WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste liquors production

  1. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M; Ribeaux, Daylin R; Luna, Marcos A C; Lima E Silva, Thayse A; Andrade, Rosileide F Silva; Gusmão, Norma B; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2016-09-23

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2² experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10⁷ cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm² of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  2. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M.; Ribeaux, Daylin R.; Luna, Marcos A. C.; Lima e Silva, Thayse A.; Andrade, Rosileide F. Silva; Gusmão, Norma B.; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 22 experimental designs with 1% inoculums (107 cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2–5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm2 of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources. PMID:27669227

  3. The Conversion of Waste Scrubbing Liquor into Fertilizer,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    disposed of as a hazardous waste. However, this waste liquor can be converted into nitrate fertilizer by oxidizing the nitrite to nitrate with ozone and...necessary for converting unwanted, partially depleted scrubbing liquor into nitrate fertilizer . It is concluded that the Hydrazine Waste Water...Treatment System at Vandenberg Air Force Base can be used, with only slight modification, to both oxidize and neutralize waste liquor and thereby convert it to fertilizer .

  4. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  5. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  6. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2.

  7. Mesophilic batch anaerobic co-digestion of pulp and paper sludge and monosodium glutamate waste liquor for methane production in a bench-scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunqin; Wang, Dehan; Li, Qing; Xiao, Minquan

    2011-02-01

    This paper presented results from anaerobic co-digestion of pulp and paper sludge (PPS) and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). A bench-scale anaerobic digester, 10 L in volume was developed, to operate under mesophilic (37 ± 2°C) batch condition. Under versatile and reliable anaerobic conduct, high efficiency for bioconversion of PPS and MGWL were obtained in the system. The accumulative methane yield attained to 200 mL g(-1) VS(added) and the peak value of methane daily production was 0.5m(3)/(m(3)d). No inhibitions of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia on anaerobic co-digestion were found. pH 6.0-8.0 and alkalinity 1000-4000 mg CaCO(3)/L were got without adjustment. This work showed that there was a good potential to the use of PPS and MGWL to anaerobic co-digestion for methane production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of sulfite waste liquor from the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayek, E.

    1980-10-10

    Spent sulfite liquor was treated with H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ heated to remove SO/sub 2/ and other volatiles, neutralized with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, and filtered to give filtrate for use in fermentation and energy recovery by burning. Thus, a mixture of 100 volatile waste sulfite liquor with 12% solids content and 1 volatile 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 5/ was evaporated under air flow, the residue was neutralized with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ and filtered to give product consisting of soluble lignosulfonates and carbohydrates.

  9. Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

  10. 环己酮生产中皂化废碱液处理新工艺%A Novel Treatment Process of the Saponification Waste Alkali Liquor in Cyclohexanone Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文岗; 陈志斌

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel treatment process.chemical method,which utilizes comprehensively the saponification waste alkali liquor in cyclohexanone production.The treatments of waste water,waste gas and waste solid generated during the treating process are introduced as well.As compared with burning method,the existing industrial process,the chemical method is better both in economy and in environment-protecting and is worth to be applied widely,for it has less investment,pollution degree and operation cost with recovery of the valuable products.%介绍了一种综合利用环己酮生产中皂化废碱液的新工艺(化学法)及其处理过程中废水、废气及废渣的处理方法,与现有工业处理方法(焚烧法)相比,该方法投资省、污染小、运营费用低、回收物价值高,无论在经济方面还是在环保方面,均具有明显优势,值得推广.同时,指出了需要完善和改进的地方.

  11. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  12. In vitro effects of Monascus purpureus on antioxidation activity during fermentation of Kinmen sorghum liquor waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Shiu; Hu, Hung-Hsi; Tsai, Ya-Mei; Chang, Wen-Teish

    2013-04-01

    Monascus purpureus CWT715 is a strain of red yeast rice that can scavenge free radicals when fermented with residual sorghum from Kinmen sorghum liquor waste (KSL). This study used KSL as the primary nutrient source in the production of metabolites from M. purpureus CWT715, whose antioxidant activity was tested on mouse embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2). Image analysis of a comet assay was performed to evaluate DNA strand breaks, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) analysis was used to measure lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate that, compared with the control, M. purpureus CWT715 pretreated with 100 μg/ml of fermentation broth reduced DNA damage by 61% and lipid peroxidation by 51%. Thus, KSL shows considerable potential as an antioxidant in functional foods. This is the first report on the use of Monascus species in the conversion of KSL to produce antioxidants.

  13. Efficiency of 72h- fermented corn waste liquor as a potential source for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okafor

    corn waste liquor as a rich source for probiotic LAB was evaluated. ... steeped water was decanted and the fermenting grains were re-washed with sterile .... In: Proceedings of Workshop on Biotechnology and Nigeria‟s Industrial Development ... European. Journal of Gastroenterology and Herpetology, 13(10): 1143-1147.

  14. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  15. Genoprotective effects of lignin isolated from oil palm black liquor waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Prashantha; Rozman, Hj Din; Bhat, Rajeev

    2013-07-01

    Black liquor waste (BLW), a major by-product of palm oil extraction process contains lignin as one of the constituents. Lignin isolated from BLW was evaluated for antioxidant and genoprotective properties and was compared with the commercial lignin for overall efficacy. Antioxidant compounds (phenolics and tannins) and antioxidant activities (phosphomolybdenum assay, ABTS(+) and FRAP assays) of lignin isolated from BLW were compared with commercial lignin. Bone marrow micronucleus (MN) test was employed for evaluating the dose-yield protective effect against cyclophosphamide (CP, 50mg/kg b.w.) induced genotoxicity in mouse. Results revealed isolated lignin to exhibit rich antioxidant activities. A decrease in MN frequency and recovery of P/N ratio (P: polychromatic erythrocytes, N: normochromatic erhythocytes) indicated protective effects of lignin against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. The efficacy of BLW-derived lignin as an antioxidant and genoprotective agent was comparable to commercial lignin. Results on lignin isolated from BLW are envisaged to find potential applications in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of waste frying oil as an extractant for uranium from sulfate leach liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enass Mohamed El-Sheikh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using the waste frying oil (WFO as an extractant for uranium from its sulfate liquor has been studied. Several experiments were conducted to determine the relevant factors affecting both the extraction and stripping of the uranium from a synthetic solution. At the optimum conditions, it was found that the maximum uranium uptake would attain 54 mg/g at a solution pH of 3.5. Kinetic characteristics of the loading process have been found to satisfactorily fitting to the pseudo-first-order equation. The obtained optimum conditions have also been applied to investigate the potentiality of the working WFO for the recovery of uranium from the actual sulfate leach liquor of El-Sela ore material (South Eastern Desert of Egypt.

  17. Recycling Technology for Waste Tanning Liquors%鞣制废液的循环技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Mokrejs; D.; Janacova; M.; Mladek; K.; Kolornaznik; F.; Langmaier; V.; Vasek

    2007-01-01

    Tannery belongs to typical industrial branches which during the technological process produce considerable quantities of liquid and solid wastes contributing to polluting the environment. The presented work describes dechromation of waste tanning liquor utilising chrome sludge produced through enzymatic hydrolysis of chrome-tanned leather wastes. The principle of dechromation consists in sorption of chrome from waste liquor after tanning to chrome sludge. Recycling technology is characterised by an almost 99% efficiency, simplicity and low investment requirements.%制革属于典型的工业分支,制革工业中会产生大量的污染环境的废液和废固.该论文利用铬鞣革废物的酶法水解用铬污泥除去鞣制废液中的铬.除去铬的原理是鞣后的铬污泥从废液中吸收铬.该循环技术回收率可达99%,操作简单、成本低廉.

  18. Investigating the potential of thermophilic species for ethanol production from industrial spent sulfite liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic microorganisms hold a great potential for bioethanol production on waste biomass, due to their ability to utilize pentoses and hexoses alike. However, to date hardly any data on thermophiles growing directly on industrial substrates like spent sulfite liquor (SSL are available. This contribution investigates the ability of Thermoanaerobacter species to utilize the main sugars in the used SSL (mannose, glucose and xylose and the effect of process parameters (pH, temperature and sugar concentration on their growth. Based on these results the strain T. mathranii was chosen for further studies. The ability of T. mathranii to grow directly on SSL was investigated and the effect of several inhibiting substances on growth was elucidated. Furthermore it was tested whether pretreatment with activated charcoal can increase the fermentability of SSL. The fermentations were evaluated based on yields and specific rates. It could be shown that T. mathranii was able to ferment all sugars in the investigated softwood SSL and fermented diluted, untreated SSL (up to 2.7% (w/w dry matter. Pretreatment with activated charcoal could slightly reduce the amount of phenols in the substrate and thus facilitate growth and ethanol production on higher SSL concentrations (up to 4.7% (w/v dry matter. Ethanol yields of 0.29-0.44 Cmmol of ethanol per Cmmol sugar were obtained on untreated and pretreated spent sulfite liquor, respectively. These results on an industrial substrate strengthen the claim that thermophilic microorganisms might be the optimal candidates for forest biorefinery.

  19. The effect of alkali on the product distribution from black liquor conversion under supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawangchu, Y; Atong, D; Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2017-07-01

    Lignin in chemical pulping waste, or black liquor (BL), can be converted into various products via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). However, the inherited alkaline contents from the pulping chemicals may affect the product yields and properties. In this research, the influence of the residual alkali on the product distribution via SCWG of soda BL and kraft BL was evaluated. The SCWG was performed in a batch quartz reactor for 10 min at various temperatures (673, 773 and 873 K) and pressures (250, 300 and 400 bar). The highest hydrogen (H2) production occurred at 873 K for the soda BL. The water-gas shift reaction with sodium ions played an important part in the H2 production, while only small amounts of methane and carbon monoxide were detected. Hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids and esters were the dominant substrates in the liquid products, which denoted the potential of this method for bond cleaving of the lignin macromolecule. As a result, BL, which typically contains alkali salt, was an appropriate feedstock for the SCWG reaction to produce renewable fuel. This method not only has a positive influence on the generation of value added products from highly corrosive waste but also helps avoid some technical problems commonly encountered with direct firing in a recovery boiler.

  20. New Advanced Technology on Waste Resourcelization of the Black Pulping Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi; HAN Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Dong-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Combining the characteristics of the black pulping liquor that contains a lot of lignin and other biomass resources, the technology of comprehensive waste utilization is employed. The reconstructive preparation of modified urea-formaldehyde glue by adding black pulping liquor and the application in extruding the medium density fibre board using this modified urea-formaldehyde glue is researched. Results show that when applying the preparation technology that alkaline reaction and then weak acid reaction, the appropriate preparation process is as follows: the adding urea process is divided into three stages (proportion 2∶1∶1); the pH value is 8.0, and the reaction time is 40min in the addition reaction stage; the pH value will be naturally reduced to 3.5-5.0, and the reaction time is 45min in the aggregation reaction stage; the pH value is 8.0 in the urea complement stage. And the optimal condition of the reconstructive preparation the modified urea-formaldehyde glue is adding the condensed black pulping liquor after hydroxymethylation in the beginning of polycondensation reaction by 5% proportion. The application in extruding medium density fibre board with this modified urea-fosmaldehyde glue is proved feasible.

  1. Black liquor fractionation for biofuels production - a techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfun, Sennai; Lundgren, Joakim; Grip, Carl-Erik; Toffolo, Andrea; Nilsson, Rasika Lasanthi Kudahettige; Rova, Ulrika

    2014-08-01

    The hemicelluloses fraction of black liquor is an underutilized resource in many chemical pulp mills. It is possible to extract and separate the lignin and hemicelluloses from the black liquor and use the hemicelluloses for biochemical conversion into biofuels and chemicals. Precipitation of the lignin from the black liquor would consequently decrease the thermal load on the recovery boiler, which is often referred to as a bottleneck for increased pulp production. The objective of this work is to techno-economically evaluate the production of sodium-free lignin as a solid fuel and butanol to be used as fossil gasoline replacement by fractionating black liquor. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are modeled in Aspen Plus to analyze energy and material balances as well as to evaluate the plant economics. A mathematical model of an existing pulp and paper mill is used to analyze the effects on the energy performance of the mill subprocesses.

  2. Decolorization of black liquor from bioethanol G2 production using iron oxide coating sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlianti, Vera; Triwahyuni, Eka; Waluyo, Joko; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol G2 production using oil palm empty fruit bunch as raw material consists of four steps, namely pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and purification process. Pretreatment process generates black liquor that causes serious environmental pollution if it is released to the environment. The objective of this research is studying the ability of iron oxide coating sands to adsorb the color of black liquor. The iron oxide coating sands were synthesized from FeCl3.6H2O with quartz sands as support material. This research was conducted on batch mode using black liquor in various pH values. Result obtained that kind of iron oxide on quartz sands's surface was goethite. The result also indicated decreasing of color intensity of black liquor after adsorption process. This research supports local material utilization in environmental technology development to solve some environmental problems.

  3. A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

    1995-01-01

    A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

  4. 非负载型加氢催化剂合成尾液回用研究%Study on Recovery of the Waste Liquor From Synthetic Process of Non-Supported Hydrogenation Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Preparing the metallic oxide of non-supported hydrogenation catalysts can produce a large number of waste liquor, which contains Ni, Mo and W, etc. If the waste liquor is drained directly, it will cause serious environmental pollution. Preparing metallic oxide by using recycled waste liquor can maintain the metallic oxide high activity, improve the efficiency of material, realize the zero-emission target of waste liquor, and solve the environmental pollution problems in industrial production.%非负载型加氢催化剂金属氧化物合成过程中会产生大量含金属 Ni、Mo、W 的尾液,如直接排放,会对环境造成严重污染;将尾液回收再利用合成金属氧化物在保持较高活性的同时,不仅可以提高原料利用率,又能实现尾液零排放,解决工业生产过程中环境污染问题。

  5. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. FERREIRA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled beverage, with promising results. With a view to increasing efficiency and possibly attracting investments in the growing international market for new and exotic beverages, the aim of the present study was to optimize the orange press liquor spirit process and to evaluate the economic aspects of its production. The results showed that this process can yield a good quality beverage, comparable to the sugar cane spirit cachaça and other similar products, as well as having economic advantages and potential for immediate further growth, without extra investment costs.

  6. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  7. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock.

  8. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    By‐ product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable... Waste /By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...13 Waste /By product Hydrogen ‐ Biogas

  9. Methane from waste containing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-24

    Waste solids containing paper are biologically treated in a system by: fermentation with lactobacilli, separation of the solids, ion exchange of the supernatant from the separation, anaerobic digestion of the ion-exchanged liquor, separation of a liquor from the fermentation, and digestion of the liquor. Thus, a municipal waste containing paper and water was inoculated with Aspergillus niger and lactobacilli for 2 days; the mixture was anaerobically treated and centrifuged; the clear liquor was ion exchanged; and the solid waste was filter pressed. The filter cake was treated with Trichoderma nigricaus and filtered. The filtrate and the ion-exchanged liquor were digested for CH/sub 4/ production.

  10. Eucalyptus kraft black liquor enhances growth and productivity of Spirulina in outdoor cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, V.S.; Singh, G.; Ramamurthy, V. [Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala (India)

    1995-07-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for commercial applications suffers from poor productivities when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. In an effort to reduce this gap it was discovered that addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor (BL) enhanced biomass productivity in outdoor cultures of Spirulina by increasing growth rate by 38% and biomass yield by 43%. BL treatment resulted in elevation of nitrogen assimilating enzyme activities and efficiency of phosphate utilization. Analyses of forenoon and afternoon oxygen production rates (OPRs) indicated higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity in BL-treated cultures compared to untreated cultures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Anaerobic fermentative production of lactic acid using cheese whey and corn steep liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Lata; Dutt, Kakoli; Meghwanshi, Gautam K; Saxena, R K

    2008-04-01

    Cheese whey was the most suitable substrate for production of lactic acid under anaerobic conditions by Entercoccus flavescens which, on supplementating with corn steep liquor (5% v/v) and 10 mM CaCO(3) at pH 5.5, 37 degrees C, yielded 12.6 g lactic acid/l in 36 h. Production was scaled up to a 10 l bioreactor under controlled pH and continuous CO(2) supply and gave 28 g lactic acid/l in 30 h resulting in a net 8.7-fold increase in production as compared to unoptimized conditions.

  12. Separation of Caffeine and Tea Poly-phenols from Instant (Soluble Tea Waste Liquor by Macro-porous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant tea is presently manufactured by spraying and freeze drying the concentrated brew of processed tea leaves and dust. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique using macro-porous resins for separating Caffeine (Caf and Tea Poly-phenols (TP from the waste liquor generated by manufacturing instant tea. Optimum adsorption conditions were obtained using an initial concentration of Caf solution of 80 mg/L and a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min at 60°C; The optimal desorption conditions were determined using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, 80% aqueous ethanol of, eluent volume of 4 times of Bed Volume (BV. After column separation, the purity of Caf was enhanced from 6 to 23%, TP from 38 to 61% and with the final yield of 16.9% following the separation by D101 resin. This study demonstrated macro-porous resin can effectively separated Caf and TP from instant tea waste liquor.

  13. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Mingguo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40% as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%, galactose (8%-10%, glucose (8%-10%, and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We designed a novel strategy in which Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa were combined and used to convert xylose in this mother liquor to xylitol, a product of higher value. First, the xylose mother liquor was detoxified with the yeast C. maltosa to remove furfural and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF, which are inhibitors of B. subtilis growth. The glucose present in the mother liquor was also depleted by this yeast, which was an added advantage because glucose causes carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. This detoxification treatment resulted in an inhibitor-free mother liquor, and the C. maltosa cells could be reused as biocatalysts at a later stage to reduce xylose to xylitol. In the second step, a recombinant B. subtilis strain with a disrupted xylose isomerase gene was constructed. The detoxified xylose mother liquor was used as the medium for recombinant B. subtilis cultivation, and this led to L-arabinose depletion and xylose enrichment of the medium. In the third step, the xylose was further reduced to xylitol by C. maltosa cells, and crystallized xylitol was obtained from this yeast transformation medium. C. maltosa transformation of the xylose-enriched medium resulted in xylitol with 4.25 g L-1·h-1 volumetric productivity and 0.85 g xylitol/g xylose specific productivity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a biological method for the purification of xylose from xylose mother liquor and subsequent preparation of xylitol by C. maltosa

  14. Biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum using xylose recovered from birch Kraft black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika L; Helmerius, Jonas; Nilsson, Robert T; Sjöblom, Magnus; Hodge, David B; Rova, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied using acid-hydrolyzed xylan recovered from hardwood Kraft black liquor by CO2 acidification as the only carbon source. Detoxification of hydrolyzate using activated carbon was conducted to evaluate the impact of inhibitor removal and fermentation. Xylose hydrolysis yields as high as 18.4% were demonstrated at the highest severity hydrolysis condition. Detoxification using active carbon was effective for removal of both phenolics (76-81%) and HMF (38-52%). Batch fermentation of the hydrolyzate and semi-defined P2 media resulted in a total solvent yield of 0.12-0.13g/g and 0.34g/g, corresponding to a butanol concentration of 1.8-2.1g/L and 7.3g/L respectively. This work is the first study of a process for the production of a biologically-derived biofuel from hemicelluloses solubilized during Kraft pulping and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing xylan recovered directly from industrial Kraft pulping liquors as a feedstock for biological production of biofuels such as butanol. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of red pigments by Monascus ruber in culture media containing corn steep liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Hamano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of red pigments by Monascus ruber was evaluated utilizing complex culture media composed of glucose or sucrose (10 g/L, corn steep liquor (5 or 10 g/L and monosodium glutamate (0, 5.0, 7.6, 11.4 or 15.2 g/L. Medium containing 10 g/L glucose, 5 g/L corn steep liquor and 7.6 g/L monosodium glutamate resulted the highest values of extracellular red pigment absorbance (20.7 U and productivity (0.35 U/h. This medium also produced better results than using semi-synthetic medium with analytical grade reagents (12.4 U and 0.21 U/h. The cell growth was similar in both media (X @ 6.5 g/L, indicating that the capacity of the cells to produce red pigments was higher in complex culture media. In addition, in the complex culture medium, less of the intracellular red pigments accumulated than in semi-synthetic medium (9.1% and 30%, respectively.

  16. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  18. Fermentation kinetics for xylitol production by a Pichia stipitis D-xylulokinase mutant previously grown in spent sulfite liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Chenfeng Lu; Bernice Liu; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2008-01-01

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3[delta]) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a...

  19. 浓香型白酒生产中酿酒微生物研究进展%A Review of Research Progress About Luzhou-flavor Liquor Making Microbes in Liquor Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爽; 杨春霞; 徐曼; 窦屾; 廖永红

    2012-01-01

    In traditional liquor brewing process, microbes played an important role on liquor quality and flavor. In this paper, Overview of the liquor microbial researched situation, carried on the analysis and forecast, and proposed the importance of the relationship between research of liquor-making microbes and flavor. Ideas were provided for the production of Luzhou-flavor liquor brewing microbiology research, and the foundation was laid for liquor theory and practice research.%在传统固态白酒酿造过程中,微生物对白酒的品质、风味起着重要作用.本文概述了浓香型白酒微生物的研究状况,并对其进行分析和展望,提出研究酿酒微生物与风味物质之间关系的重要性.旨在为浓香型白酒生产中酿造微生物的研究提供思路,为白酒理论与实践研究奠定基础.

  20. Discussion on the Relationship Between the Production Technology and the Quality of Origin Liquor in Baiyunbian Liquor Making%白云边酿造工艺与原酒质量的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向军; 张红

    2012-01-01

    原酒质量是成品酒质量的基础,白云边酒是中国兼香型白酒的典型代表。为保证白云边酒产品质量的稳定提高,白云边原酒质量是关键要素。要提高原酒质量就必须对原酒的风格质量特点,骨架成分特点熟悉和掌握,从酿造工艺上来提高原酒质量。在生产中,高温制曲、多次投料、高温堆积、高温发酵、高温流酒、窖池结构等主要工艺环节对白云边原酒的质量风格起着决定性的作用。%the quality of origin liquor is the basis of that of final product.The Baiyunbian liquor is the representative of Chinese multi-flavor type liquor.The quality of the origin liquor is the key factor to guarantee the stable improvement of the product quality.The style,as well as the characters of quality and major components of the origin liquor must be fully understood in order to improve the quality technologically.In production,the key processes such as the high temperature koji making,repeatedly feeding,high temperature piling and fermentation,high temperature liquor flowing,structure of cellar,etc.play the decisive roles in the quality style of Baiyunbian liquor.

  1. Use of steam explosion liquor from sugar cane bagasse for lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Bon, Elba P S; Araujo Neto, Julio Silva

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using two by-products of the sugar cane industry, molasses and bagasse steam explosion liquor (SEL), for lignin peroxidase (LiP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. For comparison, the fungus was initially cultivated in synthetic media containing either glucose, sucrose, xylose, or xylan as sole carbon sources. The effect of veratryl alcohol (VA) was also investigated in relation to the enzyme activity levels. Results showed that sucrose was not metabolized by this fungus, which precluded the use of molasses as a carbon source. Glucose, xylose, and xylan promoted equivalent cell growth. Enzyme levels in the absence of VA were lower than 28 UI/L and in the presence of VA reached 109 IU/L with glucose and 85 IU/L with xylose or xylan. SEL was adequate for P. chrysosporium LiP production as LiP activity reached 90 IU/L. When VA was added to this medium, enzyme concentration increased to 155 IU/L.

  2. IMPACT OF FURFURAL ON THE SUGAR ANALYSIS OF PRE-HYDROLYSIS LIQUOR OF KRAFT-BASED DISSOLVING PULP PRODUCTION PROCESS USING THE HPAEC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Saeed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulse ampero-metric detector (HPAEC-PAD is a reliable method to systematically determine the sugar contents in pulp and paper waste streams, including bleaching and extraction liquors. We used the same method to determine the sugar content of industrially produced pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL from a kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The analysis showed that the traditional method cannot be applied for sugar analysis, and an improvement on the method was required. In fact, the presence of furfural in the PHL sample was the reason for the required modification. It was noted that the removal of furfural via evaporation could improve the reliability of the HPAEC technique for sugar assessments. If the concentration of furfural was higher than 0.045% (wt. in the PHL, the error introduced in the sugar analysis was profound. Also, the industrially produced PHL contained more furfural than the laboratory produced PHL under the same hydrolysis conditions. Consequently, the concentration of furfural in the PHL should be taken into account for sugar analysis using the HPAEC technique.

  3. Application of monascus in liquor production%红曲霉在白酒行业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁国兴; 刘秀河

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the application and prospects of monascus in liquor brewing, this paper introduces some applications of monascus, including the application of its esterifying power in liquor production and in liquor's fermentation wastewater - - yellow serofluid, and the application of secondary fermentation metabolite in liquor industry. Monascus possesses a good esterifying power and a saccharification fermenting power, and it can produce a variety of secondary metabolites beneficial to human body in the fermentation processing. The addition of monascus in the liquor production can increase the alcohol yield and the content of ethyl acetate, and produce more nutrition and health value. Besides, monascus can he used to change the yellow serofluid into balsam liquid in the solid fermentation of liquor production. In the end, the application prospects of monascus in liquor industries are also put forward.%为了研究红曲霉在酒类酿造中的应用方向及前景,介绍了红曲霉的酯化能力在白酒生产中的应用、在白酒发酵废液--黄浆水中的应用和次级发酵代谢产物在白酒行业的应用,说明红曲霉具有较强的酯化力和发酵糖份的能力,同时还产生多种对人体有益的次级代谢产物,用于白酒的发酵生产,可以提高出酒率及乙酸乙酯的含量,增加酒的营养保健价值,还可处理白酒固态发酵产生的废弃物黄浆水产生“酯香液”作为白酒风味物质。同时展望了红曲霉在白酒行业的应用前景。

  4. Separation and Recovery of Precious Metals from Leach Liquors of Spent Electronic Wastes by Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thi Hong; Wang, Lingyun; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Solvent extraction was employed to recover precious metals (Au (III), Pd (II) and Pt (IV)) from the leach solution of spent electronic wastes containing Cu (II), Cr (III) and Fe (III). First, pure Fe (III) and Au (III) were recovered by simultaneous extraction with Cyanex 923 followed by selective stripping with HCl and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Second, Pt (IV), Pd (II) and Cu (II) were extracted by Alamine 336 from the raffinate. After the removal of Cu (II) by stripping with weak HCl, Pd (II) and Pt (IV) were separately stripped by controlling the concentration of thiourea in the mixture with HCl. A process flow sheet for the separation of precious metals was proposed.

  5. Uses for waste diary products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgiss, K.J.

    1980-06-01

    Processing methods of waste dairy products are described. The major waste dairy product is whey, which is said to account for 20% of the total volume of milk processed. Individual methods of whey processing include the manufacture of lactose, whey demineralization in the preparation of babyfood, whey protein recovery by ultrafiltration and alcohol production. Two new techniques, lactose hydrolysis to increase the sweetness of lactose and reverse osmosis for concentration are also mentioned.

  6. Comparison of microbial communities in pilot-scale bioreactors treating Bayer liquor organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Naomi J; Plumb, Jason J; Tilbury, Amanda L; Nyeboer, Hugh J; Sumich, Matt E; McKinnon, Anthony J; Franzmann, Peter D; Sutton, David C; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2011-04-01

    Western Australian bauxite deposits are naturally associated with high amounts of humic and fulvic materials that co-digest during Bayer processing. Sodium oxalate remains soluble and can co-precipitate with aluminium hydroxide unless it is removed. Removal of sodium oxalate requires a secondary crystallisation step followed by storage. Bioreactors treating oxalate wastes have been developed as economically and environmentally viable treatment alternatives but the microbial ecology and physiology of these treatment processes are poorly understood. Analysis of samples obtained from two pilot-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and one aerobic suspended growth bioreactor (ASGB) using polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA genes showed that members of the α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria subgroups were prominent in all three processes. Despite differing operating conditions, the composition of the microbial communities in the three reactors was conserved. MBBR2 was the only configuration that showed complete degradation of oxalate from the influent and the ASGB had the highest degradation rate of all three configurations. Several strains of the genus Halomonas were isolated from the bioreactors and their morphology and physiology was also determined.

  7. Production of ethoxylated fatty acids derived from Jatropha non-edible oil as a nonionic fat-liquoring agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shattory, Y; Abo-Elwafa, Ghada A; Aly, Saadia M; Nashy, El-Shahat H A

    2012-01-01

    Natural fatty derivatives (oleochemicals) have been used as intermediate materials in several industries replacing the harmful and expensive petrochemicals. Fatty ethoxylates are one of these natural fatty derivatives. In the present work Jatropha fatty acids were derived from the non edible Jatropha oil and used as the fat source precursor. The ethoxylation process was carried out on the derived fatty acids using a conventional cheap catalyst (K₂CO₃) in order to obtain economically and naturally valuable non-ionic surfactants. Ethoxylation reaction was proceeded using ethylene oxide gas in the presence of 1 or 2% K₂CO₃ catalyst at 120 and 145°C for 5, 8 and 12 hours. The prepared products were evaluated for their chemical and physical properties as well as its application as non- ionic fat-liquoring agents in leather industry. The obtained results showed that the number of ethylene oxide groups introduced in the fatty acids as well as their EO% increased as the temperature and time of the reaction increased. The highest ethoxylation number was obtained at 145°C for 8 hr. Also, the prepared ethoxylated products were found to be effective fat-liquors with high HLB values giving stable oil in water emulsions. The fat-liquored leather led to an improvement in its mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break. In addition, a significant enhancement in the texture of the treated leather by the prepared fat-liquors as indicated from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images was observed.

  8. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  9. Conversion of tannery waste to uesful products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhara, H.S.; Maggin, B.; Phipps, H.

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical performance and cost effectiveness of a low temperature pyrolysis process which uses dry leather tanning wastes to provide energy and chrome tanning liquor for reuse in tanneries. Presently, leather waste is disposed of in landfills, resulting not only in a considerable loss of potential energy (estimated to be 633 TJ annually), but an even more significant loss of chromium (estimated to be 8.2 Gg annually). The pyrolysis process is shown to be technically feasible, economically viable, and can alleviate a leather waste management problem that is becoming increasingly more difficult to handle because of more stringent environmental chrome waste disposal requirements. Tanneries can save an estimated $7 million to $8 million annually by employing this pyrolysis process to conserve energy and chrome in dry tanning wastes. (Refs. 10).

  10. THE BEHAVIOR AND APPLCATION OF MODIFIED AND DEHYDRATED ALKALINE PULPING WASTE LIQUOR%脱水改性造纸黑液的性能与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡子昭; 马凤云; 李玲; 孙月华; 刘月娥

    2001-01-01

    分析了脱水改性造纸黑液的组成,并进行了物化性质和表面活性测试,结果表明:脱水改性造纸黑液是一种阴离子表面活性剂,含有大量的高分子有机酸及多糖类成分;该表面活性剂的表面张力为44.602 mN/m;钙皂分散指数LSDP为11.6%;起泡沫力(15 mm)为40 mm(5 min后),对溶液的pH值有很好的缓冲容量,在pH=6.12~12.86,它的溶液均匀稳定。并介绍了在石油工业、磷肥生产与工业循环冷却水中的应用。%A new tpye of anionic surfactant was produced from alkaline pulping waste liquor of reed or straw by chemical modifcation with acidic minerals and dehydration in solar pond. The product's surface tention is 44.602 mN/m; lime soap dispersing power (LSDP) is 11.6%; foaming ability is 40 mm/15mm(5min), and it has better buffer capacity within pH=6.12~12.86. It's applications in petroleum and phosphatic fertilizer production and in cooling water treatment are introduced.

  11. Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor as alternative culture medium substrates for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires do Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.

  12. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhu, D H; Lee, W H; Kim, J Y; Choi, E

    2003-01-01

    PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate) production was attempted with SBRs from food waste. Seed microbes were collected from a sewage treatment plant with a biological nutrient removal process, and acclimated with synthetic substrate prior to the application of the fermented food waste. Laboratory SBRs were used to produce PHA with limited oxygen and nutrients. The maximum content of 51% PHA was obtained with an anaerobic/aerobic cycle with P limitation, and the yield was estimated to be about 0.05 gPHA(produced)/gCOD(applied) or 25 kg PHA/dry ton of food waste, assuming more than 40% of the PHA contents were recoverable. PHB/PHA ratios were 0.74 to 0.77 due to the higher acetate concentrations. Economical analysis seemed to suggest the PHA produced from the food waste could be an alternative material to produce the biodegradable plastic to be used for the collection bags for solid waste.

