, but the commercialization must be accompanied by the decision to use the technology. An important issue in the use of nuclear energy is the question of sharing the technology with the less industrialized nations and with nations that may not have suitable means to dispose of nuclear wastes. The establishment of international and multinational cooperation will be an important key in realizing this objective. Pressing issues that international organizations or task groups will have to address are ocean disposal, plutonium recycling and safeguards, and disposal criteria. The importance of achieving a viable waste-management program is made evident by the increased funding and attention that the back end of the fuel cycle is now receiving
Allan, C.J.; Gray, B.R.
In Canada responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes rests with the producer of those wastes. This fundamental principle applies to such diverse wastes as uranium mine and mill tailings, low-level wastes from universities and hospitals, wastes produced at nuclear research establishments, and wastes produced at nuclear generating stations. The federal government has accepted responsibility for historical wastes for which the original producer can no longer be held accountable. Management of radioactive wastes is subject to the regulatory control of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the federal agency responsible for regulating the nuclear industry. In this paper the authors summarize the current situation concerning the management of high level (used nuclear fuel) wastes. In 1981 the two governments also announced that selection of a disposal site would not proceed, and responsibility for site selection and operation would not be assigned until the Concept for used fuel disposal had been reviewed and assessed. Thus the concept assessment is generic rather than site specific. The Concept that has been developed has been designed to conform with safety and performance criteria established by the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is based on burial deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield, using a multi-barrier approach with a series of engineered and natural barriers: these include the waste form, container, buffer and backfill, and the host rock
This document presents an alternative design concept for storing canisters filled with vitrified waste produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) has the capacity to store 2,262 canisters and is projected to be completely filled by the year 2000. Current plans for glass waste storage are based on constructing a second Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB2) once the existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) is filled to capacity. The GWSB2 project (Project S-2045) is to provide additional storage capacity for 2,262 canisters. This project was initiated with the issue of a basic data report on March 6, 1989. In response to the basic data report Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) prepared a draft conceptual design report (CDR) for the GWSB2 project in April 1991. In May 1991 WSRC Systems Engineering issued a revised Functional Design Criteria (FDC), the Rev. I document has not yet been approved by DOE. This document proposes an alternative design for the conceptual design (CDR) completed in April 1991. In June 1992 Project Management Department authorized Systems Engineering to further develop the proposed alternative design. The proposed facility will have a storage capacity for 2,268 canisters and will meet DWPF interim storage requirements for a five-year period. This document contains: a description of the proposed facility; a cost estimate of the proposed design; a cost comparison between the proposed facility and the design outlined in the FDC/CDR; and an overall assessment of the alternative design as compared with the reference FDC/CDR design
Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services
The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.
The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr
Fatihah Suja; Rakmi Abdul Rahman; Arij Yusof; Mohd Shahbudin Masdar
e-Waste, or electronic waste, disposal that is uncontrolled can be harmful to human health and the environment because e-waste contains toxic substances and heavy metals. However, if the waste is properly managed, it can become a business opportunity that produces high returns because e-waste also contains valuable materials, such as gold, silver, platinum, and palladium. The government of Malaysia wants to ensure the safe, effective, and economically beneficial management of e-waste in Malay...
Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng, Huan; Stern, Eric
The generation of waste in urban regions over time is seen to impact the balance of anthropogenic and natural resources. Various national and international initiatives to manage urban solid waste are in place and has thus have evolved at present to form an assortment of different subcomponents involving environmental, administrative, regulatory, scientific, market, technology, and socio-economic factors, which has increasing bearing on the US due to its volume and nature of discards. This paper draws together the various aspects of municipal solid waste (MSW) management as it evolved, particularly in the American society through reviewing works and findings. In many parts of the country, waste management at present, primarily involves landfilling, incineration with and without energy recovery, recycling and composting. Legislation, nature of wastes and market trends continue to redefine management operations and its responsibilities and impacts. Complexities are added to it by the nature of urban development as well. New studies and concepts like 3Rs, cradle-to-cradle, industrial ecology, and integrated waste management are adding new dimensions for solving waste problems towards achieving sustainable resource use. Local initiatives, both public and private are in the forefront of adopting alternate waste management procedures. The assistance from various government and private bodies, supporting shifts in waste management approaches, have immense value, as according to the new paradigms, nothing goes to waste
The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures
Purnama Putra Hijrah
Full Text Available The change of waste management paradigm becomes an important thing to do, as a step adaptation to the increasing rate of waste generation every year in Indonesia. 100% management target has been divided into two parts, namely the reduction (30% and waste handling (70%. Reductions focus on source limitation and 3R program optimization, whereas handling involves collecting and final processing activities. However, the current level of waste reduction is still very low (12%, the government made various efforts to increase it, one of its with the waste bank program. DIY province as a pioneer in the concept of waste bank continues to develop to increase the participation of the community, from 166 locations in 2013, increased to 792 locations in 2017 and 495 of its as the waste bank (62.5%. Average waste bank with 43 customers, able to manage the waste up to 2,078,064 kg/month, with the data can be estimated the amount of waste that can be managed in the city of Yogyakarta, Sleman and Bantul Regency. The city of Yogyakarta has 433 units of the waste bank, capable of managing waste up to 899,801.8 kg/month, Sleman Regency has 34 units of the waste bank (78.966,4 kg/month and Bantul has 24 units of the waste bank (49.873,5 kg/month. The integration of formal and informal sectors through waste banks can increase the percentage of waste management services. The level of service in Yogyakarta City increased from 85% to 95.5%, Sleman District from 30.71 to 31%, and Bantul Regency from 7.49 to 7.7%
Full Text Available In the last ten years Slovenia has been faced with a quite holistic transition of general social and organisation life. In our paper, first of all, we will emphasise the model of transition of management in Slovenia with presentation of field research results from our several years lasting research of management in Slovenia. The presented model of transition is based on the systems approach as our methodological version of systems thinking. This approach has been developed by our team since 1992 and it allowed research of way of thinking of managers about the transition of management concepts and effects of prevailed application projects, both at the same time and in interaction.
Baillie, Allan S., "Management of Risk and Uncertainty," Research Management, Vol. 23, No. 2, March 1980, pp. 20-24. 34. Banash, Robert C., and...Monterey), 1974. 106. Edgar , J.D., LTC USAF, "Controlling Murphy: How to Budget for Program Risk, Concepts," - The Journal of Defense Systems...Secretary of Defense (OSD), 5-57 Point Cost Estimate ( POE ), 5-39 thru 5-43 OPERA, 5-33 Polaris Submarine Program, 5-29 Operating Cost, 5-35, 5-59, 6
Full Text Available An important problem about the environment protection în our country is a good wastes management, who referon the collecting, transport, treatment, processing and turn to account of these wastes. There are two importantstypes of wastes : municipally wastes (household and the wastes who result from trade, institutions, construction,demolition, mud from purging station and another category industries.
King, C.M.; Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R.; King, R.B.
Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R ampersand D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams
Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.
Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)
Abd Rahim Mohd Hilmi Izwan; Kasim Narimah
Development of the construction industry generated construction waste which can contribute towards environmental issues. Weaknesses of compliance in construction waste management especially in construction site have also contributed to the big issues of waste generated in landfills and illegal dumping area. This gives sign that construction projects are needed a systematic construction waste management. To date, a comprehensive criteria of construction waste management, particularly for const...
Poor management of healthcare waste exposes health workers and the public to the toxic effects of wastes generated from health establishments. The disposal of these wastes could also lead to environmental problems if not done properly. This study has assessed the waste management practices in hospitals and ...
Philippone, R.L.; Kaiser, R.A.
Because of different economic, social and political factors, there has been a tendency to compartmentalize the commercial nuclear power industry into separate power and fuel cycle operations to a greater degree in some countries compared to other countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe how actions in one part of the industry can affect the other parts and recommend an overall systems engineering approach which incorporates more cooperation and coordination between individual parts of the fuel cycle. Descriptions are given of the fuel cycle segments and examples are presented of how a systems engineering approach has benefitted the fuel cycle. Descriptions of fuel reprocessing methods and the waste forms generated are given. Illustrations are presented describing how reprocessing options affect waste management operations and how waste management decisions affect reprocessing
Resource management is an innovative contractual partnership between a waste-generating organization and a qualified contractor that changes the nature of current disposal services to support waste minimization and recycling.
Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.
DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) has recognized that an effective waste management program focuses on control at the source and that the burden for responsible waste management can be placed on generators by charging for waste management costs. The principle of including the waste management costs in the total cost of the product, even when the product is research and development, is being implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Charging waste management costs to the pollutor creates an incentive to optimize processes so that less waste is produced and provides a basis for determining the cost effectiveness. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
The proper management of waste is of vital importance in the conservation of our environment. Mound Laboratory, which is operated by Monsanto Research Corporation for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, has embarked upon a waste management program designed to assure that the generation, processing, storage, and disposal of waste is conducted in such a manner as to have a minimum impact on the environment. The organizational approach taken toward waste management is discussed and some of the benefits of the waste management program at Mound Laboratory are described. Ithas been shown that the utilization of proper waste management techniques can have economic, as well as environmental protection, benefits. (U.S.)
Prem Ananth, A.; Prashanthini, V.; Visvanathan, C.
The risks associated with healthcare waste and its management has gained attention across the world in various events, local and international forums and summits. However, the need for proper healthcare waste management has been gaining recognition slowly due to the substantial disease burdens associated with poor practices, including exposure to infectious agents and toxic substances. Despite the magnitude of the problem, practices, capacities and policies in many countries in dealing with healthcare waste disposal, especially developing nations, is inadequate and requires intensification. This paper looks upon aspects to drive improvements to the existing healthcare waste management situation. The paper places recommendation based on a 12 country study reflecting the current status. The paper does not advocate for any complex technology but calls for changes in mindset of all concerned stakeholders and identifies five important aspects for serious consideration. Understanding the role of governments and healthcare facilities, the paper also outlines three key areas for prioritized action for both parties - budget support, developing policies and legislation and technology and knowledge management.
Ananth, A Prem; Prashanthini, V; Visvanathan, C
The risks associated with healthcare waste and its management has gained attention across the world in various events, local and international forums and summits. However, the need for proper healthcare waste management has been gaining recognition slowly due to the substantial disease burdens associated with poor practices, including exposure to infectious agents and toxic substances. Despite the magnitude of the problem, practices, capacities and policies in many countries in dealing with healthcare waste disposal, especially developing nations, is inadequate and requires intensification. This paper looks upon aspects to drive improvements to the existing healthcare waste management situation. The paper places recommendation based on a 12 country study reflecting the current status. The paper does not advocate for any complex technology but calls for changes in mindset of all concerned stakeholders and identifies five important aspects for serious consideration. Understanding the role of governments and healthcare facilities, the paper also outlines three key areas for prioritized action for both parties - budget support, developing policies and legislation and technology and knowledge management.
The purpose of the study was to identify the gaps between existing practices and the provisions of the hierarchy of waste management model in the Nadowli Township of the Upper West Region of Ghana. A cross-sectional study design with quantitative and qualitative approaches was adopted and questionnaires, ...
Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F
Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.
Amaya, J.P.; LaMarche, M.N.; Upton, J.F.
Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs
The IAEA has been concerned with radioactive waste management since its inception. Its programme in this area was expanded in the mid 1970s as questions related to the management and disposal of radioactive wastes came into focus in conjunction with the further industrial development of nuclear power. The objectives of the Agency's waste management programme are to assist its Member States in the safe and effective management of wastes by organizing the exchange and dissemination of information, providing guidance and technical assistance and supporting research. The current programme addresses all aspects of the industrial use of nuclear power under the aspects (a) technology of handling and treatment of wastes, (b) underground disposal of wastes, (c) environmental aspects of nuclear energy, including sea disposal of radioactive wastes. Systematic reviews have been made and publications issued concerning the technology of handling, treating, conditioning, and storing various categories of wastes, including liquid and gaseous wastes, wastes from nuclear power plants, spent fuel reprocessing and mining and milling of uranium ores, as well as wastes from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As waste disposal is the current issue of highest interest, an Agency programme was set up in 1977 to develop a set of guidelines on the safe underground disposal of low-, intermediate- and high-level wastes in shallow ground, rock cavities or deep geological repositories. This programme will continue until 1990. Eleven Safety Series and Technical Documents and Reports have been published under this programme so far, which also addresses safety and other criteria for waste disposal. The environmental part of the waste management programme is concerned with the assessment of radiological and non-radiological consequences of discharges from nuclear facilities, including de minimis concepts in waste disposal and environmental models and data for radionuclide releases
The Nuclear Waste Fund involves a number of features which make it a unique federal program. Its primary purpose is to finance one of the largest and most controversial public works programs in the history of the United States. Despite the program's indicated size and advance publicity, no one knows exactly where the anticipated projects will be built, who will construct them, what they will look like when they are done or how they will be operated and by whom. Implimentation of this effort, if statutory targets are actually met, covers a 16-year period. To cover the costs of the program, the Federal Government will tax nuclear power at the rate of 1 mil per kilowatt hour generated. This makes it one of the biggest and longest-lived examples of advance collections for construction work in progress in the history of the United States. While the Department of Energy is authorized to collect funds for the program the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has the authority to cut off this revenue stream by the shutdown of particular reactors or particular reactor types. If all goes well, the Federal Government will begin receiving spent nuclear fuel by 1998, continuing to assess a fee which will cover operating and maintenance costs. If all does not go well, the Federal Government and/or utilities will have to take other steps to solve the problem of permanent disposal. Should the latter circumstance prevail, presumably not only used to date but the $7.5 billion would be spent. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, contains no clear provision for utility refunds in that case
Perkins, B K
This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.
Raczka, Norman T.
The preparation of this technical report has two objectives. The first objective is to discuss the base case concepts of waste transport, emplacement, and retrieval operations and evaluate these operations relative to a lower-temperature repository design. Aspects of the operations involved in waste transport, emplacement and retrieval may be affected by the lower-temperature operating schemes. This report evaluates the effects the lower-temperature alternatives may have on the operational concepts involved in emplacing and retrieving waste. The second objective is to provide backup material for the design description, in a traceable and defensible format, for Section 2 of the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document
Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.
This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination
Full Text Available The paper presents a telematic system designed to monitor the areas affected by the uncontrollable waste storing by using the newest informational and communicational technologies through the elaboration of a GPS/GIS electronic geographical positioning system. Within the system for online management of the affected locations within the built up areas, the following data categories are defined and processed: data regarding the waste management (monitored locations within the built up areas, waste, pollution sources, waste stores, waste processing stations, data describing the environment protection (environmental quality parameters: water, air, soil, spatial data (thematic maps. Using the automatic collection of the data referring to the environment quality, it is aiming at the realization of a monitoring system, equipped with sensors and/or translators capable of measuring and translating (into electrical signals measures with meteorological character (the intensity of the solar radiation, temperature, humidity but also indicators of the ecological system (such as: the concentration of nutrients in water and soil, the pollution in water, air and soil, biomasses. The organization, the description and the processing of the spatial data requires the utilization of a GIS (Geographical Information System type product.
Aleksandra Anić Vučinić
Full Text Available The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as criteria for sustainable waste management establishment. The main constituent of this system is avoiding and minimizing waste, as well as increasing the recycling and recovery level of waste and land fill gas, which also represent green house gases mitigation measures. The Waste Management Plan consists of several direct and indirect measures for green house gases emission reduction and their implementation also affects the green house gases emissions. The contribution of the methane emission from land fills amounts to about 2% of the total green house gases emissions in Croatia. The climate change control and mitigation measures as an integral part of waste management sector strategies represent the measures of achieving the national objectives to wards green house gases emission reduction which Croatia has accepted in the frame work of the Kyoto Protocol.
Most low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LIL/SL) waste result from the nuclear-power industry. Their specific activity level is sufficiently high to justify a protective conditioning and to ensure proper confinement until that level has decreased to harmless levels for human beings and the environment (a few centuries considering the half lives of the radionuclides contained in LIL/SL waste). The disposal concept for such residues relies on a multi-barrier protective system, each barrier being designed to fulfil different or redundant functions in order to delay or mitigate radionuclide transfers first into the environment and onwards to human beings. The originality of the concept pertains to its flexibility, since: it is adaptable to various geological environments and its overall performance may be guaranteed by modulating that of the engineered barriers, and it is suitable for the disposal of different types and sizes of waste packages, as long as their characteristics are consistent with acceptance criteria, which are de facto specific to each case. To provide its wide-ranging competences in the field of waste management and disposal, ANDRA offers multiple solutions, from consultancy and documents reviewing, to technology transfer and turnkey projects. The safety of the disposal facility is guaranteed by the combination of the package, the concrete structures, the filling materials between packages and the watertight clay cap that will be installed at the end of the operating lifetime of the facility. That layout also takes all natural risks into account. Lastly, all disposal structures are built away from any potential flood zones and from the highest possible level of the groundwater table. Concrete and metal packages are disposed of in slightly different structures. Once a structure is full, concrete packages are immobilised with gravel, whereas metal packages are blocked in place by pouring concrete between them. Once a disposal structure is
R. E. Broz
This document provides the user of the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) instructions on how to use the WMIS software. WMIS allows users to initiate, track, and close waste packages. The modular design supports integration and utilization of data throuh the various stages of waste management. The phases of the waste management work process include generation, designation, packaging, container management, procurement, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal.