  13. Comprehensive Utilization of the Metals in Waste Stainless Steel Pickling Liquor%不锈钢酸洗废液中金属的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明森; 高远飞; 张晓丽

    2015-01-01

    In order to utilizate the metals in waste stainless steel pickling liquor comprehensively. The method of fractional precipitation was used. On the basis of the different pH value that fractional precipitation required, and the different acidity of ferric hydroxide, chromium hydroxide and nickel hydroxide, reasonable separation process was designed. The influences of pH for separation efficiency of different metal ions were studied. The results showed that the metals in waste stainless steel pickling liquor could be separated well if the pH and the addition were selected correctly.%为了综合利用不锈钢酸洗废液中的金属,采用分步沉淀的方法分离不锈钢酸洗废液中的铁、铬、镍.根据它们沉淀所需要的pH值不同,以及氢氧化铁、氢氧化铬、氢氧化镍的酸碱性不同等因素,设计了合理的分离工艺.研究了pH值等因素对金属离子分离效果的影响.结果表明,选择合适的pH值和辅助添加剂可以很好地分离不锈钢酸洗废液中的不同金属离子.

  14. 酱香白酒生产中产香微生物研究%Microbiology research of liquor production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国华; 邱树毅; 黄永光

    2011-01-01

    以茅台为代表的酱香型白酒是我国独特的酒种类,具有特殊的生产工艺和生产环境要求.其酱香成分复杂一直都是研究热点,现已普遍认为酱香白酒生产环境中的微生物区系是酱香物质生成的关键所在.该文简介了现今对酱香风味物质作出解释的4大理论,其次分析了4类主要产香功能菌,并对其各自的研究进展作了简要概述.%Sauce -flavour liquor, Moutai, a chief representative, is a unique wine country, its special production process and production environment. The Mortal into Sub - complex research focus has been, is now generally agreed that Moutai liquor production environment microflora is Moutai material generated key. This article introduces the current flavor of the Sauce to explain the four theories, followed by Hong ftmctious are listed in four major aroma producing bacteria, and a brief overview of their own.

  15. Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO(2) capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2012-04-01

    This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO(2) abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO(2) capture and CO(2) offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  17. Effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL and Cassava Wastewater (CW on Chitin and Chitosan Production by Cunninghamella elegans and Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Raquel Ramos Berger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 grown in different concentrations of two agro-industrial wastes, corn steep liquor (CSL and cassava wastewater (CW established using a 22 full factorial design. The polysaccharides were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity, thermal analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of chitosan was evaluated for signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The highest biomass (9.93 g/L was obtained in trial 3 (5% CW, 8% CSL, the greatest chitin and chitosan yields were 89.39 mg/g and 57.82 mg/g, respectively, and both were obtained in trial 2 (10% CW, 4% CSL. Chitin and chitosan showed a degree of deacetylation of 40.98% and 88.24%, and a crystalline index of 35.80% and 23.82%, respectively, and chitosan showed low molecular weight (LMW 5.2 × 103 Da. Chitin and chitosan can be considered non-irritating, due to the fact they do not promote vascular change. It was demonstrated that CSL and CW are effective renewable agroindustrial alternative substrates for the production of chitin and chitosan.

  18. EXPLORATION ON TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN SPRAY DRYING OF PULPING WASTE LIQUOR%造纸废液喷雾干燥工艺参数影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立新; 韩磊; 唐金鑫; 王宗濂

    2001-01-01

    通过对目前造纸工业中6种主要造纸废液的成分对喷雾干燥工艺参数造成影响的研究,得出了不同造纸废液的喷雾干燥有不同的工艺条件,分析了废液的浓度、温度和粘度之间的相应关系,最后针对喷雾干燥出口温度高、热效率较低的特点,提出了用干燥后的热尾气浓缩稀废液的节能新工艺。%In this paper, the effect of chemical composition of pulpingwaste liquor toward the spray drying technological parameters were explored. The results showed that different technological conditions of spray drying should be adopted for different pulping waste liquor. The relations between solid content, temperature and viscosity of waste liquor were analyzed. Considering the high outlet temperature and low heat efficiency of spray drying, a new energy-saving technological process was suggested, in which thin waste liquor is concentrated by using the discharged waste gas from spray drying.

  19. Estimation of elemental composition from proximate analysis of black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakkilainen, E.K. [Andritz-Ahlstrom Corporation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The black liquor properties will vary depending on the raw material used for pulping, the pulping conditions, the equipment used for pulping and the treatment of the liquor after the pulping. Accurate analysis of black liquor is needed to determine energy efficiency of o pulp mill, to calculate gas flows for environmental compliance reports and for production statistics. Black liquor composition and combustion properties can be estimated from known spread of data. Main source has been an internal company black liquor databank, which contains over 900 black liquor analysis. Regression equations for black liquor carbon, hydrogen, and inorganic element contents were derived. (orig.)

  20. 2株纤维素降解细菌处理白酒丢糟的应用特性%Application Characteristics of Two Cellulose-degradation Bacterial Strains in Waste Distiller's Grains from Liquor Producing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游玲; 周黎军; 罗刚; 陈思慧; 王涛

    2014-01-01

    Application features of two bacterial strains (No. G7B-58 and S522B-41) of Bacillus in the fermentation of waste distiller's grains from liquor producing were studied. It's found that the two strains can adapt to the environment of waste distiller's grains, when inoculated in the waste distiller's grains separately, the cellulose of waste distiller's grains reduced by 16.9%and 16.6%, and the protein of waste distiller's grains increased by 35.0%and 39.2%, respectively. In the case of two strains inoculated in the waste distiller's grains together, the cellulose of waste distiller's grains decompose by 21.1%, the protein increased by 41.1%and the acidity reduced by 86%, with significantly reducing of acid, starch and residual sugar at the same time. For the scale of 10 kg waste distiller's grains, inoculated with 2%of the bacterial suspension, and piled up six days was appropriate. The results showed that the strains in the spent grains harmless or Grains fodder production had a good prospect of application. The results showed that the two bacteria strains had a good prospect of application in pollution control of waste distiller's grains and feed industry.%对2株Bacillus属细菌在白酒丢糟中的生长及降解纤维素的情况进行了研究。发现2株菌均可在丢糟中生长良好;分别可使丢糟纤维素降低16.9%及16.6%,蛋白质增加35.0%及39.2%。2株菌等比例混合接种于丢糟(2%接种量,处理10 kg丢糟),堆积6 d后可使丢糟纤维素降解21.1%,蛋白增加41.1%,酸度降低86%;同时丢糟中淀粉、残糖、酸度等指标也有明显降低。结果显示该2株细菌在丢糟饲料生产或丢糟无害化处理方面有很好的应用前景。

  1. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  2. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor from rice straw pulp increases concrete workability, improves compaction, and reduces honeycombing. Moreover, it retards the initial and final set time and enhances uniform compaction. The effect of incorporating small portions of silica fume has been investigated. The ageing effect of this material over a period of one year, to determine its safe storage period, has been studied. Finally, this admixture was found to comply with the relevant Egyptian standards.

  3. Ethanol production from waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was designed for ethanol production using corn andother organic waste material containing starch contents andcellulosic material while barely used for diastase and acidicdigestion methods. The effect of temperature, yeast, barely diastaseand various dilutions of acid (sulfuric acids were investigated onethanol production. The result showed that corn yielded highamount of ethanol (445ml as compared to cellulosic material whichproduced 132ml of ethanol from one kg of weight. It was also notedthat with the increase of barely and yeast amount in a proper mannercan increase ethanol production from different starch sources. It wasalso noted that acid dilutions affected cellulose digestion where highyield of reducing sugar was noted at 0.75% of sulfuric acid dilution.It was concluded from the present experiment that economicalsources of starch and various dilutions of acids should be tried oncellulose digestion for bio-fuel production to withstand in thisenergy crisis time.

  4. Microbial production of hydrogen from starch-manufacturing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Maki, R.; Hirose, J.; Hayashi, S. [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2002-05-01

    Effective hydrogen production from starch-manufacturing wastes by microorganisms was investigated. Continuous hydrogen production in high yield of 2.7 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was attained by a mixed culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes HO-39 in the starch waste medium consisting of sweet potato starch residue as a carbon source and corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in a repeated batch culture. Rhodobacter sp. M-19 could produce hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture broth obtained in the repeated batch culture of C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39. Hydrogen yield of 4.5 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was obtained by culturing Rhodobacter sp. M-19 in the supernatant supplemented with 20{mu}gl{sup -1} Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O and 10mgl{sup -1} EDTA in a repeated batch culture with pH control at 7.5. Therefore, continuous hydrogen production with total hydrogen yield of 7.2 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose from the starch remaining in the starch residue was attained by the repeated batch culture with C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39 and by the successive repeated batch culture with Rhodobacter sp. M-19. (Author)

  5. Corn steep liquor as a nutrition adjunct for the production of Aspergillus niger lipase and hydrolysis of oils thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwinoliver, N G; Thirunavukarasu, K; Purushothaman, S; Rose, C; Gowthaman, M K; Kamini, N R

    2009-11-25

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) has been used as a nutrition adjunct for the production of an extracellular lipase from Aspergillus niger, which has immense importance as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. A five-level four-factorial central composite design was chosen to determine the optimal medium components with four critical variables, namely, CSL, NH4H2PO4, Na2HPO4, and sesame oil, that were found to be influential for lipase production by the classical one-factor-at-a-time method. The model suggested that all of the factors chosen had a significant impact on lipase production, and the optimum values of the influential parameters were CSL, 2.0%, w/v; NH4H2PO4, 0.05%, w/v; Na2HPO4, 0.75%, w/v; and sesame oil, 2.0%, w/v, with an activity of 26.7 U/mL at 48 h and 30 degrees C, which was 2.16-fold higher than the initial activity (12 U/mL) obtained by the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. Furthermore, the enzyme has good potential for the hydrolysis of vegetable oils and fish oils, and a hydrolytic ratio of 88.73% was obtained with palm oil at 48 h. The utilization of CSL and sesame oil for lipase production from A. niger makes the process green, because both are renewable substrates and economically viable at an industrial scale.

  6. Improvement of solvent production from xylose mother liquor by engineering the xylose metabolic pathway in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhilin; Xiao, Han; Jiang, Weihong; Jiang, Yu; Yang, Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Xylose mother liquor (XML) is a by-product of xylose production through acid hydrolysis from corncobs, which can be used potentially for alternative fermentation feedstock. Sixteen Clostridia including 13 wild-type, 1 industrial strain, and 2 genetically engineered strains were screened in XML, among which the industrial strain Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018 showed the highest titer of solvents (12.7 g/L) among non-genetic populations, whereas only 40% of the xylose was consumed. An engineered strain (2018glcG-TBA) obtained by combination of glcG disruption and expression of the D-xylose proton-symporter, D-xylose isomerase, and xylulokinase was able to completely utilize glucose and L-arabinose, and 88% xylose in XML. The 2018glcG-TBA produced total solvents up to 21 g/L with a 50% enhancement of total solvent yield (0.33 g/g sugar) compared to that of EA 2018 (0.21 g/g sugar) in XML. This XML-based acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using recombinant 2018glcG-TBA was estimated to be economically promising for future production of solvents.

  7. Production of xylooligosaccharides from the steam explosion liquor of corncobs coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis using a thermostable xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chao; Yan, Qiaojuan; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Fan, Guangsen; Shi, Bo

    2010-10-01

    The production of xylooligosaccharides (XOs) from corncobs was studied using a two-stage process based on a steam explosion pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Corncobs with different chip sizes were subjected to steam explosion under different experimental conditions of temperature and time, namely 188-204 degrees C for 2.5-7.5 min. The results indicate that corncobs were optimally steam exploded at 196 degrees C for 5 min, resulting in hemicellulose recovery of 22.8%. Especially, corncobs with large chip sizes (approximately 100 mm) during steam explosion pretreatment were suitable to produce XOs. Furthermore, a thermostable xylanase from Paecilomyces themophila J18 was used to hydrolyze steam explosion liquor of corncobs (SELC) for the production of XOs. A maximum XOs yield of 28.6 g XOs/100 g xylan in corncobs was achieved and XOs syrup contained more than 90% of xylobiose and xylotriose when the hydrolysis was carried out under the optimized conditions (pH 7.0, 70 degrees C, 7.5 U mL(-1) and 2.5 h). These results suggest that the process might be effective in production of XOs for industrial applications.

  8. Batch and repeated batch production of L (+)-lactic acid by Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 using wood hydrolyzate and corn steep liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Y-J; Yun, J-S; Kim, D; Ryu, H-W

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid production was investigated for batch and repeated batch cultures of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1, using wood hydrolyzate and corn steep liquor. When wood hydrolyzate (equivalent to 50 g l(-1) glucose) supplemented with 15-60 g l(-1) corn steep liquor was used as a raw material for fermentation, up to 48.6 g l(-1) of lactic acid was produced with, volumetric productivities ranging between 0.8 and 1.4 g l(-1 )h(-1). When a medium containing wood hydrolyzate and 15 g l(-1) corn steep liquor was supplemented with 1.5 g l(-1) yeast extract, we observed 1.9-fold and 1.6-fold increases in lactic acid productivity and cell growth, respectively. In this case, the nitrogen source cost for producing 1 kg lactic acid can be reduced to 23% of that for fermentation from wood hydrolyzate using 15 g l(-1) yeast extract as a single nitrogen source. In addition, lactic acid productivity could be maximized by conducting a cell-recycle repeated batch culture of E. faecalis RKY1. The maximum productivity for this process was determined to be 4.0 g l(-1 )h(-1).

  9. Fermentation Kinetics for Xylitol Production by a Pichia stipitis d-Xylulokinase Mutant Previously Grown in Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Lu, Chenfeng; Lin, Bernice; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3Δ) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a negligible amount of ethanol while converting xylose into xylitol. This work describes the xylose fermentation kinetics of yeast strain P.stipitis FPL-YS30. Yeast was grown in rich medium supplemented with different carbon sources: glucose, xylose, or ammonia-base SSL. The SSL and glucose-acclimatized cells showed similar maximum specific growth rates (0.146 h-1). The highest xylose consumption at the beginning of the fermentation process occurred using cells precultivated in xylose, which showed relatively high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49). However, the maximum specific rates of xylose consumption (0.19 gxylose/gcel h) and xylitol production (0.059 gxylitol/gcel h) were obtained with cells acclimatized in glucose, in which the ratio between xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) was kept at higher level (0.82). In this case, xylitol production (31.6 g/l) was 19 and 8% higher than in SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. Maximum glycerol (6.26 g/l) and arabitol (0.206 g/l) production were obtained using SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. The medium composition used for the yeast precultivation directly reflected their xylose fermentation performance. The SSL could be used as a carbon source for cell production. However, the inoculum condition to obtain a high cell concentration in SSL needs to be optimized.

  10. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand.

  11. Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the Production of Biosurfactant by Candida tropicalis on Industrial Waste Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Darne G; Soares da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactant production optimization by Candida tropicalis UCP0996 was studied combining central composite rotational design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The factors selected for optimization of the culture conditions were sugarcane molasses, corn steep liquor, waste frying oil concentrations and inoculum size. The response variables were surface tension and biosurfactant yield. All factors studied were important within the ranges investigated. The two empirical forecast models developed through RSM were found to be adequate for describing biosurfactant production with regard to surface tension (R(2) = 0.99833) and biosurfactant yield (R(2) = 0.98927) and a very strong, negative, linear correlation was found between the two response variables studied (r = -0.95). The maximum reduction in surface tension and the highest biosurfactant yield were 29.98 mNm(-1) and 4.19 gL(-1), respectively, which were simultaneously obtained under the optimum conditions of 2.5% waste frying oil, 2.5%, corn steep liquor, 2.5% molasses, and 2% inoculum size. To validate the efficiency of the statistically optimized variables, biosurfactant production was also carried out in 2 and 50 L bioreactors, with yields of 5.87 and 7.36 gL(-1), respectively. Finally, the biosurfactant was applied in motor oil dispersion, reaching up to 75% dispersion. Results demonstrated that the CCRD was suitable for identifying the optimum production conditions and that the new biosurfactant is a promising dispersant for application in the oil industry.

  12. Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the Production of Biosurfactant by Candida tropicalis on Industrial Waste Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Darne G.; Soares da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactant production optimization by Candida tropicalis UCP0996 was studied combining central composite rotational design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The factors selected for optimization of the culture conditions were sugarcane molasses, corn steep liquor, waste frying oil concentrations and inoculum size. The response variables were surface tension and biosurfactant yield. All factors studied were important within the ranges investigated. The two empirical forecast models developed through RSM were found to be adequate for describing biosurfactant production with regard to surface tension (R2 = 0.99833) and biosurfactant yield (R2 = 0.98927) and a very strong, negative, linear correlation was found between the two response variables studied (r = −0.95). The maximum reduction in surface tension and the highest biosurfactant yield were 29.98 mNm−1 and 4.19 gL−1, respectively, which were simultaneously obtained under the optimum conditions of 2.5% waste frying oil, 2.5%, corn steep liquor, 2.5% molasses, and 2% inoculum size. To validate the efficiency of the statistically optimized variables, biosurfactant production was also carried out in 2 and 50 L bioreactors, with yields of 5.87 and 7.36 gL−1, respectively. Finally, the biosurfactant was applied in motor oil dispersion, reaching up to 75% dispersion. Results demonstrated that the CCRD was suitable for identifying the optimum production conditions and that the new biosurfactant is a promising dispersant for application in the oil industry. PMID:28223971

  13. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....C. 5232, the formula shall include a statement to that effect. If any product contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These.... If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  14. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  15. QIANLONG Xianmao Liquor,Healthy Modern Chinese Spirits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Brewing process Qianlong Xianmao Liquor and series products completely meet the trend and requirement of"Green,Environmentfriendly,Healthy and Nature".While many Chinese spirits manufacturers are still dealing with liver-harming problems,Qianlong Xianmao Liquor has already moved on healthy liquor road.

  16. Optimization the soda-AQ process for cellulose pulp production and energy content of black liquor from L. leucocephala K360.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, M J; García, J C; Díaz, M J; Garrote, G; López, F

    2012-09-01

    A commercial variety of Leucaena leucocephala K360 was used for pulp production and papermaking employing the soda-anthraquinone process. Also, the chemical and energy contents of the resultant black liquors were determined to simultaneously optimize: pulp and paper production and energy generation. A process temperature of (185°C), an operating time of (120 min) and an active alkali concentration of (21%) provided sheets of paper with good strength (tensile index of 12.12 Nm/g, burst index of 0.38 kPa m(2)/g, tear index of 1.29 mN m(2)/g and a Kappa number of 20.5) and black liquor with a greater calorific value (14.1 MJ/kg) than that obtained with higher active alkali concentrations. However, reducing the active alkali concentration to a level in the low operation range led to less marked degradation of cellulose and allowed paper sheets with good properties to be obtained and energy to be optimally produced from the black liquor.

  17. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. ... industries discharge wastes into the environment without any proper treatment.

  18. Application of Mechanical Vapour Recompression (MVR) in Pulping Waste Liquor Evaporation%机械蒸汽再压缩(MVR)技术在制浆废液蒸发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云松; 胡海军; 张丹

    2013-01-01

    以制浆废液为研究对象,提出了机械蒸汽再压缩(MVR)技术与多效蒸发相结合的组合蒸发工艺,并以化学浆黑液及化机浆废水的蒸发为例,比较了组合蒸发与多效蒸发两种工艺.%This paper studies the evaporation technique of pulping waste liquor, and puts forward a new evaporation process which combines mechanical vapour recompression (MVR) and multi-effect evaporation technology. With the evaporation of chemical pulping black liquor & APMP effluent as examples, the two process of combined evaporation and multi-effect evaporation are compared.

  19. Characterization of waste from nanoenabled products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov

    and in a range of product applications (e.g. in cosmetics, textiles and food containers). By utilising The Nanodatabase product inventory, a method was developed for analysing the distribution of ENMs in waste, which involved the estimation of ENM fate in selected waste treatments based on their main matrix...... in “Batteries” and “Textile” waste, respectively. In terms of waste treatment, it was estimated that on average in the EU around 50% of nano-enabled products are recycled, 19% are incinerated and 26% landfilled. However, these percentages depend on the specific waste treatments available in the investigated...... was approximately 0.01 µg/g material or below detection limit, slightly higher concentrations were found in leachates from nano-enabled tiles. Particle sizes and number concentrations were below calculated limits of detection (with the exception of one sample, “Ti CAL”) and the sp-ICP-MS analysis generally suffered...

  20. Sulfite liquor components as a starting raw material in the production of single-cell protein. [Paecilomyces varioti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smailagic, M.; Nadazdin, M.; Dzinic, M.; Pavlovic, D.

    1980-01-01

    Sulfite liquor from beech cellulose manufacture was steam- treated, adjusted to 8.5% solids, and fermented by Paecilomyces varioti. At a residence time of approximately 4 hours, 9.7 g protein feed/kg was obtained. The condensate after dehydration of the feed could be reused for fermentation because of a low BOD value and the absence of acetic and formic acids.

  1. Ultrasonic Fenton-like catalytic degradation of bisphenol A by ferroferric oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles prepared from steel pickling waste liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruixiong; Fang, Zhanqiang; Fang, Xiaobo; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2014-12-15

    In this study, Fe3O4 NPs (named as Fe3O4 NPs-PO) were prepared by steel pickling waste liquor to reduce the cost of preparation, and were compared with those obtained by the common co-precipitation method (named as Fe3O4 NPs-CP) which prepared from chemical reagent using BET, XRD, XPS, TEM and SEM techniques. The results indicated that Fe3O4 NPs-PO nanoparticles mainly existed in the form of Fe3O4 and appeared to be roughly spherical in shape with a size range of 20-50 nm. The heterogeneous Fenton-like catalytic capacity of Fe3O4 NPs-PO in US+Fe3O4+H2O2 system was comprehensively investigated. BPA could be degraded within a wide pH range of 7-10. The removal efficiencies of BPA were close to 100% and about 45% total organic carbon (TOC) in solution was eliminated at the optimized conditions. It was found that ·OH radicals which mainly caused the degradation of BPA were promptly generated due to the catalysis of the Fe3O4 NPs-PO. Furthermore, the comparative study of catalytic activity, stability and reusability between Fe3O4 NPs-PO and Fe3O4 NPs-CP showed that the two catalysts both remained good activity after several reaction cycles and no significant change in composition and structure was observed, the loss of catalyst was negligible, which demonstrated that Fe3O4 NPs-PO were promising in ultrasonic Fenton-like process to treat refractory organics.

  2. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR) may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ce...

  3. Removal of inhibitors from pre-hydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process using adsorption and flocculation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Fatehi, Pedram; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-07-01

    A process for removing inhibitors from pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of a kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by adsorption and flocculation, and the characteristics of this process were studied. In this process, industrially produced PHL was treated with unmodified and oxidized activated carbon as an absorbent and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) as a flocculant. The overall removal of lignin and furfural in the developed process was 83.3% and 100%, respectively, while that of hemicelluloses was 32.7%. These results confirmed that the developed process can remove inhibitors from PHL prior to producing value-added products, e.g. ethanol and xylitol via fermentation.

  4. EFFECT OF FETAL SERUM AND FOLLICULAR LIQUOR SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF BOVINE EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Larocca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize In Vitro Fertilization (IVF results in bovines by lowering costs, comparing the efficiency of Fetal Calf Serum (FCS (high cost with respect to bovine Follicular Fluid (bFF (low cost and by quantifying embryo production. Cumulus-Oocyte-Complexes (COC obtained from a slaughter house, transported at 37°C in saline solution, were classified according to their quality in A, B, C and D. A and B oocytes were washed with modified Phosphate-Buffered Saline (m-PBS and three groups were randomly formed (GC; G1; G2 cultured in drops of the respective media (10 COC/drop of 100 μL, covered with mineral oil and placed in an incubator (38,5°C, 5% CO2 y 95% humidity. Maturation was done in Tissue Culture Medium (TCM-199 and antibiotics, for 22h and developed in CR1aa medium and antibiotics. The Control Group (CG was supplemented during both maturation and development stages with 5% FCS and 10% bFF; G1 with 5% FCS during maturation and development and G2 with 10% bFF during maturation and development. We obtained bFF from follicles larger than 15 mm, it was centrifuged (800G inactivating it. At fertilization Bracket and Oliphant (BO medium was used. Zygotes were evaluated every 48 h for 8 days since insemination, counting the Division Rate (DR and the Embryo Development (ED of compacted morulae. Χ2 Test was applied. For RD, G2 differs from G1 and CG (p0.05. During development no significant differences were found between groups (p>0.05. Results show that when using FCS, bFF or a combination of both, development results are similar. It is assumed that it is possible to substitute FCS with bFF."

  5. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB. PMID:27682089

  6. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL. The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  7. Hazardous waste to materials: recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from acidic leach liquor of spent hydroprocessing catalyst using alamine 308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, K K; Agrawal, Archana; Mishra, D

    2013-08-15

    Recovery of valuable materials/metals from waste goes hand in hand with environmental protection. This paper deals with the development of a process for the recovery of metals such as Mo, V, Ni, Al from spent hydroprocessing catalyst which may otherwise cause a nuisance if dumped untreated. A detailed study on the separation of molybdenum and vanadium from the leach solution of spent hydroprocessing catalyst of composition: 27.15% MoO₃, 1.7% V₂O₅, 3.75% NiO, 54.3% Al₂O₃, 2.3% SiO₂ and 10.4% LOI is reported in this paper. The catalyst was subjected to roasting under oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of about 550 °C and leaching in dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and part of aluminium. Metals from the leach solution were separated by solvent extraction. Both molybdenum and vanadium were selectively extracted with a suitable organic solvent leaving nickel and dissolved aluminium in the raffinate. Various parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous feed, organic to aqueous ratio (O:A), solvent concentration etc. were optimized for the complete extraction and recovery of Mo and V. Molybdenum and vanadium from the loaded organic were stripped by ammonia solution. They were recovered as their corresponding ammonium salt by selective precipitation, and were further calcined to get the corresponding oxides in pure form.

  8. Clostridium swellfunianum sp. nov., a novel anaerobic bacterium isolated from the pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaolan; Huang, Dan; Liu, Laiyan; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Yu; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Wenxue; Wu, Zhengyun; Fan, Ao; Lai, Dengyi; Dai, Lirong

    2014-10-01

    A novel Gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain S11-3-10(T), was isolated from the pit mud used for Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor production. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain formed a monophyletic clade with the closely related type strains of Clostridium cluster I and was most closely related to Clostridium amylolyticum JCM 14823(T) (94.38%). The temperature, pH, and NaCl range for growth was determined to be 20-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), 4.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.3), and 0-3.0% (w/v), respectively. The strain was able to tolerate up to 7.5 % (v/v) ethanol. Yeast extract or peptone was found to be required for growth. Acids were found to be produced from glucose, mannose and trehalose. The major end products from glucose fermentation were identified as ethanol, acetate and hydrogen. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unidentified phospholipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids (>5%) were identified as iso-C(15:0), C(16:0), C(16:0)dma, C(14:0), anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(13:0). No respiratory quinone was detected. The diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars were found to include galactose and glucose as major components. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 36.4 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic evidence, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Clostridium for which the name Clostridium swellfunianum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S11-3-10(T) (=DSM 27788(T) = JCM 19606(T) = CICC 10730(T)).

  9. Effect of Sodium Nitrate and Nitrate Reducing Bacteria on Methane Production and Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillanatham Civalingam Sakthivel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate can serve as a terminal electron acceptor in place of carbon dioxide and inhibit methane emission in the rumen and nitrate reducing bacteria might help enhance the reduction of nitrate/nitrite, which depends on the type of feed offered to animals. In this study the effects of three levels of sodium nitrate (0, 5, 10 mM on fermentation of three diets varying in their wheat straw to concentrate ratio (700:300, low concentrate, LC; 500:500, medium concentrate, MC and 300:700, high concentrate, HC diet were investigated in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum. Nitrate reducing bacteria, isolated from the rumen of buffalo were tested as a probiotic to study if it could help in enhancing methane inhibition in vitro. Inclusion of sodium nitrate at 5 or 10 mM reduced (p<0.01 methane production (9.56, 7.93 vs. 21.76 ml/g DM; 12.20, 10.42 vs. 25.76 ml/g DM; 15.49, 12.33 vs. 26.86 ml/g DM in LC, MC and HC diets, respectively. Inclusion of nitrate at both 5 and 10 mM also reduced (p<0.01 gas production in all the diets, but in vitro true digestibility (IVTD of feed reduced (p<0.05 only in LC and MC diets. In the medium at 10 mM sodium nitrate level, there was 0.76 to 1.18 mM of residual nitrate and nitrite (p<0.01 also accumulated. In an attempt to eliminate residual nitrate and nitrite in the medium, the nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated from buffalo adapted to nitrate feeding and introduced individually (3 ml containing 1.2 to 2.3×106 cfu/ml into in vitro incubations containing the MC diet with 10 mM sodium nitrate. Addition of live culture of NRBB 57 resulted in complete removal of nitrate and nitrite from the medium with a further reduction in methane and no effect on IVTD compared to the control treatments containing nitrate with autoclaved cultures or nitrate without any culture. The data revealed that nitrate reducing bacteria can be used as probiotic to prevent the accumulation of nitrite when sodium nitrate is used to reduce

  10. Polyelectrolytes from NS-novolak production waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajdur, W.M.; Sulkowski, W.W. [Czestochowa Technical University, Dept. of Ergonomics and Work Protection, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2003-09-12

    The chemical modification of polymer plastic wastes into useful products, such as polyelectrolytes, could be a step toward their management. For these products to be obtained, the synthesis of amino derivatives of phenol-formaldehyde resin (NS-novolak) production waste by means of known methods was performed. Products that contained different contents of amino groups in the polymer chains and that were soluble in dilute KOH and NaOH solutions were obtained. The flocculation properties of these products were tested. Studies were conducted of mine water from the Kleofas coal mine and for water from the Czestochowa metallurgical plant blast-furnace circulation system. The amino derivatives of the phenol-formaldehyde resin waste were found to have good flocculation properties. The application of these products caused a decrease in the turbidity and concentration of the dissolved contamination and improved the quality parameters of the purified sewage. These polyelectrolytes could also be used in industrial water treatment.

  11. 利用钢铁盐酸酸洗废液在填料塔中制备FeCl3%Preparation of FeCl3 from Steel Pickling Waste Liquor in Packed Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖娟宜; 丁德才; 王权永; 尹平河

    2013-01-01

    以钢铁盐酸酸洗废液为原料,亚硝酸钠为催化剂,氧气为氧化剂,在填料塔中催化氧化制备三氯化铁.考察了反应温度、催化剂加入量和添加方式、循环流量等对制备三氯化铁的影响.实验结果表明,在优化的工艺条件为料液预热温度为60℃、催化剂加入量为钢铁盐酸酸洗废液总质量的0.30%、料液循环流量6.0 m3/h的条件下,反应80~120 min,酸洗废液中的Fe2+完全氧化为Fe3+.%FeCl3 was prepared by catalytic oxidation in a packed column using steel pickling waste liquor as raw material,sodium nitrite as catalyst,oxygen as oxidant.The effects of reaction temperature,catalyst dosage and adding method,and circulation flow rate on FeCl3 preparation were investigated.The experimental results show that under the conditions of feed solution preheating temperature 60 ℃,catalyst dosage 0.3% of steel pickling waste liquor mass,feed solution circulation flow rate 6.0 m3/h and reaction time 80-120 min,Fe2+ in steel pickling waste liquor can be oxidized to Fe3+ completly.

  12. Application of pickling waste liquor in advanced treatment of papermaking wastewater by Fenton oxidation%酸洗废液在Fenton氧化深度处理造纸废水中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华东; 曾金枝

    2014-01-01

    以公司二级生化后的造纸废水为研究对象,首先确定了其Fenton氧化的最佳实验条件和在该实验条件下的Fenton氧化处理效果,然后分别将钛白粉废酸和钢铁废酸用于Fenton氧化,确定其最佳的Fenton氧化条件,最后以不同的混合比将钛白粉废酸和钢铁废酸混合用于Fenton氧化,确定其最佳的混合比。对比不同条件下Fenton氧化的处理效果和处理成本,选择Fenton氧化的最佳工艺条件。%The optimal process conditions and the Fenton oxidation treating effect were determined taken the eflfuent after the second stage biochemical treatment in our company as an object. Furthermore, titanium dioxide waste acid and steel waste acid were used to Fenton oxidation to ifnd the optimal conditions in Fenton oxidation process. The mixing liquor of the two pickling waste liquor at different ratios was used for the Fenton oxidation to conifrm the optimal ratio. The optimal conditions for Fenton oxidation were selected with comparison of treating effect and the cost at different conditions of Fenton oxidation.

  13. Enrichment strategy to select functional consortium from mixed cultures: Consortium from rumen liquor for simultaneous cellulose degradation and hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Gao, Lingfang; Xu, Jifei; Liu, Chong; Lee, Duu-Jong [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Strain isolation using conventional roll tube/plating technique is time consuming and is able to culture in vitro only a small fraction of existing microbes in a natural microflora. This paper proposed a simple and rapid method to select the as-simple-as-possible biological consortium by serially diluting the original mixed culture. The diluted which remains, while the one diluted in serial loses the target function, is defined as the functional consortium of the original mixed culture. Since the microbial structure and the reaction pathway incorporated with the functional consortium is much simpler than its original mother liquor, detailed analysis on the strain interaction is possible without the risk of losing key functional strains as often caused from conventional isolation method. The rumen liquor that can degrade cellulose and produce hydrogen is used as a demonstration example. A ''rumen cellulose-degrading bacterial consortium'' (RCBC) was identified using the proposed enrichment strategy. (author)

  14. Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

  15. Characterization of waste from nanoenabled products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov

    was provided, applying a standardised waste characterisation test. To investigate the abundance and distribution of nanoproducts, different product inventories exist, such as BUND, PEN CPI and The Nanodatabase. However, they are all limited by the lack of available quantitative information about ENM mass....... “Plastic packaging” waste involved mainly the large number of products sold in plastic containers, meaning that the remaining ENM mass at the time of disposal is expected to be minor. Nano-Ag was widespread across the identified waste fractions, thereby corresponding with the wide use of the material......) and addition of organic matter. For both materials, the potential ENM release under these conditions was considered to be low, but they indicated that, there was an effect of media conditions on the particles released from a nano-enabled product. For nano-TiO2-coated tiles, total titanium release...

  16. Production and partial characterization of alkaline polygalacturonase secreted by thermophilic Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 under submerged culture using pectin and corn steep liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vicente Vieira de Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase production by the thermophilic Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid cultures containing 0.5% (w/v apple pectin and supplemented with 0.3% (w/v corn steep liquor, reached its maximum after 36 hours with levels of 39 U.mL-1. The increase in apple pectin and corn steep liquor concentrations in the medium from 0.5 and 0.3%, respectively, to 0.65%, markedly affected the production of polygalacturonase, whose activity increased four times, reaching a maximum of 150.3 U.mL-1. Studies on polygalacturonase characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of this enzyme was between 60-70 °C. Thermostability profile indicated that the enzyme retained about 82 and 63% of its activity at 60 and 70 °C, respectively, after 2 hours of incubation. The optimum pH of the enzyme was found to be 10.0. After incubation of crude enzyme solution at room temperature for 2 hours at pH 8.0, a decrease of about 29% on its original activity was observed. At pH 10.0, the decrease was 25%.

  17. Study on preparation of autoclaved brick by Yellow River silt and fly ash added waste papermaking liquor%利用造纸黑液和粉煤灰-泥砂制备蒸压砖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新爱; 关润伶

    2014-01-01

    以粉煤灰、黄河泥砂为主要原料,炉渣为骨料,石灰、石膏为激发剂,用造纸黑液代替水做拌和液制备黄河泥砂-粉煤灰蒸压砖。结果表明,造纸黑液代水制备蒸压砖是可行的,制备的蒸压砖可以达到JC 239-2001《粉煤灰砖》规定的MU25级的质量要求。%Autoclaved brick is prepared by fly ash and Yellow River silt as main materials, waste papermaking liquor as mixing liquid. The results show that it is feasible to make autoclaved brick by waste papermaking liquor as mixing liquid. The autoclaved brick meets the demand of MU25 grade in JC 239-2001 (fly ash bricks) standard.

  18. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  19. L-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei fermentation with corn steep liquor-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Ding, Shaofeng; Li, Zhaopeng; Tan, Tianwei

    2006-12-01

    Batch and fed-batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potential of corn steep liquor (CSL)-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal (AHSM) as an alternative to yeast extract (YE) for the production of L-lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei LA-04-1. The CSL-supplemented AHSM gave an outstanding result in supporting L-lactic acid production from glucose. In the exponential fed-batch fermentation, the concentration, yield and productivity of L-lactic acid were 162.5 g/L, 89.7% and 1.69 g/L per h, respectively, which were lower than those with 20 g/L YE (180 g/L, 90.3%, 2.14 g/L per h) after 96 h of fermentation. However, the raw material cost of the nitrogen resource was estimated as only 25% of that using the YE.

  20. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  1. Continuous hydrogen production from organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noike, T.; Li, Y.Y. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Ko, I.B. [Cheju National Univ. Jeju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Yokoyama, S. [Sanki Engineering CP., Ltd. (Japan); Kohno, Y. [Ex Corporation City and Environmental Planning, Research (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen is seen as a promising fuel for the future. Microbial fermentation of organic wastes is an attractive option. However, it has often been observed that hydrogen production in a continuously-fed reactor stops after a period of time. In this investigation, the effect of pH on lactic acid bacteria in continuous hydrogen production is studied. It was found that the antibiotic effect of the bacteria is prevented by keeping the pH greater than five. To establish what stops continuous hydrogen production, a continuous experiment was run using waste from bean curd manufacturing at a pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 35 degrees celsius. An increase in substrate concentration and the addition of nitrogen preferentially produced acetic and butyric acids and suppressed the production of propionic acid. Because of this, continuous hydrogen production was made possible. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective August... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment...

  3. Conversion of agro-industrial wastes to chitosan production by Syncephalastrum racemosum UCP 1302

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vieira Leite

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Syncephalastrum racemosum produced biomass and chitosan using agro-industrials wastes (sugar cane bagasse and corn steep liquor as carbon and nitrogen sources. A factorial design was used to determine the best condition for chitosan biomass and production. The mycelial pellet was lyophilized and subjected to chitosan extraction process using alkali acid treatment. The polymer was characterized by vibrational spectroscopy in the infrared region to determine the deacetylation degree of viscosity and molecular weight determination. The results showed values of biomass (32 g.L-1 chitosan yield (23.5 mg.g-1, degree of deacetylation (80%, and molecular weight (7.36 x 10-3g.mol-1. Therefore, the results suggest that organic agroindustrial residues can be used as inexpensive medium to produce  biomass and the biopolymer and shown antifungal potential against pathogenic yeasts. Industrial relevance. The production of chitosan using agroindustrial substrates as alternative and inexpensive medium proves efficient to obtain low molecular weight chitosan. Chitosan produced by Syncephalastrum racemosum is a promising natural biopolymer could be recommended as a powerful, natural and eco-friendly alternative biomedical and biotechnological applications, presenting antimicrobial properties against pathogenic micro-organisms. Keywords. Syncephalastrum racemosum; cane sugar bagasse; corn steep liquor; Chitosan

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF INULINASE PRODUCTION USING COPRA WASTE BY Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DILIPKUMAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was found to secrete a large amount of extracellular inulinase in to the medium. The optimization of inulinase pro¬duction using copra waste as a carbon source was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of eighteen nut¬rients for their influence on inulinase production was achieved using a Plackett––Burman design. Corn steep liquor, (NH42SO4, ZnSO47H2O, K2HPO4 and urea were selected based on their positive influence on inulinase production. The selected components were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum conditions are: corn steep liquor – 0.0560 (g/gds, (NH42SO4 – 0.0084 (g/gds, ZnSO47H2O – 0.0254 (g/gds, K2HPO4 – 0.0037 (g/gds and urea - 0.02147 (g/gds. These conditions were validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced inulinase yield of 372 U/gds.

  5. Biogas production from organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baader, W.; Schuchardt, F.; Grabbe, K.

    1981-01-01

    Various substrates were tested for their suitability for biogas production in a fermentation test rig. It was shown that chaffed and sodium hydroxide treated straw gave the highest yields of methane per kg ODM.

  6. Determinations in the Production of Baijiu(Liquor)(XXⅢ):Baijiu(Liquor) Safety Detection(ContinueⅡ)%白酒生产检验(二十三):白酒食品安全检测(续二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大和; 王超凯; 李国红; 彭奎

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the detection methods of Baijiu(liquor) safety indicators such as acesulfame potassium, aspartame, and phthalate were introduced.(Trans. by YUE Yang)%介绍白酒食品安全指标中安赛蜜、阿斯巴甜、邻苯二甲酸酯(塑化剂)的检测方法.

  7. Production of hydrogen from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes gasification and the process for producing a gasificable slurry from raw MSW by using high pressures of steam. A potential energy source, MSW is a composite of organic materials such as: paper, wood, food waste, etc. There are different paper grades producing different results with low-quality paper forming better slurries than high-quality papers; making MSW a difficult feedstock for gasification. The objective of the bench-scale laboratory work has been to establish operating conditions for a hydrothermal pre-processing scheme for municipal solid waste (MSW) that produces a good slurry product that can be pumped and atomized to the gasifier for the production of hydrogen. Batch reactors are used to determine product yields as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Various ratios of water-to-paper were used to find out solid product, gas product, and soluble product yields of MSW. Experimental conditions covered were temperature, time, and water to feed ratio. Temperature had the strongest effect on product yields.

  8. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM TOFU LIQUID WASTE ON TREATED AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tofu Liquid Waste (TLW as a pollution might be processed into biogas which was environmentally friendly and had potential to replace burning wood or oil. However, the waste could not directly be employed as the biogas substrate due to the high nitrogen content which was not suitable to the methanogen microorganism on the biogas digester and did not produce biogas. It was therefore necessary to adapt the carbon-nitrogen ratio in TLW with the addition of other organic materials that had a lower nitrogen content so it would be a suitable substrate for generating biogas. The research was aimed to evaluate the addition of the other organic material on the TLW to increase the biogas production. The results showed that TLW combined with sheep dung, cabbage waste, bamboo leaves and paddy straw respectively produced biogas as much as 14,183, 7,250, 2,400, 895 cm3 in 20 days. The 4 treatments gave the same quality of biogas, which was determined using the water boiling test. The pH fluctuation during the process was in the right pH for anaerobic digestion, thus it was not the limiting factor.

  9. Recovery of lignocelluloses from pre-hydrolysis liquor in the lime kiln of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by adsorption to lime mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Fatehi, Pedram; Soleimani, Pendar; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-11-01

    Dissolved lignocelluloses from the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process were recovered by adsorption to lime mud produced in the causticizing plant of the kraft process. The adsorption of lignocelluloses was a fast process, and could be completed within one hour. The addition of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) significantly increased the amounts of adsorbed lignin and hemicelluloses, which more than doubled at the PDADMAC dosage of 0.1% (based on the weight of PHL). The measured heating values of the adsorbed lignocelluloses indicate that adsorption of lignocelluloses to lime mud may result in the energy saving of the lime kiln. The process proposed in this study could also be adapted to decrease inhibitor concentrations (lignin and acetic acid) if the dissolved hemicelluloses in the PHL were used to produce value-added products, e.g., ethanol, xylitol, based on the fermentation process.

  10. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...

  11. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  12. Refractive Index of Black and Green Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Avramenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable data on the optical properties of black and green liquors complicates control of their composition in technological process of sulphate cellulose production. In this regard the paper presents measurement results of refraction index of black liquors n (k,t at concentration in solutions of bone-dry solids up to k = 70% and at temperatures t = 10-90 °C, as well as in green liquors n(C,t at the total alkalinity of C = 0-250 g/l and in the same temperature range. All samples of solutions of black and green liquors were provided by Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill and certified in factory laboratory. Measurements were taken by means of the laboratory Abbe refractometer (URL-1, digital refractometer "Expert pro", goniometer spectrometer GS-5, and ultra-violet spectrophotometer as well. The work also presents optical D density spectra in the ultra-violet region of the wavelengths for the samples of a green liquor and main mineral component to form it, i.e. Na2S (sodium sulphide. To calculate dispersion of n (λ in the visible spectral range, here a Lorentz single-oscillator model was used. The paper discusses study results of dispersive dependence of refraction index in green liquors with various concentration and chemical components of n (λ, C forming them at t = 20°C. Computing and experimental dependences of n (λ had not only good qualitative, but also quite satisfactory quantitative compliance. The work also describes main mineral components defining optical properties in these liquors. Given here data on concentration and temperature dependences of a refraction index in black n(k,t and green n(C,t liquors have been never published before. These data are of essential interest to control soda recovery technologies in manufacturing sulphate cellulose. The received results can be also used to tune and calibrate modern domestic and foreign industrial refractometers.

  13. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Suruceanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, identification and quantification of xanthohumol by HPLC method. Waste yeast from brewery pilot plant of USAMV Cluj Napoca it was dried by atomization and the powder was analyzed on xanthohumol content by HPLC method. For quantification a calibration curve it was used. The process of drying by atomisation lead to a powder product. It was used malt dextrin powder for stabilisation. The final product it was encapsulated. The xanthohumol content of powdered yeast it was 1.94 µg/ml. In conclusion the slurry yeast from beer production it is an important source of prenylflavonoids compounds.

  14. DETERMINACIÓN DE FENOLES TOTALES EN DERIVADOS LÍGNICOS OBTENIDOS DEL “LICOR NEGRO” COMO ALTERNATIVA DE PRODUCCIÓN // DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOL DERIVATIVES OBTAINED FROM LIGNIN "BLACK LIQUOR" AS ALTERNATIVE TO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José López Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an industrial waste being worthless in papermaking byproduct of black liquor obtained from the pulping process in some Venezuelan plants. The black liquor is obtained from the Kraft pulping process to extract lignin sulphite by acid precipitation and quantify the amount of total phenols in such lignin products used in this study. Spectrophotometry Molecular absorption in the UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR region were used to carry out these study techniques. The products obtained in the study had the same signs than commercial lignin (LA, along with the extracted lignin present little degradation HCl, confirmed by infrared spectra. Also, the amount of total phenols was quantified in derivative lignin obtained using the Folin-Ciocalteu. In the sulphite process extracted lignin with acetic acid derivative contains more phenols, and in the Kraft process, the derivative lignin extracted with fewer nitric acid present. The amount of total phenolics present in these derivatives are good for making antiseptics, detergents, nylon, resin and many industrial products. // RESUMEN La lignina es un subproducto del licor negro obtenido del proceso de despulpado en algunas plantas de Venezuela, siendo un desecho industrial que carece de valor en la fabricación de papel. En este estudio se utilizó el licor negro obtenido de los procesos de pulpado Kraft y Sulfito para extraer la lignina mediante precipitaciones ácidas y cuantificar la cantidad de fenoles totales en dichos productos lígnicos. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, se utilizaron las técnicas de Espectrofotometría de Absorción Molecular en la región UV-Visible y la Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (FTIR. Los productos obtenidos en el estudio presentaron señales similares que la lignina comercial (LA, además la lignina extraída con HCl presentó poca degradación, corroborado por los espectros infrarrojos. Asimismo, se cuantificó la cantidad de fenoles totales en los

  15. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.

  16. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  17. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  18. 豉香型米酒生产中微生物作用机理%Research of Microorganism Functional Mechanism in Production of Soybean-Flavor Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周北龙

    2016-01-01

    豉香型米酒是以大米为原料,采用大酒饼作为糖化发酵剂,边糖化、边发酵的生产工艺。大酒饼在制作过程中培养出大量适合酿酒的微生物菌群,大米淀粉质原料在这些微生物的作用下酿制而成豉香型米酒。酒饼中微生物菌群中各种菌种分别起代谢作用,由根霉产生的酶对淀粉质原料进行糖化;由酵母菌利用糖化分解的糖生成酒精;由乳酸菌利用糖源生成有效成分——乳酸,醋酸菌利用碳源生成有效成分——醋酸,在酵母酯化作用下生成乳酸乙酯和乙酸乙酯,从而赋予白酒特有呈香呈味物质。%Soybean-lfavor liquor is produced with rice, using caky starter as saccharifying-fermenting starter, with the process of saccharifying and fermenting simultaneously. A large quantity of microflora is produced during productive process of caky starter , which is suitable for fermentation. Starchiness in rice is used by microlfora as raw material to produce soybean-lfavor liquor. Various kinds of strains of microlfora in caky starter result in various metabolism effects, respectively. Enzymes produced byrhizopussaccharify starchiness; saccharomycetes use saccharides to produce alcohol; lactobacillus use carbohydrate sources to generate the effective component lactic acids; acetic bacteria use carbon source to generate the effective component acetic acid. Withsaccharomycetes esteriifcation , ethyl lactate and ethyl acetate are produced to contribute lfavoring and tasting functions to the liquor.

  19. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M L; Yu, Y; Ramaswamy, H S; Zhu, S M

    2017-01-06

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  20. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  1. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  2. Structural determination of glucosylceramides in the distillation remnants of shochu, the Japanese traditional liquor, and its production by Aspergillus kawachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Miyo; Tsuge, Keisuke; Jayakody, Lahiru N; Urano, Yoshitaka; Sawada, Kazutaka; Inaba, Shigeki; Nagao, Koji; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2012-11-21

    Shochu is traditional Japanese liquor produced from various crops and fungi Aspergillus kawachi or A. awamorii . The amount of unutilized shochu distillation remnants is increasing because of the recent prohibition of ocean dumping of these remnants. In this Article, we first describe the structures of glucosylceramides contained in shochu distillation remnants by fragment ion analysis using ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. Shochu distillation remnant produced from barley contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C16:0h, d18:2/C20:0h, d19:2/C18:1h, and d18:2/C18:0h. Koji (barley fermented with A. kawachii) contained the same glucosylceramides. Shochu distillation remnants produced from rice contained glucosylceramides d18:2/C18:0h and d19:2/C18:1h. The culture broth of A. kawachii contained glucosylceramides d19:2/C18:1h and d19:2/C18:0h. These results indicate that the glucosylceramides contained in crops and those produced by A. kawachii transfer through the processes of fermentation with yeast and distillation to the shochu distillation remnant. This information will enable utilization of shochu distillation remnants and koji as novel sources of sphingolipids.

  3. Effect of Sodium Nitrate and Nitrate Reducing Bacteria on In vitro Methane Production and Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Pillanatham Civalingam; Kamra, Devki Nandan; Agarwal, Neeta; Chaudhary, Lal Chandra

    2012-06-01

    Nitrate can serve as a terminal electron acceptor in place of carbon dioxide and inhibit methane emission in the rumen and nitrate reducing bacteria might help enhance the reduction of nitrate/nitrite, which depends on the type of feed offered to animals. In this study the effects of three levels of sodium nitrate (0, 5, 10 mM) on fermentation of three diets varying in their wheat straw to concentrate ratio (700:300, low concentrate, LC; 500:500, medium concentrate, MC and 300:700, high concentrate, HC diet) were investigated in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum. Nitrate reducing bacteria, isolated from the rumen of buffalo were tested as a probiotic to study if it could help in enhancing methane inhibition in vitro. Inclusion of sodium nitrate at 5 or 10 mM reduced (pfeed reduced (pfeeding and introduced individually (3 ml containing 1.2 to 2.3×10(6) cfu/ml) into in vitro incubations containing the MC diet with 10 mM sodium nitrate. Addition of live culture of NRBB 57 resulted in complete removal of nitrate and nitrite from the medium with a further reduction in methane and no effect on IVTD compared to the control treatments containing nitrate with autoclaved cultures or nitrate without any culture. The data revealed that nitrate reducing bacteria can be used as probiotic to prevent the accumulation of nitrite when sodium nitrate is used to reduce in vitro methane emissions.

  4. Fast carbonization using fluidized bed for biochar production from reed black liquor: optimization for H2S removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Jing Ping; Wen, Chao

    2016-10-01

    The biochar was produced from fast pyrolysis of reed black liquor using fluidized bed. Response surface methodology and the central composite design (CCD) were employed for determining optimal adsorbents with maximum H2S removal capacity. The operational parameters such as carbonization temperature (°C), duration (min) and space velocity (SV, L min(-1) kg(-1)) were chosen as independent variables in CCD. The statistical analysis indicates that the effects of carbonization temperature, duration, SV and combined effect of carbonization temperature and duration are all significant to the H2S removal capacity. The optimal condition for achieving the maximum H2S adsorption capacity for biochar is obtained as the follows: carbonization temperature (500°C), duration (5.7 min), SV (7300 L min(-1) kg(-1)) with H2S removal reaching 60 mg g(-1). The dynamic experimental results indicate a good performance in H2S removal by the produced biochar.

  5. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products.

  6. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  7. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  8. Evaluation of Biohydrogen Production Potential of Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevim Genç

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, types of potential biomass that could be the source for biohydrogen generation such as energy crops, lignocellulosic residues, waste and wastewaters are discussed. The major criteria that have to be met for the selection of substrates suitable for fermentative biohydrogen production are availability, cost, carbohydrate content (high proportion of readily fermentable compounds such as sugars and carbohydrates and biodegradability (a high concentration of degradable organic compounds and low concentration of inhibitory to microbiological activity compounds. Although starchy and sugar based biomass and wastes are readily fermentable by microorganisms for hydrogen generation, lignocellulosic biomass needs to be pretreated. Pretreatment is carry out for altering the structural features of biomass which are classified as psysical or chemical. In general, pretreatment methods of lignocellulosic biomass can be divided into three main types, according to the means used for altering its structural features: mechanical, physicochemical and biological.

  9. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.

  10. 白酒生产中乳酸菌的分布及主要代谢产物%The distribution of lactic acid bacteria in traditional liquor production and main metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超; 刘勇

    2012-01-01

    乳酸菌是发酵产乳酸的一类革兰氏阳性菌,是大曲中的主要微生物菌系,对大曲中酯的形成是有利的,但在有些香型白酒(如清香、浓香型白酒)酿造中要控制或降低乳酸菌的作用.该文介绍了白酒生产中乳酸菌的分布,乳酸菌所产主要代谢产物的代谢途径及其对白酒的影响.%Lactic acid bacterium is a kind of gram-positive bacterium that generates lactic fermentation,which is the main microbial strains in daqu and in the form of daqu ester is favorable.But in some liquor flavor types (such as faint scent, luzhcu-flavor liquor) production we need to control or reduce the role of lactic acid bacteria. This paper introduces the distribution of lactic acid bacteria in liquor production, metabolic pathway of main metabolites of lactic acid bacteria and its influence for liquor.

  11. Evaluation of an integrated biorefinery based on fractionation of spent sulphite liquor for the production of an antioxidant-rich extract, lignosulphonates and succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, Maria; Papapostolou, Harris; Komaitis, Michael; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2016-08-01

    Spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been used for the production of lignosulphonates (LS), antioxidants and bio-based succinic acid. Solvent extraction of SSL with isopropanol led to the separation of approximately 80% of the total LS content, whereas the fermentations carried out using the pretreated SSL with isopropanol led to the production of around 19g/L of succinic acid by both Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Fractionation of SSL via nanofiltration to separate the LS and solvent extraction using ethyl acetate to separate the phenolic compounds produced a detoxified sugar-rich stream that led to the production of 39g/L of succinic acid by B. succiniciproducens. This fractionation scheme resulted also in the production of 32.4g LS and 1.15g phenolic-rich extract per 100g of SSL. Both pretreatment schemes removed significant quantities of metals and heavy metals. This novel biorefinery concept could be integrated in acidic sulphite pulping mills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of yard waste and food waste for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Food and yard wastes are available year round at low cost and have the potential to complement each other for SS-AD. The goal of this study was to determine optimal feedstock/effluent (F/E) and food waste/yard waste mixing ratios for optimal biogas production. Co-digestion of yard and food waste was carried out at F/E ratios of 1, 2, and 3. For each F/E ratio, food waste percentages of 0%, 10%, and 20%, based on dry volatile solids, were evaluated. Results showed increased methane yields and volumetric productivities as the percentage of food waste was increased to 10% and 20% of the substrate at F/E ratios of 2 and 1, respectively. This study showed that co-digestion of food waste with yard waste at specific ratios can improve digester operating characteristics and end performance metrics over SS-AD of yard waste alone.

  13. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design.

  14. Gasification of black liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  15. A combined acidification/PEO flocculation process to improve the lignin removal from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haiqiang; Fatehi, Pedram; Xiao, Huining; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-04-01

    The presence of lignin impairs the utilization of the hemicelluloses dissolved in the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. In this paper, a novel process was developed by combining the acidification and poly ethylene oxide (PEO) flocculation concepts to improve the lignin removal. The results showed that the lignin removal was improved by the addition of PEO to the acidified PHL, particularly at a low pH of 1.5. The main mechanisms involved are the lignin/PEO complex formation and the bridging of the formed complexes. This hypothesis was supported by the turbidity, FTIR and particle size measurements. Interestingly, the hemicelluloses removal from the acidification/PEO flocculation was marginal, which would be beneficial for the down-stream ethanol production from the PHL. Additionally, a process flow diagram was proposed that incorporates this new concept into the existing configuration of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratasida, D.L. [BAPEDAL, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  17. Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalin Chaiyaomporn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research palm fiber and palm shell were used as raw materials to produce pelletised fuel, and waste glycerol were used as adhesive to reduce biodiesel production waste. The aim of this research is to find optimum ratio of raw material (ratio of palm fiber and palm shell, raw material size distribution, adhesive temperature, and ratio of ingredients (ratio of raw material, waste glycerol, and water. The optimum ratio of pelletized fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated. From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339% which was higher than the standard. Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247% which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard. At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N. Pelletized fuel cost at optimum condition was 1.14 baht/kg.

  18. EFFECT OF CORN STEEP LIQUOR CONCENTRATION ON GLYCEROL PRODUCTION AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF GLYCEROL FERMENTATION%玉米浆浓度对甘油发酵的影响及动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In batch cultures of Candida krusei, the effect of corn steep liquor (CSL) concentration was investigated. The result showed that glycerol yield was greatly affected by CSL concentration. Higher glycerol yield was attained when the initial CSL concentration in the medium was 9 g.L-1. The fermentation kinetics were studied and the parameters for cell growth, maintenance, and glycerol production were obtained. Material balance revealed by product formation during the growth phase and suggested a fed-batch culture strategy.

  19. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  20. Assessment of black liquor gasification in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification of black liquor (waste pulping chemicals) has been examined. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of using this technique to convert such bio-based waste to value added fuel products, as well as recovery of pulping materials. Supercritical gasification may improve overall process efficiency by eliminating the energy intensive evaporation step necessary in conventional process and product gas obtained at high pressure may be ready for utilization without any compression requirement. Appropriate operating parameters, including pressure, temperature, feed concentration, and reaction time, which would yield the highest conversion and energy efficiency were determined. Reaction was performed in a quartz capillary heated in a fluidized bed reactor. Results indicated that pressure between 220 and 400 atm has insignificant influence on the gas products and extent of carbon conversion. Increasing temperature and residence time between 375-650 degrees C and 5-120 s resulted in greater gas production, overall carbon conversion, and energy efficiency. Maximum conversion to H(2), CO, CH(4), and C(2)H(X) was achieved at the highest temperature and longest residence time tested showing an overall carbon conversion of 84.8%, gas energy content of 9.4 MJ/m(3) and energy conversion ratio of 1.2. Though higher carbon conversion and energy conversion ratio were obtained with more dilute liquor, energy content was lower than for those with higher solid contents. Due to anticipated complex design and high initial investment cost of this operation, further studies on overall feasibility should be carried out in order to identify the optimum operating window for this novel process.

  1. Pilot-Scale Lactic Acid Production via Batch Culturing of Lactobacillus sp. RKY2 Using Corn Steep Liquor As a Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jung Wee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the determination of the efficiency of a pilot-scale fermentation process using corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source was attempted in order to produce lactic acid via batch culturing of Lactobacillus sp. RKY2. Using pure glucose, fermentation efficiency characteristics, such as final lactic acid, cell growth, yield, and productivity were not substantially influenced by the scale-up of the laboratory-scale fermentation from 2.5- to 30- and 300-litre scale fermentations. In all experiments, the content of lactic acid produced increased in a linear fashion with increases in the initial glucose concentration. In the experiments using wood hydrolyzate, both lactic acid productivity and cell growth were decreased as a result of the scaling-up of the fermentation. This might be attributed to the toxic chemicals contained in the wood hydrolyzates. However, in all experiments, lactic acid yields remained higher than 90 % with regard to the amount of glucose consumed. Therefore, lactic acid was successfully produced by the pilot-scale bioreactor scheme adopted in this study.

  2. 白酒生产废水处理工艺方案的选择%Selection of Treatment Processes of Wastewater from Baijiu(Liquor) Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater from Baijiu (liquor) production is usually abundant of organic matter and impurities, biodegradable, and hard to process. If not treated properly, it will bring problems both to the production activity and surrounding environment of distilleries. In this paper, we introduced and compared several wastewater treatment processes, including anaerobic process, aerobic process, advanced treatment and sludge treatment. (Trans. by HUANG Xiaoli).%白酒废水是酒类企业在生产时所留下的废弃物,其成分复杂、量大,如果不及时有效地科学处理,不但会给企业带来生产上的问题,同时也会对企业周边环境带来不利影响。白酒废水具有有机物含量高、易生物降解、处理要求高、杂质含量高等特点。对此,介绍了在对白酒废水处理时对于厌氧工艺、好氧工艺、深度处理工艺、污泥处理工艺这几种工艺的选择,并对不同工艺进行了比较分析。(晓文)

  3. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... from true landfills. Hence, the computer tool is verified in terms of mass balances and sensitivity analyses. The mass balances agree exactly and the sensitivity analyses show that different types of waste product components behave differently in different types of landfills. Emission of e.g. toluene......This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...

  4. Equilibrium Temperature Profiles within Fission Product Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We studied waste form strategies for advanced fuel cycle schemes. Several options were considered for three waste streams with the following fission products: cesium and strontium, transition metals, and lanthanides. These three waste streams may be combined or disposed separately. The decay of several isotopes will generate heat that must be accommodated by the waste form, and this heat will affect the waste loadings. To help make an informed decision on the best option, we present computational data on the equilibrium temperature of glass waste forms containing a combination of these three streams.

  5. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incu

  6. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... remediation waste. The proposed reinterpretation is ] in response to questions EPA received about the... Resource Conservation and Recovery, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental...

  7. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Cheeseright, J. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  8. Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuel Production - BLGMF II - A techno-economic feasibility study on catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for synthetic diesel production in comparison with methanol and DME as transport fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekbom, Tomas; Berglin, Niklas; Loegdberg, Sara [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The present project presents additional results to the former BLGMF project, which investigate Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuels (BLGMF) production. The objectives were to investigate, based on the KAM 2 program Ecocyclic Pulp Mill (2,000 ADt/day of pulp) the feasibility of synthetic fuels production. Specifically the route to Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels is investigated as comparison to earlier work on methanol/DME. As modern kraft pulp mills have a surplus of energy, they could become key suppliers of renewable fuels. It is thus of great interest to convert the spent cooking product 'black liquor' to an energy carrier of high value. The resulting biomass-to-fuel energy efficiency when only biomass is used as an external energy source was 43% for FTD or 65% for FT products compared with 66% for methanol and 67% for DME. The FTD calculation is considerably more complicated and based on assumptions, therefore the uncertainty is higher. Would the diesel be taken out with a T95% of 320 deg C the FTD efficiency would be 45%. FT synthesis also opens up a possibility to produce e.g. lube oils from waxes produced. The total net FT-products output equals 4115 barrels/day. The FTD production cost is calculated as the energy share of the total production cost and assumes an offset of naphtha covering its own costs, where it is essential that it finds a market. Assuming same petrol (methanol) and diesel (DME, FTD) costs for the consumer the payback time were 2.6, 2.9 and 3.4 years with an IRR of 40%, 45% and 30%, respectively. In conclusion, there are necessary resources and potential for large-scale methanol (or DME, FTD) production and substantial economic incentive for making plant investments and achieving competitive product revenues.

  9. 浓香型白酒生产有机窖泥培养%Research on the Culture of Organic Pit Mud for Luzhou-flavor Liquor Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜宇宏

    2011-01-01

    The main physiochemical indexes of organic pit mud and inorganic pit mud for Luzhou-flavor liquor production were compared including microbial species,sensory indexes,moisture content,pH values,ammonia nitrogen,phosphorus,available potassium and humus.The selection of raw materials for the culture of organic pit mud,pit mud formula,and the operating points were discussed.The purpose of organic pit mud culture was to culture quality beneficial microflora and create favorable growth environment for beneficial microbes and achieve sustainable and efficient growth of microbes.(Tran.by YUE Yang)%对浓香型有机窖泥和无机窖泥的微生物种类、感官指标以及水分含量、pH值、氨态氮、有效磷、有效钾和腐殖质等主要理化指标进行对比研究。对有机窖泥培养的原料选择、窖泥配方、操作要点进行了论述。有机窖泥培养的目的是培养优质有益菌群,为有益微生物创造一个良好的生长环境,使之能持续有效地生长。

  10. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  11. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided......For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...