This document provides the user of the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) instructions on how to use the WMIS software. WMIS allows users to initiate, track, and close waste packages. The modular design supports integration and utilization of data through the various stages of waste management. The phases of the waste management work process include generation, designation, packaging, container management, procurement, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal
Covens, P.; Sonck, M.; Eggermont, G.; Meert, D.
unit will be compared with the MDA obtained by different handheld monitors. All results will be finally correlated to the different proposed clearance levels. These clearance levels can easily be met through on-site storage for radionuclides with half-life less than 1 year. For a waste stream of 1000 packages or more a year, a management software is indispensable. The software 'WasteMan' was developed on-site. This user-friendly software takes care of the entire storage procedure and allows a complete bookkeeping of the daily nuclear waste streams. Based on the sophisticated waste collection procedure, the WasteMan software allows both a complete inventory of the storage facility and a full traceability of all waste packages from production to either clearance or disposal. At the same time all necessary documents for either clearance or disposal are generated automatically. The data-exchange between several interfaces enables timesaving administration. In addition to these technical aspects a general analysis of the economic impact of such an on- site decay program will be made for a medium sized university with hospital, yielding a serious reduction of waste handling costs. This waste storage program, including the complete measurement set-up and the necessary management software, was recently installed in a second university, proving the general applicability of the whole concept for biomedical nuclear waste. Many hospitals and other biomedical centres however produce small quantities of nuclear waste for which investments, like measurement equipment and decay rooms, are not cost-effective. The installation of a regional centre for nuclear biomedical waste will be presented here as an alternative solution for this problem
Song, D. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Han, B. S.
In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication
Turner, J.W. [ed.
This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.
This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year
This revision of the APT Waste Management Plan details the waste management requirements and issues specific to the APT plant for design considerations, construction, and operation. The APT Waste Management Plan is by its nature a living document and will be reviewed at least annually and revised as required
Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.
This text-book consist of five parts: (I) Waste management; (II) Solid waste management; (III) Recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials; (IV) Radioactive waste management; Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. (V) Suggestions for leisure time activities. This text-book is assigned for high school students.
This report is an appendix of the ''Waste Management Description Project, Revision 1''. This appendix is about the interim approach for the technical baseline of the waste management system. It describes the documentation and regulations of the waste management system requirements and description. (MB)
India has achieved self-reliance in the management of all types of radioactive waste arising dur- ing the operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Decades of safe and successful operation of our waste management facilities are testimony to the Indian waste management practices being on par with international standards ...
This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.
Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office to manage the River Corridor Closure Project, a 10-year contract in which WCH will clean up 220 mi 2 of contaminated land at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. In the summer of 2011, with Tri-Party (DOE-RL, Environmental Protection Agency and Washington State Department of Ecology) Agreement Milestones due at the end of the calendar year, standard work practices were challenged in regards to closure documentation development. The Lean process, a concept that maximizes customer value while minimizing waste, was introduced to WCH's Sample Design and Cleanup Verification organization with the intention of eliminating waste and maximizing efficiencies. The outcome of implementing Lean processes and concepts was impressive. It was determined that the number of non-value added steps far outnumbered the value added steps. Internal processing time, document size, and review times were all reduced significantly; relationships with the customer and the regulators were also improved; and collaborative working relationships with the Tri Parties have been strengthened by working together on Lean initiatives. (authors)
Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.
Croatia has a responsibility to develop a radioactive waste management program partly due to co-ownership of Krsko nuclear power plant (Slovenia) and partly because of its own medical and industrial radioactive waste. The total amount of generated radioactive waste in Croatia is stored in temporary storages located at two national research institutes, while radioactive waste from Krsko remains in temporary storage on site. National power utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) and Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) coordinate the work regarding decommissioning, spent fuel management and low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) management in Croatia. Since the majority of work has been done in developing the LILRW management program, the paper focuses on this part of radioactive waste management. Issues of site selection, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance are being discussed. A short description of the national radioactive waste management infrastructure has also been presented. (author)
Gray, W.J.; Triay, I.R.
The proceedings are divided into the following topical sections: Glass formulations and properties; Glass/water interactions; Cements in radioactive waste management; Ceramic and crystalline waste forms; Spent nuclear fuel; Waste processing and treatment; Radiation effects in ceramics, glasses, and nuclear waste materials; Waste package materials; Radionuclide solubility and speciation; Radionuclide sorption; Radionuclide transport; Repository backfill; Performance assessment; Natural analogues; Excess plutonium dispositioning; and Chernobyl-related waste disposal issues. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base
After a short description of a MOX fuel fabrication plant's activities the waste arisings in such a plant are discussed according to nature, composition, Pu-content. Experience has shown that proper recording leads to a reduction of waste arisings by waste awareness. Aspects of the treatment of α-waste are given and a number of treatment processes are reviewed. Finally, the current waste management practice and the α-waste treatment facility under construction at ALKEM are outlined. (orig./RW)
Solutions for radioactive waste management are already in existence and applied on an industrial scale for short-lived wastes. France has acquired an aknowledged expertise on the international level and several foreign contemporaries are interested in the relevant techniques developed. An intensive international cooperation has allowed to define bases for an underground deep repository for long-lived wastes. It is therefore important to choose a site which meets the expected storage conditions. This development work has been started in several countries in a similar way and which should be completed by the beginning of the next century. An 'open channel' with the public about this emotional topic can smooth the way for solutions by which mankind can master its technological challenges
McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A.
Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; and supporting studies. 58 figures, 22 tables.
To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.
To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives
Rannemalm, T.; Eliasson, S.; Larsson, A.; Lidar, P.; Bergh, N.; Hedin, G.
A team composed of experts from the facility owner OKG, Westinghouse and Studsvik (today Cyclife Sweden and Studsvik Consulting) was asked to develop a basis for decision on an overall strategy for the management of the material and waste arising from the decommissioning of two BWR NPPs at the Oskarshamn site in Sweden. To be able to provide a good basis for decision the full waste management chain from generation to disposition, i.e. clearance or disposal had to be assessed, categorised, quantified and analysed with regards to costs, environmental impact and risks. A systematic approach was applied taking benefit of the decommissioning studies made previously for the two facilities, the decommissioning concepts developed by Ndcon (the partnership in decommissioning between Studsvik and Westinghouse) and the combined knowledge and experience in the project team. In total 4 different waste management concepts were compared individually and in combinations. The four concepts evaluated were based on: direct disposal in the national geological repository; treatment of the waste for volume reduction and where applicable clearance in an external waste treatment facility; decontamination and clearance in an on-site waste treatment facility; direct disposal in a near surface repository at the NPP site. It was important to be able to compare the different options in a quantifiable way. Therefore the project team set up a matrix with parameters for the different options gained from the utility, the national waste management company, external vendors and the experience of the team. In this way a quantitative analysis could be done with the four different waste management options. In addition to the quantitative analysis the team summarised decades of experience in radioactive waste management and decommissioning recommendations and risk analyses. Special attention was given to risk mitigation and redundancy in the waste management chain. The development of an overall waste
Clements, T.L. Jr.; Cook, L.A.; Stallman, R.M.; Hunter, E.K.
Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, approximately 2.2 million cubic feet of transuranic waste were buried in shallow-land trenches and pits at the RWMC. Since 1970, an additional 2.1 million cubic feet of waste have been retrievably stored in aboveground engineered confinement. A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is the proper management of defense-generated transuranic waste. Strategies have been developed for managing INEL stored and buried transuranic waste. These strategies have been incorporated in the Defense Waste Management Plan and are currently being implemented with logistical coordination of transportation systems and schedules for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored, contact-handled TRU waste. Construction of the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) was recently completed, and PREPP is currently undergoing system checkout. The PRFPP will provide processing capabilities for contact-handled waste not meeting WIPP-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In addition, ongoing studies and technology development efforts for managing the TRU waste such as remote-handled and buried TRU waste, are being conducted
Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.
This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs
Goland, A.N.; Kaplan, E.
Funding was provided to Brookhaven National Laboratory in the fourth quarter of FY93 to establish a regional alliance as defined by Dr. Clyde Frank during his visit to BNL on March 7, 1993. In collaboration with the Long Island Research Institute (LIRI), BNL developed a business plan for the Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA). Concurrently, informal discussions were initiated with representatives of the waste management industry, and meetings were held with local and state regulatory and governmental personnel to obtain their enthusiasm and involvement. A subcontract to LIRI was written to enable it to formalize interactions with companies offering new waste management technologies selected for their dual value to the DOE and local governments in the Northeast. LIRI was founded to develop and coordinate economic growth via introduction of new technologies. As a not-for-profit institution it is in an ideal position to manage the development of NEWMA through ready access to venture capital and strong interactions with the business community, universities, and BNL. Another subcontract was written with a professor at SUNY/Stony Brook to perform an evaluation of new pyrolitic processes, some of which may be appropriate for development by NEWMA. Independent endorsement of the business plan recently by another organization, GETF, with broad knowledge of DOE/EM-50 objectives, provides a further incentive for moving rapidly to implement the NEWMA strategy. This report describes progress made during the last quarter of FY93
Tahir, Tariq B.; Qamar Ali
This paper describes the existing radioactive waste management scheme of KANUPP. The radioactive wastes generated at KANUPP are in solid, liquid and gaseous forms. The spent fuel of the plant is stored underwater in the Spent Fuel Bay. For long term storage of low and intermediate level solid waste, 3m deep concrete lined trenches have been provided. The non-combustible material is directly stored in these trenches while the combustible material is first burnt in an incinerator and the ash is collected, sealed and also stored in the trenches. The low-level liquid and gaseous effluents are diluted and are discharged into the sea and the atmosphere. The paper also describes a modification carried out in the spent resin collection system in which a locally designed removable tank replaced the old permanent tanks. Presently the low level combustible solid waste is incinerated and stored, but it is planned to replace the present method by using compactor and storing the compacted waste in steel drums underground. (author)
Uyen Nguyen Ngoc; Schnitzer, Hans
Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.
Bishop, W.P.; Frazier, D.H.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.; Watson, R.A.
Goals are proposed for the national radioactive waste management program to establish a policy basis for the guidance and coordination of the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations, and analyses of selected primary literature and interviews of personnel concerned with waste management. Public concerns are identified, their relevance assessed, and a conceptual framework is developed that facilitates understanding of the dimensions and demands of the radioactive waste management problem. The nature and scope of the study are described along with the approach used to arrive at a set of goals appropriately focused on waste management
This report is part of a systematic IAEA effort to improve waste management practices at WWER plants and to make them consistent with the current requirements and standards for safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The report reviews the wet and dry solid waste management practices at the various types of WWER nuclear power plants (NPP) and describes approaches and recent achievements in waste minimization. Waste minimization practices in use at western PWRs are reviewed and compared, and their applicability at WWER plants is evaluated. Radioactive waste volume reduction issues and waste management practices are reflected in many IAEA publications. However, aspects of waste minimization specific to individual WWER nuclear power plant designs and WWER waste management policies are not addressed extensively in those publications. This report covers the important aspects applicable to the improvement of waste management at WWER NPP, including both plant-level and country-level considerations. It is recognized that most WWER plants are already implementing many of these concepts and recommendations with varying degrees of success; others will benefit from the included considerations. The major issues addressed are: - Review of current waste management policies and practices related to WWERs and western PWRs, including the influence of the original design concepts and significant modifications, liquid waste discharge limits and dry solid waste clearance levels applied in individual countries, national policies and laws, and other relevant aspects affecting the nature and quantities of waste arisings; - Identification of strategies and methods for improving the radioactive waste management generated in normal operation and maintenance at WWERs. This report is a composite (combination) of the two separate initiatives mentioned above. The first draft report was prepared at the meeting 26-30 May 1997 by five consultants. The draft was improved during an
Dealing with waste effectively requires a ''cradle to grave'' approach to waste management. The first step in that chain of custody is the waste generator. The waste generator plays the key role in the correct identification, packaging, and disposal of waste. The Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed several short training programs for waste generators. This training presents a consistent approach to proper handling of waste within the ORNL waste management system. This training has been developed for generators of solid low-level radioactive waste, hazardous and mixed waste, and transuranic waste. In addition to the above, a Waste Minimization training program has been developed for use by all organizations at ORNL who generate any type of hazardous waste. These training programs represent a combined effort of the training staff and the technical staff to assure that all ORNL staff accept their responsibility for handling all types of radioactive and hazardous wastes correctly from its generation to its disposal. 4 refs
The 20th issue of this publication contains over 700 abstracts from 32 IAEA Member Countries comprehending various aspects of radioactive waste management. Radioactive waste disposal, processing and storage, geochemical and geological investigations related to waste management, mathematical models and environmental impacts are reviewed. Many programs involve cooperation among several countries and further international cooperation is expected to be promoted through availability of compiled information on research programs, institutions and scientists engaged in waste management
The 21th issue of this publication contains over 700 abstracts from 35 IAEA Member Countries comprehending various aspects of radioactive waste management. Radioactive waste disposal, processing and storage, geochemical and geological investigations related to waste management, mathematical models and environmental impacts are reviewed. Many programs involve cooperation among several countries and further international cooperation is expected to be promoted through availability of compiled information on research programs, institutions and scientists engaged in waste management
Rivera, A.L.; Ferrada, J.J.
The concept of artificial intelligence (AI) represents a challenging opportunity in expanding the potential benefits from computer technology in waste management and disposal. The potential of this concept lies in facilitating the development of intelligent computer systems to help analysts, decision makers, and operators in waste and technology problem solving similar to the way that machines support the laborer. Because the knowledge of multiple human experts is an essential input in the many aspects of waste management and disposal, there are numerous opportunities for the development of expert systems using software products from AI. This paper presents systems analysis as an attractive framework for the development of intelligent computer systems of significance to waste management and disposal, and it provides an overview of limited prototype systems and the commercially available software used during prototype development activities
Klinkenberg, M.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D.
The nuclear waste management section of the Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6 in Juelich is focused on research on radiochemistry aspects/materials science relevant for the long-term safety of nuclear waste storage and disposal. Studies on innovative waste management strategies include partitioning o actinides and the development of ceramic waste forms. Structural research is covering solid state chemistry, crystallography and computational science to model actinide containing compounds. With respect to waste management concepts nondestructive essay techniques, waste treatment procedures and product quality control strategies were developed.
Shemilt, L.W.; Sheng, G.
A very large amount of scientific and engineering work on nuclear waste managment is being done primarily, but not exclusively, in countries with a nuclear power program. There are basically no technical problems with regard to the safe, temporary storage of either used fuel or reprocessed high-level waste from civilian power programs. Deep terrestrial geologic disposal is the concept that has gained the widest acceptance and for which the technology is best known. Sub-seabed disposal has strong potential in the longer term, but further technological development is required. No clear evidence yet exists for the superiority of any type of host geologic medium over any other for a repository. Salt and granite have been studied most, and each has advantages and disadvantages with respect to the other
Pecoraro, J. N.
The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.
The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs
The WMG QAP is an integral part of a management system designed to ensure that WMG activities are planned, performed, documented, and verified in a manner that assures a quality product. A quality product is one that meets all waste acceptance criteria, conforms to all permit and regulatory requirements, and is accepted at the offsite treatment, storage, and disposal facility. In addition to internal processes, this QA Plan identifies WMG processes providing oversight and assurance to line management that waste is managed according to all federal, state, and local requirements for waste generator areas. A variety of quality assurance activities are integral to managing waste. These QA functions have been identified in the relevant procedures and in subsequent sections of this plan. The WMG QAP defines the requirements of the WMG quality assurance program. These requirements are derived from Department of Energy (DOE) Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, Contractor Requirements Document, the LBNL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (OAP), and other applicable environmental compliance documents. The QAP and all associated WMG policies and procedures are periodically reviewed and revised, as necessary, to implement corrective actions, and to reflect changes that have occurred in regulations, requirements, or practices as a result of feedback on work performed or lessons learned from other organizations. The provisions of this QAP and its implementing documents apply to quality-affecting activities performed by the WMG; WMG personnel, contractors, and vendors; and personnel from other associated LBNL organizations, except where such contractors, vendors, or organizations are governed by their own WMG-approved QA programs
This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.
Full Text Available Nowadays, the amount of waste generated and its proper final destination is one of the greatest environmental issues. The higher education institutions are an important source of waste due to its diversity of teaching, researching and extension activities undertaken by academic world. The university restaurant supplies meals to the university community and ends up generating a kind of waste similar to the domestic waste, but in a bigger amount. The aim of this study was to investigate the gravimetric composition of the waste generated in the school restaurant of a higher-education institution in southern Brazil and provide a diagnostic of the current waste management. The data were obtained through a characterization process of the solid waste generated in one week; an interview with the responsible managers and direct observation of the local structure. It was found non-existence of a Management Plan for Solid Waste, as well as a lack of practices relative to its management. The waste segregation is impaired due the lack of specific and labeled bins, besides the overworked employees. Along the experimental period it were characterized 547,068 Kg of solid waste, in which more than 80% were organic waste. The paper concludes that the organic waste could be treated by composting. It is recommended the formulation and implementation of an integrated management plan for solid waste in order to provide adequate infrastructure for waste management in the school restaurant.
Kang, J.S.; Sherick, M.J.
This paper examines costs associated with cleaning up the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the waste management program. Life-cycle waste management costs have been compiled and reported in the DOE Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). Waste management costs are a critical issue for DOE because of the current budget constraints. The DOE sites are struggling to accomplish their environmental management objectives given funding scenarios that are well below anticipated waste management costs. Through the BEMR process, DOE has compiled complex-wide cleanup cost estimates and has begun analysis of these costs with respect to alternative waste management scenarios and policy strategies. From this analysis, DOE is attempting to identify the major cost drivers and prioritize environmental management activities to achieve maximum utilization of existing funding. This paper provides an overview of the methodology DOE has used to estimate and analyze some waste management costs, including the key data requirements and uncertainties
Berry, J.B.; Homan, F.J.
The Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need for waste management that incorporates improved waste-handling techniques and more stringent regulatory requirements to prevent future liabilities such as Superfund sites. DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) has recognized that an effective waste management program focuses on control at the source and that the burden for responsible waste management can be placed on generators by charging for waste management costs. The principle of including the waste management costs in the total cost of the product, even when the product is research and development, is being implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper summarizes a plan to charge waste generators, the administrative structure of the plan, a comparison between the rate structure and changes in waste disposal operations, and issues that have surfaced as the plan is implemented
Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Shigera, Yu. M.; Shigera, V.Yu.
Modern knowledge in the field of radiation waste management on example of the most serious man-made accident at Chernobyl NPP are illuminated. This nuclear power plant that after accident in 1986 became in definite aspect an experimental scientific ground, includes all variety of problems which have to be solved by NPP personnel and specialists from scientific organizations. This book is aimed for large sphere of readers. It will be useful for students, engineers, specialists and those working in the field of nuclear power, ionizing source and radiation technology use for acquiring modern experience in nuclear material management
Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.
The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives
The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Environment Department addresses its responsibilities through activities in a variety of areas. The need for a comprehensive management control system for these activities has been identified by the Department of Energy (DOE). The WM QA (Waste Management Quality Assurance) Plan is an integral part of a management system that provides controls necessary to ensure that the department's activities are planned, performed, documented, and verified. This WM QA Plan defines the requirements of the WM QA program. These requirements are derived from DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, the LBL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (OAP, LBL PUB-3111), and other environmental compliance documents applicable to WM activities. The requirements presented herein, as well as the procedures and methodologies that direct the implementation of these requirements, will undergo review and revisions as necessary. The provisions of this QA Plan and its implementing documents apply to quality-affecting activities performed by and for WM. It is also applicable to WM contractors, vendors, and other LBL organizations associated with WM activities, except where such contractors, vendors, or organizations are governed by their own WM-approved QA programs. References used in the preparation of this document are (1) ASME NQA-1-1989, (2) ANSI/ASQC E4 (Draft), (3) Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (LBL PUB-5352, Rev. 1), (4) LBL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (OAP), LBL PUB-3111, 2/3/93. A list of terms and definitions used throughout this document is included as Appendix A
The finding of the study shows that except Zewditu hospital, the rest use proper management to the hazardous waste. Lack of awareness about health hazards of healthcare waste, inadequate training, absence of waste management and disposal systems, insufficient financial and human resources, low priority given to the ...
The compounding contribution of slaughterhouse wastes to waste management problems in developing countries is likely to continue into the future considering the growing quest for animal protein. Adequate knowledge and practice of waste management among slaughterhouse workers can help limit the associated effects ...
The eighteenth issue of this publication contains over 750 abstracts from 33 IAEA member countries comprehending various aspects of radioactive waste management. Radioactive waste disposal, processing and storage, geochemical and geological investigations related to waste management, mathematical models and environmental impacts are reviewed
The health workers were unaware of relevant regulations and the existence of a hospital waste management policy. Recommendations have been made for staff training to create awareness on wastes, their effects, importance of existing guidelines and the implementation of the waste management options for the different ...
Othman, I.; Takriti, S.
A national plan for radioactive waste management has been presented. It includes identifying, transport, recording, classifying, processing and disposal. It is an important reference for radioactive waste management for those dealing with radioactive waste, and presents a complete protection to environemnt and people. (author)
Challenges of solid waste management and environmental sanitation in Ibadan North Local government, Oyo State, Nigeria. ... be increased patronage and effective management of the private contractors, prompt collection of solid wastes in the city, financial back up, and implementation of the waste-to- wealth scheme.
Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.
Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, special projects have been initiated for the management of RMW. This paper addresses the management of solid RMW. The management of bulk liquid RMW will not be described. 7 refs., 4 figs
The Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) uses a computer based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system to monitor its facility, and control essential equipment. In 2007 the WWMF Low and Intermediate Level Waste (L&ILW) technical support section conducted a review of outstanding corrective maintenance work. Technical support divided all work on a system by system basis. One system under review was the Waste Volume Reduction Building (WVRB) control room SCADA system. Technical support worked with control maintenance staff to assess all outstanding work orders on the SCADA system. The assessment identified several deficiencies in the SCADA system. Technical support developed a corrective action plan for the SCADA system deficiencies, and in February of 2008 developed an engineering change package to correct the observed deficiencies. OPG Nuclear Waste Engineering approved the change package and the WVRB Control Room Upgrades construction project started in January of 2009. The WVRB control room upgrades construction work was completed in February of 2009. This paper provides the following information regarding the WWMF SCADA system and the 2009 WVRB Control Room Upgrades Project: A high-level explanation of SCADA system technology, and the various SCADA system components installed in the WVRB; A description of the state of the WVRB SCADA system during the work order assessment, identifying all deficiencies; A description of the new design package; A description of the construction project; and, A list of lessons learned during construction and commissioning, and a path forward for future upgrades. (author)
The IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP) was initiated in 1987 as an interregional technical co-operation project to complement other activities in radioactive waste management. Its creation gave greater recognition to the importance of the safe management of radioactive wastes and promotion of long-term waste management technical assistance strategies for developing countries. Over the past 4 years, international experts have reviewed the radioactive waste management programmes of 29 developing countries. Missions have been conducted within the framework of the IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP). Ten of these countries have nuclear power plants in operation or under construction or have nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Altogether, 23 have research reactors or centres, eight have uranium or thorium processing programmes or wastes, and nine essentially have only isotope applications involving the use of radiation sources
Adams, L.; Campbell, B.
Radioactive, mixed, hazardous and non-hazardous wastes have been and continue to be generated at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) as a result of research and development activities and operations since the 1940s. Over the years, the wastes produced as a byproduct of activities delivering the core missions of the CRL site have been of many types, and today, over thirty distinct waste streams have been identified, all requiring efficient management. With the commencement of decommissioning of the legacy created as part of the development of the Canadian nuclear industry, the volumes and range of wastes to be managed have been increasing in the near term, and this trend will continue into the future. The development of a streamlined approach to waste management is a key to successful waste management at CRL. Waste management guidelines that address all of the requirements have become complex, and so have the various waste management groups receiving waste, with their many different processes and capabilities. This has led to difficulties for waste generators in understanding all of the requirements to be satisfied for the various CRL waste receivers, whose primary concerns are to be safe and in compliance with their acceptance criteria and license conditions. As a result, waste movement on site can often be very slow, especially for non-routine waste types. Recognizing an opportunity for improvement, the Waste Management organization at CRL has implemented a more streamlined approach with emphasis on early identification of waste type and possible disposition path. This paper presents a streamlined approach to waste identification and waste management at CRL, the implementation methodology applied and the early results achieved from this process improvement. (author)
Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G.
It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)
Diaconu, Stela; Covreag, Ilinca
Radioactive waste, unavoidable by-products of economically developed societies, arises from the production of energy by nuclear fission reactors as well as from medical, research and industrial applications of radioactive materials. The main objective of radioactive waste management is the safety as well the protection of public health and the environment. The first approach for the disposal of radioactive waste was based on the traditional 'decide, announce and defend' model, focused almost exclusively on technical content. In spite of the significant technical progress that would ensure long-term safety, the rate of progress towards implementing such solutions has been slower than expected, partly attributable to an earlier technical optimism and to an underestimation of the societal and political dimensions. It is now broadly recognized that radioactive waste management involves both technical and societal dimensions which cannot be dissociated. Because of changes in society's decision-making environment and heightened public sensitivity to all matters connected with environmental protection, nuclear power, radioactivity, and especially radioactive waste, any decision regarding whether, when and how to implement waste management solutions will typically require thorough public examination and the involvement of many relevant stakeholders. The building of a long-term relationship with the local communities and the waste management facility is one of the most important contributors to sustainable radioactive waste management solutions. A new approach in now in place at international level, based on 'engage, interact and co-operate', for which both technical and societal issues are to be reconciled. That means that the involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is a condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such a project. A central role in the public acceptance of nuclear technologies play the management and
Oertel, K.G.; Scott, R.S.
This paper very briefly traces the statutory basis for DOE management of atomic energy defense activity wastes, touches on the authority of the Federal agencies involved in the regulation of defense nuclear waste management, and addresses the applicable regulations and their status. This background sets the stage for a fairly detailed discussion of management and disposal strategies of the Defense Waste and Byproducts Management Program
This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Advisory Panel with regard to alternative approaches to financing and managing the construction and operation of civilian radioactive waste management facilities. Ten organizational alternatives are considered and four of them are focussed on. These four are: present DOE waste management structure; alternative governmental approach; public/private entity; and private corporation. Advantages and disadvantages of each alternative are covered. The preferred alternative is the Federal Corporation for Waste Management (FEDCORP)
These documents describe 1) issues to consider when planning and designing community engagement approaches for tribal integrated waste management programs and 2) a proposed approach to improve tribal open dumps data and solid waste projects, and 3) an MOU.
Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie
The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover......, specific methodological challenges arise when investigating waste systems, such as the allocation of impacts and the consideration of long-term emissions. The complexity of waste LCAs is mainly derived from the variability of the object under study (waste) which is made of different materials that may...
EPA and the Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT) have collaborated since 2011 to build global capacity for the environmentally sound management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), which is commonly called e-waste.
Narayanan, S.; Kumar, K. Ram
E-Waste is one of the silent degraders of the environment in the fast-growing world. This paper explores briefly the ultra-modern problem of E-Waste. After enumerating the causes and effects of the E-Waste, it focuses on management of the E-waste using modern techniques. The paper also deals with the responsibilities of the governments, industries and citizens in reducing E-waste.
Luis Paulo Sant'ana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro
The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from co...
Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su
This book gives descriptions of waste water disposal, design and management, which includes design of waterworks and sewerage facility such as preparatory work and building plan, used waste water disposal facilities, waste water disposal plant and industrial waste water disposal facilities, water use of waste water disposal plant and design of pump and pump facilities such as type and characteristic, selection and plan, screening and grit.
Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss
the Danish nanoproduct inventory (www.nanodb.dk) to get a general understanding of the fate of ENM during waste management in the European context. This was done by: 1. assigning individual products to an appropriate waste material fraction, 2. identifying the ENM in each fraction, 3. comparing identified...... nanoproducts and materials. While differences are seen between individual EU countries/regions according to the local waste management system, results show that all waste treatment options are significantly involved in nanowaste handling, suggesting that research activities should cover different areas...... waste fractions with waste treatment statistics for Europe, and 4. illustrating the general distribution of ENM into incineration, recycling and landfilling. Our results indicate that â•˛plastic from used product containersâ•ˇ is the most abundant and diverse waste fraction, comprising a variety of both...
Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica
Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica
Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems.
Ortner, Maria E; Müller, Wolfgang; Bockreis, Anke
The greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy performance of bio-waste treatment plants been investigated for three characteristic bio-waste treatment concepts: composting; biological drying for the production of biomass fuel fractions; and anaerobic digestion. Compared with other studies about the environmental impacts of bio-waste management, this study focused on the direct comparison of the latest process concepts and state-of-the-art emission control measures. To enable a comparison, the mass balance and products were modelled for all process concepts assuming the same bio-waste amounts and properties. In addition, the value of compost as a soil improver was included in the evaluation, using straw as a reference system. This aspect has rarely been accounted for in other studies. The study is based on data from operational facilities combined with literature data. The results show that all three concepts contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions and show a positive balance for cumulated energy demand. However, in contrast to other studies, the advantage of anaerobic digestion compared with composting is smaller as a result of accounting for the soil improving properties of compost. Still, anaerobic digestion is the environmentally superior solution. The results are intended to inform decision makers about the relevant aspects of bio-waste treatment regarding the environmental impacts of different bio-waste management strategies.
Beceiro, A. R.
Radioactive waste generation began in Spain during the 1950's, in association with the first applications of radioactive isotopes in industry, medicine and research. Spain's first nuclear power plant began its operations in 1968. At present, there are in operation some one thousand installations possessing the administrative authorization required to use radioactive isotopes (small producers), nine nuclear groups and a tenth is now entering the dismantling phase. There are also activities and installations pertaining to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (mining, milling and the manufacturing of fuel elements). Until 1985, the research center Junta de Energia Nuclear (now CIEMAT) rendered radioactive waste removal, and subsequent conditioning and temporary storage services to the small producers. Since the beginning of their operations the nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities have had the capacity to condition and temporarily store their own radioactive wastes. ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S. A.) began its operations in the second half of 1985. It is a state-owned company created by the Government in accordance with a previous parliamentary resolution and commissioned to establish a system for management of such wastes throughout Spain, being in charge also of the dismantling of nuclear power plants and other major installations at the end of their operating lifetimes. Possibly the most outstanding characteristic of ENRESA's evolution over these last seven years has been the need to bring about a compromise between solving the most immediate and pressing day-to-day problems of operation (the first wastes were removed at the beginning of 1986) and establishing the basic organization, resources, technology and installations required for ENRESA to operate efficiently in the long term. (author)
Jensen, Jacob Wagner
% of the organic and degradable material. Source sorting is another way of collecting the household waste in its respective fractions. However, this separation technique is hard to enforce and expensive. Future waste management calls for novel and efficient technologies for the separation of unsorted MSW in order...... generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather...... simulating Danish household waste in composition and weight, 2) evaluating the performance of best enzyme candidates on original waste with and without additional additives, 3) measuring the biogas potential of liquefied waste and comparing the results with the biogas potential of untreated waste...
The Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) provides storage of Transuranic (TRU) and Transuranic Mixed (TRUM) waste from U.S. DOD and DOE offsite and onsite generators. In addition to storage, TRUSAF also performs assay and RTR (real time radiography) on each TRU drum with the intent of certification of the waste to WIPP-WAC (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria) to allow eventual disposal of the TRU waste at WIPP. Due to the uncertainties associated with WIPP-WAC and the potential for all TRU WIPP-WAC certification at the generator or WRAP (Waste Receiving and Processing) facility, this study documents the requirements for TRU assay and RTR of all incoming TRU drums and establishes SWM (Solid Waste Management) policy on future assay and RTR of received TRU waste
Dejonghe, P.; Heremans, R.; Proost, J.; Voorde, N. van de
The paper contains a brief description of volumes and composition of radioactive wastes expected to occur in Belgium, taking into account the present nuclear program. Various conditioning and management techniques are described and discussed. Some discussion is paid to disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes either into the ocean (low level) or in geologic formations (long lived or high level wastes). Some ideas are given as to the structure optimization in radioactive waste management and the associated R and D. (author)
Radioactive waste management as in industrial activities must mantain in all steps a quality control programme. This control extended from materials acquisition, for waste treatment, to the package deposition is one of the most important activities because it aims to observe the waste acceptance criteria in repositories and allows to guarantee the security of the nuclear facilities. In this work basic knowledges about quality control in waste management and some examples of adopted procedures in other countries are given. (author) [pt
Barcenas, M.; Mejia, M.
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework concerning the radioactive waste management in Mexico. It is intended to show regulatory historical antecedents, the legal responsibilities assigned to institutions involved in the radioactive waste management, the sources of radioactive waste, and the development and preparation of national standards for fulfilling the legal framework for low level radioactive waste. It is at present the most important matter to be resolved. (author)
Askarian, Mehrdad; Motazedian, Nasrin; Palenik, Charles John
Clinical laboratories are significant generators of infectious waste, including microbiological materials, contaminated sharps, and pathologic wastes such as blood specimens and blood products. Most waste produced in laboratories can be disposed of in the general solid waste stream. However, improper management of infectious waste, including mixing general wastes with infectious wastes and improper handling or storage, could lead to disease transmission. The aim of this study was to assess waste management processes used at clinical laboratories in Shiraz, Iran. One hundred and nine clinical laboratories participated In this cross sectional study, Data collection was by questionnaire and direct observation. Of the total amount of waste generated, 52% (by weight) was noninfectious domestic waste, 43% was non-sharps infectious waste and 5% consisted of sharps. There was no significant relationship between laboratory staff or manager education and the score for quality of waste collection and disposal at clinical laboratories. Improvements in infectious waste management processes should involve clearer, more uniformly accepted definitions of infectious waste and increased staff training.