  12. Use of waste materials for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, R.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Napoli Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche; Buonerba, A.; Grassi, A. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Waste raw materials obtained by several sources of both food and agro industries could be considered for biofuel production. In the last years, this topic has growing in interest. At this purpose, our research, has been focused on the development of new technologies to obtain biodiesel from the mentioned wastes feedstock. In particular from oleins, that are mixtures of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides. Therefore, we are studying the way to produce biodiesel in two steps: an esterification reaction of FFAs with glycerol and a transesterification with methanol of the whole mixture. The esterification of FFAs with glycerol has the advantage of using a relatively high temperature favouring the stripping of water formed during the esterification. In this way esterification equilibrium is shifted to the right. Then, the mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides, obtained by esterification with glycerol, can be submitted to transesterification with methanol, in the usual way, to produce biodiesel Catalysts promoting esterification, normally, are mineral acids or heterogeneous Bronsted acid catalysts. At this purpose, the classical sulphonated polystyrene acid resins cannot be used at temperature greater than 120 C. Therefore, a new class of sulfonated polymers, with enhanced temperature resistance, has been developed by selective and quantitative sulfonation of olefinic butadiene units in multiblock copolymers syndiotactic polystyrene-co-1,4-cis-polybutadiene. This catalytic system has been successfully tested in the above mentioned esterification reaction and compared to classic commercial strong acid catalysts like Amberlyst {sup registered}, Nafion {sup registered} and sulfuric acid. (orig.)

  13. 利用氟化钾从制药废液中回收正丁醇%RECOVERY OF n-BUTANOL FROM WASTE PHARMACEUTICAL LIQUOR BY POTASSIUM FLUORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙武; 许文友

    2011-01-01

    测定了正丁醇-水-氟化钾体系在25℃时的液-液相平衡数据,以Pitzer理论和Wilson方程对液-液相平衡数据进行了关联计算,计算值与实测值接近,水相和有机相的绝对平均偏差分别为0.72%和0.56%.考察了氟化钾水溶液与制药废液质量比对脱水率的影响,结果表明,当质量分数为60%的氟化钾水溶液与该废液的质量比为0.75时,脱水率高达91.38%,将有机相进行精馏可得到质量分数为99.50%的正丁醇,水相中氟化钾稀溶液经蒸发回收后循环使用不影响分离性能.%The liquid-liquid equilibrium data for w-butanol-water-KF system were measured at 25 °C and calculated by means of the Pitzer theory and the Wilson equation. The calculated results were close to the experimental data and the average absolute deviations for the water phase and the organic phase were 0. 72% and 0. 56%, respectively. The effect of the mass ratio of potassium fluoride sol-ution to the waste pharmaceutical liquor on the dehydration rate was also studied. The dehydration rate was as high as 91. 38% when the mass ratio of the potassium fluoride solution with 60. 00% of mass fraction to the waste pharmaceutical liquor was 0. 75. W-Butanol with 99. 50% of mass fraction was obtained via distillation of the organic phase. The dilute potassium fluoride solution in the aqueous phase was concentrated by evaporation for recovery and recycling.

  14. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  15. Waste valorization by biotechnological conversion into added value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Amore, Antonella; Faraco, Vincenza

    2013-07-01

    Fossil fuel reserves depletion, global warming, unrelenting population growth, and costly and problematic waste recycling call for renewable resources of energy and consumer products. As an alternative to the 100 % oil economy, production processes based on biomass can be developed. Huge amounts of lignocellulosic wastes are yearly produced all around the world. They include agricultural residues, food farming wastes, "green-grocer's wastes," tree pruning residues, and organic and paper fraction of urban solid wastes. The common ways currently adopted for disposal of these wastes present environmental and economic disadvantages. As an alternative, processes for adding value to wastes producing high added products should be developed, that is the upgrading concept: adding value to wastes by production of a product with desired reproducible properties, having economic and ecological advantages. A wide range of high added value products, such as enzymes, biofuels, organic acids, biopolymers, bioelectricity, and molecules for food and pharmaceutical industries, can be obtained by upgrading solid wastes. The most recent advancements of their production by biotechnological processes are overviewed in this manuscript.

  16. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  17. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  18. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  19. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  20. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  1. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  2. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  3. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  4. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  5. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  6. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  7. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  8. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  9. Production of ethanol from pineapple wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, K.L.; Kouadio, K.G.; Kouadio, N' d.; Kamenan, A.

    1988-12-01

    Ethanol of pharmaceutical quality, is obtained by fermentation of juice extract produced from pineapple wastes and fruits left after sorting since they contain an important amount of glucides. The optimization of fermentation parameters proved the feasibility of such a process. The pH of fresh pineapple juice varies from 3.4 to 3.6. The fermentation can be achieved without sterilization by using saccharomyces cerevisiae from 8 g/l of juice over a period of 8 hours. The fermented juice has a density of 1.053 and an acidity level of 6 g of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//l. The analysis of the produced alcohol using a gas chromatograph reveals a high content of this product.

  10. Optimization of phytase production from potato waste using Aspergillus ficuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Mengmeng; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) can divert food waste from landfills and produce high-value products. This study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of using SSF and optimize the conditions of production of phytase by Aspergillus ficuum from potato waste. Different parameters including pH of the potato waste, inoculum level, moisture content, incubation period, temperature, and supplementary nitrogen and carbon sources were evaluated. The results indicated that pH, inoculum level, and moi...

  11. THE USE OF POLYMER WASTE FOR NANOCOMPOSITES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Tomaszewska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of accumulation of waste containing plastics reaches alarming levels as products of polymeric materials are present in every area of life. These products represent a growing percentage of impurities and waste in Europe and the World. The paper is a short description of the phenomenon and proposes a method for the use of waste plastic obtained from recycling to receive nanomaterials and composites with a simple and economic technologies.

  12. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  13. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Hancsók

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380∘C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0 h−1 and H2/lard ratio: 600 Nm3/m3. In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370∘C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0 h−1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400 Nm3/m3 mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms.

  14. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  15. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM TOFU LIQUID WASTE ON TREATED AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Budy Rahmat; Tedi Hartoyo; Yaya Sunarya

    2014-01-01

    The Tofu Liquid Waste (TLW) as a pollution might be processed into biogas which was environmentally friendly and had potential to replace burning wood or oil. However, the waste could not directly be employed as the biogas substrate due to the high nitrogen content which was not suitable to the methanogen microorganism on the biogas digester and did not produce biogas. It was therefore necessary to adapt the carbon-nitrogen ratio in TLW with the addition of other organic materials that had a ...

  16. Optimization of biogas production from coffee production waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Federico; Fino, Debora; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical pretreatments on biogas production from coffee waste. After the preparation of a mixture of coffee waste with a TS concentration of 10%w/w, basic and acid pretreatments were conducted in batch mode and their performances were compared with the biogas produced from a mixture without any pretreatment stage. The basic pretreatment demonstrated a very good action on the hydrolysis of the lignin and cellulose, and permitted a biogas production of about 18NL/L with a methane content of almost 80%v/v. Thus, the basic pretreatment has been used to scale-up the process. The coffee refuse was has been carried out in a 45L anaerobic reactor working in continuous mode and in a mesophilic condition (35°C) with a Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of about 40days. A high biogas production of 1.14NL/Ld, with a methane percentage of 65%v/v was obtained, thus permitting a process yield of about 83% to be obtained.

  17. Waste Management Strategies for Production of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-31

    Production of Mo-99 for medical isotope use is being investigated using dissolved low enriched uranium (LEU) fissioned using an accelerator driven process. With the production and separation of Mo-99, a low level waste stream will be generated. Since the production facility is a commercial endeavor, waste disposition paths normally available for federally generated radioactive waste may not be available. Disposal sites for commercially generated low level waste are available, and consideration to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the disposal site should be integral in flowsheet development for the Mo-99 production. Pending implementation of the “Uranium Lease and Take-Back Program for Irradiation for Production of Molybdenum-99 for Medical Use” as directed by the American Medical Isotopes Production Act of 2012, there are limited options for disposing of the waste generated by the production of Mo-99 using an accelerator. The commission of a trade study to assist in the determination of the most favorable balance of production throughput and waste management should be undertaken. The use of a waste broker during initial operations of a facility has several benefits that can offset the cost associated with using a subcontractor. As the facility matures, the development of in-house capabilities can be expanded to incrementally reduce the dependence on a subcontractor.

  18. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  19. Effect of coagulant/flocculant dosage and pH to water recovery of black liquor wastewater in bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhani, Dian; Winarni, Anissa; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-01-01

    Coagulation and flocculation process was used to treat black liquor wastewater from alkali pretreatment of bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch. The optimization and the effect of pH, coagulant and flocculant dosage against decolorization, TSS reduction, final pH and sludge volume were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Six combination were used, however, no combination gave good result to all four responses. Decolorization percentage of 99.69% was obtained by the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide. The combination of alum and anionic polyacrylamide gave 91.12% TSS reduction. Final pH of 7.3 was resulted also from the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide While, 50 ml sludge volume was generated from the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide. From RSM with Central Composite Design (CCD) analysis, strong interaction between coagulant dosage and pH revealed to be the significant factor for black liquor wastewater treatment.

  20. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from waste frying oil by Cupriavidus necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers, which can replace petrochemical plastics in many applications. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemical plastics. Many researchers are investigating the use of inexpensive substrates derived from waste streams. Waste frying oil is abundant and can be used in PHA production without filtration. Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha) is a versatile organism for the production of PHAs. Small-scale batch fermentation studies have been set up, using different concentrations of pure vegetable oil, heated vegetable oil and waste frying oil. These oils are all rapeseed oils. It has been shown that Cupriavidus necator produced the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from the rapeseed oils. The achieved PHB concentration from waste frying oil was 1.2 g/l, which is similar to a concentration that can be obtained from glucose. The PHB harvest from pure oil and heated oil was 0.62 g/l and 0.9 g/l respectively. A feed of waste frying oil could thus achieve more biopolymer than pure vegetable oil. While the use of a waste product is beneficial from a life-cycle perspective, PHB is not the only product that can be made from waste oil. The collection of waste frying oil is becoming more widespread, making waste oil a good alternative to purified oil or glucose for PHB production. PMID:21906352

  1. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  2. ON THE BLACK LIQUOR AND RECYCLE COOKING OF AS-AQ STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiqiangShi; BeihaiHe; BingyueLiu

    2004-01-01

    Thick black liquor, thin black liquor and solid state sodium hydroxide are added to the liquor treated by sulfur dioxide, then the blended liquor is used to recycle cooking of straw pulp. The black liquor, separated liquor and pulp of every cycles are analyzed respectively. Result shows that the content of lignin and organism in recycle black liquor and separated liquor increases faster in the first three cycles and then continues to increase slowly till four or five times, after that it trends to a stable state. The main organism separated fi'om waste liquor of AS-AQ treated by sulfur dioxide is alkali-lignin,above 50% of total lignin in black liquor. The yield of pulp made fi'om recycle cooking is steady, the hardness of pulp has a great improvement with recycle cooking. The brightness of pulp reduces correspondingly before bleaching, and after bleaching the brightness of pulp is relatively high and steady at the same sodium hypo chlorite dosage.

  3. Increasing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yields from Cupriavidus necator by using filtered digestate liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passanha, Pearl; Esteves, Sandra R; Kedia, Gopal; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2013-11-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) using digestate liquor as culture media is a novel application to extend the existing uses of digestates. In this study, two micro-filtered digestates (0.22 μm) were evaluated as a source of complex culture media for the production of PHA by Cupriavidus necator as compared to a conventional media. Culture media using a mixture of micro-filtered liquors from food waste and from wheat feed digesters showed a maximum PHA accumulation of 12.29 g/l PHA, with 90% cell dry weight and a yield of 0.48 g PHA/g VFA consumed, the highest reported to date for C. necator studies. From the analysis of the starting and residual media, it was concluded that ammonia, potassium, magnesium, sulfate and phosphate provided in the digestate liquors were vital for the initial growth of C. necator whereas copper, iron and nickel may have played a significant role in PHA accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extended Producer Responsibility and Product Stewardship for Tobacco Product Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Collins, Susan; Cunningham, Shea; Stigler, Paula; Novotny, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews several environmental principles, including Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), Product Stewardship (PS), the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), and the Precautionary Principle, as they may apply to tobacco product waste (TPW). The review addresses specific criteria that apply in deciding whether a particular toxic product should adhere to these principles; presents three case studies of similar approaches to other toxic and/or environmentally harmful products; and describes 10 possible interventions or policy actions that may help prevent, reduce, and mitigate the effects of TPW. EPR promotes total lifecycle environmental improvements, placing economic, physical, and informational responsibilities onto the tobacco industry, while PS complements EPR, but with responsibility shared by all parties involved in the tobacco product lifecycle. Both principles focus on toxic source reduction, post-consumer take-back, and final disposal of consumer products. These principles when applied to TPW have the potential to substantially decrease the environmental and public health harms of cigarette butts and other TPW throughout the world. TPW is the most commonly littered item picked up during environmental, urban, and coastal cleanups globally.

  5. Towards zero waste production in the minerals and metals sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William J.

    The production of mineral and metal commodities results in large quantities of wastes (solid, liquid and gaseous) at each stage of value-adding — from mining to manufacturing. Waste production (both consumer and non-consumer) is a major contributor to environmental degradation. Approaches to waste management in the minerals industry are largely `after the event'. These have moved progressively from foul-and-flee to dilute-and-disperse to end end-of-pipe treatments. There is now a need to move to approaches which aim to reduce or eliminate waste production at source. Modern waste management strategies include the application of cleaner production principles, the use of wastes as raw materials, the reengineering of process flowsheets to minimise waste production, and use of industrial symbioses through industrial ecology to convert wastes into useful by-products. This paper examines how these can be adopted by the minerals industry, with some recent examples. The financial, technical, systemic and regulatory drivers and barriers are also examined.

  6. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  7. Production of Ethanol Fuel from Organic and Food Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak George AKPAN, Adamu Ali ALHAKIM, and Udeme Joshua Josiah IJAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of ethanol fuel from organic and food waste has been carried out with the singular aim of converting the waste to useful material. To achieve this, the conversion of organic waste (Old newspapers and food waste (maize were respectively carried out via acid and microbial hydrolysis, which yielded 42% and 63% fermentable sugar wort. This was then converted into ethanol by fermentation process using Sacchromyces ceverisiae. 95% ethanol was obtained by fractional distillation of the fermentable wort and the total volume of ethanol produced from 2,500 grams of the organic and food wastes was 0.86 liters.Fermentation Kinetic parameters were evaluated. Considering the percentage fermentable sugar yield from the biomasses in study, it is more economical to produce ethanol from food waste (maize than old organic waste (old newspaper.

  8. Hydrogen production from agricultural waste by dark fermentation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xin Mei; Trably, Eric; Latrille, Eric; Carrere, Helene; Steyer, Jean-Philippe [INRA, UR050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, F-11100 Narbonne (France)

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of the natural environment and the energy crisis are two vital issues for sustainable development worldwide. Hydrogen is considered as one of the most promising candidates as a substitute for fossil fuels. In this context, biological processes are considered as the most environmentally friendly alternatives for satisfying future hydrogen demands. In particular, biohydrogen production from agricultural waste is very advantageous since agri-wastes are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. Considering that such wastes are complex substrates and can be degraded biologically by complex microbial ecosystems, the present paper focuses on dark fermentation as a key technology for producing hydrogen from crop residues, livestock waste and food waste. In this review, recent findings on biohydrogen production from agricultural wastes by dark fermentation are reported. Key operational parameters such as pH, partial pressure, temperature and microbial actors are discussed to facilitate further research in this domain. (author)

  9. Certification Becomes Important for the I Quality; and Safety Supervision of the Chinese Liquor Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The end of 2007, over 200 unit products of more than 80 Chinese firms have passed the quality grade certification for liquor products. These products involve distilled spirits, beer, wine, yellow wine, fruit syrup wine and others, and cover over 80% of the national top-branded liquor products.

  10. Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of pla

  11. Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ombis, L.O.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of

  12. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Don

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted tobacco production and midrib parts which used for expanded stem manufacturing and added into cigarette for nicotine decreasing. Little tobacco scraps is not used for recycling and thus utilized. In the laboratory of technologies for tobacco products manufacturing possibility for utilizing little tobacco scraps for manufacturing new tobacco products: hookah blends and non-smoking products has been studied. Fractional composition of little tobacco scraps from cigarette industry has been defined. Samples of hookah blends and non-smoking products have been manufactured. New tobacco products manufactured from burley leaves were used as comparison. Tasting of these products has been done, utilizing methods developed in the laboratory. As the result, it has been found that samples made of wastes have better tasting score because of rich taste and tobacco aroma. Utilizing wastes instead of expensive leaf tobacco greatly decreases final cost of the product. As the result possibility and expediency of utilizing cigarette’s manufacturing wastes for hookah blends and non-smoking products manufacturing has been proved.

  13. A constructed alkaline consortium and its dynamics in treating alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Yang

    treatment. Facilitating the treatment process by the constructed consortium would provide a promising opportunity to reduce the pollution, as well as to save forest resources and add value to a waste product.

  14. Biogas production from livestock waste anaerobic digesters: evaluation and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. However, feedstocks from livestock re...

  15. Biogas Production from Distilled Grain Waste by Thermophilic Dry Anaerobic Digestion: Pretreatment of Feedstock and Dynamics of Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-08-24

    Distilled grain waste (DGW) eluted from the Chinese liquor making process poses potential serious environmental problems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of converting DGW to biogas by thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion. To improve biogas production, the effects of dilute H2SO4 and thermal pretreatment on DGW were evaluated by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The results indicate that 90 °C thermal pretreatment provided the highest methane production at 212.7 mL/g-VTSadd. The long-term thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a 5-L separable flask for more than 3 years at a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg-sludge/d, using synthetic waste, untreated and 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW as the feedstock, respectively. A higher methane production, 451.6 mL/g-VTSadd, was obtained when synthetic waste was used; the methane production decreased to 139.4 mL/g-VTSadd when the untreated DGW was used. The 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW increased the methane production to 190.5 mL/g-VTSadd, showing an increase of 36.7% in methane production compared with that using untreated DGW. The microbial community structure analysis indicates that the microbial community in the thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion system maintained a similar structure when untreated or pretreated DGW was used, whereas the structure differed significantly when synthetic waste was used as the feedstock.

  16. The Effect of Iron Salt on Anaerobic Digestion and Phosphate Release to Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ofverstrom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron salts are used at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs for several reasons: for removing chemical phosphorus, preventing from struvite formation and reducing the content of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in biogas. Anaerobic digestion is a common scheme for sludge treatment due to producing biogas that could be used as biofuel. Laboratory analysis has been carried out using anaerobic digestion model W8 (Armfield Ltd, UK to investigate any possible effect of adding FeCl3 on the anaerobic digestion of primary sludge (PS and waste activated sludge (WAS mixture as well as on releasing phosphates to digested sludge liquor. The obtained results showed that FeCl3 negatively impacted the anaerobic digestion process by reducing the volume of produced biogas. Fe-dosed sludge (max produced 30% less biogas. Biogas production from un-dosed and Fe-dosed sludge (min was similar to the average of 1.20 L/gVSfed. Biogas composition was not measured during the conducted experiments. Phosphorus content in sludge liquor increased at an average of 38% when digesting sludge without ferric chloride dosing. On the contrary, phosphate content in sludge liquor from digested Fe-dosed sludge decreased by approx. 80%.

  17. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  18. Methane production during storage of anaerobically digested municipal organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Sommer, Svend G; Gabriel, Søren; Christensen, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source-separated municipal organic waste is considered feasible in Denmark. The limited hydraulic retention in the biogas reactor (typically 15 d) does not allow full degradation of the organic waste. Storage of anaerobically digested municipal organic waste can therefore be a source of methane (CH4) emission that may contribute significantly to the potential global warming impact from the waste treatment system. This study provides a model for quantifying the CH4 production from stored co-digested municipal organic waste and estimates the production under typical Danish climatic conditions, thus quantifying the potential global warming impact from storage of the digested municipal organic waste before its use on agricultural land. Laboratory batch tests on CH4 production as well as temperature measurements in eight full-scale storage tanks provided data for developing a model estimating the CH4 production in storage tanks containing digested municipal organic waste. The temperatures measured in separate storage tanks on farms receiving digested slurry were linearly correlated with air temperature. In storage tanks receiving slurry directly from biogas reactors, significantly higher temperatures were measured due to the high temperatures of the effluent from the reactor. Storage tanks on Danish farms are typically emptied in April and have a constant inflow of digested material. During the warmest months the content of digested material is therefore low, which limits the yearly CH4 production from storage.

  19. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using solar energy. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... It is eco-friendly, moderately costly and cleaner than other gasses. Actually, due to ...

  20. Toward zero waste production in the paint industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    effective treatment different solids content in the wastewater requires different dosage levels of the coagulant. ... Although the type of waste generated by different industries varies .... were raised due to biological and product contamination.

  1. Electrodialytic Removal of Heavy Metals from Different Solid Waste Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul;

    2003-01-01

    that the method could be used for removal of different heavy metals from impregnated wood waste, fly ash from straw combustion, and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The best result was obtained with the wood waste where more than 80% of each of the polluting elements Cu, Cr and As was removed......A variety of heavy metal polluted waste products must be handled today. Electrochemical methods have been developed for remediation of polluted soil. One of the methods is the electrodialytic remediation method that is based on electromigration of heavy metal ions and ionic species within the soil...... could be used when removing Cu and Cr from a soil with 25% carbonates. The final concentrations of the elements were below the target values after the remediation. A question of whether the electrodialytic remediation method can be used for other waste products arose. Preliminary experiments showed...

  2. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  3. Eliminating methanogenic activity in hydrogen reactor to improve biogas production in a two-stage anaerobic digestion process co-digesting municipal food waste and sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heguang; Parker, Wayne; Conidi, Daniela; Basnar, Robert; Seto, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Laboratory scale two-stage anaerobic digestion process model was operated for 280 days to investigate the feasibility to produce both hydrogen and methane from a mixture feedstock (1:1 (v/v)) of municipal food waste and sewage sludge. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields obtained in the two stages were 0.93 and 9.5 mL/mL feedstock. To eliminate methanogenic activity and obtain substantial hydrogen production in the hydrogen reactor, both feedstock and mixed liquor required treatment. The heat treatment (100°C, 10 min) for feedstock and a periodical treatment (every 2-5 weeks, either heating, removal of biomass particles or flushing with air) for mixed liquor were effective in different extent. The methane production in the second stage was significantly improved by the hydrogen production in the first stage. The maximum methane production obtained in the period of high hydrogen production was more than 2-fold of that observed in the low hydrogen production period.

  4. 造纸黑液磺化改性及改性产物性能研究%Sulphonation of Black Liquor and Properties of the Modified Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季栋; 马宏明; 何明; 史以俊; 罗振扬

    2013-01-01

    采取了先提木质素再将木质素磺化的方案进行造纸黑液的磺化,由分段正交试验(先羟甲基化再磺化)确定最佳磺化工艺,制备出磺化木质素.利用红外光谱表征产物,并测定了产物的磺化度、净浆流动度和重均分子质量(Mw).最佳磺化工艺:酸析木质素4 g,水40 g,甲醛溶液5 g,pH值11,75℃下反应2h,再调pH值为7,加亚硫酸钠2 g于140℃下反应4h,所得磺化木质素的净浆流动度为232 mm.红外分析表明磺化木质素中引入了较多的磺酸基;磺化木质素的磺化度为0.821 mmol/g,Mw为22.97 ku,均优于市售木质素磺酸钠,从而导致水灰比值0.35时其净浆流动度亦优于同掺量下的木钠.%The lignin in black liquor was firstly extracted first and then sulphonated in present study. The optimum sulphonation conditions were determined by staged orthogonal design (hydroxymethylation first, then sulphonation). The sulphonated lignin (SL) was prepared. The product was characterized by FT-IR. Its sulphonation degree, paste fluidity, and weight-average molecular weight were measured respectively. After 4 g acid precipitated lignin in 40 g water reacted with 5 g formaldehyde at 75 ℃ for 2 h under the pH 11 environment, the pH of the system was adjusted to 7 and then 2 g sodium sulphite was added and reacted for another 4 h at 140 ℃. The optimal sulfonated lignin was obtained. FT-IR spectra showed that considerable sulphonic groups were introduced onto sulphonated lignin. The sulphonation degree and molecular weight of sulphonated lignin are 0.821 mmol/g and 22.97 ku, respectively. It was better than that of commercially available sodium lignosulphonate (SLS). This indicated that the paste fluidity of sulphonated lignin was also greater at water-cement ratio of 0.35 and identical dosage.

  5. Productive efficiency of public and private solid waste logistics and its implications for waste management policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ichinose

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the productive efficiency of municipal solid waste (MSW logistics by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA to cross-sectional data of prefectures in Japan. Either through public operations or by outsourcing to private waste collection operators, prefectural governments possess the fundamental authority over waste processing operations in Japan. Therefore, we estimate a multi-input multi-output production efficiency at the prefectural level via DEA, employing several different model settings. Our data classify the MSW into household solid waste (HSW and business solid waste (BSW collected by both private and public operators as separate outputs, while the numbers of trucks and workers used by private and public operators are used as inputs. The results consistently show that geographical characteristics, such as the number of inhabited remote islands, are relatively more dominant factors for determining inefficiency. While the implication that a minimum efficient scale is not achieved in these small islands is in line with the literature suggesting that waste logistics has increasing returns at the municipal level, our results indicate that waste collection efficiency in Japan is well described by CRS technology at the prefectural level. The results also show that prefectures with higher private-sector participation, measured in terms of HSW collection, are more efficient, whereas a higher private–labor ratio negatively affects efficiency. We also provide evidence that prefectures with inefficient MSW logistics have a higher tendency of suffering from the illegal dumping of industrial waste.

  6. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANYAL N.; HAZRA D.; PAL R.; SOMCHAUDHURY A.K.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive seasons. Imidacloprid was rapidly dissipated in processed tea following first order reaction kinetics at all application rates and had half-lives of 0.91~1.16 d with the residue in tea liquor found to be below detectable limit on 3rd day samples. The study revealed that imidacloprid is safe for human consumption and will not pose any residual toxicity problem.

  7. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  8. Coffee husk waste for fermentation production of mosquitocidal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Abidha, S

    2011-12-01

    Coffee husk waste (CHW) discarded as bio-organic waste, from coffee industries, is rich in carbohydrates. The current study emphasizes the management of solid waste from agro-industrial residues for the production of biopesticides (Bacillus sphaericus, and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis), to control disease transmitting mosquito vectors. An experimental culture medium was prepared by extracting the filtrates from coffee husk. A conventional culture medium (NYSM) also was prepared. The studies revealed that the quantity of mosquitocidal toxins produced from CHW is at par with NYSM. The bacteria produced in these media, were bioassayed against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti) and it was found that the toxic effect was statistically comparable. Cost-effective analysis have revealed that, production of biopesticides from CHW is highly economical. Therefore, the utilization of CHW provides dual benefits of effective utilization of environmental waste and efficient production of mosquitocidal toxins.

  9. Pomegranate liquor preparation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galego, Ludovina; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Silva, José Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) liquor has been produced for several centuries in the south of Portugal, mainly in the mountain areas. The “Assaria” variety is the preferred cultivar due to its organoleptic properties and high arils to peel ratio. Wild pomegranates are also widely distributed but, despite the health benefits that have been associated to the fruits, they continue to be unappreciated for consumption. Liquor preparation is a very good alternative for wild pomegranate fruits...

  10. Nanofiltration as energy-efficient solution for sulfate waste in vacuum salt production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargeman, Gerrald; Steensma, M.; ten Kate, A.; Westerink, J.B.; Demmer, R.L.M.; Bakkenes, H.; Manuhutu, C.F.H.

    2009-01-01

    In vacuum salt production sulfate is an important impurity, but it is also used to remove other cationic impurities from the raw brine. Removal of excess sulfate is currently done by purging salt crystallizer mother liquor from the brine plant, or crystallizing sodium sulfate through evaporative or

  11. Transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pojkarová, Kateřina; Hruška, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste. On the basis of waste statistics and transport statistics is researched the greatness of the relation between the transport volume and the production of waste in regions of the Czech Republic. The relation is illustrated graphically too. We have many kinds of waste which we can monitor. The most important kinds of waste are municipal waste, industrial waste, construction ...

  12. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  13. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  14. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-01

    As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  15. Continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Huang, Jingang; Zhao, Hongting; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge was performed. The waste bread was first hydrolyzed by the crude enzymes which were generated by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae via solid-state fermentation. It was observed that 49.78g/L glucose and 284.12mg/L free amino nitrogen could be produced with waste bread mass ratio of 15% (w/v). The waste bread hydrolysate was then used for biohydrogen production by anaerobic sludge in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The optimal hydrogen production rate of 7.4L/(Ld) was achieved at chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6000mg/L. According to the results obtained from this study, 1g waste bread could generate 0.332g glucose which could be further utilized to produce 109.5mL hydrogen. This is the first study which reports continuous biohydrogen production from waste bread by anaerobic sludge.

  16. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  17. Bioconversion of chicken wastes to value-added products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Forgacs, T.; Isbister, J. (ARCTECH, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Increasing quantities of chicken waste concerns the poultry industry because of escalating disposal costs and the potential for environmental pollution. Biological conversion of these wastes to valuable products such as methane and/or chemical feed-stocks appears to be feasible. Biomethanation of chicken waste by a sewage sludge microbial consortium produced as much as 69 mol% methane in the gas phase. Acetic and propionic acids were the major acids produced during the bioconversion. Addition of chelating agents and other micro-nutrients enhanced methane production and shifted the ratios of intermediates accumulated. Preliminary data indicate that more than 60% of the chicken waste carbon was converted and that the nitrogen-rich residue may have potential as a soil additive. (author).

  18. Evaluation of lignin-based black liquor decolorization by Trametes versicolor U 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amriani, Feni; Sari, Ajeng Arum; R. Irni Fitria, A.; Abimanyu, Haznan; Tachibana, Sanro

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol second generation (G-2) production process generated black liquor that need to treat before the disposal to prevent environmental pollution. Usually, coagulation technology using polyaluminium chloride was employed to precipitate dissolved lignin and intended to decolorize black liquor. However, this single work is not effective to treat black liquor, so that it requires another work to treat remain brownish liquor. Isolated fungal strain from Japan Trametes versicolor U 80 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are white rot fungi that are known in ligninolytic enzymes secretion to biodegrade soluble lignin. Decolorization of black and brownish liquor is an indicator of fungi works since lignin is known as the colour agent in liquor colouration. This work evaluated black and brownish liquor decolorization using both fungi that correspond to fungal growth. Liquor toxicity was observed based on mycelial dry weight after 30 days incubation as the presumption of the connection of fungal growth and decolorization. The biosorption from the dead cell was also evaluated for fungal adsorption capability in black and brownish decolorization. As the result, T. versicolor U 80 was able to decolorize brownish liquor 51.5% after 21 days incubation and 68.6% black liquor at 15 days incubation. MnP and Laccase enzymes activity in 15 and 21 days are correlated to those decolorized results. The dead cell was also able to decolorize 67.3% brownish liquor and 25.1% black liquor after 15 days incubation as biosorption mechanism. This research described fungal potential in decolorization as the simple black liquor treatment technology and gave valuable information related to environmental friendly decolorization process.

  19. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  20. Levulinic acid production from waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,; Claudia Antonetti; Valentina De Luise,; Domenico Licursi,; Nicoletta Nassi

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning) were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic perform...

  1. ORGANIC WASTE AS A SUBSTRAT IN BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Józefa Wiater; Magdalena Horysz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of study was demonstration of dependence of produced biogas on batch composition as agricultural waste. Research was conducted in biogas power plant Biogas Adler, which was the first agricultural biogas plant built in Podlaskie province. The analysis showed in analyzed biogas production of biogas from waste from agricultural activity, is a good way of their utilization, while producing heat and electricity. Among the three analyzed substrates the highest efficiency of biogas productio...