This law regulate the relations of legal persons, enterprises without the rights of legal persons, and natural persons in the management of radioactive waste in Lithuania and establish the legal grounds for the management of radioactive waste. Thirty one article of the law deals with the following subjects: principles of radioactive waste management, competence of the Government, State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environment and Radiation Protection Center in the sphere of regulation of the radioactive waste management, activities subject to licensing, issue of licences and authorisations, duties and responsibilities of the waste producer, founding of the radioactive waste management agency, its basic status and principles of the activities, functions of the agency, management of the agency, transfer of the radioactive waste to the agency, assessment of the existing waste management facilities and their past practices, siting, design and construction, safety assessment, commissioning and operation of the radioactive waste management facilities, radiation protection, quality assurance, emergency preparedness, decommissioning of radioactive waste storage and other facilities, post-closure surveillance of the repository, disused sealed sources, transportation, export and transit of radioactive waste
Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.
The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.
This paper reports that British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has a policy for radioactive waste management which is to minimize effluent discharges to the environment, to safely dispose of solid low level waste as it arises and to provide safe and cost effective methods for storing, treating and preparing for disposal all other wastes. BNF:'s overall waste management policy is to develop a strategy to minimize effluent discharges, to dispose of Solid Low Level Waste as it arises and to provide a safe and cost effective method of treating and preparing for disposal of all other waste arising on site
... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental... and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of waste generated, and waste... wastes. This final rule responds to a petition submitted by Valero to delist F037 waste. The F037 waste...
Plecas, I.; Peric, A.
Low and intermediate level waste represents 95% of the total wastes that is conditioned into special concrete containers. Since these containers are to protect radioactive waste safely for about 300 years, the selection and precise control of physical and mechanical characteristics of materials is very important. After volume reduction and valuable components recovery, waste materials have to be conditioned for transport, storage and disposal. Conditioning is the waste management step in which radioactive wastes are immobilized and packed. The immobilization processes involve conversation of the wastes to solid forms that reduce the potential for migration or dispersion of radionuclides from the wastes by natural processes during storage, transport and disposal. The immobilization processes involve the use of various matrices of nonradioactive materials, such as concrete, to fix the wastes as monoliths, usually directly in the waste containers used for subsequent handling. In this paper an optimization of concrete container composition, used for storing radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is presented. Optimization was performed on the composition of the concrete that is used in the container production. In experiments, the authors tried to obtain the best mechanical characteristics of the concrete, varying the weight percentage of the granulate due to its diameter, water-to-cement ratios and type of the cements that were used in preparing the concrete container formulation. Concrete containers, that were optimized in the manner described in this paper, will be in used for the radioactive waste materials final disposal, using the concept of the engineer trench system facilities
The IAEA developed a software tool, the RWM Registry (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) which is primarily concerned with the management and recording of reliable information on the radioactive waste during its life-cycle, i.e. from generation to disposal and beyond. In the current version, it aims to assist the management of waste from nuclear applications. the Registry is a managerial tool and offers an immediate overview of the various waste management steps and activities. This would facilitate controlling, keeping track of waste and waste package, planning, optimizing of resources, monitoring of related data, disseminating of information, taking actions and making decisions related to the waste management. Additionally, the quality control of waste products and a Member State's associated waste management quality assurance programme are addressed. The tool also facilitates to provide information on waste inventory as required by the national regulatory bodies. The RWM Registry contains two modules which are described in detail
Raicevic, J.; Avramovic, I.; Plecas, I.; Mandic, M.; Goldammer, W.
The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences served for many years as the only Yugoslav (Serbia and Montenegro) nuclear institute. Therefore, it acted for many years as national storage facility for the radioactive waste from all institutional (medical, military, etc.) activities. The interim storage was situated within the Vinca Institute historically at several different places. The main fraction of the wastes is stored in two metallic hangars. In addition, underground stainless steel tanks in concrete shields have been constructed to accept all processed liquid waste from the research reactor RA. The current situation of the interim storage facilities is not satisfactory. However, the principle limitation for improvements of the waste management at the Vinca Institute lies in the fact that long-term solutions cannot be addressed at the moment. Plans for a final repository for radioactive waste do not exist yet in the Serbia and Montenegro. Consequently, waste management can only address an interim solution. In order to conduct all waste management activities in a safe manner, an overall strategy and study for improvement/rearrangement of radioactive waste storage facilities was developed which addresses all wastes and their management. The IAEA is providing assistance to these activities. This support includes a project which has been initiated by the IAEA to improve the waste management at the Vinca Institute. This paper describes the current status of the development of this overall strategy and study for improvement/rearrangement of radioactive waste storage facilities. The information available and the current status of the development of concepts for the processing and storage of the waste are summarised. (author)
Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.
The solid waste management is, today, a very critical issue. In spite of all the attempts in order to recovery and to recycle waste, the dump still remains the more followed solution, while only a small part of solid waste is going to be burnt down. But the rubbish dump isn't, actually, an environmentally sustainable solution. In the last years the waste incineration systems with energy recovery are spreading more over the territory, and if on one hand they allow to recover energy, on the other they also generate waste. So the emergency remains and it has to be faced. Today, the waste incineration system with energy recovery seems to be the best solution for this problem. the following article examinates the main strategic aspects of the solid waste management in Sicily after the General Plan of Waste Management application [it
In ERDA it is believed that interaction is essential to the final assurance of bringing technologies on line which are acceptable to all sectors. If this can be achieved then questions surrounding waste management may not be any easier to solve, but they will certainly not crop up at the last minute to confound the technology that is needed tomorrow to meet our energy needs. At the same time, the public who needs to decide what cost and risks they are willing to accept for the benefit of energy use have the information they need and the confidence that all the issues have been addressed
Meshkov, N.K.; Camasta, S.F.; Gilbert, T.L.
A method for assessing management systems for low-level radioactive waste is being developed for US Department of Energy. The method is based on benefit-cost-risk analysis. Waste management is broken down into its component steps, which are generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal. Several different alternatives available for each waste management step are described. A particular waste management system consists of a feasible combination of alternatives for each step. Selecting an optimal waste management system would generally proceed as follows: (1) qualitative considerations are used to narrow down the choice of waste management system alternatives to a manageable number; (2) the costs and risks for each of these system alternatives are evaluated; (3) the number of alternatives is further reduced by eliminating alternatives with similar risks but higher costs, or those with similar costs but higher risks; (4) a trade-off factor between cost and risk is chosen and used to compute the objective function (sum of the cost and risk); and (5) the selection of the optimal waste management system among the remaining alternatives is made by choosing the alternative with the smallest value for the objective function. The authors propose that the REGINALT software system, developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., as an acid for managers of low-level commerical waste, be augmented for application to the managment of DOE-generated waste. Specific recommendations for modification of the REGINALT system are made. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs
This volume defines the top level technical requirements for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1, General System Requirements. Volume 3 provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MRS facility in Volume 1 and, when appropriate, elaborates on requirements by providing associated performance criteria. Volumes 1 and 3 together convey a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MRS facility design without unduly constraining individual design efforts. The requirements are derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA), the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (40 CFR 191), NRC Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72), and other federal statutory and regulatory requirements, and major program policy decisions. This document sets forth specific requirements that will be fulfilled. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy will be significantly more detailed and provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements will be implemented in the design. Requirements appearing in Volume 3 are traceable into the MRS Design Requirements Document. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional breakdown for the MRS facility. 1 tab
Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Rezapour, Ramin; Saadati, Mohammad; Seifi, Samira; Amini, Behnam; Varmazyar, Farahnaz
Non-standard management of medical waste leads to irreparable side effects. This issue is of double importance in health care centers in a city which are the most extensive system for providing Primary Health Care (PHC) across Iran cities. This study investigated the medical waste management standards observation in Tabriz community health care centers, northwestern Iran. In this triangulated cross-sectional study (qualitative-quantitative), data collecting tool was a valid checklist of waste management process developed based on Iranian medical waste management standards. The data were collected in 2015 through process observation and interviews with the health center's staff. The average rate of waste management standards observance in Tabriz community health centers, Tabriz, Iran was 29.8%. This case was 22.8% in dimension of management and training, 27.3% in separating and collecting, 31.2% in transport and temporary storage, and 42.9% in sterilization and disposal. Lack of principal separation of wastes, inappropriate collecting and disposal cycle of waste and disregarding safety tips (fertilizer device performance monitoring, microbial cultures and so on) were among the observed defects in health care centers supported by quantitative data. Medical waste management was not in a desirable situation in Tabriz community health centers. The expansion of community health centers in different regions and non-observance of standards could predispose to incidence the risks resulted from medical wastes. So it is necessary to adopt appropriate policies to promote waste management situation.
Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.
Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)
Peter Jones; Daphne Comfort
The aim of this paper is to offer an exploratory review of the approaches to sustainability within the UK’s waste management industry. The paper begins with brief outlines of the waste management industry in the UK and the growing interest in corporate sustainability. This is followed by a review of the most recent sustainability reports published by the leading waste management companies operating within the UK and the paper concludes by offering some reflections on current approaches to sus...
This presentation takes stock on the situation of the radioactive wastes management in France. It gives information on the deep underground disposal, the public information, the management of the radioactive wastes in France, the researches in the framework of the law of the 30 december 1991, the underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne, the national agency for the radioactive wastes management (ANDRA) and its sites. (A.L.B.)
In the area of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes the successful development and application of specific management technologies have been demonstrated over the years. The major area in which technology remains to be effectively implemented is in the management of high-level wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. Research and development specifically directed at the management of high-level radioactive wastes in the USA and other countries is briefly reviewed in the article introduced
Full Text Available Garbage is solid wastes which have mostly organic composition and the rest consists of plastic paper cloth rubber bone and others. Garbage disposal in urban areas is often a burden because it involves financing for waste transport disposal sites health and environmental hygiene. The burden of waste management is increasing as the volume of waste increases due to population growth and community behavior. Samarinda as a developing city also experienced the problem. Problems encountered include low service coverage especially for domestic waste high landfill demand and high government subsidies that resulted in the community no matter the amount of waste generated. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the waste management by the government of Samarinda City from management management aspects institutional capacity and financing system is environmentally sound. The method used is non experimental method and do direct observation in the field. Data collection with questionnaires field observations document analysis and literature. Based on the results of the study concluded as follows Waste management by the Government of Samarinda City as a whole has been good and has environmentally minded by running the system of collecting transporting and destruction and separating waste from waste processing and sources into compost fertilizer though still very limited in scope. Waste management by the capital intensive Samarinda City Government leads to high costs by the operational costs of trucks and other vehicles.
Solid waste management plans offer a host of benefits for tribes and Alaskan Native villages. Through the preparation of these plans, you can assess your cur-rent and future waste management needs, set priorities, and allocate resources accordingly.
international debate on multinational cooperation in each area. The paper will therefore complement the introductory brief summary of the status of nuclear power developments with a review of how national waste management programmes are progressing (or not progressing) and of how the credibility of multinational concepts is being enhanced by a number of current initiatives. These include Russian proposals for international facilities, studies on regional repositories in the SAPIERR project and IAEA and EC support for both types of initiative
During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to ∼$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at ∼$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability
Technology roadmapping can be an effective strategic technology planning tool. This paper describes a process for customizing a generic technology roadmapping process. Starting with a generic process reduces the learning curve and speeds up the roadmap development. Similarly, starting with a generic domain model provides leverage across multiple applications or situations within the domain. A process that combines these two approaches facilitates identifying technology gaps and determining common core technologies that can be reused for multiple applications or situations within the domain. This paper describes both of these processes and how they can be integrated. A core team and a number of technology working groups develop the technology roadmap, which includes critical system requirements and targets, technology areas and metrics for each area, and identifies and evaluates possible technology alternatives to recommend the most appropriate ones to pursue. A generalized waste management model, generated by considering multiple situations or applications in terms of a generic waste management model, provides the domain requirements for the technology roadmapping process. Finally, the paper discusses lessons learns from a number of roadmapping projects
... Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY...) on a one-time basis from the lists of hazardous waste, a certain solid waste generated at its Mt... waste is [[Page 16535
Bjurstroem, S.; Forsstroem, H.
The following systems and facilities are currently in operation and under implementation: a sea transportation system for all kinds of nuclear waste, a central facility for interim storage of spent fuel (CLAB) and a central underground repository for final disposal of low and medium level reactor waste (SFR). For the remaining steps - final disposal of highly active and longlived radioactive residues - a concept, based on encapsulation of the fuel elements in copper canisters and final storage of the canisters in a repository situated 500 m down in crystalline rock (KBS-3), has been developed and approved by the government in accordance with the Swedish nuclear legislation. Although a feasible method for final disposal of the highly active residues has been shown, the Swedish legislation requires that research be carried out to reach the best possible base for the final decision around the year 2000. In parallel with this a geological investigation programme is carried out to find a suitable site for a final repository. The final site selection is foreseen at the end of the 1990's. All costs for the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants are carried by a fee determined annually. The fee is 0.019 SEK/kWh for 1986
This conceptual design report is provided by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program to assist states and compact regions in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities in accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendment Act of 1985. The report provides conceptual designs and evaluations of six widely considered concepts for LLW disposal. These are shallow land disposal (SLD), intermediate depth disposal (IDD), below-ground vaults (BGV), above-ground vaults (AGV), modular concrete canister disposal (MCCD), earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB). 40 refs., 45 figs., 77 tabs
Syed Hakimi Sakuma; Nik Marzukee; Ibrahim Martibi
A complete inventory of radioactive wastes from different source bas been set up in Malaysia. Wastes from external agencies were sent to the National Radioactive Waste Management Center at MINT for final disposal. MINT has been collecting information on the accumulated wastes received since 1982. Assessment of radioactive waste management in Malaysia has been conducted based on the inventory record. The information in the inventory include description of users, type volume, characteristics of the wastes; and the current and accumulated activities of the radioisotopes in the wastes forms while storing. The records indicate that there is a significant increase in the volume of wastes from medical and industrial applications. The category of users varies; there are about 270 industrial users, about 60 in medical fields and 13 in research institutes and universities. Major users generating sealed source wastes for the industrial sector are services, manufacturing and consumer companies; including government department and universities. It is estimated that by the year 2005, approximately a total accumulated processed waste package volume for disposal will be between 210-215 m sup 3. This estimate includes low level and intermediate level wastes. From this study, future waste management activities in Malaysia can be planned with proper policy decision, treatment conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. This will enable radioactive wastes to be kept under control and their potential impact on man and the environment to be minimal
Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.
The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ''Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria Receipt at TA-54, Area L'' to determine if it meets applicable DOE requirements. The guidelines and requirements for the establishment of a Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria (HW-WAC) are found in 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. Neither set of requirements specifically require a WAC for the management of hazardous waste; however, the use of such documentation is logical and is consistent with the approach required for the management of radioactive waste. The primary purpose of a HW-WAC is to provide generators and waste management with established criteria that must be met before hazardous waste can be acceptable for treatment, storage and/or disposal. An annotated outline for a generic waste acceptance criteria was developed based on the requirements of 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. The outline contains only requirements for hazardous waste, it does not address the radiological components of low-level mixed waste. The outline generated from the regulations was used for comparison to the LANL WAC For Chemical and Low-level Mixed Waste Receipt at TA-54, Area L. The major elements that should be addressed by a hazardous waste WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Package/Container Requirements, Waste Forms, Land Disposal Restrictions, and Data Package-Certification ampersand Documentation
Mora Rodriguez, Patricia
An instructive is established for the management system of radioactive solid residues waste of the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, segregation, storage and disposal of waste. The radioactive solid waste have been segregated and transferred according to features and provisions of the Universidad de Costa Rica and CICANUM [es
Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.
Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described
Spooner, Charles S.
The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…
BACKGROUND: Despite the set guidelines on Healthcare Waste Management in Kenya, mixing of different categories of waste, crude dumping and poor incineration are still a common phenomenon in public health facilities in Thika Subcounty, Kenya. Thika Subcounty generates 560 Kilograms of healthcare waste daily, ...
Mann, Nadine L.
A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)
Лункіна, Т. І.; Каратай, Т. М.
The article describes methods for recycling of municipal solid waste, their advantages and disad-vantages. Economically, the necessity of disposing of municipal solid waste and noted the relevance of this issue for our country. It highlighted the current situation and development trends in the sphere of waste management through the analysis of the «Concept of the national treatment program to waste». In the article the existent state of the system of handling with hard domestic wastes is anal...
Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?
Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.
The intent of this effort is to evaluate the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for asbestos to determine if it meets applicable DOE, EPA, and OSHA requirements. There are numerous regulations that provide specific guidelines on the management of asbestos waste. An annotated outline for a generic asbestos WAC was developed using the type of information specified by 5820.2A. The outline itself is included in Appendix A. The major elements that should be addressed by the WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Forms; Waste Content/Concentration; Waste Packaging; and Waste Documentation/Certification
Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.
The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options
Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.
The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.