  2. Integrated bioethanol and biomanure production from potato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintagunta, Anjani Devi; Jacob, Samuel; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-03-01

    Disposal of potato processing waste and the problem of pollution associated with it is a vital issue that is being faced by the potato processing plants. The conventional peeling methods presently followed in the processing plants for removing the potato peel, also result in the loss of some portion of the mash which is rich in starch. Indiscriminate discharge of the waste causes detrimental effects in the environment, so this problem can be resolved by successful utilization of the waste for the generation of value added products. Hence, the present work focuses on integrated production of bioethanol and biomanure to utilize the waste completely leading to zero waste generation. The first part of the work describes a comparative study of ethanol production from potato peel and mash wastes by employing co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at various incubation time (24-120 h) instead of application of enzymes. The solid state fermentation of potato peel and mash inoculated with co-culture, resulted in bioethanol production of 6.18% (v/v) and 9.30% (v/v) respectively. In the second part of the work, the residue obtained after ethanol production was inoculated with seven different microorganisms (Nostoc muscorum, Fischerella muscicola, Anabaena variabilis, Aulosira fertilissima, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Azospirillium lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum) and mixture of all the organisms in equal ratio for nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) enrichment. Among them, A. variabilis was found to enrich N, P and K content of the residue by nearly 7.66, 21.66 and 15 fold than that of the initial content, ultimately leading to improved N:P:K ratio of approximately 2:1:1. The application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for the conversion of potato waste to ethanol and enrichment of residue obtained after ethanol production with microorganisms to be used as manure envisages environmental sustainability.

  3. Estudo do liquor de cupuaçu Study of cupuassu liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Oliveira Cohen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, que é um fruto amazônico, vem conquistando a cada ano mais espaço no mercado nacional e internacional com a comercialização de sua polpa. Suas sementes, consideradas como subproduto, vem despertando interesse não só no mundo científico como pelas indústrias. Sabe-se que, a partir das sementes, pode-se obter produtos análogos aos oriundos das sementes de cacau, seguindo as mesmas etapas de processamento. Dentre esses produtos tem-se o liquor de cupuaçu, semelhante ao liquor de cacau que é um dos ingredientes da formulação do chocolate. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da obtenção e caracterização física, química e físico-química do liquor de cupuaçu. Obteve-se três amostras de liquor de cupuaçu, cada qual partindo de lotes diferentes de fermentação. Foram avaliados a composição centesimal e o comportamento reológico. O liquor de cupuaçu apresentou alto teor de lipídios (63,93 a 66,51% e alto valor calórico (677,35 a 691,17kcal/100g. O teor de proteínas variou de 8,95 a 10,31%. A viscosidade plástica de Casson diminuiu com o aumento de temperatura. A distribuição do tamanho das partículas influenciou nas diferenças de viscosidades entre as amostras, havendo maior redução de viscosidade plástica com o aumento da temperatura nas amostras que apresentaram maior diâmetro de partículas. A gordura de cupuaçu apresentou comportamento newtoniano à 40ºC.Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum is an amazon fruit, that each year is conquering more space in national and international market with the commercialization of its pulp. Its seeds, considered as subproducts, are arousing interest not only in the scientific world but also in the industry. It's known that from those seeds, it can be obtained analogous products as those cocoa seeds, following the same stages of processing. Among those products there is the cupuassu liquor, similar to cocoa liquor that is one

  4. Scheduling Production Orders, Taking into Account Delays and Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylewski Robert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of determining the sequence of entering orders for production in a flexible manufacturing system implementing technological operations of cutting sheet metal. Adopting a specific ranking of production orders gives rise to the vector of delays and waste in the form of incompletely used sheets. A new method was postulated for determining the optimal sequence of orders in terms of two criteria: the total cost of delays and the amount of production waste. The examples illustrate the advantages of the proposed method compared with the popular heuristic principles.

  5. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products. PMID:28059090

  6. Production and degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Choi, J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are energy/carbon storage materials accumulated under unfavorable growth condition in the presence of excess carbon source. PHAs are attracting much attention as substitute for non-degradable petrochemically derived plastics because of their similar material properties to conventional plastics and complete biodegradability under natural environment upon disposal. In this paper, PHA production and degradation in waste environment as well as its role in biological phosphorus removal are reviewed. In biological phosphorus removal process, bacteria accumulating polyphosphate (poly P) uptake carbon substrates and accumulate these as PHA by utilizing energy from breaking down poly P under anaerobic conditions. In the following aerobic condition, accumulated PHA is utilized for energy generation and for the regeneration of poly P. PHA production from waste has been investigated in order to utilize abundant organic compounds in waste water. Since PHA content and PHA productivity that can be obtained are rather low, PHA production from waste product should be considered as a coupled process for reducing the amount of organic waste. PHAs can be rapidly degraded to completion in municipal anaerobic sludge by various microorganisms.

  7. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-bo; MU Huan-zhen; HUANG Yan-chu

    2003-01-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved.

  8. Waste composting and proving fish for production the organic fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda San Martins Sanes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The volumes of waste generated in the fishing activity are increasing due to the increase in demand for these products. This implies the need for fast processing and cycling of these materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of waste generated in the fishing activity as a source of organic fertilizers in agricultural production systems familiar ecological basis. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station Cascade / Embrapa Temperate Climate was assessed throughout the composting process and the fermentation of fish waste, identifying the main points that enable the use of these fertilizers in farming systems ecological base. The composting process of rice husk revealed be incomplete during the experiment. The compound prepared with fish waste and exhausted bark of acacia presents itself as a good source of nutrients for crops, which may be suitable as organic fertilizer for production of ecologically-based systems. For liquid organic fertilizer, the conditions under which the experiment was conducted, it is concluded that the compound resulting from aerobic or anaerobic fermentation of fish waste, present themselves as a viable source of nutrients for productive systems of ecological base. However, further studies need to be conducted to better understanding and qualification of both processes.

  9. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment.

  10. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  11. Ceramic ware waste as coarse aggregate for structural concrete production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia M; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of any kind of product inevitably entails the production of waste. The quantity of waste generated by the ceramic industry, a very important sector in Spain, is between 5% and 8% of the final output and it is therefore necessary to find an effective waste recovery method. The aim of the study reported in the present article was to seek a sustainable means of managing waste from the ceramic industry through the incorporation of this type of waste in the total replacement of conventional aggregate (gravel) used in structural concrete. Having verified that the recycled ceramic aggregates met all the technical requirements imposed by current Spanish legislation, established in the Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08), then it is prepared a control concrete mix and the recycled concrete mix using 100% recycled ceramic aggregate instead of coarse natural aggregate. The concretes obtained were subjected to the appropriate tests in order to conduct a comparison of their mechanical properties. The results show that the concretes made using ceramic sanitary ware aggregate possessed the same mechanical properties as those made with conventional aggregate. It is therefore possible to conclude that the reuse of recycled ceramic aggregate to produce recycled concrete is a feasible alternative for the sustainable management of this waste.

  12. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  13. Ethanol, biomass and enzyme production for whey waste abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorella, B.L.; Castillo, F.J.

    1984-08-01

    Methods of ethanol, biomass, and lactase production are evaluated for the treatment of whey waste. These processes can all reduce the whey BOD load of 35,000 ppm by at least 90%. Plant designs are evaluated at the scale of 25,000 l whey per day, corresponding to the output of a typical independent cheese factory. Ethanol production is the most practical of the alternatives evaluated and the waste treatment would add 7.3 US cents per kilogramme to the cost of cheese manufacture. 57 references.

  14. Studies of lignin and polysaccharides recovery from kraft liquor for biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Diana; Ruzene, Denise S.; Silva,Daniel Pereira da; Teixeira, J. A; Gonçalves,Adilson Roberto

    2009-01-01

    According to the biorefinery concept, this study has the objective of evaluating alternatives for the valorization of all the kraft liquor fractions. This liquor consists mainly in lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, cellulose pulp industries recover the cooking chemicals by burning and energy is introduced into the process. Sustainable development guidelines, regarding the costs and wastes reduction and biotechnology principles may present new solutions for the produc...

  15. LEVULINIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic performances were also improved by the adoption of microwave irradiation as an efficient heating method, allowing significant energy and time savings. The hydrothermal conversions of inulin and wheat straw were carried out in the presence of niobium phosphate, which up to now have never been employed in these reactions. The preliminary results appeared to be in need of further optimization.

  16. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  17. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-07-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  18. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood (Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase (Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem (Musa paradisiaca. They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: 70.00, 39.59, 55.40, 86.00, 84.60, 80.00, 40.84, 81.67, 35.70, 69.11, 4.54, 47.19, 31.70 and 52.44% respectively. The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives (Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were 41.20, 17.85, 23.13, 20.80, 20.23, 20.00, 39.00, 44.00, 18.80, 20.75, 20.03, 41.20, 44.00, and 39.00% respectively while the results obtained as average of four determinations for cellulose triacetate yields were: 52.00, 51.00, 43.10, 46.60, 49.00, 35.00, 40.60, 54.00, 57.50, 62.52, 35.70. 52.00, 53.00 and 38.70% respectively for all the agricultural wastes utilized. The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

  19. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production.

  20. Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

    1998-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

  1. A combined process of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment and membrane concentration for recovery of dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Kaur, Ishneet; Baktash, Mir Mojtaba; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-01

    To recover dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process, a new combined process concept of sequential steps of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment, and membrane concentration, was proposed. The removal of lignin in the PHL was achieved in the activated carbon adsorption step, which also facilitates the subsequent operations, such as the membrane filtration and ion exchange resin treatment. The ion exchange resin treatment resulted in the removal/concentration of acetic acid, which opens the door for acetic acid recovery. The membrane filtration is to recover/concentrate the dissolved sugars. The combined process resulted in the production of PHL-based concentrate with relatively high concentration of hemicellulosic sugars, i.e., 22.13%.

  2. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.61 Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. A single sale of distilled spirits, wines, or beer, or a single sale of one or more warehouse receipts...

  3. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  4. Catalytic dry reforming of waste plastics from different waste treatment plants for production of synthesis gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Juniza Md; Williams, Paul T

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of mixed waste plastics, from a range of different municipal, commercial and industrial sources, were processed in a two-stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the plastics took place in the first stage and dry (CO2) reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases took place in the second stage in the presence of Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Co/Al2O3 catalysts in order to improve the production of syngas from the dry reforming process. The results showed that the highest amount of syngas yield was obtained from the dry reforming of plastic waste from the agricultural industry with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, producing 153.67mmolsyngasg(-1)waste. The addition of cobalt metal as a promoter to the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst did not have a major influence on syngas yield. Overall, the catalytic-dry reforming of waste plastics from various waste treatment plants showed great potential towards the production of synthesis gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. COMPLEX PROCESSING OF CELLULOSE WASTE FROM POULTRY AND SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sklyadnev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.To solve the problem of disposing of huge volumes of cellulose waste from sugar production in the form of beet pulp and waste of poultry farms in the form of poultry manure is proposed to use the joint use of two methods of thermal processing of waste - pyrolysis and gasification. The possibility of using pyrolysis applied to the waste are confirmed by experimental results. Based on the results of laboratory studies of the properties of by-products resulting from the thermal processing of the feedstock, it is proposed complex processing to produce useful products, to be implemented in the form of marketable products, and the organization's own process energy utilization. Developed flow diagram of an integrated processing said waste comprises 3 sections, which successively carried out: pyrolytic decomposition of the feedstock to obtain a secondary product in the form of solid, liquid and gas fractions, the gasification of solids to obtain combustible gas and separating the liquid fraction by distillation to obtain valuable products. The main equipment in the first region is the pyrolysis reactor cascade condensers; the second section - gasifiers layers and stream type; the third - one or more distillation columns with the necessary strapping. Proper power supply installation is organized by the use of the heat produced during combustion of the synthesis gas for heating and gasification reactor. For the developed scheme presents calculations of the heat balance of the installation, supporting the energy efficiency of the proposed disposal process. Developments carried out in the framework of the project the winner of the Youth Prize Competition Government of Voronezh region to support youth programs in the 2014-2015.

  6. Pyrolysis Characteristics of Alkali Lignin from Eucalyptus Mechanical Pulping Waste Liquor%桉木化学机械浆碱木素热解特性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉双; 武书彬; 郭大亮

    2012-01-01

    采用酸析法分离桉木碱性过氧化氢法(APMP)制浆废液中的碱木素,应用热重红外联用(TG-FTIR)分析方法对碱木素的热解特性进行初步研究,并对热解过程中挥发性产物释放规律进行追踪.热重分析(TG)结果表明,热解主要分为玻璃态转化、主要热解、残留物质缓慢分解3个阶段;傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)分析结果表明,热解阶段可挥发性产物有H2O、CO2、CO、CH4、酚醇类化合物和醛酮类化合物,反应时间在2000 s以后的高温阶段热解产物主要为CO和CO2.其中,CH4、醛酮类化合物、酚类和醇类化合物释放主要集中在300~ 600℃之间,且产率均较高.%The alkali lignin was separated from eucalyptus alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) spent liquor by acid precipitating method. Then the pyrolysis characteristics of the alkali lignin were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and the releasing mechanisms of main volatile products during pyrolysis were on-line measured by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer. The TG results showed that the pyrolysis of alkali lignin could be approximately described by three stages, which included glass transition stage, main pyrolysis stage, and residue decomposition stage. The FTIR results indicated that H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, aldehydes and ketones, alcohols and phenols were the main volatile products at the main pyrolysis stages. CO and CO2 were main products after 2000 s. It was also obvious that CH4, aldehydes and ketones, alcohols and phenols were released concentrically in 300 ~ 600℃ with considerably high yield.

  7. Household Hazardous Waste and Automotive Products: A Pennsylvania Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Charles V.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A significant fraction of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents, and batteries. This survey assessed the following aspects: (1) perceptions of their health-related effects; (2) perceptions of their pollution potential; and (3) their use and disposal. (LZ)

  8. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...... the textile industry and demonstrates the results that have been achieved....

  9. Implementing Cleaner Technologies as a means of minimising waste production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of how Cleaner Production methods may contribute to minimising waste formation as well as showing energy and resource savings. It introduces the tools and procedures used when working in this field. It also illustrates the theoretical approach by using examples from...... the textile industry and demonstrates the results that have been achieved....

  10. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  11. New Fission-Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandra Navrotsky

    2010-07-30

    Research performed on the program “New Fission Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization,” in the last three years has fulfilled the objectives of the proposal which were to 1) establish ceramic waste forms for disposing of Cs, Sr and minor actinides, 2) fully characterize the phase relationships, structures and thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of promising waste forms, 3) establish a sound technical basis for understanding key waste form properties, such as melting temperatures and aqueous durability, based on an in-depth understanding of waste form structures and thermochemistry, and 4) establish synthesis, testing, scaleup and commercialization routes for wasteform implementation through out in-kind collaborations. In addition, since Cs and Sr form new elements by radioactive decay, the behavior and thermodynamics of waste forms containing different proportions of Cs, Sr and their decay products were discovered using non-radioactive analogues. Collaborations among researchers from three institutions, UC Davis, Sandia National Laboratories, and Shott Inc., were formed to perform the primary work on the program. The unique expertise of each of the members in the areas of waste form development, structure/property relationships, hydrothermal and high temperature synthesis, crystal/glass production, and thermochemistry was critical to program success. In addition, collaborations with the Brigham Young Univeristy, Ben Gurion University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, were established for standard entropies of ceramic waste forms, sol-gel synthesis, and high temperature synthesis. This work has had a significant impact in a number of areas. First, the studies of the thermodynamic stability of the mineral analogues provided an important technical foundation for assessment the viability of multicomponent oxide phases for Cs and Sr removal. Moreover, the thermodynamic data discovered in this program established information on the reaction

  12. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen.

  13. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    %. Proteins of Biobardins are inhomogeneous by their molecular mass and solubility in water and salt solutions. Both Biobardins are characterized by the mineral composition identical to the composition of relative distillers grains phase. During the experiments on animals practical nontoxicity and hepatotoxicity absence of Biobardins were established. Using prednisole stomach ulcers of rats as a model a signified gastroprotective influence of Biobardin BM was established. It was shown in a reduction of the number of ulcerative and hemorrhagic blennoses, secretory and proteolytic functions of stomach. Models of electroreduction, peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL of oleic acid, POL of egg yolk, and rats' hepatitis proved signified antioxidant activity of Biobardin UL which exceeds comparable substances by 8,3-30,1%; absence of fatty degeneration of rats' lever was shown under the influence of Biobardin UL. Composition of Biobardin BM and Biobardin UL pills as rational medicine form was justified and designed. Distillers grains processing allows reduction of industrial waste toxicity index – chemical consumption of oxygen (CCO by 74%, making distillers grains ecologically-friendly waste water.

  14. Production of Citric Acid by Aspergillus niger Using Pineapple Waste

    OpenAIRE

    S. O. Kareem; Akpan, I.; Alebiowu, O. O.

    2010-01-01

    A solid state fermentation was developed for citric acid production from pineapple waste by Aspergillus niger KS-7. The medium was supplemented with different concentration of glucose, sucrose, ammonium nitrate and ammonium phosphate. It was found that pineapple waste with 15% (w/v) sucrose and ammonium nitrate (0.25% w/v) gave the optimum citric acid secretion (60.61 g/kg) in the presence of methanol (2% v/v) when fermented for 5 days at 30 °C with the initial moisture content of 65%. The ...

  15. Biodiesel Production from Waste Coconut Oil in Coconut Milk Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a 3 step biodiesel production from waste coconut oil taken from a wastewater pond in a coconut milk manufacturing plant. Special attention was paid to optimizing the first step, acid catalyzed hydrolysis, to convert the waste coconut oil into high free fatty acid oil, 83.32 wt%. The first step was the acid hydrolysis, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil. The optimum condition in acid hydrolysis was 5 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, in order...

  16. BIOHUMUS PRODUCTION BY WORMS’ COMPOSTING OF SOME FOOD WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA SUTEU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory set-up scale application of a simple worms’ composting technology is presented together with the waste and biohumus characterization, description of technological process and operational conditions. The laboratory application is not a complicated one, when the optimum conditions necessary for the digestion process are accomplished and is recommended in the farms where the biodegradable wastes are produced and accumulated in moderate quantities. The main product, biohumus, can be used as fertilizer for the soil, in agriculture or flower cropping.

  17. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corro, Grisel; Sánchez, Nallely; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino

    2016-01-01

    A two-step catalytic process for the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as heat source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones.

  18. Production of a High-Level Waste Glass from Hanford Waste Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Farrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1998-09-01

    The HLW glass was produced from a HLW sludge slurry (Envelope D Waste), eluate waste streams containing high levels of Cs-137 and Tc-99, solids containing both Sr-90 and transuranics (TRU), and glass-forming chemicals. The eluates and Sr-90/TRU solids were obtained from ion-exchange and precipitation pretreatments, respectively, of other Hanford supernate samples (Envelopes A, B and C Waste). The glass was vitrified by mixing the different waste streams with glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to 1150 degree C. Resulting glass analyses indicated that the HLW glass waste form composition was close to the target composition. The targeted waste loading of Envelope D sludge solids in the HLW glass was 30.7 wt percent, exclusive of Na and Si oxides. Condensate samples from the off-gas condenser and off-gas dry-ice trap indicated that very little of the radionuclides were volatilized during vitrification. Microstructure analysis of the HLW glass using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) showed what appeared to be iron spinel in the HLW glass. Further X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of nickel spinel trevorite (NiFe2O4). These crystals did not degrade the leaching characteristics of the glass. The HLW glass waste form passed leach tests that included a standard 90 degree C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  19. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  20. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  1. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines.

  2. Processing of wastes from lead/acid battery production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivianny, I. R.; Rusin, A. I.; Lata, V. A.; Khegay, L. D.; Nourjigitov, S. T.

    Experience in the recovery of scrap and wastes from lead/acid battery production suggests that an electrothermal method has good prospects. This process is characterized by a high degree of lead and antimony (approx 98%) extraction, by effective gas cleaning and dust collection, and by full dust returning to the furnace. The electrothermal method is also distinguished by the high reliability of electric furnaces, the useability of any type of secondary lead battery scrap and wastes, and the possibility of process mechanization and control. In this paper, a description is given of the main technical and economical factors of soda-reduction smelting in an electric furnace, a technological scheme for wastes recovery, and the charge composition and features of the process.

  3. Experiences with waste incineration for energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences wi...... with waste incineration for energy production use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by COWI DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement.......The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...

  4. Chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic agroindustrial waste for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2017-04-26

    This study investigates the effect of different chemical pretreatments on the solubilization and the degradability of different solid agroindustrial waste, namely winery waste, cotton gin waste, olive pomace and juice industry waste. Eight different reagents were investigated, i.e. sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium chloride (NaCl), citric acid (H3Cit), acetic acid (AcOH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), acetone (Me2CO) and ethanol (EtOH), under three condition sets resulting in treatments of varying intensity, depending on process duration, reagent dosage and temperature. Results indicated that chemical pretreatment under more severe conditions is more effective on the solubilization of lignocellulosic substrates, such as those of the present study and among the investigated reagents, H3Cit, H2O2 and EtOH appeared to be the most effective to this regard. At the same time, although chemical pretreatment in general did not improve the methane potential of the substrates, moderate to high severity conditions were found to generally be the most satisfactory in terms of methane production from pretreated materials. In fact, moderate severity treatments using EtOH for winery waste, H3Cit for olive pomace and H2O2 for juice industry waste and a high severity treatment with EtOH for cotton gin waste, resulted in maximum specific methane yield values. Ultimately, the impact of pretreatment parameters on the different substrates seems to be dependent on their characteristics, in combination with the specific mode of action of each reagent. The overall energy balance of such a system could probably be improved by using lower operating powers and higher solid to liquid ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by bacteria isolated from oil wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A L; Chua, H; Yu, P H

    2000-01-01

    A Gram-positive coccus-shaped bacterium capable of synthesizing higher relative molecular weight (M(r)) poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from sesame oil and identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (by Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, NJ). The experiment was conducted by shake flask fermentation culture using media containing fructose. Cell growth up to a dry mass of 2.5 g/L and PHB accumulation up to 15.02% of cell dry wt was observed. Apart from using single carbohydrate as a sole carbon source, various industrial food wastes including sesame oil, ice cream, malt, and soya wastes were investigated as nutrients for S. epidermidis to reduce the cost of the carbon source. As a result, we found that by using malt wastes as nutrient for cell growth, PHB accumulation of S. epidermidis was much better than using other wastes as nutrient source. The final dried cell mass and PHB production using malt wastes were 1.76 g/L and 6.93% polymer/cells (grams/gram), and 3.5 g/L and 3.31% polymer/cells (grams/gram) in shake flask culture and in fermentor culture, respectively. The bacterial polymer was characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, Fourier transform infrared, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that with different industrial food wastes as carbon and energy sources, the same biopolymer (PHB) was obtained. However, the use of sesame oil as the carbon source resulted in the accumulation of PHB with a higher melting point than that produced from other food wastes as carbon sources by this organism under similar experimental conditions.

  6. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  7. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  8. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of waste. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakashev, D.; Angelidaki, I.

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and increase dark fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes by optimizing important process parameters (reactor type, pH, temperature, organic loading, retention time, inoculation strategy, microbial composition). Labscale experiments were carried out at the Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. A two steps process for hydrogen production in the first step and methane production in the second step in serial connected fully mixed reactors was developed and could successfully convert organic matter to approx. 20-25 % hydrogen and 15-80 % to methane. Sparging with methane produced in the second stage could significantly increase the hydrogen production. Additionally it was shown that upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system was very promising for high effective biohydrogen production from glucose at 70 deg C. Glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers demonstrated high efficient extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production with mixed cultures. Repeated batch cultivations via exposure of the cultures to increased concentrations of household solid waste was found to be most useful method to enhance hydrogen production rate and reduce lag phase of extreme thermophilic fermentation process. Low level of pH (5.5) at 3-day HRT was enough to inhibit completely the methanogenesis and resulted in stable extreme thermophilic hydrogen production. Homoacetogenisis was proven to be an alternative competitor to biohydrogen production from organic acids under thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. With respect to microbiology, 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed to monitor the spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. An extreme thermophilic (70 deg. C), strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with high hydrogen producing potential was enriched from digested household waste. Culture

  10. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  11. Recovery of acetic acid from pre-hydrolysis liquor of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ahsan, Laboni; Zheng, Linqiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-06-01

    Acetic acid was one of the main compositions of the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL), which was recovered by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine (TIOA) diluted with decanol. Dilution of TIOA played an important role in extracting acetic acid from the PHL. The recovery of acetic acid from the PHL by TIOA was increased from 10.34% to 66.60% with the dilution of TIOA to 20% by decanol at the HAc to TIOA molar ratio of 1, consequently, the equilibrium distribution coefficient KD increased. The effects of time, temperature and pH on the extraction process were also studied. The extraction process was very fast. The acetic acid extraction decreased from 65.13% to 57.34% with the rise of temperature to 50°C from 20°C. A higher pH increased the dissociation of acetic acid, as a result, decreased acetic acid extraction. The hemicelluloses in the PHL were unaffected on the extraction process of acetic acid.

  12. Amylose and Amylopectin Influence on Liquor Production%直支链淀粉对白酒生产的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋涛; 练顺才; 常亮; 廖勤俭; 叶华夏; 李杨华

    2013-01-01

    本文比较了不同直支链淀粉含量的大米、高粱的糊化情况和蒸煮香气,并进行了实验室和窖池发酵试验。结果发现酿酒微生物代谢出的酶既能水解支链淀粉也能水解直链淀粉;同一品种的粮食直链淀粉越高,淀粉结构越紧密,糊化时间越长,粮香越浓;不同品种的粮食淀粉颗粒大小、结构不同,糊化时间也不同。不管是直链淀粉还是支链淀粉,只要糊化得好,出酒率差别不大。%In this paper, by comparing different amylose and amylopectin starch content of pasting and cooking fragrance of rice, sorghum, and pits fermentation test lab. Found that wine out of microbial metabolism enzyme can hydrolysis of starch hydrolysis can also amylose; The same varieties of grain amylose is higher , the closer starch structure, gelatinization, the longer food is sweet grows; Different varieties of starch grain size, grain structure, gelatinization time is also different. Both amylose and amylopectin, well as long as gelatinization, liquor yield.

  13. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process.

  14. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  15. The use KPI's to determine the waste in production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsos, G.; Iacob, C. C.; Calefariu, G.

    2016-11-01

    In theory and practice of management is well-known Lean approach about forms of waste from production processes (Muda) and the method VSM (Value Stream Map), one of the most effective methods for determining the activities generating value within industrial companies. It is also obvious concern of the specialists for performance measurement regardless of purview of the organizations. The literature review has shown that the link between performance indicators and the objectives of the companies is researched in detail. However, the correlation between indicators and the forms of waste that generate deviations from the setpoints is rather nature practical and it depends on the talent and managerial skills of those directing production processes. The paper presents the results of a applied study, performed by the authors, through which it was has sought to will create a system of performance indicators specific to manufacturing activity that to be a useful tool to quantify the losses and to determining ways to improve default losses.

  16. Production of ultrahigh purity copper using waste copper nitrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Kim, D S

    2003-04-25

    The production of ultrahigh purity copper (99.9999%) by electrolysis in the presence of a cementation barrier has been attempted employing a waste nitric copper etching solution as the electrolyte. The amount of copper deposited on the cathode increased almost linearly with electrolysis time and the purity of copper was observed to increase as the electrolyte concentration was increased. At some point, however, as the electrolyte concentration increased, the purity of copper decreased slightly. As the total surface area of cementation barrier increased, the purity of product increased. The electrolyte temperature should be maintained below 35 degrees C in the range of investigated electrolysis conditions to obtain the ultrahigh purity copper. Considering that several industrial waste solutions contain valuable metallic components the result of present study may support a claim that electrowinning is a very desirable process for their treatment and recovery.

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome shuffling through recursive population mating leads to improved tolerance to spent sulfite liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Dominic; D'Aoust, Frédéric; del Cardayre, Stephen B; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Lee, Hung; Martin, Vincent J J

    2011-07-01

    Spent sulfite liquor (SSL) is a waste effluent from sulfite pulping that contains monomeric sugars which can be fermented to ethanol. However, fermentative yeasts used for the fermentation of the sugars in SSL are adversely affected by the inhibitory substances in this complex feedstock. To overcome this limitation, evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out using genome-shuffling technology based on large-scale population cross mating. Populations of UV-light-induced yeast mutants more tolerant than the wild type to hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HWSSL) were first isolated and then recursively mated and enriched for more-tolerant populations. After five rounds of genome shuffling, three strains were isolated that were able to grow on undiluted HWSSL and to support efficient ethanol production from the sugars therein for prolonged fermentation of HWSSL. Analyses showed that greater HWSSL tolerance is associated with improved viability in the presence of salt, sorbitol, peroxide, and acetic acid. Our results showed that evolutionary engineering through genome shuffling will yield robust yeasts capable of fermenting the sugars present in HWSSL, which is a complex substrate containing multiple sources of inhibitors. These strains may not be obtainable through classical evolutionary engineering and can serve as a model for further understanding of the mechanism behind simultaneous tolerance to multiple inhibitors.

  18. Waste vinegar residue as substrate for phytase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Tong, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Shang-Zhong

    2011-12-01

    Waste vinegar residue, the by-product of vinegar processing, was used as substrate for phytase production from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 in solid-state fermentation to investigate the potential for the efficient re-utilization or recycling of waste vinegar residue. Statistical designs were applied in the processing of phytase production. First, a Plackett-Burman (PB) design was used to evaluate eleven parameters: glucose, starch, wheat bran, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NH(4)NO(3), tryptone, soybean meal, MgSO(4)·7H(2)O, CaCl(2)·7H(2)O, FeSO(4)·7H(2)O, incubation time. The PB experiments showed that there were three significant factors: glucose, soybean meal and incubation time. The closest values to the optimum point were then derived by steepest ascent path. Finally, a mathematical model was created and validated to explain the behavioural process after these three significant factors were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The best phytase activity was attained using the following conditions: glucose (7.2%), soybean meal (5.1%), and incubation time (271 h). The phytase activity was 7.34-fold higher due to optimization by PB design, steepest ascent path design and RSM. The phytase activity was enhanced 0.26-fold in comparison with the results by the second step of steepest ascent path design. The results indicate that with waste vinegar residue as a substrate higher production of phytase from Aspergillus ficuum NTG-23 could be obtained through an optimization process and that this method might be applied to an integrated system for recycling of the waste vinegar residue.

  19. Usage of Farm Animal Waste for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankina, O. V.; Chernysh, A. P.; Sankin, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The article considers problems connecting with the development of cattle breeding in Russia, especially the utilization of animals and poultry waste products. Basing on the foreign scientists’ experience, it has been proposed different solutions to this problem in terms of the Russian Federation, conducted the study, and presented the results of the undertaken experiments. Recommendations on the use of substances, that speed up fermentation processes at certain temperatures, has been developed.

  20. Incorporation of inorganic material in anoxic/aerobic-activated sludge system mixed liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, M C; Ubisi, M F; Lakay, M T; Ekama, G A

    2002-12-01

    In the bioreactor of the nitrification denitrification (ND)-activated sludge system, the mixed liquor is made up of organic and inorganic materials. In the current design procedures and simulation models, the influent wastewater characteristics and biological processes that influence the bioreactor mixed liquor organic solids (as volatile suspended solids, VSS, or COD) are explicitly included. However, the mixed liquor total suspended solids (TSS, i.e. organic + inorganic solids) are calculated simply from empirical ratios of VSS/TSS. The TSS concentration is fundamental in the design of secondary settling tanks and waste activated sludge disposal. Clearly, the empirical approach to obtaining an estimate for TSS is not satisfactory within the framework of a fundamentally based model. Accordingly, the incorporation of the inorganic material present in the influent wastewater into ND-activated sludge system mixed liquor was investigated. From an experimental investigation into the distribution of inorganics in the influent, mixed liquor and effluent of a laboratory-scale ND-activated sludge system, it was concluded inter alia that (i) of the total inorganic solids in the influent, only a small fraction (2.8-7.5%) is incorporated into the mixed liquor, (ii) most of the inorganics in the influent (mean 88%) and effluent (mean 98.5%) are in the dissolved form, the balance being particulate, and (iii) the influent and effluent inorganic dissolved solids concentrations are closely equal (mean effluent to influent ratio 100%). Further, a number of models were developed to quantify the mixed liquor inorganic, and, hence, total solids. From an evaluation of these models against the experimental data, it would appear that the best approach to model the incorporation of inorganics into the activated sludge mixed liquor is to follow the concepts and principles used to develop the existing models for organic materials. With this approach, reasonably close correlation between

  1. Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ho Choi; Yun Hee Park [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology

    2003-08-01

    The possibility of using waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for microbial biomass production was investigated. Cell mass and the protein content of four species of yeast, Candida utilis, Pichia stipitis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were determined when cultured in juice extracted from cabbage waste. Compared to YM broth containing the same level of sugar, all the strains except C. utilis showed higher total protein production in cabbage juice medium (CJM). Cell mass production was lower for all four strains in heat-treated CJM than in membrane-filtered medium, and this adverse effect was pronounced when the CJM was autoclaved at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. As a source of inorganic nitrogen, only ammonium sulfate added at a concentration of 0.5 g nitrogen per liter of CJM increased cell growth. Of the seven organic nitrogen sources tested, only corn steep powder was effective in increasing cell mass (by about 11%). As a micronutrient, the addition of 0.5 mM zinc increased cell mass. The results suggest that juice from waste Chinese cabbages can be used to produce microbial biomass protein without substantial modification, after preliminary heat treatment at temperatures below those required for sterilization. (Author)

  2. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D

    2012-07-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 °C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO(2)-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance of sand-lime products made with plastic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowek Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the studies on the sand-lime (silicate masonry units modified with recycled plastics in various forms: regranulate, regrind and powder. The following materials were examined: high impact polystyrene (HIPS and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS. The results of the functional properties tests, such as compressive strength, softening behavior, bulk density and water absorption are presented in the article. The microstructure of the products was analyzed using SEM and XRD methods.Obtained results show that the properties of modified product largely depend on the type, form and amount of used polymer. The highest compressive strength was achieved with 15% of HIPS regranulate in the product (by weight. ABS does not improve the strength of the sample, however, it does block the capillary action in the sand-lime product. The lowest softening coefficient was obtained in the sample modified with HIPS regranulate. The examined polymers contributed to decrease in bulk density of the samples as well as lowered their water absorption. The samples with pulverized polymer have the worst properties. All the results are compared with those of the traditional sand-lime bricks and sand-lime product modified with other additives. The analysis indicate that silicate masonry units with post-production and post-consumption plastic waste can possess interesting functional properties what brings a new potential possibility to dispose of still growing number of plastic waste.

  4. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M. C.; Hagengruber, R. L.; Zuppero, A. C.

    1974-06-01

    The hazards to public health associated with the application of municipal sewage sludge to land usage are reviewed to establish the need for disinfection of sludge prior to its distribution as a fertilizer, especially in the production of food and fodder. The use of ionizing radiation in conjunction with mild heating is shown to be an effective disinfection treatment and an economical one when reactor waste fission products are utilized. A program for researching and experimental demonstration of the process on sludges is also outlined.

  5. Properties of waste stillage from shochu distillery and waste water occurred sosei paper production process

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 正仁; 平田, 登基男; 前野, 祐二; 三原, めぐみ; 松藤, 康司

    1999-01-01

    As an effective utilization of waste stillage, which will be banned from being dumped into sea from the year of 2001, authors have been studied and succeeded to make the sosei paper by using waste stillage form shochu distillery. This research is tried to consider the property of waste stillage from shochu distillery ( sweet potato waste stillage and barley waste stillage) and the weight and property of waste water in compressing samples added some amount of old newspaper to waste stillage. F...

  6. Properties of waste stillage from shochu distillery and waste water occurred sosei paper production process

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 正仁; 平田, 登基男; 前野, 祐二; 三原, めぐみ; 松藤, 康司

    1999-01-01

    As an effective utilization of waste stillage, which will be banned from being dumped into sea from the year of 2001, authors have been studied and succeeded to make the sosei paper by using waste stillage form shochu distillery. This research is tried to consider the property of waste stillage from shochu distillery ( sweet potato waste stillage and barley waste stillage) and the weight and property of waste water in compressing samples added some amount of old newspaper to waste stillage. F...

  7. Bio-hydrogen Production Potential from Market Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna Jaitalee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied bio-hydrogen production from vegetable waste from a fresh market in order to recover energy. A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial volatile solids concentration on the bio-hydrogen production process. Lab bench scale anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR were used to study the effect of substrate and sludge inoculation on hydrogen production. Three different concentrations of initial total volatile solids (TVS of organic waste were varied from 2%, 3% and 5% respectively. The pH was controlled at 5.5 for all batches in the experiment. The results showed that bio-hydrogen production depended on feed-substrate concentration. At initial TVS content of 3%, the highest hydrogen production was achieved at a level of 0.59 L-H2/L at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen yield was 15.3 ml H2/g TVS or 8.5 ml H2/g COD. The composition of H2 in the biogas ranged from 28.1-30.9% and no CH4 was detected in all batch tests.

  8. Biodiesel Production from Waste Coconut Oil in Coconut Milk Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujinna KARNNASUTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop a 3 step biodiesel production from waste coconut oil taken from a wastewater pond in a coconut milk manufacturing plant. Special attention was paid to optimizing the first step, acid catalyzed hydrolysis, to convert the waste coconut oil into high free fatty acid oil, 83.32 wt%. The first step was the acid hydrolysis, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil. The optimum condition in acid hydrolysis was 5 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil that could be used as raw material for biodiesel production. The second step was the acid esterification, in order to reduce the FFA and convert FFA to methyl ester. The reduction of the FFA from 83.32 % in high free fatty acid oil to less than 2 % required 3 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10: 1, and a reaction time of 60 min. The alkaline transesterification in the third step was used triglyceride at 1.0wt% of KOH for catalysis, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1, and a reaction time of 60 min. The waste coconut oil biodiesel was further evaluated by determining its fuel quality, and most of the properties were well within ASTM and EN standards.

  9. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp. in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  10. Mathematical Modelling of Leachate Production from Waste Contained Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojolo S. Joshua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mathematical models of leachate production from Waste Contained Site (WCS was developed and validated using the existing experimental data with aid of MATLAB, 2007a. When the leachate generation potentials (Lo were 100m3, 80m3 and 50m3, the maximum amount of leachate generated were about 2920m3, 2338m3 and 1461m3 for about 130 days respectively. It was noted that as the leachate percolates through a selected distance, the concentration keeps decreasing for one-dimensional flow in all the cases considered. Decreasing in concentration continues until a point was reached when the concentration was almost zero and later constant. The effects of diffusivity, amount of organic content present within the waste and gravity, as cases, were also considered in various occasions during the percolation. Comparison of their effects was also taken into account. In case of gravity at constant diffusivity, decrease in concentration was not rapid but gradually while much organic content in the waste caused the rate of leachate production to be rapid; hence, giving rise to a sharp sloped curve. It can be concluded that gravity influences the rate of change in the concentration of the leachate generation as the leachate percolate downward to the underground water. When the diffusivity and gravity are put into consideration, the concentration of the leachate decreases gradually and slowly.

  11. Temporal evolution of activities in wastes from Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mo-99 is commonly produced by fission of U-235 because this is still the only process capable of generating the required amounts of Mo-99 with high specific activity. This method involves the dissolution of the irradiated U-235 target, followed by several stages of chemical separation, which generate wastes in all steps of the process, some with high levels of radiation, which irrevocably need to be managed. This paper presents a simulation of the evolution of the radioisotopic inventory that is expected to be generated in the planned production of Mo-99 in Brazil, as a contribution to designing the waste treatment plan. The code SCALE 6.0 was used to generate activity data using as input the geometry and composition of the target, the irradiation time, neutron flux and Mo-99 production schedule. The radionuclides of greatest interest for the waste management were identified. Shielding and cooling determined the criteria for initial storage; the transport limits are important for the step of treatment and packing; radiotoxicity of each radionuclide is considered in possible future scenarios of migration from final repository. (author)

  12. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  13. Influence of several non ferrous metals in the treatment of residual liquors from sulfuric acid picking processes. Influencia de diversos metales no ferreos en el tratamiento de lejias residuales de decapado con acido sulfurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, C.; Gonzalez, A.; Latorre, R.; Dufour, J.; Formoso, A.; Lopez-Mateos, F. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica. Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    In the oxiprecipitation of waste liquors from sulfuric picking processes several kinds of ferrous oxides and oxihydroxides are obtained which can be used like raw materials for the chemical industry. Generally, in this process different mixtures of then are obtained and only in the most drastic conditions, pure products can be obtained. The presence of non-ferrous metals catalyzes and modifies the mechanism of the reaction, yielding pure products. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of Cu(II), Al(III), Zn(II) and Mo(VI) on the oxiprecipitation of residual liquors from sulfuric acid picking processes, selecting the most favorable operation conditions at which it is possible to obtain products for industrial applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  14. Production and characterization of Chitosan from shrimp shells waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshar Patria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the production of chitosan from shrimp shell waste origin andcharacterize the chitosan quality of shrimp shell waste that includes parameters yield, solubility,intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and deacetylation degree. Results showed that the treatment ofheating temperature and heating time in the process of deacetylation caused significant (P≤0.01influence on yield, solubility, intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and deacetylation degree of producedchitosan. Whereas, the interaction between heating temperature and heating time on the process ofdeacetylation gave no significant effect on yield, solubility, intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight anddeacetylation degree of chitosan produced. The best results in this study were obtained from heatingtemperature of 100˚C and 80 min heating time.

  15. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava waste for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pothiraj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of enzymatic and microbial saccharification of cassava waste for ethanol production was investigated and the effective parameters were optimized. The mixture of amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG resulted in a significantly higher rate of saccharification (79.6% than the amylase alone (68.7%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF yielded 6.2 g L-1 ethanol representing 64.5% of the theoretical yield. Saccharification and fermentation using pure and co-cultures of fungal isolates including Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus terreus, Saccharomyces diastaticus and Zymomonas mobilis revealed that the co-culture system involving S. diastaticus and Z. mobilis was highly suitable for the bio-conversion of cassava waste into ethanol, resulting in 20.4 g L-1 in 36 h (91.3% of the theoretical yield.

  16. Activation of waste brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste brewer's yeast S. cerevisiae (activated and non-activated was compared with the commercial baker's yeast regarding the volume of developed gas in dough, volume and freshness stability of produced bread. The activation of waste brewer's yeast resulted in the increased volume of developed gas in dough by 100% compared to non-activated brewer's yeast, and the obtained bread is of more stable freshness compared to bread produced with baker's yeast. The activation of BY affects positively the quality of produced bread regarding bread volume. The volume of developed gas in dough prepared with the use of non-activated BY was not sufficient, therefore, it should not be used as fermentation agent, but only as an additive in bread production process for bread freshness preservation. Intense mixing of dough results in more compressible crumb 48 hrs after baking compared to high-speed mixing.

  17. Predicted growth of world urban food waste and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José

    2006-10-01

    Landfill gas emissions are one of the largest anthropogenic sources of methane especially because of food waste (FW). To prevent these emissions growing with world population, future FW best management practices need to be evaluated. The objective of this paper was therefore to predict FW production for 2025 if present management practices are maintained, and then, to compare the impact of scenario 1: encouraging people to stay in rural areas and composting 75% of their FW, and; of scenario 2, where in addition to scenario 1, composting or anaerobically digesting 75% of urban FW (UFW). A relationship was established between per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and the population percentage living in urban areas (%UP), as well as production of municipal solid waste (MSW) and UFW. With estimated GDP and population growth per country, %UP and production of MSW and UFW could be predicted for 2025. A relatively accurate (R(2) > 0.85) correlation was found between GDP and %UP, and between GDP and mass of MSW and FW produced. On a global scale, MSW and UFW productions were predicted to increase by 51 and 44%, respectively, from 2005 to 2025. During the same period, and because of its expected economic development, Asia was predicted to experience the largest increase in UFW production, of 278 to 416 Gkg. If present MSW management trends are maintained, landfilled UFW was predicted to increase world CH4 emissions from 34 to 48 Gkg and the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions from 8 to 10%. In comparison with maintaining present FW management practices, scenario 1 can lower UFW production by 30% and maintain the landfill share of the global anthropogenic emissions at 8%. With scenario 2, the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions could be further reduced from 8 to 6% and leachate production could be reduced by 40%.

  18. Let’s limit our waste production and let’s’ sort it!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Let’s limit our waste production! – Why ? Preventing the production of waste is the best solution to avoid environmental issues, economic impacts and technical constraints. So, whenever you are involved in the design, manufacturing, distribution, use or dismantling of a product or an activity in general, always remember that the best waste is that which is not produced. The limitation of waste production being an HSE objective declared in 2013 by the CERN Director-General, we encourage everyone to help limit the amount of waste produced through CERN activities. Let’s sort it! – Why ? Since the 90s, CERN has implemented a policy to promote recovery of the waste* generated by its activities. Nowadays, CERN is committed to continuously improving its sorting and recovery and therefore various initiatives have been started by GS-IS to improve the recovery of waste (e.g. recovery of organic waste from restaurants; implementation of solar trash compactors - see Bulletin 27-...

  19. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  20. Biogas Production Potential from Waste in Timis County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study of biogas production potential using as substrate the residues generated in the agricultural activities and the organic fraction from municipal wastes collected in Timis County. Data available in regional and national statistics have been reported to Timis County and used to calculate the potential quantity of biogas to be produced by anaerobic fermentation using as fermentable substrate residues generated in various human activities. To estimate the electric and thermal energy potential of the biogas, we considered the productivity of an average biogas plant couplet with a CHP unit with an efficiency of 40% net electric and 40% net thermal output and functioning 7500 hours per year. Processing data for the biogas production potential from livestock manure in Romania, we found that over 500 GWh of energy from biogas can be provided in one year. It is estimated that only half of the theoretical energy potential is technically usable by biogas investments. As for the crops residues, has been shown that the theoretical biogas potential is over 2900 GWh/year. Wastewater sludge can be converted in around 1700MWh/year, and the organic wastes available from municipal wastes can provide over 137 GWh/year. Another potential for renewable energy production in Timis County is the arable land uncultivated yearly, which can be used to cultivate energy crops, as raw material for biogas providing over 2800 GWh/year. All this quantity of biogas can be converted in numerous CHP biogas plants totaling an installed power of over 340 MWel. This potential can contribute to reach the target for 2020 in Romania to build biogas plants totaling at least 195 MWel. installed power, with an output of 950 GW electric power. 

  1. Eco-friendly synthesis for MCM-41 nanoporous materials using the non-reacted reagents in mother liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous materials such as Mobil composite material number 41 (MCM-41) are attractive for applications such as catalysis, adsorption, supports, and carriers. Green synthesis of MCM-41 is particularly appealing because the chemical reagents are useful and valuable. We report on the eco-friendly synthesis of MCM-41 nanoporous materials via multi-cycle approach by re-using the non-reacted reagents in supernatant as mother liquor after separating the solid product. This approach was achieved via minimal requirement of chemical compensation where additional fresh reactants were added into the mother liquor followed by pH adjustment after each cycle of synthesis. The solid product of each successive batch was collected and characterized while the non-reacted reagents in supernatant can be recovered and re-used to produce subsequent cycle of MCM-41. The multi-cycle synthesis is demonstrated up to three times in this research. This approach suggests a low cost and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoporous material since less waste is discarded after the product has been collected, and in addition, product yield can be maintained at the high level. PMID:23497184

  2. Nitrogen Sources Screening for Ethanol Production Using Carob Industrial Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Rodrigues, F; Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity. In STR batch fermentation, urea has proved to be a very promising nitrogen source in large-scale production of bioethanol, reaching an ethanol yield of 44 % (w/w), close to theoretical maximum yield value and an ethanol production of 115 g/l. Urea at 3 g/l as nitrogen source could be an economical alternative with a great advantage in the sustainability of ethanol production from carbohydrates extracted from carob. Simulation studies, with experimental data using SuperPro Design software, have shown that the bioethanol production biorefinery from carob wastes could be a very promising way to the valorization of an endogenous resource, with a competitive cost.

  3. Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

    2013-08-01

    Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated.

  4. Ethanol Production from Waste Potato Mash by Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Izmirlioglu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-ethanol is one of the energy sources that can be produced by renewable sources. Waste potato mash was chosen as a renewable carbon source for ethanol fermentation because it is relatively inexpensive compared with other feedstock considered as food sources. However, a pretreatment process is needed: specifically, liquefaction and saccharification processes are needed to convert starch of potato into fermentable sugars before ethanol fermentation. In this study, hydrolysis of waste potato mash and growth parameters of the ethanol fermentation were optimized to obtain maximum ethanol production. In order to obtain maximum glucose conversions, the relationship among parameters of the liquefaction and saccharification process was investigated by a response surface method. The optimum combination of temperature, dose of enzyme (α-amylase and amount of waste potato mash was 95 °C, 1 mL of enzyme (18.8 mg protein/mL and 4.04 g dry-weight/100 mL DI water, with a 68.86% loss in dry weight for liquefaction. For saccharification, temperature, dose of enzyme and saccharification time were optimized and optimum condition was determined as 60 °C-72 h-0.8 mL (300 Unit/mL of amyloglucosidase combination, yielded 34.9 g/L glucose. After optimization of hydrolysis of the waste potato mash, ethanol fermentation was studied. Effects of pH and inoculum size were evaluated to obtain maximum ethanol. Results showed that pH of 5.5 and 3% inolculum size were optimum pH and inoculum size, respectively for maximum ethanol concentration and production rate. The maximum bio-ethanol production rate was obtained at the optimum conditions of 30.99 g/L ethanol. Since yeast extract is not the most economical nitrogen source, four animal-based substitutes (poultry meal, hull and fines mix, feather meal, and meat and bone meal were evaluated to determine an economical alternative nitrogen source to yeast extract. Poultry meal and feather meal were able to produce 35 g/L and

  5. Calculating the pre-consumer waste footprint: A screening study of 10 selected products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Rafael; Moberg, Åsa; Stenmarck, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the total waste generated by the production of consumer goods can help raise awareness among policy-makers, producers and consumers of the benefits of closing loops in a future circular economy, avoiding unnecessary production and production steps and associated generation of large amounts of waste. In strict life cycle assessment practice, information on waste outputs from intermediate industrial processes of material and energy transformation is translated into and declared as potential environmental impacts, which are often not reported in the final results. In this study, a procedure to extract available intermediate data and perform a systematic pre-consumer waste footprint analysis was developed. The pre-consumer waste footprint concept was tested to analyse 10 generic products, which provided some novel and interesting results for the different product categories and identified a number of challenges that need to be resolved in development of the waste footprint concept. These challenges include standardised data declaration on waste in life cycle assessment, with a separation into waste categories illustrating the implicit environmental and scale of significance of waste types and quantities (e.g. hazardous waste, inert waste, waste for recycling/incineration) and establishment of a common definition of waste throughout sectors and nations.

  6. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  7. Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S.; Liew, F.M.; Daniell, J.; Koepke, M. [LanzaTech, Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2012-07-01

    LanzaTech has developed a gas fermentation platform for the production of alter native transport fuels and commodity chemicals from carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing gases. LanzaTech technology uses these gases in place of sugars as the carbon and energy source for fermentation thereby allowing a broad spectrum of resources to be considered as an input for product synthesis. At the core of the Lanzatech process is a proprietary microbe capable of using gases as the only carbon and energy input for product synthesis. To harness this capability for the manufacture of a diverse range of commercially valuable products, the company has developed a robust synthetic biology platform to enable a variety of novel molecules to be synthesised via gas fermentation. LanzaTech initially focused on the fermentation of industrial waste gases for fuel ethanol production. The company has been operating pilot plant that uses direct feeds of steel making off gas for ethanol production for over 24 months. This platform technology has been further successfully demonstrated using a broad range of gas inputs including gasified biomass and reformed natural gas. LanzaTech has developed the fermentation, engineering and control systems necessary to efficiently convert gases to valuable products. A precommercial demonstration scale unit processing steel mill waste gases was commissioned in China during the 2{sup nd} quarter of 2012. Subsequent scale-up of this facility is projected for the 2013 and will represent the first world scale non-food based low carbon ethanol project. More recently LanzaTech has developed proprietary microbial catalysts capable of converting carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen directly to value added chemicals, where-in CO{sub 2} is the sole source of carbon for product synthesis. Integrating the LanzaTech technology into a number of industrial facilities, such as steel mills, oil refineries and other industries that emit Carbon bearing

  8. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  9. 黑液与石油焦共热解及其产物特性研究%C o-pyrolysis behaviors and products characteristics of bl ack liquor and petroleum coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵金; 郭大亮; 袁洪友; 周肇秋; 阴秀丽; 吴创之

    2014-01-01

    The weight loss characteristics, evolution patterns of volatiles and morphology of solid product from co-pyrolysis of black liquor and petroleum coke were studied by a thermo gravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier Tar nsform Infrared Spectrometry ( TGA-FTIR) ands canning electronic microscopy ( SE M) .The CO2 co-gasification characteristics of black liquor char and petroleum coke were also investigated by thermo gravimetric analyzer ( TGA ) .The results suggested that the pyrolysis reactions had proceeded independently during co-pyrolysis prco ess ta temperta uresb elow 600 ℃.However, as ht e temperature exceeded 600 ℃, the relae se peak temperature of CO2 and CO were shifted to low temperature zone, and the thermo gravimetric characteristics were changed in contrast with the separate pyor lysis. Moreover, the surfacem orphology of the solid products from oc -pyrolysis had been changed dramatically at 800 ℃.Specifically, the sintering during pyrolysis of black liquor was inhibited by the presence of petroleum coke. Compared to the ni dividual gasification, teh carob n conversion and gasif cation rate ah d been greatly improved for CO2 co-gasification due to the synergistic effect oft heb lends at 850 ℃.The overall carbon conversion were increased by 51.27%, meanwhile, the maximum gasification rate were improved by twice during CO2 co-gasification process.%运用热重-红外联用(TGA-FTIR)和扫描电镜(SEM)对黑液与石油焦的共热解过程进行了实验研究,考察了两者在共热解过程中的热失重、挥发性组分释放及固体产物表面形貌特性;同时运用热重( TGA)探究了热解固体产物黑液半焦和石油焦的CO2共气化反应特性。结果表明,在黑液与石油焦共热解过程中,温度低于600℃时,两者的热解相互独立;温度达到600℃之后,相对于黑液和石油焦单独热解的加权平均值,挥发性气体产物CO2和CO的释放峰值温度向低温区移动

  10. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  11. Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda-Aguilar, María; García-Vidal, Lidia; González-Castañeda, Fayiny Del Pilar; López-Gómez, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements.

  12. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM WASTE WATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannarreddy Prabu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs an electricity producing device using waste-water treatment, biosensor, eco-friendly and low cost management of energy production. In this study, investigation power generation from waste water compared with their pure culture, mixed culture and different medium ingredients with microorganism. Enhance the power production with different ingredients like monosaccharide’s, nitrogen source and amino acids, these sources increasing the electron shuttle in the medium. Glucose (0.98 V, beef extract (0.85 V and Leucine (0.92 V exhibited maximum power production with the anodic chamber. Different electrode was used; platinum showed that maximum electron capturing in the anodic chamber. The SEM photography clearly showed that biofilm formation of microorganism on the electrode. The output power was compared with mixed culture to pure culture and different ingredients, thus bio electric power was retained maximum 1.03 V in pure culture from Morganella morganii and 1.2 V in mixed culture.

  13. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  14. Optimization of Nonlinear Transport-Production Task of Medical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlowicz, Edward

    2012-09-01

    The paper reflects on optimization of transportation - production tasks for the processing of medical waste. For the existing network of collection points and processing plants, according to its algorithm, the optimal allocation of tasks to the cost of transport to the respective plants has to be determined. It was assumed that the functions determining the processing costs are polynomials of the second degree. To solve the problem, a program written in MatLab environment equalization algorithm based on a marginal cost JCC was used.

  15. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  16. Subsides for optimization of transfer of radioactive liquid waste from {sup 99}MO production plant to the waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: maria.eugenia@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The increasing need for radioisotopes lead Brazil to consider the domestic production of {sup 99}Mo from fission of low enriched uranium targets. In order to meet the present demand of {sup 99m}Tc generators the planned 'end of irradiation' activity of {sup 99}Mo is about 170 TBq per week. The radioactive waste from the production plant will be transferred to a waste treatment facility at the same site. The total activity of the actinides, fission and activation products present in the waste were predicted based on the fission yield and activation data for the irradiation conditions, such as composition and mass of uranium targets, irradiation time, neutron flux, production process and schedule, already established by the project management. The transfer of the waste from the production plant to the treatment facility will be done by means of special shielded packages. In the present study, the commercially available code Scale 6.0 was used to simulate the irradiation of the targets and the decay of radioactive products, assuming that an alkaline dissolution process would be performed on the targets before the removal and purification of {sup 99}Mo. The assessment of the shielding required for the packages containing liquid waste was done using MicroShield 9 code. The results presented here are part of a project that aims at contributing to the design of the waste management system for the {sup 99}Mo production facility. (author)

  17. Neutralization/purification of the wastewaters from printed circuit boards production using waste by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Halkijevic, Ivan; Kuspilic, Marin; Flegar, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was development of a new method for the neutralization/purification of printed circuit boards wastewater (PCBW) originating from Zagreb, Croatia, using two industrial by-products. PCBW was characterized with low pH value (2.11) and high concentration of TDS (50190 mg L(-1)), copper (4190 mg L(-1)) and iron (2660 mg L(-1)). Waste base (WB), by-product of the alumina production, and waste sludge, by-product of the electrochemical treatment of groundwater, were employed as neutralization/adsorption agents. Due to its high neutralization capacity WB was used for pH adjustment to pH 8 and heavy metals removal from both effluents, yet the final removal of the contaminants down to the regulated values was assessed by adsorption/coagulation with the iron and aluminum rich waste sludge. Following the combined treatment the removal efficiency of iron and copper was higher than 99.99% with their final concentration in the treated water of 0.151 mg L(-1) and 0.129 mg L(-1), respectively. Following the ozone base oxidation the removal efficiency of the organic contaminants was more than 83%. The successful application of the industrial waste by-products for neutralization/purification of the PCBW with the removal efficiencies of the contaminants comparable or better than those obtained with conventional treatment represented the main advantage of our presented method.

  18. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  19. Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, A. B.; Rafiqul Islam, M. [Civil and Resources Engineering Dalhousie University, Room D510, 1360 Barrington St., Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada); Watts, K. Ch. [Process Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm{sup 2}/sec at 40 {sup o}C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 {sup o}C) was 72 mm{sup 2}/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 {sup o}C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mg KOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 {sup o}C and pour point was -16 {sup o}C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. (author)

  20. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  1. Bioconversion of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung into value-added products using earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, K A; Mamta; Rao, R J

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management is a worldwide problem and it is becoming more and more complicated day by day due to rise in population, industrialization and changes in our life style. Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. Garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung were subjected to recycle through vermicomposting by using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida under field conditions. The pH, moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was analysed. It was found that moisture content, total organic carbon, humus, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was high in cow dung, followed by kitchen waste and garden waste. This study clearly indicates that vermicomposting of garden waste, kitchen waste and cow dung can not only produce a value added produce (vermicomposting) but at the same time reduce the quantity of waste.

  2. Foundry Wastes Reuse and Recycling in Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fiore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial process of a cast iron foundry plant located in the North of Italy was analyzed in order to determine the amount and kind of produced wastes. The main fractions are core and moulding sands, muds and powders from dust abatement plants, furnace and ladle slags, and exhaust lime, making about 750-800 t/d of residues for a production of about 800 t/d of globular and grey cast iron. All wastes were sampled and characterized by means of particle-size distribution and chemical analyses to evaluate the best reuse and recycling solutions. On the grounds of the gathered results, the residues may be divided in three categories according to the particle-size dimensions: below 0.1 mm, between 0.1 and 0.6 mm and above 0.6 mm. The fraction above 0.6 mm, mainly made of metallic iron, may be reused in the furnaces. The fraction between 0.1 mm and 0.6 mm may be reused in cores production, after a regeneration treatment. The fraction between 0.1 and 0.025 mm may be recycled as raw material for the concrete industry, and the below 0.025 mm fraction may be reused in green moulding operations. An economic evaluation of the proposed reuse and recycling solutions was performed.

  3. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

  4. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR, the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor.

  5. Potential of bioethanol production from olive mill solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Najami, Naim; Dosoretz, Carlos; Tafesh, Ahmed; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to screen endogenous microorganisms grown on olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) with the potential to ferment pentoses and produce ethanol. Two yeasts were isolated and identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, and Pichia galeiformis/manshurica. The adaptation of the strains displayed a positive impact on the fermentation process. In terms of xylose utilization and ethanol production, all strains were able to utilize xylose and produce xylitol but no ethanol was detected. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation process on hydrolysate undergo detoxification, strain I. orientalis showed the best efficiency in producing of ethanol when supplemented with glucose. Using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process following pretreatment of OMSW, the average ethanol yield was 3 g/100 g dry OMSW. Bioethanol production from OMSW is not economic despite the raw material is cheap.

  6. An integrated approach for efficient biomethane production from solid bio-wastes in a compact system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Tao, Y.; Temudo, M.; Schooneveld, M.; Bijl, H.; Ren, N.; Wolf, M.; Heine, C.; Foerster, A.; Pelenc, V.; Kloek, J.; Van Lier, J.B.; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Solid bio-wastes (or organic residues) are worldwide produced in high amount and increasingly considered bioenergy containers rather than waste products. A complete bioprocess from recalcitrant solid wastes to methane (SW2M) via anaerobic digestion (AD) is believed to be a sustainable way

  7. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uçkun Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly affected by the initial pH and incubation time. The highest glucoamylase activity of 108.47 U/gds was achieved at initial pH of 7.9, moisture content of 69.6% wt., inoculum loading of 5.2×105 cells/gram substrate (gs and incubation time of 6 d. The enzyme preparation could effectively digest 50% suspension of domestic food waste in 24 h with an almost complete saccharification using an enzyme dose of only 2U/g food waste at 60°C.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  9. Anaerobic biodegradation of spent sulphite liquor in a UASB reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantsch, T.G.; Angelidaki, Irini; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments with dilu......Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments...... such as incineration. Although the total COD reduction achieved is limited, bioenergy is produced and readily biodegradable matter is removed causing less load on post-treatment installations. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Value added eco-friendly products from tannery solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, T P; Sehgal, R K; Ramasami, T

    2005-10-01

    Chrome shavings are the prominent solid wastes in tanning industry. Since chromium is known for its toxicity, the disposal of chrome shavings has been identified as a serious problem from the environmental point of view. At present, the popular utilization mode for chrome shavings is the manufacture of leather boards and related products. But this does not offer complete utilization of chrome shavings. Moreover, return per ton of chrome shavings is low if used for leather board production. In view of this, two processes have been developed to offer an alternative and better solution for the disposal of chrome shavings. The first process is preparation of parchment like membrane and the second process is related to development of leather like material. These products are analyzed for their mechanical behavior and other physicochemical properties. Parchment membrane can be used in the preparation of lampshades, chandeliers, wall hangers, table tops etc. and leather like material can be used in the preparation of chappal uppers, hand bags, purses, valets etc. The utilization of the chrome shavings in preparation of those two products not only reduces the environmental pollution but at the same time value added products can also be obtained.

  11. Economic assessment of biodiesel production from waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Victor Kraemer Wermelinger Sancho; Hamacher, Silvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Waste frying oils (WFO) can be a good source for the production of biodiesel because this raw material is not part of the food chain, is low cost and can be used in a way that resolves environmental problems (i.e. WFO is no longer thrown into the sewage network). The goal of this article is to propose a method to evaluate the costs of biodiesel production from WFO to develop an economic assessment of this alternative. This method embraces a logistics perspective, as the cost of collection of oil from commercial producers and its delivery to biodiesel depots or plants can be relevant and is an issue that has been little explored in the academic literature. To determine the logistics cost, a mathematical programming model is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problem (VRP), which was applied in an important urban center in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), a relevant and potential center for biodiesel production and consumption. Eighty-one biodiesel cost scenarios were compared with information on the commercialization of biodiesel in Brazil. The results obtained demonstrate the economic viability of biodiesel production from WFO in the urban center studied and the relevance of logistics in the total biodiesel production cost. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The management of hospital waste products in hospitals of Bushehr Province

    OpenAIRE

    kamran Mirzaie; Soraya Zahmatkesh

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hospital waste contains a large quantity of dangerous pathogenic agents, which are hazardous to the health of man, animal, plant and the environment. In Iran, like many other developing countries, not enough attention is paid to this matter and available information regarding the generation and disposal of medical wastes are low. The existing information about production and disposal of wastes in our hospitals is little and incomplete. In this study, a survey on hospital waste man...