Different countries around the globe, especially those involved in nuclear power plant operation, spent fuel reprocessing, nuclear research activities and diverse nuclear applications; generate large inventory of radioactive wastes. These waste streams generated during various stages of nuclear fuel cycle are of different categories, which require special care for handling, treatment and conditioning. Conventional treatment and conditioning methods may not be efficient for various type of waste; therefore special options may be required to manage these waste streams. Presently, Indian waste management fraternity is focused to minimize the volume of the waste to be finally disposed off, by partitioning radionuclides, regenerating separation media and re-using as much of the waste components as possible and economically feasible. This approach, together with the reuse/recycling strategy, seems to represent a robust waste treatment strategy for the future
The new EU objectives included in its Circular Economy Package and the Spanish 2016-2022 Waste Plan define a new scenario of transformation of municipal solid waste management. They also define the hierarchization of waste treatment: reduction, reuse, recycling, energy valorization and, as a last resort, landfill. The use of new technologies is contributing to this transformation, including both separation at source and collection and treatment. Improved traceability of wastes via the use of sensors, technological innovation in management and the emergence of a fifth bin for selective collection of organic wastes are only some of the new elements that are increasingly common in Spanish cities. (Author)
Any decision for or against the different nuclear waste management methods has to be judged by the following three criteria: 1. Agreement with the needs of the environment and posterity. 2. Safeguards against diversion and abuse of fissionable material. 3. Social and industrial costs. The FRG decided to try the two-tier waste management system, fostering waste reprocessing on the one hand and examining methods of ultimate waste disposal on the other, and so far is the only country that has done so. This approach to solving the nuclear waste problem seems quite safe at present, following the prinicple of: do the one thing, and try the other. (orig./HP) [de
Bixby, W.W.; Young, W.R.; Grant, P.J.
The 1979 accident at TMI-2 severely damaged the reactor core and contaminated more than a million gallons of water. Subsequent activities created another million gallons of water. The damaged reactor core represented a new waste form and cleanup of the contaminated water and system components created other new waste forms requiring creative approaches to waste management. This paper focuses on technologies that were developed specific to fuel waste management, core debris shipping, processing accident generated water, and disposal of the resultant waste forms
Baide, D.G.; Webster, T.L.
The TWRS Characterization Project has developed a process and plan in order to identify, manage and control the risks associated with tank waste characterization activities. The result of implementing this process is a defined list of programmatic risks (i.e. a risk management list) that are used by the Project as management tool. This concept of risk management process is a commonly used systems engineering approach which is being applied to all TWRS program and project elements. The Characterization Project risk management plan and list are subset of the overall TWRS risk management plan and list
Radioactive waste produced in France vary considerably by their activity level, their half lives, their volume or even their nature. In order to manage them safely, the treatment and final disposal solution must be adapted to the type of waste considered by setting up specific waste management channels. A strong principle in France is that it is the responsibility of the nuclear operators as waste producers to dispose of their waste or have them disposed of in a suitable manner. The competent authorities regulate and control the radioactive waste management activities. At present, only short-lived low and intermediate level waste have a definitive solution, the surface repository, where adequate waste packages are disposed of in concrete structures. Other types of radioactive waste are in interim storage facilities at the production sites. For very low level waste coming mainly from dismantling of nuclear facilities a dedicated repository is planned to be built in the coming years. Dedicated repositories are also planned for radiferous, tritiated and graphite waste. As for high level waste and long-lived waste coming mainly from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel the disposal options are being sought along the lines specified by law 91-1381 concerning research on radioactive waste management, passed on December 30, 1991: research of solutions to partition and transmute long-lived radionuclides in the waste; studies of retrievable and non retrievable disposal in deep geological layers with the help of underground laboratories; studies of processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, the French Parliament will assess the results of the research conducted by ANDRA relative to deep geological disposal as well as the work conducted by CEA in the two other areas of research and, if this research is conclusive, pass a law defining the final disposal option. (author)
This report contains the findings and policy resolutions resulting from the Council's meeting. The texts of policy resolutions on radioactive waste transport, spent fuel storage, and high-level radioactive waste disposal test facilities are included. A draft legislation statement is presented in support of the establishment of a clear national policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal and management. A status report containing a summary of regional activities in the field of low-level radioactive wastes is presented
Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.
Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites
A strategy of actinide burnup in fast reactor systems has been investigated as an approach for reducing the long term hazards and storage requirements of the actinide waste elements and their decay daughters. The actinide recycle studies also included plutonium burnup studies in the event that plutonium is no longer required as a fuel. Particular emphasis was placed upon the timing of the recycle program, the requirements for separability of the waste materials, and the impact of the actinides on the reactor operations and performance. It is concluded that actinide recycle and plutonium burnout are attractive alternative waste management concepts. 25 refs., 14 figs., 34 tabs
During some 30 years of plutonium production, the Hanford Reservation has accumulated large quantities of low- and high-level radioactive wastes. The high-level wastes have been stored in underground tanks, and the low-level wastes have been percolated into the soil. In recent years some programs for solidification and separation of the high-level wastes have been initiated. The Hanford waste-management system was studied by a panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Academy of Sciences. The panel concluded that Hanford waste-management practices were adequate at present and for the immediate future but recommended increased research and development programs related to long-term isolation of the wastes. The panel also considered some alternatives for on-site disposal of the wastes. The Hanford Reservation was originally established for the production of plutonium for military purposes. During more than 30 years of operation, large volumes of high- and low-level radioactive wastes have been accumulated and contained at the site. The Management of these wastes has been the subject of controversy and criticism. To obtain a true technical evaluation of the Hanford waste situation, the Energy Research and Development Administration (now part of the Department of Energy) issued a contract to the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Councilto conduct an independent review and evaluation of the Hanford waste-management practices and plans. A panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) of the National Academy of Sciences conducted this study between the summer of 1976 and the summer of 1977. This article is a summary of the final report of that panel
Kiddee, Peeranart; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H.
Highlights: ► Human toxicity of hazardous substances in e-waste. ► Environmental impacts of e-waste from disposal processes. ► Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) to and solve e-waste problems. ► Key issues relating to tools managing e-waste for sustainable e-waste management. - Abstract: Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. This paper presents an overview of toxic substances present in e-waste, their potential environmental and human health impacts together with management strategies currently being used in certain countries. Several tools including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) have been developed to manage e-wastes especially in developed countries. The key to success in terms of e-waste management is to develop eco-design devices, properly collect e-waste, recover and recycle material by safe methods, dispose of e-waste by suitable techniques, forbid the transfer of used electronic devices to developing countries, and raise awareness of the impact of e-waste. No single tool is adequate but together they can complement each other to solve this issue. A national scheme such as EPR is a good policy in solving the growing e-waste problems
This Risk Management Plan defines the approach to be taken to manage programmatic risks in the TWRS Tank Waste Retrieval program. It provides specific instructions applicable to TWR, and is used to supplement the guidance given by the TWRS Risk Management procedure
Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.
Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed
McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)
Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs.
McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A.
Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs
M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah
Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.
One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities
Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.
The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1963 by an Act of Parliament, Act 204 for the Promotion, Development and Peaceful Application of Nuclear Techniques for the Benefit of Ghana. As in many developing countries the use of nuclear application is growing considerably in importance within the national economy. The Radiation Protection Board was established as the national regulatory authority and empowered by the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993). The above regulations, Act 204 and LI 1559 provided a minimum legal basis for regulatory control of radioactive waste management as it deals with waste management issues in a very general way and is of limited practical use to the waste producer. Hence the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre was established in July 1995 to carry out waste safety operations in Ghana. This paper highlights steps that have been taken to develop a systemic approach for the safe management of radioactive waste in the future and those already in existence. (author)
One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities
One important factor frustrating optimal management of DOE-complex wastes is inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities
ANSTO's Waste Management Action Plan is a five-year program which addresses legacy issues that have arisen from the accumulation of radioactive wastes at Lucas Heights over the last forty years. Following an extensive review of waste management practices, a detailed Action Plan was prepared involving seventeen projects in the areas of solid wastes, liquid wastes, control of effluents and emissions, spent reactor fuel and organisational issues. The first year of the Waste Management Action Plan has resulted in significant achievements, especially in the areas of improved storage of solid wastes, stabilisation of uranium scrap, commissioning and operation of a scanning system for low-level waste drums, treatment of intermediate-level liquid wastes and improvements in the methods for monitoring of spent fuel storage facilities. The main goal of the Waste Management Action Plan is to achieve consistency, by the year 2000, with best practice as identified in the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards and Guidelines currently under development by the IAEA
Full Text Available Present article focuses on social impact evaluation of waste management models such as social enterprises and municipal-oriented PP Partnership with participation of waste pickers’ cooperative and community in Pune, India. Data has been collected through interviewing waste pickers and social enterprise management personnel and focus group discussions. Our evaluation focuses on social aspects and system’s contribution to better quality of life. It also evaluates the working conditions of waste pickers. Our study further analyzes waste management’s aspects in relation to broader social and environmental issues such as urban public health. Research findings show that social enterprise practices are effective in increasing the income of waste pickers and efficient in collecting and segregating waste. It shows that the social enterprise model is working efficiently and encourages competition for better service quality. This article begins by explaining the social enterprises model and Public Private Partnership (PPP model and their techniques in handling waste management issues in India. It evaluates their social impact, profitability, and innovativeness. The social enterprise model has been analyzed in terms of its concepts, opportunities, potentiality, organization, shared value creation and recent developments. Finally we explored further on the model and systems to find out the best possible model to solve environmental issues and bring better quality life for the community.
Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.
This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report's information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report
This paper describes the approach used to support the management of environmental restoration (ER) waste. A general description is provided of the tools and techniques that have been developed and applied to produce waste generation forecast data and treatment, storage, and disposal capacity needs. The ER Program can now consistently manage ER waste streams from initial generation through ultimate disposal. Utilizing the valuable information that results from application of strategically planned systems and techniques demonstrates the ability to provide the necessary waste management support for the ER cleanup process
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
policy instruments used to promote CSR have been regulation, market-based instruments and voluntary agreements, but in recent years, policies have started to focus on education. Many different actors, such as business schools, businesses and governments, interact in shaping management education...... in management education policies, programs and practices. The aim of this paper is to make a first contribution to a critical analysis of the conceptions of CSR in management education policy. Based on a qualitative deconstructive analysis of management education policies, the paper identifies three main...... conceptions of CSR in management education policy and discusses their implications; a narrow economic conception of CSR, a broader economic conception of CSR and an all-encompassing systemic conception of CSR....
The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste
... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY... hazardous waste. The centrifuge solids are derived from the management and treatment of several F- and K... management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of waste generated, and waste variability. EPA believes...
... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule AGENCY... management and treatment of several F- and K-waste codes. These waste codes are F037, F038, K048, K049, K051... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities...
The report describes the wide-ranging program of engineering developments and applications to provide the Canadian nuclear industry with the knowledge and expertise it needs to conduct its waste management program. The need for interim dry storage of spent fuel, and the storage and ultimate disposal of waste from fuel reprocessing are examined. The role of geologic storage in AECL's current waste management program is also considered. (R.A.)
Jensen, Jacob Wagner
% of the organic and degradable material. Source sorting is another way of collecting the household waste in its respective fractions. However, this separation technique is hard to enforce and expensive. Future waste management calls for novel and efficient technologies for the separation of unsorted MSW in order......The work carried out during the Ph.D. project is part of the Danish Energy Authority funded research project called PSO REnescience and is focussed on studying the enzymatic hydrolysis and liquefaction of waste biomass. The purpose of studying the liquefaction of waste biomass is uniform slurry...... generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather...
Mahalingam, R.J.; Jayaraman, K.M.; Cunningham, A.J.; Meieran, H.B.; Zafrir, H.; Kroitoru, L.
This paper addresses the advent of mobile robotic systems into the earth sciences and environmental studies. It presents issues surrounding the rationale for employing stationary and mobile robots to assist in waste chemical site remediation and cleanup activities, missions that could be conducted, and the current availability status for these devices. This rationale is an extension of that being promoted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assist in resolving environmental restoration and waste management (ER and WM) issues associated with several DOE national laboratories, facilities, and other sites. DOE has also committed to restore the environment surrounding the existing storage facilities and sites to a safe state. Technologies that are expected to play a major role in these activities are stationary and mobile robotic devices, and in particular, mobile robots. Specific topics discussed in this article include: introduction to robotics: motivations for considering robots in HWM: incorporation of robotics into HWM methods--this subsection includes a rationale for performing a ''screening test'' to determine the advantages of using a robot; safety and performance factors; illustrations for robots in action and current and future trends
This presentation discusses some issues in the planning and execution of high-level waste (HLW) disposal. The topics are (1) Initial considerations, (2) Issues in structuring a programme, (3) Disposal concepts, (4) Geological environments, (5) Site selection and characterisation, (6) Waste transport, (7) Performance assessment methodology and application, (8) Some key issues. The options for spent fuel management can give rise to a variety of different wastes. The quantity of waste arising will affect the volume of rock required for deposition, both with respect to rock integrity and requirements for heat dissipation. A repository must not be considered in isolation from the rest of the waste management programme. The repository development plan should be supported by a schedule of activities and related funding mechanisms, implying a long-term commitment in policy terms, and should include a corresponding legal and regulatory framework. The idea that disposed waste might be retrieved by future generations for processing under new technology is discussed. Safeguards requirements on fissile material within spent fuel or any other wastes imply indefinite control. Disposal concepts include the geological environment and the engineered barrier system within it. Site selection involves several steps: regional-scale characterisation, local characterisation, hydrological studies, etc. Key issues are retrieval vs. safeguards, optimisation of repository design, reducing long programme timescales, international collaboration
This presentation discusses some issues in the planning and execution of high-level waste (HLW) disposal. The topics are (1) Initial considerations, (2) Issues in structuring a programme, (3) Disposal concepts, (4) Geological environments, (5) Site selection and characterisation, (6) Waste transport, (7) Performance assessment methodology and application, (8) Some key issues. The options for spent fuel management can give rise to a variety of different wastes. The quantity of waste arising will affect the volume of rock required for deposition, both with respect to rock integrity and requirements for heat dissipation. A repository must not be considered in isolation from the rest of the waste management programme. The repository development plan should be supported by a schedule of activities and related funding mechanisms, implying a long-term commitment in policy terms, and should include a corresponding legal and regulatory framework. The idea that disposed waste might be retrieved by future generations for processing under new technology is discussed. Safeguards requirements on fissile material within spent fuel or any other wastes imply indefinite control. Disposal concepts include the geological environment and the engineered barrier system within it. Site selection involves several steps: regional-scale characterisation, local characterisation, hydrological studies, etc. Key issues are retrieval vs. safeguards, optimisation of repository design, reducing long programme timescales, international collaboration.
Jones, Scotty W.; Dorries, Alison M.; Singledecker, Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Henckel, George [Los Alamos Site Office, MS-A316, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)
The waste management program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is undergoing significant transition to establish a lean highly functioning waste management program that will succeed the large environmental cleanup waste management program. In the coming years, the environmental cleanup activities will be mostly completed and the effort will change to long-term stewardship. What will remain in waste management is a smaller program focused on direct off-site shipping to cost-effectively enable the enduring mission of the laboratory in support of the national nuclear weapons program and fundamental science and research. It is essential that LANL implement a highly functioning efficient waste management program in support of the core missions of the national weapons program and fundamental science and research - and LANL is well on the way to that goal. As LANL continues the transition process, the following concepts have been validated: - Business drivers including the loss of onsite disposal access and completion of major environmental cleanup activities will drive large changes in waste management strategies and program. - A well conceived organizational structure; formal management systems; a customer service attitude; and enthusiastic managers are core to a successful waste management program. - During times of organizational transition, a project management approach to managing change in a complex work place with numerous complex deliverables is successful strategy. - Early and effective engagement with waste generators, especially Project Managers, is critical to successful waste planning. - A well-trained flexible waste management work force is vital. Training plans should include continuous training as a strategy. - A shared fate approach to managing institutional waste decisions, such as the LANL Waste Management Recharge Board is effective. - An efficient WM program benefits greatly from modern technology and innovation in managing waste data and
Jul 3, 2016 ... development of Hospital waste management plan, procurement of waste management materials, design and construction of special carte for on-site transportation. The initial successes from these steps facilitated the establishment of an Environmental Unit. Fortuitously, the Hospital became a recipient of.
Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.
Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this ...
Abstract. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective.
The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective. (author)
Valent, Philip J.; Palowitch, Andrew W.; Young, David K.
The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), with industry and academic participation, has completed a study of the concept of isolating industrial wastes (i.e., sewage sludge, fly ash from municipal incinerators, and dredged material) on the abyssal seafloor. This paper presents results of the technical and economic assessment of this waste management concept. The results of the environmental impacts portion of the study are presented in a companion paper. The technical assessment began with identification of 128 patents addressing waste disposal in the ocean. From these 128 patents, five methods for transporting wastes through the water column and emplacing wastes within an easily monitored area on the abyssal seafloor were synthesized for technical assessment. In one method waste is lowered to the seafloor in a bucket of 190 m 3. In a second method waste is pumped down to the seafloor in pipes, 1.37 m in diameter and 6100 m in length. In a third method waste is free-fallen from the ocean surface in 380-m 3 geosynthetic fabric containers (GFCs). In the fourth and fifth methods, waste is carried to near the seafloor in GFCs transported in (a) a 20,000 metric ton displacement (loaded), unpowered, unmanned submersible glider, or (b) a 2085 metric ton displacement (loaded) disk-shaped transporter traversing to and from the seafloor much like an untethered elevator. In the last two methods the transporter releases the GFCs to free-fall the last few hundred meters to the seafloor. Two reliability analyses, a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and a Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), showed that the free-fall GFC method posed the least overall relative risk, provided that fabric container and transporter designs eliminate the potential for tearing of the containers on release from the surface transporter. Of the five methods, the three GFC methods were shown to offer cost-effective waste management options when compared with present-day waste management
These appendixes complete the article BN3661 entitled 'Radioactive wastes. Management prospects'. They develop the principles of the different separation processes under study and make a status of the conditioning matrices that are envisaged: 1 - principles of advanced separation (separation of U, Np, Pu, Tc and I; separation of Am and Cm in two extraction steps (Diamex and Sanex processes); separation of Am and Cm in a single extraction step (Paladin process); separation of Am and Cm (Sesame process); separation of Cs (Calixarene process); 2 - principles of separation in pyro-chemistry: separation under inert atmosphere (non-oxidizing); separation in oxidizing conditions; 3 - conditioning matrices under study for separate elements: objectives and methodology, matrices for iodine, for cesium and for actinides. (J.S.)
Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James L., Jr.
A concept for a Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) has been developed based on the knowledge gained from over 50 years of space travel. It is being designed for Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and Multi ]Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and is based upon the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) commode. The UMWS was modified to enhance crew interface and reduce volume and cost. The UWMS will stow waste in fecal canisters, similar to the EDO, and urine will be stowed in bags for in orbit change out. This allows the pretreated urine to be subsequently processed and recovered as drinking water. The new design combines two fans and a rotary phase separator on a common shaft to allow operation by a single motor. This change enhances packaging by reducing the volume associated with an extra motor, associated controller, harness, and supporting structure. The separator pumps urine to either a dual bag design for COTS vehicles or directly into a water reclamation system. The commode is supported by a concentric frame, enhancing its structural integrity while further reducing the volume from the previous design. The UWMS flight concept development effort is underway and an early output of the development will be a ground based UMWS prototype for manned testing. Referred to as the Gen 3 unit, this prototype will emulate the crew interface included in the UWMS and will offer a great deal of knowledge regarding the usability of the new design, allowing the design team the opportunity to modify the UWMS flight concept based on the manned testing.
Edward L. Parsons, Jr.
The purpose of this report is to provide the office of Waste Management (WM) with recommended contingency calculation procedures for typical WM projects. Typical projects were defined as conventional construction-type activities that use innovative elements when necessary to meet the project objectives. Projects involve treatment, storage, and disposal of low level, mixed low level, hazardous, transuranic, and high level waste. Cost contingencies are an essential part of Total Cost Management. A contingency is an amount added to a cost estimate to compensate for unexpected expenses resulting from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties in the project scope (DOE 1994, AACE 1998). Contingency allowances are expressed as percentages of estimated cost and improve cost estimates by accounting for uncertainties. The contingency allowance is large at the beginning of a project because there are more uncertainties, but as a project develops, the allowance shrinks to adjust for costs already incurred. Ideally, the total estimated cost remains the same throughout a project. Project contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by lack of project definition, and process contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by use of new technology. Different cost estimation methods were reviewed and compared with respect to terminology, accuracy, and Cost Guide standards. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) methods for cost estimation were selected to represent best industry practice. AACE methodology for contingency analysis can be readily applied to WM Projects, accounts for uncertainties associated with different stages of a project, and considers both project and process contingencies and the stage of technical readiness. As recommended, AACE contingency allowances taper off linearly as a project nears completion
Conceptual processes and facilities for treating gaseous and various transuranium (TRU) wastes produced during the past fission portion of the light water reactor fuel cycle are described in volume 2. The goal of the treatment process for TRU wastes and for long-lived radionuclides removed from the gaseous waste streams is to convert these wastes to stable products suitable for placement in geologic isolation repositories. The treatment concepts are based on available technology. They do not necessarily represent an optimum design but are representative of what could be achieved with current technology. In actual applications it is reasonable to expect that there could be some improvement over these concepts that might be reflected in either lower costs or lower environmental impacts or both. These conceptual descriptions do provide a reasonable basis for cost analysis and for development of estimates of environmental impacts. The waste treatment technologies considered here include: high-level waste solidification, packaging of fuel residue, failed equipment and noncombustible waste treatment, general trash and combustible waste treatment, degraded solvent treatment, dilute aqueous waste pretreatment, immobilization of wet and solid wastes, off-gas particle removal systems, fuel reprocessing plant dissolver off-gas treatment, process off-gas treatment, and fuel reprocessing plant atmospheric protection system
Thomas, K.T.; Baehr, W.; Plumb, G.R.
The activities of the Agency in waste management have therefore laid emphasis on advising developing Member States on the management of wastes from the uses of radioactive materials. At the present time, developing countries are mostly concerned with the management of nuclear wastes generated from medical centres, research institutes, industrial facilities, mining operations, and research reactors. In certain instances, management of such wastes has lapsed causing serious accidents. Radiation source mismanagement has resulted in fatalities to the public in Mexico (1962), Algeria (1978), Morocco (1984), and Brazil (1987). The objective of these activities is to support the countries to develop the required expertise for self-sufficiency in safe management of radioactive wastes. What follows are details of the Agency mechanisms in place to meet the above objectives
In India, nuclear power generation programme and application of radioisotopes for health care and various other application is increasing steadily. With resultant increase in generation of radioactive waste, emphasis is on the minimization of generation of radioactive waste by deploying suitable processes and materials, segregation of waste streams at sources, recycle and re-use of useful components of waste and use of volume reduction techniques. The minimization of the radioactive waste is also essential to facilitate judicious use of the scarce land available for disposal, to reduce impact on the environment due to disposal and, finally to optimize the cost of radioactive waste management. This paper presents a bird's eye view of radioactive waste management programme in the country today
Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.
Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. Within this context, various aspects concerning design and operation are investigated.The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In 2000, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up, which is a surface experiment designed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory
Bowers, J.; Gates-Anderson, D.; Hollister, R.; Painter, S.
Site Treatment Plans (STPs) developed through the Federal Facilities Compliance Act pose many technical and administrative challenges. Legacy wastes managed under these plans require Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) compliance through treatment and ultimate disposal. Although capacity has been defined for most of the Department of Energy wastes, many waste streams require further characterization and many need additional treatment and handling beyond LDR criteria to be able to dispose of the waste. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Hazardous Waste Management Division has developed a comprehensive Legacy Waste Program. The program directs work to manage low level and mixed wastes to ensure compliance with nuclear facility rules and its STP. This paper provides a survey of work conducted on these wastes at LLNL. They include commercial waste treatment and disposal, diverse forms of characterization, inventory maintenance and reporting, on-site treatment, and treatability studies. These activities are conducted in an integrated fashion to meet schedules defined in the STP. The processes managing wastes are dynamic due to required integration of administrative, regulatory, and technical concerns spanning the gamut to insure safe proper disposal
The Waste Management Program is pleased to issue the Fiscal Year 1998 Progress Report presenting program highlights and major accomplishments of the last year. This year-end update describes the current initiatives in waste management and the progress DOE has made toward their goals and objectives, including the results of the waste management annual performance commitments. One of the most important program efforts continues to be opening the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic waste. A major success was achieved this year by the West Valley Demonstration Project in New York, which in June completed the project`s production phase of high-level waste processing ahead of schedule and under budget. Another significant accomplishment this year was the award of two privatization contracts for major waste management operations, one at Oak ridge for transuranic waste treatment, and one at Hanford for the Tank Waste Remediation System privatization project. DOE is proud of the progress that has been made, and will continue to pursue program activities that allow it to safely and expeditiously dispose of radioactive and hazardous wastes across the complex, while reducing worker, public, and environmental risks.
The Waste Management Program is pleased to issue the Fiscal Year 1998 Progress Report presenting program highlights and major accomplishments of the last year. This year-end update describes the current initiatives in waste management and the progress DOE has made toward their goals and objectives, including the results of the waste management annual performance commitments. One of the most important program efforts continues to be opening the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic waste. A major success was achieved this year by the West Valley Demonstration Project in New York, which in June completed the project's production phase of high-level waste processing ahead of schedule and under budget. Another significant accomplishment this year was the award of two privatization contracts for major waste management operations, one at Oak ridge for transuranic waste treatment, and one at Hanford for the Tank Waste Remediation System privatization project. DOE is proud of the progress that has been made, and will continue to pursue program activities that allow it to safely and expeditiously dispose of radioactive and hazardous wastes across the complex, while reducing worker, public, and environmental risks
Radioactive waste arises from the generation of nuclear energy and from the production of radioactive materials and their applications in industry, agriculture, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. Technical expertise is a prerequisite for safe and cost-effective management of radioactive waste. A training course is considered an effective tool for providing technical expertise in various aspects of waste management. The IAEA, in co-operation with national authorities concerned with radioactive waste management, has organized and conducted a number of radioactive waste management training courses. The results of the courses conducted by the IAEA in 1991-1995 have been evaluated at consultants meetings held in December 1995 and May 1996. This guidance document for use by Member States in arranging national training courses on the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear applications has been prepared as the result of that effort. The report outlines the various requirements for the organization, conduct and evaluation of training courses in radioactive waste management and proposes an annotated outline of a reference training course
We are pleased to present the 2001 Hanford Waste Management Program Strategic Plan. This plan supports the newly developed U. S. Department of Energy Site outcomes strategy. The 2001 Plan reflects current and projected needs for Waste Management Program services in support of Hanford Site cleanup, and updates the objectives and actions using new waste stream oriented logic for the strategic goals: (1) waste treatment/processing, storage, and disposal; (2) interfaces; and (3) program excellence. Overall direction for the Program is provided by the Waste Management Division, Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is the operating contractor for the program. This Plan documents proactive strategies for planning and budgeting, with a major focus on helping meet regulatory commitments in a timely and efficient manner and concurrently assisting us in completing programs cheaper, better and quicker. Newly developed waste stream oriented logic was incorporated to clarify Site outcomes. External drivers, technology inputs, treatment/processing, storage and disposal strategies, and stream specific strategies are included for the six major waste types addressed in this Plan (low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, contact-handled transuranic waste, remote-handled transuranic waste, liquid waste, and cesium/strontium capsules). The key elements of the strategy are identification and quantification of the needs for waste management services, assessment of capabilities, and development of cost-effective actions to meet the needs and to continuously improve performance. Accomplishment of specific actions as set forth in the Plan depends on continued availability of the required resources and funding. The primary objectives of Plan are: (1) enhance the Waste Management Program to improve flexibility, become more holistic especially by implementing new
Elsidig, N. O. A.
This study was conducted in Khartoum industrial area (KIA). The study discusses solid waste generation issues in KIA as well as solid waste collection, storage, transport and final disposal methods. A focus on environmental impact resulting from the accumulation of solid waste was presented by reviewing solid waste management in developed as well as developing countries starting from generation to final disposal. Environmental health legislation in Sudan was investigated. The study covers all the (eight) industrial sub-sectors presented in KIA. The main objective of the study is to assess the situation of solid waste in KIA. To fulfill the objectives of the study the researcher deemed it necessary to explore problems related to solid waste generation and solid waste arrangement with special emphasis on final disposal methods. Practically, 31 (thirty-one) factories representing the different industrial sub-sectors in KIA were studied. This represents 25% of the total number of factories located in KIA. Data were obtained by, questionnaires, interviews and observations mainly directed to concerned officials, solid waste workers, pickers and brokers. Obtained data were stored, coded, tabulated and analyzed using the computer systems (excel and SPSS programmes). The obtained results should clear deficiency in the management of solid waste which led to great environmental deterioration in KIA and neighboring residential areas. The environment in studied area is continuously polluted due to high pollution loads and unproved solid waste management. In order to maintain health environment operating factories have to pretreated their solid waste according to the recognized standards and waste minimization techniques such as recycling and re use should be widely applied, moreover, running crash programme for environmental sanitation in Khartoum state should be expanded and improved to include special characteristics of solid waste from industries. Finally, increase awareness
Ethical considerations will be important in making decisions about the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. Public discussions of nuclear fuel waste management are dominated by questions related to values, fairness, rights and responsibilities. To address public concerns, it is important to demonstrate that ethical responsibilities associated with the current management of the waste are being fulfilled. It is also important to show that our responsibilities to future generations can be met, and that ethical principles will be applied to the implementation of disposal. Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, as put forward in an Environmental Impact Statement by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is currently under public review by a Federal Environmental Assessment Panel. Following this review, recommendations will be made about the direction that Canada should take for the long-term management of this waste. This paper discusses the ethical principles that are seen to apply to geological disposal and illustrates how the Canadian approach to nuclear fuel waste management can meet the challenge of fulfilling these responsibilities. The author suggests that our ethical responsibilities require that adaptable technologies to site, design, construct, operate decommission and close disposal facilities should de developed. We cannot, and should not, present future generations from exercising control over what they inherit, nor control whether they modify or even reverse today's decisions if that is what they deem to be the right thing to do. (author)
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waste management for the USAP. 671.13 Section 671... WASTE REGULATION Waste Management § 671.13 Waste management for the USAP. (a) In order to provide a...) Radioactive material. (b) USAP shall prepare and annually review and update a waste management plan (including...
Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Moustakas, Konstantinos
This paper deals with the waste stream of household hazardous waste (HHW) presenting existing management systems, legislation overview and other relevant quantitative and qualitative information. European Union legislation and international management schemes are summarized and presented in a concise manner by the use of diagrams in order to provide crucial information on HHW. Furthermore, sources and types, numerical figures about generation, collection and relevant management costs are within the scope of the present paper. The review shows that the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in households is not clearly defined in legislation, while there is absence of specific acts regulating the management of HHW. The lack of obligation to segregate HHW from the household waste and the different terminology used makes it difficult to determine the quantities and composition of this waste stream, while its generation amount is relatively small and, therefore, is commonly overlooked in waste statistics. The paper aims to cover the gap in the related literature on a subject that is included within the crucial waste management challenges at world level, considering that HHW can also have impact on other waste streams by altering the redox conditions or causing direct reactions with other non hazardous waste substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conceptual facilities for interim storage of various treated transuranic (TRU) and gaseous wastes produced during fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are described in volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage of spent fuel prior to reprocessing or geologic isolation are also described. The storage concepts are based on available technology. They do not necessarily represent optimum designs, but are representative of what could be achieved with current capabilities. In actual applications it is reasonable to expect that there could be some improvements over these concepts, reflected in lower costs, lower environmental impacts, or both. These conceptual descriptions provide a reasonable basis for cost analysis and for development of estimates of environmental impacts. Sections are devoted to: storage of high-level liquid waste in large stainless steel tanks; two interim storage concepts for fuel residue waste (fuel hulls and hardware) waste storage; storage concepts for other nonhigh-level TRU waste; two alternatives for storage of solidified high-level waste; conceptual storage for large quantities of plutonium oxide; a concept for storing krypton gas cylinders; and alternatives for both short-term and extended storage of spent fuel
Bujoreanu, D.; Bujoreanu, L.
The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), subsidiary of the Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities has its own Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). The object of activity of STDR within the INR Pitesti is to treat and condition radioactive waste resulted from the nuclear facility. Also, it will must prepare and manage the decommissioning projects of its own facilities and to upgrade the facilities for the management of the radioactive waste resulting from other decommissioning activities. In according with the National Nuclear Program and the Governmental order no. 11/2003, the Institute for Nuclear Research is the main support for implementation of the methods and technologies for conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste generated by the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The classes and criteria of classification for radioactive waste generated in operation and decommissioning in Romania are established in compliance with the classification recommended by IAEA and generally valid in EU countries. The general classification takes into consideration the disposal requirements to isolate the radioactive waste from environment. In Romania, waste minimization is considered by Order No. 56/2004 of CNCAN President for approval of Fundamental regulations on the safe management of radioactive waste. According to this regulation, the generation of radioactive waste is to be kept to the minimum practicable level in terms of both its activity and volume through appropriate design measures, facility operation and decommissioning practices. In order to meet this requirement, the operator must ensure: - selection and control of materials; - recycling and reuse of materials, including clearance of materials; - implementing adequate operating procedures, including those referring to the physical, chemical and radiological characterization of the waste and sorting of different type of materials. (orig.)
Brunner, Paul H; Rechberger, Helmut
Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of "protection of men and environment" and "resource conservation". Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The public believes that there is a radioactive waste problem, but knowledge in the field is so well advanced that the only problem left is how to choose the most economically effective method among many available. Tailings from uranium ore processing could be made harmless by removing the majority of the radium and storing the remaining waste in well-designed retention areas. Non-fuel reactor wastes may be handled by incineraton, reverse osmosis, and evaporation in a central waste management centre. The dry storage of spent fuel in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)
Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis
The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....