  13. Production of single cell protein (SCP) from food and agricultural waste by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Teresa; Pellizzeri, Vito; Calabrese, Giorgio; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-05-25

    Food waste is the single-largest component of the waste stream, in order to protect and safeguard the public health, useful and innovative recycling methods are investigated. The conversion of food wastes in value-added products is becoming a more economically viable and interesting practice. Food waste, collected in the distribution sector and citrus industries, was characterised for its potential as a raw material to use in fermentation processes. In this study, the production of single-cell protein (SCP) using food waste as a substrate was investigated. The purpose of this study has been to produce SCP from mixtures of food waste using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main fermentation test was carried out using a 25 l bioreactor. The utilisation of food waste can allow us to not only to reduce environmental pollution, but also to obtain value-added products such as protein supply for animal feed.

  14. Utilization of mustard waste isolates for improved production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoi, J; Rakariyatham, N; Deming, R L

    2006-04-01

    Astaxanthin production in the wild strain Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous TISTR 5730 was investigated using different mustard waste media, including mustard waste residue extract (MRE), mustard waste residue hydrolysate (MRH), mustard waste precipitated extract (MPE), and mustard waste precipitated hydrolysate (MPH). The growth of X. dendrorhous and the production of astaxanthin were dependent on the type and initial concentrations of mustard waste media. The MPH medium was the best substrate resulting in yields of biomass and astaxanthin of 19.6 g/L and 25.8 mg/L, respectively, under optimal conditions. MPH medium improved astaxanthin production 11-fold compared to the commonly used commercial yeast malt medium, and 1.3-2.1-fold compared to other mustard waste media.

  15. Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, M C; Fuente, E; Blanco, A; Negro, C

    2009-01-01

    Eleven million tonnes of waste are produced yearly by the European pulp and paper industry, of which 70% originates from the production of deinked recycled paper. Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp, although with less inorganics. Due to legislation and increased taxes, landfills are quickly being eliminated as a final destination for wastes in Europe, and incineration with energy recovery is becoming the main waste recovery method. Other options such as pyrolysis, gasification, land spreading, composting and reuse as building material are being applied, although research is still needed for optimization of the processes. Due to the large volumes of waste generated, the high moisture content of the waste and the changing waste composition as a result of process conditions, recovery methods are usually expensive and their environmental impact is still uncertain. For this reason, it is necessary to continue research on different applications of wastes, while taking into account the environmental and economic factors of these waste treatments.

  16. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or

  17. Characterization of Green Liquor Dregs, Potentially Useful for Prevention of the Formation of Acid Rock Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mäkitalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using alternative materials such as residual products from other industries to mitigate the negative effects of acid rock drainage would simultaneously solve two environmental problems. The main residual product still landfilled by sulphate paper mills is the alkaline material green liquor dregs (GLD. A physical, mineralogical and chemical characterization of four batches of GLD was carried out to evaluate the potential to use it as a sealing layer in the construction of dry covers on sulphide-bearing mine waste. GLD has relatively low hydraulic conductivity (10−8 to 10−9 m/s, a high water retention capacity (WRC and small particle size. Whilst the chemical and mineralogical composition varied between the different batches, these variations were not reflected in properties such as hydraulic conductivity and WRC. Due to relatively low trace element concentrations, leaching of contaminants from the GLD is not a concern for the environment. However, GLD is a sticky material, difficult to apply on mine waste deposits and the shear strength is insufficient for engineering applications. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties is necessary. In addition, GLD has a high buffering capacity indicating that it could act as an alkaline barrier. Once engineering technicalities have been overcome, the long-term effectiveness of GLD should be studied, especially the effect of aging and how the sealing layer would be engineered in respect to topography and climatic conditions.

  18. HEAT EXCHANGE NETWORKS IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM WASTE COOKING OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Laborde

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to aboard one of the challenges in Engineering teaching: It´s the application in professional practice?, along with attending to the actual requirements of achieve energetic efficiency in industrial process and to reuse wastes of food industry, this work, presents the application of heat exchange networks for the resolution of a real case: pre-treatment of waste cooking oils (WCO withacid catalysis for biodiesel production. Different methods and software are applied to obtain the minimum amounts of heat and the heat exchange network for a processing capacity of 0,19 kg/s of WCO. A minimum temperature difference (Tmin of 10°C is considered and the minimum requirements of heating and cooling result 4629,87 W and 10066,30 W, respectively. If this exchange network is not considered, this values increase to 26838,33 W and 21958,33 W, respectively. Applying heat exchange network, decrease 78,92% the required steam service in the process and water cooling service decreases 62,48%, demonstrating that integration reduces energetic requirements respect the non-integrated process.

  19. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  20. Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Nunes, Mateus Dias; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Torres, Denise Pereira; de Cássia Soares da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-10-01

    The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes.

  1. Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse. The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases. Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6. These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes.

  2. Extracellular ligninolytic enzymes production by Pleurotus eryngii on agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Merve; Urek, Raziye Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Gillet (MCC58) was investigated for its ligninolytic ability to produce laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzymes through solid-state fermentation using apricot and pomegranate agroindustrial wastes. The reducing sugar, protein, lignin, and cellulose levels in these were studied. Also, the production of these ligninolytic enzymes was researched over the growth of the microorganism throughout 20 days, and the reducing sugar, protein, and nitrogen levels were recorded during the stationary cultivation at 28 ± 0.5°C. The highest Lac activity was obtained as 1618.5 ± 25 U/L on day 12 of cultivation using apricot. The highest MnP activity was attained as 570.82 ± 15 U/L on day 17 in pomegranate culture and about the same as apricot culture. There were low LiP activities in both cultures. The maximum LiP value detected was 16.13 ± 0.8 U/L in apricot cultures. In addition, AAO activities in both cultures showed similar trends up to day 17 of cultivation, with the highest AAO activity determined as 105.99 ± 6.3 U/L on day 10 in apricot cultures. Decolorization of the azo dye methyl orange was also achieved with produced ligninolytic enzymes by P. eryngii using apricot and pomegranate wastes.

  3. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards.

  4. A holistic approach for food waste management towards zero-solid disposal and energy/resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    This study developed a holistic approach which was based on the ultra-fast hydrolysis of food waste with the fungal mash rich in various hydrolytic enzymes produced in situ from food waste as well. After the 8-h hydrolytic treatment, the solid residue and liquor were separated. It was found that the produced solid residue can meet all the requirements for biofertilizer in terms of NPK and heavy metal contents, while the separated liquor with high soluble organics concentration was further subject to anaerobic digestion for enhanced biomethane production. The results showed that 0.41kg of biofertilizer with a moisture content of 76.9% and 54.4L of biomethane could be produced from 1kg of food waste. As such, it is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management with the ultimate target of zero-solid discharge.

  5. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  6. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  7. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  8. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Snehal; Joshi, Sanket J; Gupte, Akshaya

    2014-01-01

    India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata) producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g%) gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L) with yield (84%) and productivity (0.024 g%/h) after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  9. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted bioethanol production from waste newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work deals with intensification of bioethanol production from waste newspaper using Saccharomyces cerevisiae using ultrasonic irradiations. The effect of different process parameters such as application of ultrasonic irradiation at different growth phases, irradiation time, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the bioethanol production has been investigated. The favorable conditions for the maximum yield were established as application of ultrasonic irradiation (duration of 10 min) to fermentation broth at 12 h of growth phase with 25 kHz frequency, 160 W power and 20% duty cycle. The bioethanol productivity was increased by 1.8 times from 7.8 to 14.1 g/L compared with the non-sonicated control fermentation. Decrease in glucose concentration from 0.63% to 0.2% w/v in ultrasound-assisted fermentation confirmed the improved substrate uptake of the microbial cell due to the application of ultrasound. ESEM analysis also confirmed the changes in the cell morphology leading to improved cell permeability. Results were fitted to an unstructured kinetic model comprising of the kinetic and physiological parameters. Overall, the work has demonstrated an intensified approach for the bioethanol production based on the use of ultrasound.

  11. Crystal size distribution of struvite in preparation process by mother liquor from magnesium-hydroxide production%脱镁母液制备磷酸铵镁过程中的粒度分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 王学魁; 段瑛锋; 沙作良; 袁建军

    2011-01-01

    Struvite was prepared by semi-batch method with phosphoric acid and the mother liquor from magnesium-hydroxide production as raw materials. Influences of operating conditions, such as stirring speed, feed location, feed rate, reactant concentration,and adding amount of seed,on crystal size distribution ( CSD) of struvite were investigated. Results showed properly increasing stirring speed,decreasing feed rate, or decreasing reactant concentration all could make the average crystal size increase and the coefficient of variation ( C. V. ) decrease; feeding in the propeller area could create larger crystal size and better CSD than feeding in the surface;and seeding appropriately could cause average size of products increase significantly and the CSD more uniform.%以脱镁母液和磷酸为原料,采用半间歇操作方式制备磷酸铵镁,研究了操作条件(包括搅拌转速、加料位置、加料速度、反应物浓度、晶种加入量)对磷酸铵镁晶体粒度分布的影响.结果表明:适当提高搅拌转速、降低加料速度和降低反应物浓度均可增大产品的平均粒径并减小其变异系数;在桨区加料所得产品平均粒径较大且粒度分布较好;加入适量晶种可以显著增大产品的平均粒径并使其粒度分布更加均匀.

  12. Heterotrophs are key contributors to nitrous oxide production in mixed liquor under low C-to-N ratios during nitrification - batch experiments and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Petersen, Morten S.

    2017-01-01

    , rigorous experimental design for calibration of autotrophic N2O production from mixed cultures is essential. The proposed N2O production pathways were examined using five alternative process models confronted with experimental data inferred. Individually, the autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification...... model structures have been proposed without consensus calibration procedures. Here, we present a new experimental design that was used to calibrate AOB-driven N2O dynamics of a mixed culture. Even though AOB activity was favoured with respect to HB, oxygen uptake rates indicated HB activity. Hence...

  13. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

    1979-06-14

    The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.

  15. Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

    1979-06-14

    The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.

  16. Production of struvite from beverage waste as phosphorus source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work was investigated the influence of pH on the synthesis of struvite using cola beverage waste as source of phosphorus. The process was operated in a batch reactor. The reaction time was 20 minutes, and the chemicals MgCl2.6H2O and NH4Cl were used in the experiment, with a molar ratio of Mg+2:NH4+:PO4(3- = 1:1:1. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, surface area (BET, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and infra-red (IR. From the results was verified the formation of a crystalline phase at pH 9.5, with a surface area of 6.59 m² g-1 and a particle size of about 0.25 µm.

  17. Production of struvite from beverage waste as phosphorus source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work was investigated the influence of pH on the synthesis of struvite using cola beverage waste as source of phosphorus. The process was operated in a batch reactor. The reaction time was 20 minutes, and the chemicals MgCl2.6H2O and NH4Cl were used in the experiment, with a molar ratio of Mg+2:NH4+:PO4(3- = 1:1:1. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, surface area (BET, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and infra-red (IR. From the results was verified the formation of a crystalline phase at pH 9.5, with a surface area of 6.59 m² g-1 and a particle size of about 0.25 µm.

  18. Study on the Applicafion of the Mini-grinding Technology in Production of Low-degree Ginger Liquor%超微粉碎技术在低度姜酒生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 秦德宾

    2011-01-01

    [Objectiv] The reference for the preparation of low-degree ginger liquor was provided through the research on the effect of the mini-grinding of ginger on the quality of its low-degree liquor. [ Methods ] The clarification, stability and sensory of the different low-degree ginger liquors, which were added with common or mini-grinded ginger, were evaluated and compared. [ Results ] The result showed that the clarification of low-ginger liquor added with mini-grinded ginger was obviously higher, with good stability, rich flavor of ginger, and coordinated and sweet alcohol taste, which was typical style of ginger wine ,and all of indicators of the liquor was better than these of the low-degree ginger liquor added with common grinded ginger. [ Conclusion] The quality of the low-degree liquor added with mini-grinded ginger was improved compared with the common ginger liquor.%[目的]研究超微粉碎生姜对所产低度姜酒质量的影响,为低度姜酒生产提供参考.[方法]将生姜普通粉碎和超微粉碎后生产成低度姜酒,对不同低度姜酒的澄清度、稳定性、感官评价结果进行比较.[结果]生姜经超微粉碎后生产的低度姜酒澄清度显著增加,稳定性好,具浓郁的姜香味,酒味协调,醇和甜润,余味爽净,具姜酒典型风格,各项指标远优于普通粉碎生姜生产的姜酒.[结论]经超微粉碎后的生姜生产的低度姜酒质量比经普通粉碎生姜生产的姜酒质量有所提高.

  19. Ethanol production from cotton-based waste textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihanipour, Azam; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol production from cotton linter and waste of blue jeans textiles was investigated. In the best case, alkali pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in almost complete conversion of the cotton and jeans to glucose, which was then fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol. If no pretreatment applied, hydrolyses of the textiles by cellulase and beta-glucosidase for 24 h followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in 4 days, resulted in 0.140-0.145 g ethanol/g textiles, which was 25-26% of the corresponding theoretical yield. A pretreatment with concentrated phosphoric acid prior to the hydrolysis improved ethanol production from the textiles up to 66% of the theoretical yield. However, the best results obtained from alkali pretreatment of the materials by NaOH. The alkaline pretreatment of cotton fibers were carried out with 0-20% NaOH at 0 degrees C, 23 degrees C and 100 degrees C, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis up to 4 days. In general, higher concentration of NaOH resulted in a better yield of the hydrolysis, whereas temperature had a reverse effect and better results were obtained at lower temperature. The best conditions for the alkali pretreatment of the cotton were obtained in this study at 12% NaOH and 0 degrees C and 3 h. In this condition, the materials with 3% solid content were enzymatically hydrolyzed at 85.1% of the theoretical yield in 24 h and 99.1% in 4 days. The alkali pretreatment of the waste textiles at these conditions and subsequent SSF resulted in 0.48 g ethanol/g pretreated textiles used.

  20. Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy Danielsen, Svein; Alnæs, Lisbeth; Azrague, Kamal; Suleng, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway Svein Willy Danielsen1), Lisbeth Alnæs2), Kamal Azrague2), Jon Suleng3) 1) Geomaterials Consultant, Trondheim Norway, 2) SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 3) AF Gruppen AS, Oppdal, Norway A significant amount of aggregate research in Norway has been focused on the recovery and use of surplus sizes from hard rock aggregate quarries. The use of sand sized quarry waste (QW) from crushing/processing has been motivated by the rapid depletion of traditional sand/gravel resources, increasing land-use conflicts, and the need to minimise QW deposits which for some quarries are becoming a critical factor for economy as well as for environmental reasons. With an annual aggregate production of 77 million tons, out of which approximately 83 % comes from hard rock, the annual volume of size economic - and also environmental - potential will be considerable. Understanding the geological conditions and petrographic properties of the rock is vital. This is a quartz-feldspar rich metamorphic rock - a meta-arkose - containing rhythmically distributed planar lamina (less than 2 mm thick) or scattered occurrence of mica, separated by layers composed predominately of quartz and feldspar. The rock can be split along the lamina to slabs varying from 0.5 cm to more than 10 cm in thickness, and the microstructure can be characterized as being granoblastic to gneissic. . This makes it possible by well designed crushing process and careful selection of the in-going rock particles, to obtain well shaped aggregates up to at least 20 mm. The on-going project will also study the total cost situation depending on the QW utilisation, discuss the environmental and sustainability issues with a societal perspective, and also consider the market opportunities.

  1. The potential of biogas production from municipal solid waste in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Tadesse; Gebrehiwot, Mulat; Ambelu, Argaw; Van Gerven, Tom; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the potential of organic municipal solid waste generated in an urban setting in a tropical climate to produce biogas. Five different categories of wastes were considered: fruit waste, food waste, yard waste, paper waste, and mixed waste. These fractions were assessed for their efficiency for biogas production in a laboratory-scale batch digester for a total period of 8 weeks at a temperature of 15-30 °C. During this period, fruit waste, food waste, yard waste, paper waste, and mixed waste were observed to produce 0.15, 0.17, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.15 m(3) of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, respectively. The biogas produced and caloric value of each feedstock was in the range of 1.25 × 10(-3) m(3) (17 kWh)/cap/day (paper waste) to 15 × 10(-3) m(3) (170 kWh)/cap/day (mixed waste). Paper waste produced the least (waste produced the highest methane yield (10 × 10(-3) m(3) (178 kWh)/cap/day). Thus, mixed waste was found to be more efficient than other feedstocks for biogas and methane production; this was mainly related to the better C/N ratio in mixed waste. Taking the total waste production in Jimma into account, the total mixed organic solid waste could produce 865 × 10(3) m(3) (5.4 m(3)/capita) of biogas or 537 × 10(3) m(3) (3.4 m(3)/capita) of methane per year. The total caloric value of methane production potential from mixed organic municipal solid waste was many times higher than the total energy requirement of the area.

  2. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  3. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  4. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

    2014-11-01

    The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT STRAINS OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS USING VARIOUS CELLOLUSIC AGRO-WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Khaliq

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Different local strains of Oyster mushroom were evaluated using different cellulosic agro-wastes including cotton waste, paddy straw and wheat straw for mycelial growth, spawn running and  production efficiency of different strains of Pleurotus ostreatsus. Maximum production efficiency of P. Sajur caju was observed (195.9% on wheat straw while minimum production efficiency was recorded (132.1% on paddy straw followed by cotton waste where the production efficiency was 107.9%. P. ostreatus (white strain showed maximum production efficiency (113.7% on wheat straw and minimum (88.8% on cotton waste. While the production efficiency of P. ostreatus (gray strain was almost same on cotton waste and wheat straw but greater than paddy straw (128.3%. The Overall performance of P. Ostreatus (gray strain remained best during its cultivation. 

  6. Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Cotton Gin Waste for Fuel Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jeoh, Tina

    1998-01-01

    Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Cotton Gin Waste for Ethanol Production By Tina Jeoh Foster A. Agblevor, Chair Biological Systems Engineering ABSTRACT The current research investigates the utilization of cotton gin waste as a feedstock to produce a value-added product - fuel ethanol. Cotton gin waste consists of pieces of burs, stems, motes (immature seeds) and cotton fiber, and is considered to be a lignocellulosic material. The three main chemical constituents are ce...

  7. Research Progress of Hydrogen Production fromOrganic Wastes in Microbial Electrolysis Cell(MEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yin-sheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrolysis cell(MECtechnology as an emerging technology, has achieved the target of hydrogen production from different substrates such as waste water, forestry wastes, activated sludge by simultaneous enzymolysis and fermentation, which can effectively improve the efficiency of resource utilization. This paper described the working principle of MEC and analyzed these factors influencing the process of hydrogen production from organic waste in MEC.

  8. Conversion of waste polystyrene through catalytic degradation into valuable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Adnan [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2014-08-15

    Waste expanded polystyrene (EPS) represents a source of valuable chemical products like styrene and other aromatics. The catalytic degradation was carried out in a batch reactor with a mixture of polystyrene (PS) and catalyst at 450 .deg. C for 30 min in case of Mg and at 400 .deg. C for 2 h both for MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts. At optimum degradation conditions, EPS was degraded into 82.20±3.80 wt%, 91.60±0.20 wt% and 81.80±0.53 wt% liquid with Mg, MgO and MgCO{sub 3} catalysts, respectively. The liquid products obtained were separated into different fractions by fractional distillation. The liquid fractions obtained with three catalysts were compared, and characterized using GC-MS. Maximum conversion of EPS into styrene monomer (66.6 wt%) was achieved with Mg catalyst, and an increase in selectivity of compounds was also observed. The major fraction at 145 .deg. C showed the properties of styrene monomer. The results showed that among the catalysts used, Mg was found to be the most effective catalyst for selective conversion into styrene monomer as value added product.

  9. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration

  10. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model that incorporates LCA methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. The most attractive waste management options are in the model identified as part the optimization. The model renders it possible to apply different...... optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...... shows that it is feasible to combine LCA approaches with optimization and highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model....

  11. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk... some of these provisions, it may not be necessary to determine the PCB concentration or...

  12. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  13. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.; Newman, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program.

  14. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.; Newman, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment was perf...

  17. Efficient utilization of hemicellulose and cellulose in alkali liquor-pretreated corncob for bioethanol production at high solid loading by Spathaspora passalidarum U1-58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Guo, Jian; Chen, Yefu; Fu, Gengxin; Li, Baozhong; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-02-11

    The bioethanol fermentation of pretreated corncob was investigated using Spathaspora passalidarum U1-58, which simultaneously utilizes glucose and xylose for high-efficiency ethanol production. Two approaches, namely, separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation (SHCF) and simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF), were optimized to test the ethanol fermentation potential of U1-58. The highest ethanol titer of 42.46g/L and yield of 72.12% were acquired in SHCF, whereas 53.24g/L ethanol and yield of 75.35% were obtained in SSCF at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:5 (w/v). Approximately 86.20% of cellulose and 82.99% of hemicellulose were consumed in SSCF after 96h, and at least 10.49g/L ethanol was produced from hemicellulose, which corresponded to 37.59% of the theoretical yield. Compared with the published cellulosic ethanol fermentation cases, the present work presented high ethanol titer and yield, and cellulose and hemicellulose could be efficiently utilized for ethanol production.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF VEGETABLE WASTES FOR LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION: A LABORATORY SCALE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja Daharbha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables wastes are organic materials which are not utilized as vegetables and are discarded at all stages of production, processing and marketing. These wastes form a major part of municipal solid wastes and are cause of foul smell and growth of microorganisms due to their high organic contents. The vegetable wastes can be utilized in many different ways to produces different products. We have shown that they can be utilized for production of lactic acid using anaerobic digestion. The 2nd day was the optimum day for recovery of lactic acid while 1:1 ratio of slurry and water was found to the best ratio for production of lactic acid from vegetable wastes. Effect of salts on lactic acid was also studied and it was found that the production decreased in all the concentrations of salts.

  19. Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Annual report, June 15, 1977--June 15, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

    1978-06-15

    Studies on desugared spent sulfite liquor, DSSL, subjected to ozonation indicate that this complex organic substrate in water solution reacts readily with ozone to produce lower molecular weight organic fragments which can be metabolized by a variety of microorganisms. Ozone uptake is complete up to approximately 15 g/l and results in an increase of 35% BOD and a reduction of 16% COD. The production of BOD is pH dependent with a maximum occurring at aroung pH 3. The production of methane via fermentation of DSSL is greatly enhanced by the ozonation reaction. Methane production on raw DSSL is only 45.3 standard cc/1 of DSSL. After ozonation of the DSSL during which 15 g/l of ozone are reacted, the resulting product yields 1239 standard cc/1. The hypothesis that methane is produced from acetic acid, held by several prior workers, could not be corroborated in this study. Liquor remaining in the fermenter after gas production has essentially ceased in much richer in acetic acid than ozonated DSSL. Continuous fermentation studies operated to optimize gas production produced a fermentate containing 3.96 g/l of acetic acid. The production of protein accomplished through the growth of Torula yeast on DSSL is also enhanced by the ozonation reaction. Two variants show minimal growth on unozonated DSSL but cell densities of 5 g/l were obtained with the rough variant when this substrate has been ozonated. In contrast to the methane fermentation which showed high ozone consumption to be beneficial, the yeast prefer very minimal ozone reaction. Yeast growth was not vigorous on methane fermentate shown to be rich in acetic acid.

  20. Production of surfactin by bacillus subtilis mtcc 2423 from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedaraman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the obstacles in the way of wide scale industrial application of biosurfactants is the high production cost coupled with a low production rate. In order to lower the production cost surfactin production by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 was studied in submerged batch cultivation using waste frying oils. It was observed that the decrease in surface tension was 56.32%, 48.5% and 46.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Biomass formation was 4.36 g/L, 3.67 g/L and 4.67 g/L for glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Product yield (g product/g substrate was 2.1%, 1.49% and 1.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil as substrates. This process facilitates safe disposal of waste frying oil, as well reducing the production cost of surfactin.

  1. Bandaojing Liquor Organic Mud Pit Production Technology%扳倒井酒有机窖泥的生产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡鹏飞; 胥伟宏; 信春晖; 许玲

    2013-01-01

    介绍了扳倒井有机窖泥的制作方法,包括窖泥功能菌的扩大培养条件及其培养基,窖泥的具体配料及其制作过程,扳倒井有机窖泥生产技术的特点;陈述了扳倒井判断成熟有机窖泥的检验标准,以及在改造老化窖池时的使用方法;说明了在酿酒生产过程中,为延缓池壁窖泥的老化而采取的措施,并讨论了池壁窖泥老化的主要原因,是因为现代建造的窖池多数是砖窖,导致能够养护窖泥的黄浆水大量渗漏。%This paper introduced a method for making Bandaojing organic mud pit, including functional bacteria in pit mud culture conditions and medium expansion, concrete batching and making process of pit mud, characteristics of Bandaojing organic mud pit production technology;stated Bandaojing judgment test mature organic mud pit standard, as well as in the transformation of aging cellar when using method;in the wine production process, to delay the aging pool wall pit mud measures, and discussed the main reasons of the pool wall pit mud aging, was the most modern construction of the pit was a brick kiln, leading to maintenance of pit mud of yellow serofluid bulk leakage.

  2. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lin, Carol S.K. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hui, Chi-Wai [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon, E-mail: kemckayg@ust.hk [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • There is a major environmental issue about the printed circuit boards throughout the world. • Different physical and chemical recycling techniques have been reviewed. • Nonmetallic fraction of PCBs is the unwanted face of this waste stream. • Several applications of the nonmetallic fraction of waste PCBs have been introduced. - Abstract: E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly “recycling” has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined.

  3. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  4. Techno-economic feasibility of waste biorefinery: Using slaughtering waste streams as starting material for biopolyester production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Narodoslawsky, Michael; Sagir, Muhammad; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Shahid; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Koller, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of industrial waste streams as input materials for bio-mediated production processes constitutes a current R&D objective not only to reduce process costs at the input side but in parallel, to minimize hazardous environmental emissions. In this context, the EU-funded project ANIMPOL elaborated a process for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers starting from diverse waste streams of the animal processing industry. This article provides a detailed economic analysis of PHA production from this waste biorefinery concept, encompassing the utilization of low-quality biodiesel, offal material and meat and bone meal (MBM). Techno-economic analysis reveals that PHA production cost varies from 1.41 €/kg to 1.64 €/kg when considering offal on the one hand as waste, or, on the other hand, accounting its market price, while calculating with fixed costs for the co-products biodiesel (0.97 €/L) and MBM (350 €/t), respectively. The effect of fluctuating market prices for offal materials, biodiesel, and MBM on the final PHA production cost as well as the investment payback time have been evaluated. Depending on the current market situation, the calculated investment payback time varies from 3.25 to 4.5years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  6. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF. The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  7. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for sustainable energy production and product recovery from organic wastes and industrial wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Van Bogaert, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are unique systems capable of converting the chemical energy of organic waste including low-strength wastewaters and lignocellulosic biomass into electricity or hydrogen/chemical products in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or microbial electrolysis cells (MECs......) respectively, or other products formed at the cathode by an electrochemical reduction process. As compared to conventional fuel cells, BESs operate under relatively mild conditions, use a wide variety of organic substrates and mostly do not use expensive precious metals as catalysts. The recently discovered...

  8. Application of RAGAZZINI Peristaltic Pump in the Production of New-process Mixiang Baijiu(Liquor)%RAGAZZINI蠕动泵在新工艺米香型白酒生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱旭平

    2015-01-01

    新工艺米香型白酒生产线属长乐烧企业的创新项目,该项目获广东轻工科技二等奖、获国家轻工科技优秀奖。新工艺与传统工艺最大的区别在于,前者是将熟化后的原料直接加水、加曲输入发酵罐糖化、发酵同罐进行,后者是先将熟化的原料在糖化槽中糖化后加水再输入发酵罐。前者物料为液固松散分离状态,后者为糊化状态,因此常用的气动隔膜泵输送液固松散分离状态物料时就常常将液体抽走,造成管道阻塞。长乐烧酒业在新工艺生产线上利用蠕动泵实现了将熟化原料加水混合物料轻松输入发酵罐的目标,解决了管道阻塞问题,达到了连续生产目的,彻底改变了蒸饭机至发酵罐间物料自动输送的难题。%New-process Mixiang Baijiu(liquor) is the innovative program in Changle Distillery which won the 2nd Prize of Guangdong Light Industry Science and Technology and State Light Industry Science&Technology Excellent Prize. The difference between new-process produc-tion and traditional production were as follows:in the new process (raw materials in liquid&solid separation loose state), water was added di-rectly in cooked raw materials, then caky starter was added for saccharfication and fermentation in the same fermenter;in traditional process (raw materials in gelatinized state), cooked raw materials were saccharified in saccharifying tank at first, then water was added for fermentation in the fermenter. The use of new-process often induced pipe obstruction because the commonly-used pneumatic drive membrane pump drained liquid during the transportation of liquid&solid separation loose raw materials. Changle Distillery used peristaltic pump to settle such prob-lem, which could achieve continuous production and completely solve pipeline blocking from steam machine to fermenter.

  9. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Don; A. G. Mirgorodskaya; O. K. Bedritskaya

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted toba...

  10. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somia El-Maghraby; Galal A Nawwar; Reda FA Bakr; Nadia Helmy; Omnia MHM Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods: The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results:White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24%in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions:Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide.

  11. Co-combustion of waste from olive oil production with coal in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, K R; Patumsawad, S

    2001-01-01

    Waste from olive oil production was co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor to study the feasibility of using this waste as an energy source. The combustion efficiency and CO emission were investigated and compared to those of burning 100% of coal. Olive oil waste with up to 20% mass concentration can be co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor designed for coal combustion with a maximum drop of efficiency of 5%. A 10% olive oil waste concentration gave a lower CO emission than 100% coal firing due to improved combustion in the freeboard region. A 20% olive oil waste mixture gave a higher CO emission than both 100% coal firing and 10% olive oil waste mixture, but the combustion efficiency was higher than the 10% olive oil waste mixture due to lower elutriation from the bed.

  12. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment was perf......The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment...... was performed on both untreated and hydrothermally treated unsorted and sorted fractions of the waste using standard methods for biomass conversion to bioenergy. Compositional analysis of the waste indicated that unsorted biodegradable municipal solid wastes (BMSW) consisted of 38.7 % dry matter (DM) glucan, 8...... the quality and effectively lead to higher yield of biofuel over the unsorted form....

  14. Converting citrus wastes into value-added products: Economic and environmently friendly approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-02-01

    Citrus fruits, including oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, tangerines, and mandarins, are among the most widely cultivated fruits around the globe. Its production is increasing every year due to rising consumer demand. Citrus-processing industries generate huge amounts of wastes every year, and citrus peel waste alone accounts for almost 50% of the wet fruit mass. Citrus waste is of immense economic value as it contains an abundance of various flavonoids, carotenoids, dietary fiber, sugars, polyphenols, essential oils, and ascorbic acid, as well as considerable amounts of some trace elements. Citrus waste also contains high levels of sugars suitable for fermentation for bioethanol production. However, compounds such as D-limonene must be removed for efficient bioethanol production. The aim of the present article was to review the latest advances in various popular methods of extraction for obtaining value-added products from citrus waste/byproducts and their potential utility as a source of various functional compounds.