Carnes, S.A.; Wolfe, A.K.
Implementation of waste management technologies has been hindered by the intervention of diverse interests. Relying on a perceived history of inadequate and improper management, operations, and technological design, critics have stymied the implementation of scientifically and governmentally approved technologies and facilities, leading to a critical shortage of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste management capacity. The research and development (R ampersand D) required to identify technologies that are simultaneously (1) scientifically valid, (2) economically sound, and (3) publicly acceptable must necessarily address, in an integrated and interdisciplinary manner, these three criteria and how best to achieve the integration of stakeholders early in the technology implementation process (i.e., R ampersand D, demonstration, and commercialization). The goal of this paper is to initiate an identification of factors likely to render radioactive and hazardous waste management technologies publicly acceptable and to provide guidance on how technological R ampersand D might be revised to enhance the acceptability of alternative waste management technologies. Principal among these factors are the equitable distribution of costs, risks, and benefits of waste management policies and technologies, the equitable distribution of authority for making waste management policy and selecting technologies for implementation, and the equitable distribution of responsibility for resolving waste management problems. Stakeholder participation in assessing the likely distribution of these factors and mitigative mechanisms to enhance their equitable distribution, together with stakeholder participation in policy and technology R ampersand D, as informed by stakeholder assessments, should enhance the identification of acceptable policies and technologies
Decommissioning policy can only be framed in the light of radioactive waste management policy. What can be done with the waste materials, how and when, will determine the overall decommissioning plans and costs. In this paper the waste management options and their costs are reviewed for the decommissioning of the Central Electricity Generating Boards civil nuclear power stations. The paper concentrates on the decommissioning of Magnox stations, although comparative information on waste volumes and costs are given for the AGR programme and a typical PWR. (author)
Radioactive waste management centers would satisfy the need for a cost-effective, sound management system for nuclear wastes by the industry and would provide a well integrated solution which could be understood by the public. The future demands for nuclear waste processing and disposal by industry and institutions outside the United States Government are such that a number of such facilities are required between now and the year 2000. Waste management centers can be organized around two general needs in the commercial sector: (1) the need for management of low-level waste generated by nuclear power plants, the once-through nuclear fuel cycle production facilities, from hospitals, and other institutions; and (2) more comprehensive centers handling all categories of nuclear wastes that would be generated by a nuclear fuel recycle industry. The basic technology for radioactive waste management will be available by the time such facilities can be deployed. This paper discusses the technical, economic, and social aspects of organizing radioactive waste managment centers and presents a strategy for stimulating their development
The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies
Smith, K.; Montoya, A.; Wieneke, R.; Wulff, D.; Smith, C.; Gruetzmacher, K.
This paper describes the new computer-based transuranic (TRU) Waste Management System (WMS) being implemented at the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Waste Management System is a distributed computer processing system stored in a Sybase database and accessed by a graphical user interface (GUI) written in Omnis7. It resides on the local area network at the Plutonium Facility and is accessible by authorized TRU waste originators, count room personnel, radiation protection technicians (RPTs), quality assurance personnel, and waste management personnel for data input and verification. Future goals include bringing outside groups like the LANL Waste Management Facility on-line to participate in this streamlined system. The WMS is changing the TRU paper trail into a computer trail, saving time and eliminating errors and inconsistencies in the process
An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework
Csullog, G.W.; Friedrich, V.; Miaw, S.T.W.; Tonkay, D.; Petoe, A.
The IAEA's Net Enabled Waste Management Database (NEWMDB) is an integral part of the IAEA's policies and strategy related to the collection and dissemination of information, both internal to the IAEA in support of its activities and external to the IAEA (publicly available). The paper highlights the NEWMDB's role in relation to the routine reporting of status and trends in radioactive waste management, in assessing the development and implementation of national systems for radioactive waste management, in support of a newly developed indicator of sustainable development for radioactive waste management, in support of reporting requirements for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, in support of IAEA activities related to the harmonization of waste management information at the national and international levels and in relation to the management of spent/disused sealed radioactive sources. (author)
ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina
Full Text Available The world population has doubled since the 60’s, now reaching 7 billion – it is estimated it will continue growing. If in more advanced economies, the population is starting to grow old and even reduce in numbers, in less developed countries, population numbers are registering a fast growth. Across the world, the ecosystems are exposed to critical levels of pollution in more and more complex combinations. Human activities, population growth and shifting patterns in consumer nature are the main factors that are at the base of thin ever-growing burden on our environment. Globalization means that the consumer and production patterns from a country or a region contribute to the pressures on the environment in totally different parts of the world. With the rise of environmental problems, the search for solutions also begun, such as methods and actions aimed to protect the environment and to lead to a better correlation between economic growth and the environment. The common goals of these endeavors from participating states was to come up with medium and long term regulations that would lead to successfully solving environmental issues. In this paper, we have analyzed the way in which countries started collaborating in the 1970’s at an international level in order to come up with a common policy that would have a positive impact on the environment. The European Union has come up with its own common policy, a policy that each member state must implement. In this context, Romania has developed its National Strategy for Waste Management, a program that Romania wishes to use to reduce the quantity of waste and better dispose of it.
The object of this report is to contribute towards establishing a national TRU waste disposal program by integrating the results of research and development work carried out by JNC and the electricity utilities and summarizing the findings concerning safe methods for TRU waste disposal. The report consists of 5 chapters: the first describes the boundary conditions for the review of the TRU waste disposal concept (including geological conditions) and the basic concept adopted; the second describes the generation and characteristics of TRU waste and the third outlines the disposal technology; the fourth gives the key of the safety assessment and the fifth presents the conclusions of the report and lists issues for future consideration. The geological environment of Japan is simply classified into crystalline and sedimentary rock types (in terms of groundwater flow properties and rock strength) and a set of target conditions/properties for each rock type is then established. Based on this, a case which represents the basis for performance assessment (the reference case) will be defined. Alternatives to the reference case are studied to investigate the flexibility of the disposal concept. Under the conditions assumed in this study, the perturbing events considered showed no significant effects on the dose at the 100 meter evaluation point, owing to the relatively high efficiency of the natural barrier. However, the significant effect of these events on nuclide from the EBS shows that, in the case of a less efficient natural barrier, their effects could influence resulting dose. (S.Y.)
Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly
The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.
Growing world population with increasing energy needs, especially in the developing countries, Threat of global warming due to CO 2 emissions demands non-fossil electricity production. Nuclear will have to be part of a sustainable mix of energy production options Figures show that 350 GWe worldwide capacity is 'nuclear'. Present worldwide spent fuel (containing high Pu inventory) and HLW would need large repositories. In view of the previous facts this lecture deals Partitioning and transmutation as radioactive waste management option. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is a complex technology i.e. advanced reprocessing, and demand transuranics fuel fabrication plants, as well as innovative and/or dedicated transmutation reactors. In addition to U, Pu, and 129 I, 'partitioning' extracts from the liquid high level waste the minor actinides (MA) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) 99-Tc, 93-Zr, 135-Cs, 107-Pd, and 79-Se). 'Transmutation' requires fully new fuel fabrication plants and reactor technologies to be developed and implemented on industrial scale. Present LWRs are not suited for MA and LLFP transmutation (safety consideration, plant operation, poor incineration capability). Only specially licensed LWRs can cope with MOX fuel; for increased Pu loadings (up to 100%), special reactor designs (e.g., ABB80+) are required; a combination of these reactor types could allow Pu inventory stabilization. Long-term waste radiotoxicity can be effectively reduced only if transuranics are 'incinerated' through fission with very hard neutron spectra. New reactor concepts (dedicated fast reactors, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), fusion/fission hybrid reactors) have been proposed as transmuters/incinerators. Significant Pu+MAs incineration rates can be achieved in symbiotic scenarios: LWR-MOX and dedicated fast reactors; fast neutron spectrum ADS mainly for MA incineration; very high thermal flux ADS concepts could also provide a significant transuranics
Kiddee, Peeranart; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H
Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. This paper presents an overview of toxic substances present in e-waste, their potential environmental and human health impacts together with management strategies currently being used in certain countries. Several tools including life cycle assessment (LCA), material flow analysis (MFA), multi criteria analysis (MCA) and extended producer responsibility (EPR) have been developed to manage e-wastes especially in developed countries. The key to success in terms of e-waste management is to develop eco-design devices, properly collect e-waste, recover and recycle material by safe methods, dispose of e-waste by suitable techniques, forbid the transfer of used electronic devices to developing countries, and raise awareness of the impact of e-waste. No single tool is adequate but together they can complement each other to solve this issue. A national scheme such as EPR is a good policy in solving the growing e-waste problems. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In Germany, rock salt was selected to host a repository for radioactive waste because of its excellent mechanical properties. During 12 years of practical disposal operation in the Asse mine and 25 years of disposal in the disused former salt mine Morsleben, it was demonstrated that low-level wastes (LLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW can be safely handled and economically disposed of in salt repositories without a great technical effort. LLW drums were stacked in old mining chambers by loading vehicles or emplaced by means of the dumping technique. Generally, the remaining voids were backfilled by crushed salt or brown coal filter ash. ILW were lowered into inaccessible chambers through a borehole from a loading station above using a remote control.Additionally, an in-situ solidification of liquid LLW was applied in the Morsleben mine. Concepts and techniques for the disposal of heat generating high-level waste (HLW are advanced as well. The feasibility of both borehole and drift disposal concepts have been proved by about 30 years of testing in the Asse mine. Since 1980s, several full-scale in-situ tests were conducted for simulating the borehole emplacement of vitrified HLW canisters and the drift emplacement of spent fuel in Pollux casks. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome has been investigated to prove its suitability to host the national final repository for all types of radioactive waste. The “Concept Repository Gorleben” disposal concepts and techniques for LLW and ILW are widely based on the successful test operations performed at Asse. Full-scale experiments including the development and testing of adequate transport and emplacement systems for HLW, however, are still pending. General discussions on the retrievability and the reversibility are going on.
History shows that waste management concepts have generally been overlooked during the planning stages of most projects and experiments. This is resulting,in the generation of vast amounts of waste during the clean up or D ampersand D of these facilities. Managers are not only being frustrated in their waste minimization efforts (a relatively new concept) but are also facing the prospect of not being able to dispose of the waste materials at all. At the least, managers are having to budget extraordinary amounts of time, money, and effort in defending their positions that the waste materials are not only humanly and environmentally safe, but that the waste materials are in fact what management says they are. The following discussion will attempt to provide some guidance to D ampersand D managers to help them avoid many of the common pitfalls associated with the ultimate disposal of the materials generated during these projects
The four main steps of waste management are: interim storage of spent fuel elements, reprocessing of spent fuels and recycling of recovered nuclear materials, direct, ultimate disposal of waste that cannot or should not be reprocessed for technical or economic reasons, disposal of radioactive waste. The expert opinion focusses on ultimate disposal as the most problematic step, stating the legal problems arising from ultimate disposal being carried out by private, licensed contractors, or completely under civil law, discussing the two possibilities also from the point of view of constitutional law and legal policy. Other aspects examined are: distribution of responsibilities, harmonization and systematization of legal provisions; principles to be applied to an evidence to be produced for due waste management; the financing of ultimate disposal: special levies, licence fees, taxes, levies for pollution control. The expert opinion considers special levies as a control measure to be the right instrument in case of ultimate disposal being placed into private hands. (HSCH) [de
A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a cement wasteform, saltstone, and placed in surface vaults. Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Planning for new Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal could incorporate concepts developed for saltstone disposal
This report consists of a broad overview of activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The following topics are discussed: The growth of the waste management group; what we do today; the mission of the waste management group; the liquid waste treatment section; the radioactive liquid waste project office; the chemical waste section; the radioactive waste section; and the technical support section
Scientists, governments, and the general public have devoted considerable attention to the subject of radioactive waste over the past 35 years. The subject has gained even more attention of late, owing to heightened awareness of environmental protection. Potential transboundary effects have further added to this interest, which today extends beyond local domains to regional and global levels. Almost all of the IAEA's Member States generate some radioactive wastes. The type of waste they produce varies, however, as do the quantities, which range from a few grams to several hundred tonnes of wastes per year. This article will summarize the status of waste management and disposal activities in IAEA Member States as well as providing a brief background on what radioactive waste is, where it comes from, and how it is managed
Lemmers, R. (2009). Knowledge Management in TENCompetence: concepts & tools. Presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event. November, 19, 2009, Manchester, United Kingdom: TENCompetence.
Online). Globalization and Management: Issues and Concepts. (Pp.96-110) ... attention of scholars apart from economic issues such as trade, labour practices, the emergent dominance of .... starvation for the workers (Michel, 2003). 3. The shift to ...
Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.
Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)
Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.
Rangeland management strategies must be based on robust ecological and economic concepts if they are to be effective and profitable. Thus, the aim of this paper was to examine concepts related to grazing and resting of grassland and associated effects on grassland productivity and energy flow to livestock. Our review ...
Bisinella, Valentina; Götze, Ramona; Conradsen, Knut
The composition of waste materials has fundamental influence on environmental emissions associated with waste treatment, recycling and disposal, and may play an important role also for the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of waste management solutions. However, very few assessments include effects...... of the waste composition and waste LCAs often rely on poorly justified data from secondary sources. This study systematically quantifiesy the influence and uncertainty on LCA results associated with selection of waste composition data. Three archetypal waste management scenarios were modelled with the waste...... tool for systematically assessing the importance of waste composition and for consciously collecting and using waste composition data within LCAs of waste management systems....
Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.
In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ''Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?'' That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation's mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation's mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ''Which mixed waste has no treatment option?'' Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology
Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)
In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.
Pasche, S; Schrappe, M
The topic "quality" has gained importance during recent years due to increasing interest of the society, insurances, governmental institutions and, last not least, those who are involved in health care themselves. The terms and notions, which mostly are adopted from the industry, are not at all self-explaining. Clarifications not only serve to avoid misinterpretations. The efficiency and power of the underlying concepts can not be recognized without introduction into the proper terminology.
Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant
Huang, Z.; Gu, S.X.
The several years experience of radioactive waste management in Shanghai of China shows that the centralized management is quite successful and effective. Rad waste generated in urban area would be treated with further concern in the respect of radiation and environmental protection. In this respect, there is a need for a professional organisation to undertake the necessary regulation, and demonstrate that high standards of design, planning, management and operation could be met. The experience in China is suitable to manage and dispose rad waste generated from the civil applications in urban area, and valuable to the developing country and area in particular. It is concluded that the centralized management of intermediate level and low level radioactive waste is an optimum choice for urban area
Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)
Stapleton, Thomas J.; Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James L., Jr.
NASA is working with a number of commercial companies to develop the next low Earth orbit spacecraft. The hardware volume and weight constraints are similar to or greater than those of the Apollo era. This, coupled with the equally demanding cost challenge of the proposed commercial vehicles, causes much of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designs to be reconsidered. The Waste Collection System (WCS) is within this group of ECLSS hardware. The development to support this new initiative is discussed within. A WCS concept - intended to be common for all the vehicle platforms currently on the drawing board - is being developed. The new concept, referred to as the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), includes favorable features from previous designs while improving on other areas on previous Space Shuttle and the existing International Space Station (ISS) WCS hardware, as needed. The intent is to build a commode that requires less crew time, improved cleanliness, and a 75% reduction in volume and weight compared to the previous US ISS/Extended Duration Orbitor WCS developed in the 1990s. The UWMS is most similar to the ISS Development Test Objective (DTO) WCS design. It is understood that the most dramatic cost reduction opportunity occurs at the beginning of the design process. To realize this opportunity, the cost of each similar component between the UWMS and the DTO WCS was determined. The comparison outlined were the design changes that would result with the greatest impact. The changes resulted in simplifying the approach or eliminating components completely. This initial UWMS paper will describe the system layout approach and a few key features of major components. Future papers will describe the UWMS functionality, test results, and components as they are developed.
Full Text Available Modern transformations prevailing inUkrainein the sphere of land relations and the use and protection of land are critical and require changes without final rozrushennya existing system of land management, the reform and a new understanding of the nature and forms of modern land management. Given that land management is a fundamental mechanism for land management and land use, in our opinion its reform and development should be seen in close relationship with the development of management system. Problems in the theory of management of land resources, especially its main land managers in different socio-economic communities is extremely important because the efficiency of its operation is not the most important in the economic relations of land ownership. However, for more than 25 years the implementation of land reform inUkrainegovernment has not decided as of model management and land management systems. Functioning system of land management and land use inUkraineon a "top - down" is derived from the authoritarian system of the state, theSoviet Unionand there is not a market. Similarly unchanged system of land management, which is why the task was made research its current state for further scientific studies integrated management system. It is studied modern land management in Ukraine and proved the concept and essence of contemporary land in Ukraine as a multifunctional system, which requires besides the concepts of "social land management", "economy of land", "legal land management", "technical land management", such as "environmental land management", " innovation in land management", "cadastral land management", "ecological and economic land management". A new concept of land as the overall socio-economic, environmental measures and organizational, legal and technical actions aimed at regulating land relations and rational organization of the territory of the administrative-territorial entities, entities committed under the influence of
Burton, B.W.; Gutschick, V.P.; Perkins, B.A.
After reviewing the environmental control technologies associated with Department of Energy nuclear waste management programs, we have identified the most urgent problems requiring further action or follow-up. They are in order of decreasing importance: (1) shallow land disposal technology development; (2) active uranium mill tailings piles; (3) uranium mine dewatering; (4) site decommissioning; (5) exhumation/treatment of transuranic waste at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; (6) uranium mine spoils; and (7) medical/institutional wastes. 7 figures, 33 tables
In 1976, the SENA (with the participation of EDF, CEA and CEC in the framework of a research program on the management and storage of radioactive wastes) has developed an industrial pilot plant for the encapsulation of wastes in thermosetting polyester resins. The industrial putting in operation of the plant will enable most of the wastes from the nuclear station to be processed. The quality of products will be improved and the volume and processing cost reduced
The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are described. Recycling actinides through reactors is being studied. Low and medium level waste treatments such as reverse osmosis concentration, immobilization in bitumen and plastics, and incineration are under study. Spent fuel can be stored dry in concrete canisters above ground and ultimate storage of wastes in salt deposits or hard rock is appropriate to Canadian conditions. (E.C.B.)
This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and managerial requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health and safety (EH and S) aspects of the Commercial Waste Management Program (CWM). Environment is defined in its broadest sense to include environmental, health (occupational and public), safety, socioeconomic, legal and institutional aspects. This plan addresses certain present and potential Federal responsibilities for the storage, treatment, transfer and disposal of radioactive waste materials produced by the nuclear power industry. The handling and disposal of LWR spent fuel and processed high-level waste (in the event reprocessing occurs) are included in this plan. Defense waste management activities, which are addressed in detail in a separate EDP, are considered only to the extent that such activities are common to the commercial waste management program. This EDP addresses three principal elements associated with the disposal of radioactive waste materials from the commercial nuclear power industry, namely Terminal Isolation Research and Development, Spent Fuel Storage and Waste Treatment Technology. The major specific concerns and requirements addressed are assurance that (1) radioactivity will be contained during waste transport, interim storage or while the waste is considered as retrievable from a repository facility, (2) the interim storage facilities will adequately isolate the radioactive material from the biosphere, (3) the terminal isolation facility will isolate the wastes from the biosphere over a time period allowing the radioactivity to decay to innocuous levels, (4) the terminal isolation mode for the waste will abbreviate the need for surveillance and institutional control by future generations, and (5) the public will accept the basic waste management strategy and geographical sites when needed
Information Resource Management (ERM) is the label given to the various approaches used to foster greater accountability for the use of computing resources. It is a corporate philosophy that treats information as it would its other resources. There is a reorientation from simply expenditures to considering the value of the data stored on that hardware. Accountability for computing resources is expanding beyond just the data processing (DP) or management information systems (MIS) manager to include senior organization management and user management. Management`s goal for office automation is being refocused from saving money to improving productivity. A model developed by Richard Nolan (1982) illustrates the basic evolution of computer use in organizations. Computer Era: (1) Initiation (computer acquisition), (2) Contagion (intense system development), (3) Control (proliferation of management controls). Data Resource Era: (4) Integration (user service orientation), (5) Data Administration (corporate value of information), (6) Maturity (strategic approach to information technology). The first three stages mark the growth of traditional data processing and management information systems departments. The development of the IRM philosophy in an organization involves the restructuring of the DP organization and new management techniques. The three stages of the Data Resource Era represent the evolution of IRM. This paper examines each of them in greater detail.
Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)
The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3427 sites and 564 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.
Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)
The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3438 sites and 569 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.
Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)
The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2012 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3389 sites and 540 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.
Many laboratories in universities, colleges, research institutions and hospitals produce radioactive wastes. The recently-coined term for them is small users of radioactive materials, to distinguish them from concerns such as the nuclear industry. Until recently the accepted official view was that small users had few problems in disposing of their radioactive wastes. This misconception was dispelled in 1991 by the 12th Annual Report of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee. This book includes a description of the principles of the management and disposal of radioactive wastes from these laboratories. Its main intention, however, is to provide practical information and data for laboratory workers as well as for those responsible for management and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. I hope that it succeeds in this intention. (UK)
The Federal Republic of Germany intends to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. This waste comprises spent fuel elements, vitrified fission product solution, nuclear power plant operational and decommissioning waste as well as spent sealed radiation sources and miscellaneous waste originating from small waste generators. The Atomic Energy Act gives the responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste to the Federal Government with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection) as the legally responsible authority. The Federal Government has made a pronounced change in energy policy since 1998, the most important feature of which is the abandoning or phasing out of nuclear energy. It is intended to irreversibly phase out nuclear energy use for electricity generation. Essential (basic) steps are the agreement which was achieved by the Federal Government and the utilities on June 14, 2000, and signed on June 11, 2001, and the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. (orig.)
A policy for spent fuel and radioactive waste management should include a set of goals or requirements to ensure the safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste in the country. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. The spent fuel and radioactive waste management strategy sets out the means for achieving the goals and requirements set out in the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant waste owner or nuclear facility operator, or by government (institutional waste). Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategy components. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of radioactive waste, countries are advised to formulate appropriate policies and strategies. A typical policy should include the following elements: defined safety and security objectives, arrangements for providing resources for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, identification of the main approaches for the management of the national spent fuel and radioactive waste categories, policy on export/import of radioactive waste, and provisions for public information and participation. In addition, the policy should define national roles and responsibilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management. In order to formulate a meaningful policy, it is necessary to have sufficient information on the national situation, for example, on the existing national legal framework, institutional structures, relevant international obligations, other relevant national policies and strategies, indicative waste and spent fuel inventories, the availability of resources, the situation in other countries and the preferences of the major interested parties. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set out in the policy statement. For its formulation, detailed information is needed on the current situation in the country
In the first Five-Year Plan, written in 1989, the Department of Energy (DOE) committed to rapidly bringing all operating facilities into compliance with applicable laws and regulations and to cleaning up the 1989 inventory of contaminated inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. This FY 1993--1997 Five-Year Plan moves the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) one step closer to this 30-year goal. The overall EM strategy has three thrusts. First, where risk assessment shows an actual or potential threat to human health and safety -- do immediately whatever is possible to reduce, mitigate, stabilize, and confine the threat. Second, where nobody knows how to solve a problem (as distinct from merely preventing it from getting worse) -- act decisively to develop methods to do it right the first time. Third, where compliance and cleanup must proceed with or without next-generation technologies -- plan, with affected parties and within the provisions of Interagency Agreements, the work to be accomplished and its schedule. This third Five-Year Plan discusses current EM program accomplishments, what the program intends to achieve over the next 5 years, and where it needs to be heading in order to meet its 30-year and other environmental goals
... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities... Tokusen will be disposed at a RCRA Subtitle D landfill: The Waste Management Industrial Landfill, North...
... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY..., plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of waste generated, and...) Historical information on waste generation and management practices; and (2) Analytical results from five...
Information Resource Management (ERM) is the label given to the various approaches used to foster greater accountability for the use of computing resources. It is a corporate philosophy that treats information as it would its other resources. There is a reorientation from simply expenditures to considering the value of the data stored on that hardware. Accountability for computing resources is expanding beyond just the data processing (DP) or management information systems (MIS) manager to include senior organization management and user management. Management's goal for office automation is being refocused from saving money to improving productivity. A model developed by Richard Nolan (1982) illustrates the basic evolution of computer use in organizations. Computer Era: (1) Initiation (computer acquisition), (2) Contagion (intense system development), (3) Control (proliferation of management controls). Data Resource Era: (4) Integration (user service orientation), (5) Data Administration (corporate value of information), (6) Maturity (strategic approach to information technology). The first three stages mark the growth of traditional data processing and management information systems departments. The development of the IRM philosophy in an organization involves the restructuring of the DP organization and new management techniques. The three stages of the Data Resource Era represent the evolution of IRM. This paper examines each of them in greater detail.
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management plan. 60.55c Section... Waste Incinerators for Which Construction is Commenced After June 20, 1996 § 60.55c Waste management plan. The owner or operator of an affected facility shall prepare a waste management plan. The waste...
Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.
The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information.
Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.
The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information
In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, archival and dissemination of information about radioactive waste management in Member States. This current report is a summary and compilation of waste management collected from Member States from February 1998 to December 1999 in response to the Agency's 1997/98 WMDB Questionnaire. Member States were asked to report waste accumulations up to the end of 1996 and to predict waste accumulations up to the end of 2014
Hancox, R.; Butterworth, G.J.
Fusion reactors based on the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle will generate radioactive waste as a result of neutron irradiation of the structural materials and absorption of the tritium fuel. An important issue is whether the volume of this waste and the risks associated with it can be reduced to a sufficiently low level that the environmental advantage of fusion can be maintained without incurring unacceptable additional costs. Information is presented on the radioactive waste expected from the decommissioning of three generations of fusion devices - the JET experiment, NET, and power reactors. The characteristics and probable volumes of this waste are considered, together with the risks associated with its disposal. (orig.)
The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC 1984). This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in this report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. The information in this report is extracted from the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The WIDS provides additional information concerning the waste management units contained in this report and is maintained current with changes to these units. This report is updated annually if determined necessary per the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990). This report identifies 1,414 waste management units. Of these, 1,015 units are identified as solid waste management units (SWMU), and 342 are RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal units. The remaining 399 are comprised mainly of one-time spills to the environment, sanitary waste disposal facilities (i.e., septic tanks), and surplus facilities awaiting decontamination and decommissioning
To assist research projects in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Prgram, a compilation has been made of all the nuclides that are likely to be present in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault and that are potentially hazardous to man during the post-closure phase. The compilation includes radiologically toxic and chemically toxic nuclides
The basis of classification of solid radioactive wastes is described, with reference to definitions used in France, UK and USA. By surveying the plans and the facilities for managing each type of waste in a number of countries, the general trends in technical approach are identified
This report is the sixth in the series of annual reports on the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The report summarizes progress in 1984 for the following activities: storage and transportation of used fuel, immobilization of nuclear fuel waste, geotechnical research, environmental research, and environmental and safety assessment. 186 refs
The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...
This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.
Phillips, J. A.
This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.
McNair, G.W.; Shay, M.R.; Fletcher, J.F.; Cashwell, J.W.
The WASTES logistics model is a simulation language based model for analyzing the logistic flow of spent fuel/nuclear waste throughout the waste management system. The model tracks the movement of spent fuel/nuclear waste from point of generation to final destination. The model maintains inventories of spent fuel/nuclear waste at individual reactor sites as well as at various facilities within the waste management system. A maximum of 14 facilities may be utilized within a single run. These 14 facilities may include any combination of the following facilities: (1) federal interim storage (FIS), (2) reprocessing (REP), (3) monitored retrievable storage (MRS), (4) geological disposal facilities (GDF). The movement of spent fuel/nuclear waste between these facilities is controlled by the user specification of loading and unloading rates, annual and maximum capacities and commodity characteristics (minimum age or heat constraints) for each individual facility. In addition, the user may specify varying levels of priority on the spent fuel/nuclear waste that will be eligible for movement within a given year. These levels of priority allow the user to preferentially move spent fuel from reactor sites that are experiencing a loss of full-core-reserve (FCR) margin in a given year or from reactors that may be in the final stages of decommissioning. The WASTES model utilizes the reactor specific data available from the PNL spent fuel database. This database provides reactor specific information on items such as spent fuel basin size, reactor location, and transportation cask preference (i.e., rail or truck cask). In addition, detailed discharge data is maintained that provides the number of assemblies, metric tons, and exposure for both historic and projected discharges at each reactor site
Plubcharoensuk, Patsarporn; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Shimaoka, Takayuki; 中山, 裕文; 島岡, 隆行
Material flow analysis (MFA) is an excellent tool in supporting decision making regarding waste management problems. MFA allows the calculation of the amount and composition of wastes by balancing the process of waste generation and the process of waste treatment. MFA can be used to analyze wastes flow because inputs-outputs of waste treatment can be linked. The industrial waste management system in Thailand is still lacking comprehensive data on industrial waste generation and flow. Therefor...
A detailed account is given of recent technical and political activities in West Germany in connexion with nuclear waste management - plans for reprocessing plant, storage and final disposal. Headings are: historical and organizational introduction; waste disposal concept (including political activities of federal and state governments); the Gorleben Hearing (concerning reprocessing); the consequences of political and scientific opposition; reprocessing makes a fast come-back 1980-1983; new concepts - new risks (proposals for spent fuel storage and reprocessing); reprocessing experience; new toxicity (reference to ICRP-30); why reprocessing; intermediate storage of spent fuel and other wastes; development of final disposal 1979 to 1983 (particular reference to Gorleben salt dome); safety of final disposal - the million-year-gamble. (U.K.)
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its subsequent amendments have had a dramatic impact on hazardous waste management for business and industry. The complexity of this law and the penalties for noncompliance have made it one of the most challenging regulatory programs undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The fundamentals of RCRA include ''cradle to grave'' management of hazardous waste, covering generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The regulations also address extensive definitions and listing/identification mechanisms for hazardous waste along with a tracking system. Treatment is favored over disposal and emphasis is on ''front-end'' treatment such as waste minimization and pollution prevention. A study of large corporations such as Xerox, 3M, and Dow Chemical, as well as the public sector, has shown that well known and successful hazardous waste management programs emphasize pollution prevention and employment of techniques such as proactive environmental management, environmentally conscious manufacturing, and source reduction. Nearly all successful hazardous waste programs include some aspects of Total Quality Management, which begins with a strong commitment from top management. Hazardous waste management at the Rocky Flats Plant is further complicated by the dominance of ''mixed waste'' at the facility. The mixed waste stems from the original mission of the facility, which was production of nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy (DOE). A Quality Assurance Program based on the criterion in DOE Order 5700.6C has been implemented at Rocky Flats. All of the elements of the Quality Assurance Program play a role in hazardous waste management. Perhaps one of the biggest waste management problems facing the Rocky Flats Plant is cleaning up contamination from a forty year mission which focused on production of nuclear weapon components
Kirk, Nancy [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its subsequent amendments have had a dramatic impact on hazardous waste management for business and industry. The complexity of this law and the penalties for noncompliance have made it one of the most challenging regulatory programs undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The fundamentals of RCRA include ``cradle to grave`` management of hazardous waste, covering generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The regulations also address extensive definitions and listing/identification mechanisms for hazardous waste along with a tracking system. Treatment is favored over disposal and emphasis is on ``front-end`` treatment such as waste minimization and pollution prevention. A study of large corporations such as Xerox, 3M, and Dow Chemical, as well as the public sector, has shown that well known and successful hazardous waste management programs emphasize pollution prevention and employment of techniques such as proactive environmental management, environmentally conscious manufacturing, and source reduction. Nearly all successful hazardous waste programs include some aspects of Total Quality Management, which begins with a strong commitment from top management. Hazardous waste management at the Rocky Flats Plant is further complicated by the dominance of ``mixed waste`` at the facility. The mixed waste stems from the original mission of the facility, which was production of nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy (DOE). A Quality Assurance Program based on the criterion in DOE Order 5700.6C has been implemented at Rocky Flats. All of the elements of the Quality Assurance Program play a role in hazardous waste management. Perhaps one of the biggest waste management problems facing the Rocky Flats Plant is cleaning up contamination from a forty year mission which focused on production of nuclear weapon components.
George H. Stankey; Roger N. Clark; Bernard T. Bormann
This report reviews the extensive and growing literature on the concept and application of adaptive management. Adaptive management is a central element of the Northwest Forest Plan and there is a need for an informed understanding of the key theories, concepts, and frameworks upon which it is founded. Literature from a diverse range of fields including social learning...
The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 , stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs
Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes
Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.
This report summarizes the important results achieved in conjunction with the Research and Development Priority ''Alternative Waste Management Techniques'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology from 1981 to 1984. The subject of these studies was solely ''direct disposal'' of spent fuel elements. For this purpose a reference concept was selected from a variety of possible processes and engineered in detailed form by firms in the nuclear industry. Those who worked on the engineering concepts consider this waste management method technically feasible. Several disposal casks have been fabricated. The basic licensability of direct disposal can be evaluated on the basis of the documentation developed by the companies. The direct disposal method was compared with the ''integrated waste management concept'' using reference fuel cycles with respect to the following criteria: radiological safety and nuclear material safeguards and, in addition, economic and energy-policy aspects. It was found that with respect to radiological safety, including the long-term safety of the final repository, there are no significant differences between the two fuel cycles with and without reprocessing. With respect to the nuclear material safeguards of a final repository containing spent fuel elements, there are still a number of unanswered questions. From an economic standpoint, direct disposal will be more economical in the foreseeable future than integrated waste management. Quantification of the effects of one or the other waste management method on the national economy is not necessarily possible. Reprocessing is supported primarily by technological and energy-policy considerations. On the basis of the results, the conclusion is reached that reprocessing should be pursued further, but that at the same time direct disposal should be developed to the point of practical maturity