  15. Waste-to-Chemicals for a Circular Economy: The Case of Urea Production (Waste-to-Urea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Elena; Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Salladini, Annarita; Spadaccini, Luca; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2017-03-09

    The economics and environmental impact of a new technology for the production of urea from municipal solid waste, particularly the residue-derived fuel (RdF) fraction, is analyzed. Estimates indicate a cost of production of approximately €135 per ton of urea (internal rate of return more than 10 %) and savings of approximately 0.113 tons of CH4 and approximately 0.78 tons of CO2 per ton of urea produced. Thus, the results show that this waste-to-urea (WtU) technology is both economically valuable and environmentally advantageous (in terms of saving resources and limiting carbon footprint) for the production of chemicals from municipal solid waste in comparison with both the production of urea with conventional technology (starting from natural gas) and the use of RdF to produce electrical energy (waste-to-energy). A further benefit is the lower environmental impact of the solid residue produced from RdF conversion. The further benefit of this technology is the possibility to realize distributed fertilizer production. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A novel recovery method of copper from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical methanol process: Preparation of ultrafine copper materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Weng, Huiwei; Qi, Yingying; Yu, Gending; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Chen, Mengjun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, supercritical methanol (SCM) process was successfully used for the preparation of ultrafine copper materials from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) after nitric acid pretreatment. Waste PCBs were pretreated twice in nitric acid. Sn and Pb were recovered by the first nitric acid pretreatment. The leach liquor with a high concentration of copper ions after the second nitric acid leaching was subjected to SCM process. The mixture of Cu and Cu2O with poor uniformity of particle size was formed due to the effect of ferric iron contained in the leach liquor of waste PCBs, while more uniform and spherical Cu particles with high monodispersity and smaller size could be prepared after the removal of Fe. The size of Cu particles increased obviously with the decline of SCM temperature, and particles became highly aggregated when the reaction temperature decreased to 300°C. The size of Cu particles decreased markedly with the decrease of initial concentration of copper ion in the leach liquor of waste PCBs. It is believed that the process developed in this study is simple and practical for the preparation of ultrafine copper materials from waste PCBs with the aim of recycling these waste resources as a high value-added product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The management of hospital waste products in hospitals of Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kamran Mirzaie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital waste contains a large quantity of dangerous pathogenic agents, which are hazardous to the health of man, animal, plant and the environment. In Iran, like many other developing countries, not enough attention is paid to this matter and available information regarding the generation and disposal of medical wastes are low. The existing information about production and disposal of wastes in our hospitals is little and incomplete. In this study, a survey on hospital waste management system in Bushehr province hospitals was conducted. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 8 hospitals in Bushehr province were investigated during a period of 6 months using a questionnaire, interviews and direct observations. The questionnaire had 93 questions (open and closed about general information on the hospitals and about various systems of managing hospital waste according to the World Health Organization suggested survey questionnaire for hospital waste management in developing countries. Results: In hospitals of bushehr province, waste generation rate was 2615 kg/day, including domestic waste (51.7%, infectious waste (20.8%, sharps (15.2% and chemical and drugs wastes (12.3%. In almost all hospitals, segregation of infectious waste from domestic waste at the place of origin and putting them in special containers had been done but this segregation wasn’t complete and sometimes some hazardous waste were disposed of in domestic waste containers. All hospitals used a color coding system for waste containers, 75 % of hospitals had incinerators. In others, waste was carried out by municipal service daily. In all hospitals, all workers were trained about hospital waste management. In none of the surveyed hospitals, there was an obvious policy and plan for purchasing equipment and necessary facilities in order to dispose hospital waste correctly and also no clear budget was allocated for hospital waste management. In none of these hospitals

  18. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeki, H.; Evans, N.; Czervinski, K.; Bruggeman, Ch.; Poineau, F.; Breynaert, A.; Reiler, P.; Pablo, J. de; Pipon, Y.; Molnar, M.; Nishimura, T.; Kienzler, B.; Van Iseghem, P.; Crovisier, J.L.; Wieland, E.; Mace, N.; Pablo, J. de; Spahiu, K.; Cui, D.; Lida, Y.; Charlet, L.; Liu, X.; Sato, H.; Goutelard, F.; Savoye, S.; Glaus, M.; Poinssot, C.; Seby, F.; Sato, H.; Tournassat, Ch.; Montavon, G.; Rotenberg, B.; Spahiu, K.; Smith, G.; Marivoet, J.; Landais, P.; Bruno, J.; Johnson, H.; Umeki, L.; Geckeis, H.; Giffaut, E.; Grambow, B.; Dierckx, A

    2007-07-01

    This document gathers 33 oral presentations that were made at this workshop dedicated to the mobility of some radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal. The workshop was organized into 6 sessions: 1) performance assessment, 2) speciation/interaction in aqueous media, 3) radioactive wastes, 4) redox processes at interfaces, 5) diffusion processes, and 6) retention processes.

  19. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...

  20. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S K; Hui, Chi-Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly "recycling" has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  2. Purification of Polymer-Grade Fumaric Acid from Fermented Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Figueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fumaric acid is a chemical building block with many applications, namely in the polymer industry. The fermentative production of fumaric acid from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. The use of existing industrial side-streams as raw-materials within biorefineries potentially enables production costs competitive against current chemical processes, while preventing the use of refined sugars competing with food and feed uses and avoiding purposely grown crops requiring large areas of arable land. However, most industrial side streams contain a diversity of molecules that will add complexity to the purification of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth. A process for the recovery and purification of fumaric acid from a complex fermentation medium containing spent sulfite liquor (SSL as a carbon source was developed and is herein described. A simple two-stage precipitation procedure, involving separation unit operations, pH and temperature manipulation and polishing through the removal of contaminants with activated carbon, allowed for the recovery of fumaric acid with 68.3% recovery yield with specifications meeting the requirements of the polymer industry. Further, process integration opportunities were implemented that allowed minimizing the generation of waste streams containing fumaric acid, which enabled increasing the yield to 81.4% while keeping the product specifications.

  3. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

    2012-04-01

    The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  4. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenstrauha, I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50% of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminiumborosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 ºC. In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90% was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15–35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45–65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 ºC in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090–1100 ºC with the most optimal properties - porosity 38-52%, water absorption 39–47% and bulk density 1.35–1.67 g/cm3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35–1.1%, water absorption 0.7–2.6 % and bulk density 2.1–2.3 g/cm3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM. By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected.Durante la obtención de ciertas fibras de vidrio se generan dos subproductos o residuos principalmente: Lodo de arcilla montmorillonítica capaz de adsorber el 50 % de materia orgánica y un vidrio silicato alumínico con temperatura de reblandecimiento relativamente alta (> 600 ºC. Con el fin de elaborar nuevos

  5. Carbon emissions and low carbon production in processing pure grain liquor by solid fermentation%纯粮固态发酵白酒生产中的碳排放及低碳生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓莉; 吴林海; 童霞; 陈正行

    2012-01-01

    The critical point of carbon emission in processing pure grain liquor by solid fermentation is significant to find the key processes of carbon reduction, guiding enterprises to low-carbon processing. Based on the theory of Life Cycle Assessment, the carbon emissions in liquor processing was quantified and the critical points were locked through the contribution rate of carbon emissions in processes in this paper. Results showed that liquor steaming strongly attached to the coal-buming boiler, which was the most critical point of carbon emissions in liquor processes, while net electricity consumption and transport in the plant were both mainly contributed to the carbon emissions of processing. Therefore, the method was contributed to promoting the low carbon emission of the pure grain liquor processor, improving the energy consumption structure and processing pure grain liquor by taking the biomass and other clean energy. These results also provided a reference to reduce carbon emission in food processing.%锁定生产纯粮固态发酵白酒的关键碳排放点可以明确碳减排重点环节,引导企业低碳生产.该文基于生命周期理论,研究了纯粮固态发酵白酒生产碳排放,并根据各生产环节碳排放贡献率锁定了碳排放的关键点.结果表明,消耗煤炭的锅炉运转与蒸粮蒸酒的生产工艺联系紧密,成为纯粮固态发酵型白酒生产最关键的碳排放点,同时用电消耗和厂内运输也对碳排放具有一定的贡献.据此提出改善能源消耗结构,使用生物质能等清洁能源以促进纯粮固态发酵型白酒的低碳生产.该文研究结果为减少食品生产的碳排放提供了参考.

  6. [The possibility of using the mycelial wastes from the production of antifungal antibiotics as additives to lubricating oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakhov, V V; Shenin, Iu D

    1997-01-01

    Antiwear and antitear properties of mycelial waste from production of antifungal antibiotics i.e. levorin, nystatin, mycoheptin, amphotericin B and griseofulvin were studied. It was shown that the waste mycelium from griseofulvin production had the best antiwear and antitear characteristics due to a higher percentage of phosphorus and sulphur in it as compared to the mycelial waste from production of the other antibiotics.

  7. Conceptual and economic foundations of strategic management of solid waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Borisovna Leonova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews existing global concept in the field of waste production and consumption.The purpose of this investigation is the development of a new hierarchy of waste mana-gement and adjustment of the existing waste management strategy, acceptable to Russia. To analyze the current situation of waste production and consumption there was studied foreign experience in waste management and considered the situation of waste in the Russian Federation and Sverdlovsk region. Analytical, statistical and theoretical methods of work were used.The new hierarchy of desirable waste management is based on the following order: selective collection of waste, particularly household, their recycling and thereby minimize them, and then their treatment and further disposal. This new hierarchy will significantly reduce the burden on the environment and land resources.The revised strategy for solid waste management should consist of 6 blocks, ranked in a logical sequence: organizational, legal, science and research, economic, controlling, educational. Each of them includes a list of activities. Term strategy implementation is 5 years, followed by a possible prolongation.To improve the efficiency of work in the field of solid waste management in Russia must be created a new waste recycling industry, which can be provided by necessary infrastructure for the collection, transportation, recycling and disposal of solid waste products. It is also required to monitor environmental pollution waste using geographic information systems and provide educational work among population and the leaders of the industrial and communal enterprises.In the article in addition to the world concept the authors took into account an economic component, which includes analysis of the costs of environmental protection measures and economic damage caused by waste disposal. The paper also provides an industry deformed structure of the Russian economy, which explains the inability to

  8. Alkali-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLATICA J. PREDOJEVIĆ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the transesterification parameters on the yield and quality of the methyl esters (MEs produced from waste frying oil (WFO were investigated. A two-step alkali transesterification reaction followed by silica gel purification step was applied. The investigated reaction parameters were the methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1 and 9:1, the catalyst/oil weight ratio (1.0 and 1.5 mass % and the type of catalyst (NaOH and KOH. The physical and chemical properties of the employed feedstock and the obtained biodiesel were determined in order to investigate the effects of both the properties of the WFO and the reaction parameters on the characteristics and yields of the product. It was found that the properties of the feedstock had a determinant effect on the physical and chemical properties of the MEs, as the majority of them did not differ significantly under the studied reaction parameters. However, the reaction parameters influenced the yields of the product. Higher yields were obtained with a 1.0 than with a 1.5 mass % catalyst to oil ratio. The increasing yield with decreasing catalyst/oil ratio was more pronounced with NaOH (9.15–14.35 % than with KOH (2.84–6.45 %. When KOH was used as the catalyst, the yields were always higher (the mean yield was 94.86 % in comparison to those obtained with NaOH (the mean was 84.28 %. Furthermore, the efficiency of KOH in conversion of WFO to purified MEs in comparison to NaOH was even more pronounced in the case of the higher methanol/oil ratio, i.e., for the 9:1 methanol/oil ratio, the yield increase with KOH was about 2 times higher than the yield with NaOH, regardless of the applied catalyst/oil ratio.

  9. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-11-15

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal.

  10. Genetic Toxic Effects of Rare-earth Waste and Its Products on Peacock Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; LIU Shi-ying; WU Yi-ning; DU Chang-jie

    2003-01-01

    The micro-nuclei and abnormal nuclei rates of peacock fish are tested,genetic toxic effects of rare-earth waste and its products(cement,plastic) on peacock in water are investigated.Results show that the leachate of rare-earth waste can lead to micronuclei and abnormal nuclei rates of peacock fish an obvious increase(P<0.01). Products made of the waste cause the micronuclei rate to be increased because of its low radio active action,but the change in abnormal nuclei rate can't reach a remarkable level.It shows that rare-earth waste has a certain effect of causing mutation on aquatic organism.Harmfulness of products made from this waste is decreased largely,and resources can be effectively saved.

  11. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mei, E-mail: msun8@uncc.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sun, Wenjie, E-mail: wsun@smu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750340, Dallas, TX (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H{sub 2}S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H{sub 2}S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H{sub 2}S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H{sub 2}S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H{sub 2}S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H{sub 2}S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H{sub 2}S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H{sub 2}S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H{sub 2}S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating

  12. SPENT SULPHITE LIQUOR FOR CULTIVATION OF AN EDIBLE RHIZOPUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Ferreira,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spent sulphite liquor, the major byproduct from the sulphite pulp production process, was diluted to 50% and used for production of an edible zygomycete Rhizopus sp. The focus was on production, yield, and composition of the fungal biomass composition. The fungus grew well at 20 to 40°C, but 32°C was found to be preferable compared to 20 and 40°C in terms of biomass production and yield (maximum of 0.16 g/g sugars, protein content (0.50-0.60 g/g, alkali-insoluble material (AIM (ca 0.15 g/g, and glucosamine content (up to 0.30 g/g of AIM. During cultivation in a pilot airlift bioreactor, the yield increased as aeration was raised from 0.15 to 1.0 vvm, indicating a high demand for oxygen. After cultivation at 1.0 vvm for 84 h, high yield and production of biomass (up to 0.34 g/g sugars, protein (0.30-0.50 g/g, lipids (0.02-0.07 g/g, AIM (0.16-0.28 g/g, and glucosamine (0.22-0.32 g/g AIM were obtained. The fungal biomass produced from spent sulphite liquor is presently being tested as a replacement for fishmeal in feed for fish aquaculture and seems to be a potential source of nutrients and for production of glucosamine.

  13. Metatranscriptomics Reveals the Functions and Enzyme Profiles of the Microbial Community in Chinese Nong-Flavor Liquor Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese liquor is one of the world's best-known distilled spirits and is the largest spirit category by sales. The unique and traditional solid-state fermentation technology used to produce Chinese liquor has been in continuous use for several thousand years. The diverse and dynamic microbial community in a liquor starter is the main contributor to liquor brewing. However, little is known about the ecological distribution and functional importance of these community members. In this study, metatranscriptomics was used to comprehensively explore the active microbial community members and key transcripts with significant functions in the liquor starter production process. Fungi were found to be the most abundant and active community members. A total of 932 carbohydrate-active enzymes, including highly expressed auxiliary activity family 9 and 10 proteins, were identified at 62°C under aerobic conditions. Some potential thermostable enzymes were identified at 50, 62, and 25°C (mature stage. Increased content and overexpressed key enzymes involved in glycolysis and starch, pyruvate and ethanol metabolism were detected at 50 and 62°C. The key enzymes of the citrate cycle were up-regulated at 62°C, and their abundant derivatives are crucial for flavor generation. Here, the metabolism and functional enzymes of the active microbial communities in NF liquor starter were studied, which could pave the way to initiate improvements in liquor quality and to discover microbes that produce novel enzymes or high-value added products.

  14. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  15. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and "other". Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and solid waste with 11.4% w/w of the total. The total production of chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Thus, the sum of pharmaceutical and chemical waste was 5.7% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. The unit production rates for total chemical waste for the hospital were 5.8 (2.2) g/patient/d and 1.1 (0.4) g/exam/d. The respective

  16. CLEAR LIQUOR SCRUBBING WITH ANHYDRITE PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.C. SKARUPA; T.R. CAREY

    1998-08-01

    This project is funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) under a cost-sharing PRDA with Radian International. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding and technical oversight. The project is part of FETC's Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. This project was submitted in response to Area 4 of DOE's Mega-PRDA: Advanced High-Performance SO{sub 2} Control Concepts. The goals of this research area are to develop advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes that achieve greater than 99% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, are 25% cheaper than commercial FGD systems, and provide a valuable byproduct that will be recycled rather than disposed. Area 4 also included the development of a byproduct process that could be added to FGD systems to produce high value byproducts for reuse rather than disposal.

  17. E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brett H

    2009-12-20

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  18. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  19. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  20. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this study, methane (CH4) production rates from shredder waste (SW) were determined by incubation of waste samples over a period of 230days under different operating conditions, and first-order decay kinetic constants (k-values) were calculated. SW and sterilized SW were incubated under...

  1. Sustainable consumption and production patterns: solid waste and governance challenge from local to global

    OpenAIRE

    Thais Maria Machado Lemos Ribeiro; Cristina Y A Inoue

    2016-01-01

    Solid waste has been growing at an exponential rate because of unsustainable production and consumption patterns. For that reason, it is considered a global issue both in the international political economy perspective and in local and global governance, with multiple actors and levels of analysis, highlighting waste pickers as relevant actors.

  2. Effect of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane...

  3. Evaluation of biochemical factors from mixed animal wastes feedstock in biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane ...

  4. The effect of system parameters on the biogas production from anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  5. Agricultural Waste Management Extension Education (AWMEE The Ultimate Need for Intellectual Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj M.  Mohammadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Extension education is significant range of fields like Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environmental and Bio Diversity Conservation, Rural Development, Home Management Skill Development, Disaster Management, Waste Management, Value Adding Management. Among them, waste management extension is highly significant because of the millions of tons of annual waste in vegetal, animal, environmental and natural resources products as well as millions of hectors of land degradation. Waste management extension deals with raising the efficiency and productivity of the agricultural industry, intellectually and/ or economically. Both producers and consumers should be fully aware of the mechanism by which waste in agricultural commodities diminishes to a considerable level. In agriculture, knowledge and decision-making capacity determine how production factor (i.e. oil, water, capital, chemicals, etc are utilized. Agricultural extension is a focal issue in formulating and disseminating knowledge and helping farmers to be competent decision makers. This article is designed to provide a theoretical and conceptual framework for “agricultural” extension (i.e. mutual agreement between producers and consumers in comprising agricultural waste management to respond to the world-wide expectations for extension to raise agricultural productivity, food production, bio- safety as well as environmental and bio-diversity conservation. Literature review, content analysis and modeling through utilizing contingency tables were employed to conduct the study. Different experiences in this regard have been collected and results show that the greater the use of AWMEE, the less agricultural waste, the higher the agricultural productivity and lower the land degradatioN.

  6. Degradation of black liquor from bioethanol process using coagulation and Fenton-like methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Sari, Ajeng Arum; Abimanyu, Haznan

    2017-01-01

    Black liquor is one of the main by-products of the pretreatment process in bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches. Black liquor wastewater releases black coloured effluent with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low dissolved oxygen (DO). It had a distinctive dark coloration, high alkalinity (pH=13), high organic content (COD > 50,000 ppm) and a high solid content (TSS > 5,000 ppm). Lignin destruction can be done by using high oxidation from OH radical system such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thereafter, the high concentration of COD, color, and TSS can be removed. The general aim of the present investigation was to determine degradation of black liquor wastewater by using a combined coagulation and Fenton-like methods. In this research, we use Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) as a coagulant and FeCl3.6H2O and H2O2 for Fenton-like's reagent. The process was conducted in jar test at 200 rpm for 30 minutes and after that slowly mixed for 2 hours and left for sedimentation 24 hours. 50 ml black liquor was added with variation dose of 1-5% PAC, and 10 % Fenton-like reagent. Hydroxyl radical was generated by the Fenton-like's reagent (ratio FeCl3.6H2O : H2O2 was varied). The highest decolorization of black liquor 70 % was obtained under 5% PAC coagulant. The pH of the wastewater was reduced from 13.00 to 8.07 after the addition of the coagulant. The decolorization of original black liquor was approximately 58% through the Fenton-like process. The combination of PAC and Fenton-like reagent has able to enhance the decolorization of black liquor up to 97%.

  7. Techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Zhixiang; Tang, Junhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess based on solid state fermentation for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was carried out. The hydrogen production plant was assumed to be built in Hangzhou and designed for converting 3 ton food waste per day into hydrogen. The total capital cost (TCC) and the annual production cost (APC) were US$583092 and US$88298.1/year, respectively. The overall revenue after the tax was US$146473.6/year. The return on investment (ROI), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) of the plant were 26.75%, 5 years and 24.07%, respectively. The results exhibited that the combined bioprocess for hydrogen production from food waste was feasible. This is an important study for attracting investment and industrialization interest for hydrogen production from food waste in the industrial scale.

  8. Production of ethanol from a mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste via a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Kira, Noriko; Tomiyama, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Efficient ethanol production from waste paper requires the addition of expensive nutrients. To reduce the production cost of ethanol from waste paper, a study on how to produce ethanol efficiently by adding kitchen waste (potentially as a carbon source, nutrient source, and acidity regulator) to waste paper was performed and a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (L+PSSF) was developed. The individual saccharification performances of waste paper and kitchen waste were not influenced by their mixture. Liquefaction of kitchen waste at 90°C prior to presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) was essential for efficient ethanol fermentation. Ethanol at concentrations of 46.6 or 43.6g/l was obtained at the laboratory scale after fermentation for 96h, even without pH adjustment and/or the addition of extra nutrients. Similarly, ethanol at a concentration of 45.5g/l was obtained at the pilot scale after fermentation for 48h. The ethanol concentration of L+PSSF of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste was comparable to that of PSSF of waste paper with added nutrients (yeast extract and peptone) and pH adjustment using H2SO4, indicating that kitchen waste is not only a carbon source but also an excellent nutrient source and acidity regulator for fermentation of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. 绿液预处理玉米秸秆产纤维素酶的研究%The Research on Cellulase Production of Green Liquor Pretreated Corn Stover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士明; 陆青山; 谷峰; 余世袁

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:The effect of green liquid pretreated corn stover on cellulase production of Trichoderma reesei was investigated. Inspecting the influence of pretreatment conditions on cellulase production of corn stover at different cooking temperature, total alkali charge and sulfidity by orthogonal experiment, we could conclude from range and variance analysis that the extent of impact to cellucase production of green liquor pretreated corn stover was in turn total alkali charge, cooking temperature and sultidity. The optimum filter paper activity (FPA) reached 2.6 IU/mL. FPA productions from corn stover oretreated bv cooking temperature140℃ and 170 ℃, total alkali charge 4 %, sulfidity 0, 20 %, 30 % and 40 %, were comprehensively compared and evaluated. It was found that the optimum conditions, i. e. , cooking temperature 140℃, total alkali charge 4 %, sulfidity 0, might ensure the value of FPA on and avoid the loss of materials. The results showed that green liquid pretreatment for corn stoverwas feasible for cellulase production of Trichoderma reesei. Taking corn stover pretreated by cooking temperature 140 ℃, total alkali charge 4% and sulfidity 0 as carbon sources whose concentration was 12 g/L, FPA and β-glucosidase activity(β-GA) were up to 2.5 IU/mL and 1.3 IU/mL respectively. The enzyme production period was 5 days.%研究了绿液预处理玉米秸秆对里氏木霉产纤维素酶的影响。通过正交试验考察3个预处理条件对玉米秸秆产纤维素酶的影响,从极差和方差分析可知,对绿液预处理玉米秸秆产纤维素酶的影响程度由大到小依次是总碱量、蒸煮温度、硫化度,最大滤纸酶活(FPA)达到2.6 IU/mL。比较在蒸煮温度140℃和170℃,总碱量4%,硫化度0、20%、30%与40%下所产的FPA,经综合评定,在最优条件下蒸煮温度140℃,总碱量4%和硫化度0时可以尽量避免原料损失的前提下,保证FPA的大小,结果表明,里氏木霉利用绿液预处

  10. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  11. Immobilisation of Higher Activity Wastes from Nuclear Reactor Production of 99Mo

    OpenAIRE

    Martin W. A. Stewart; Vance, Eric R.; Moricca, Sam A.; Daniel R. Brew; Catherine Cheung; Tina Eddowes; Walter Bermudez

    2013-01-01

    A variety of intermediate- and low-level liquid and solid wastes are produced from reactor production of 99Mo using UAl alloy or UO2 targets and in principle can be collectively or individually converted into waste forms. At ANSTO, we have legacy acidic uranyl-nitrate-rich intermediate level waste (ILW) from the latter, and an alkaline liquid ILW, a U-rich filter cake, plus a shorter lived liquid stream that rapidly decays to low-level waste (LLW) standards, from the former. The options cons...

  12. Microbial Conversion of Waste Glycerol from Biodiesel Production into Value-Added Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel that is capable of being utilized by a conventional diesel engine. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated a surplus of glycerol. A value-added opportunity is needed in order to compensate for disposal-associated costs. Microbial conversions from glycerol to valuable chemicals performed by various bacteria, yeast, fungi, and microalgae are discussed in this review paper, as well as the possibility of extending these conversions to microbial electrochemical technologies.

  13. Ethanol Production from Enzymatically Treated Dried Food Waste Using Enzymes Produced On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental crisis and the need to find renewable fuel alternatives have made production of biofuels an important priority. At the same time, the increasing production of food waste is an important environmental issue. For this reason, production of ethanol from food waste is an interesting approach. Volumes of food waste are reduced and ethanol production does not compete with food production. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of using source-separated household food waste for the production of ethanol. To minimize the cost of ethanol production, the hydrolytic enzymes that are necessary for cellulose hydrolysis were produced in-house using the thermophillic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. At the initial stage of the study, production of these thermophilic enzymes was studied and optimized, resulting in an activity of 0.28 FPU/mL in the extracellular broth. These enzymes were used to saccharify household food waste at a high dry material consistency of 30% w/w, followed by fermentation. Ethanol production reached 19.27 g/L with a volumetric productivity of 0.92 g/L·h, whereas only 5.98 g/L of ethanol was produced with a volumetric productivity of 0.28 g/L·h when no enzymatic saccharification was used.

  14. Pré-tratamentos de melaço de cana-de-açúcar e água de maceração de milho para a bioprodução de carotenóides Pretreatment of sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor for the production of carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the pretreatment of sugarcane molasses (CM and corn steep liquor (CS for the production of carotenoids by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636. The acid pretreatment removed less micronutrients than that with activated carbon and led to high removals of Cu and Mn. Reduction in optical density of the prepared medium and removal of glucose from it were 22% and 7% for CM and 95% and 38% for CS, respectively. Total carotenoids obtained with substrates pretreated with acids (541 mg/L were higher than the results obtained when the medium was treated with activated carbon (208 mg/L.

  15. Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district heating sector: a production function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtenback, Orjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

  16. Evaluation of various agro-wastes for traditional black soap production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, O E; Osinowo, F A

    2001-08-01

    The agricultural wastes, cocoa-pod husks, palm-bunch waste, sorghum chaff and groundnut shells, which are normally thrown away have been used in the production of black soap. Unlike other soaps which are made from oils and chemicals, black soap is made from oils and agro-wastes ashes. Chemical analysis indicated that the liquid extract from the ashes of the different agro-wastes used contained various amounts of potassium and sodium compounds. The most common ingredient in the agro-wastes was potassium carbonate. The amount of potassium carbonate was 56.73 +/- 0.16% in cocoa-pod ash, 43.15 +/- 0.13% in palm-bunch ash, 16.65 +/- 0.05% in groundnut shell ash and 12.40 +/- 0.08% in sorghum chaff ash. Soaps made from the agro-wastes ashes had excellent solubility, consistency, cleansing and lathering abilities.

  17. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  18. Clinker Production from Wastes of Cellulose and Granite Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassoni, Délio Porto; de Cássia, Alvarenga Rita; Pedrotti, Leonardo; Mendes, Beatryz

    This work present a belite cement based made from two industrial waste types. Binary mixtures were prepares using waste from rock cutting and polishing industries and waste from cellulose industry (named grits), in diferente proportions. The mixed raw materials were burned at a temperature of 950 °C in an electric oven for 30 minutes and then cooled at a rate of 70 °C per minute. The mineralogical composition of the material obtained was studied by means of XRD techniques, confirming the dominance of dicalcium silicate. Mixed mortars produced with the new material, in full replacement of Portland cement, showed satisfactory performance for use in construction works. This research shows that it is possible to obtain hydraulic binders from industrial waste, at lower temperatures than the required for the consumption of non-renewable resources and energy.

  19. Concrete Production Using Technogenical, Constructional and Domestic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vaičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes investigations carried out by the scientists from various countries in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. The grained rubber of tyres, modified sawdust, crushed ceramic bricks, plastic waste and remains of glass are utilised to produce concrete mixtures. The results of research conducted by the scientists show that in the process of producing concrete we can use different types of waste to change natural aggregates and to get concrete with specific properties. Currently, waste handling and utilization are burning ecological problems. Therefore, intensive investigations are carried out in order to utilise technogenical, constructional and domestic waste for concrete mixtures. Article in Lithuanian

  20. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  1. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  2. Integrated systems for biopolymers and bioenergy production from organic waste and by-products: a review of microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Giorgia; Ventorino, Valeria; Panico, Antonio; Pepe, Olimpia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, issues concerning the sustainable and harmless disposal of organic solid waste have generated interest in microbial biotechnologies aimed at converting waste materials into bioenergy and biomaterials, thus contributing to a reduction in economic dependence on fossil fuels. To valorize biomass, waste materials derived from agriculture, food processing factories, and municipal organic waste can be used to produce biopolymers, such as biohydrogen and biogas, through different microbial processes. In fact, different bacterial strains can synthesize biopolymers to convert waste materials into valuable intracellular (e.g., polyhydroxyalkanoates) and extracellular (e.g., exopolysaccharides) bioproducts, which are useful for biochemical production. In particular, large numbers of bacteria, including Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter beijerincki, methylotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Rhizobium spp., Nocardia spp., and recombinant Escherichia coli, have been successfully used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates on an industrial scale from different types of organic by-products. Therefore, the development of high-performance microbial strains and the use of by-products and waste as substrates could reasonably make the production costs of biodegradable polymers comparable to those required by petrochemical-derived plastics and promote their use. Many studies have reported use of the same organic substrates as alternative energy sources to produce biogas and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion as well as dark and photofermentation processes under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, concurrently obtaining bioenergy and biopolymers at a reasonable cost through an integrated system is becoming feasible using by-products and waste as organic carbon sources. An overview of the suitable substrates and microbial strains used in low-cost polyhydroxyalkanoates for biohydrogen and biogas production is

  3. Methane production from kitchen waste using Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, S; Joseph, Kurian; Sukumaran, V

    2007-04-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain isolated from biogas plant sludge was examined for its ability to enhance biogas from kitchen waste during solid phase anaerobic digestion. The laboratory experiments were conducted for total solid concentrations of 20% and 22%. Kitchen waste was characterized for physico-chemical parameters and laboratory experiments were conducted with and without E. coli strain. It was found that the reactor with E. coli produced 17% more biogas than the reactors that are operated without E. coli strain.

  4. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity.

  5. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  6. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield. PMID:27910937

  7. Safety evaluation of the leaching of metals from the printed graphic product wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka Adamović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the technological development of the graphic production, the environment is being faced with a large amount of printed graphic product wastes, especially packaging materials (paper, cardboard, paper and plastic bags, films, etc, but it is also being faced with the problem of their disposal. Many printing inks and coatings used in the production of the printed graphic product contain metals which, after the disposal of graphic waste, can migrate to different systems and have a negative influence on the environment. Because of that, the concentration levels of metals (zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, and nickel in the printed graphic product wastes have firstly been determined, and then the impact of those metals, through their migration from the printed graphic product wastes to the simulated environmental mediums with different pH values (acidic and neutral, has been estimated. Based on the experimentally obtained concentrations of metals that have migrated from the printed graphic product wastes to the neutral solution and based on the theoretical distribution coefficient, the concentration of metals in the soil of illegal and municipal landfills, which represents the contribution to the overall metal concentration in the soil due to the migration from the waste printed graphic materials, has been calculated. Also, a comparison between the experimentally obtained metal concentrations and the literature values has been conducted, and an evaluation of their influence on the quality of soil has been given.

  8. Products Made from Nonmetallic Materials Reclaimed from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOU Peng; XIANG Dong; DUAN Guanghong

    2007-01-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are in all electronic equipment, so with the sharp increase of electronic waste, the recovery of PCB components has become a critical research field. This paper presents a study of the reclaimation and reuse of nonmetallic materials recovered from waste PCBs. Mechanical processes, such as crushing, milling, and separation, were used to process waste PCBs. Nonmetallic materials in the PCBs were separated using density-based separation with separation rates in excess of 95%. The recovered nonmetals were used to make models, construction materials, composite boards, sewer grates,and amusement park boats. The PCB nonmetal products have better mechanical characteristics and durability than traditional materials and fillers. The flexural strength of the PCB nonmetallic material composite boards is 30% greater than that of standard products. Products derived from PCB waste processing have been brought into industrial production. The study shows that PCB nonmetals can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways.

  9. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  10. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL IN BED PACKED BIOREACTORS WITH IMMOBILIZED YEAST CELLS ON LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LINA MARÍA AGUDELO ESCOBAR; URIEL SALAZAR ÁLVAREZ; MARIANA PEÑUELA

    2012-01-01

    .... In this work, we evaluated the continuous production of ethanol in bed packed reactors with yeast cells immobilized on lignocellulosic waste of wood shaving, cane bagasse, corn leave and corn cob...

  11. Utilization of kaolin processing waste for the production of porous ceramic bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Brasileiro, Maria I; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2008-08-01

    The kaolin processing industry generates large amounts of waste in producing countries such as Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize kaolin processing waste and evaluate its suitability as an alternative ceramic raw material for the production of porous technical ceramic bodies. The waste material was physically and chemically characterized and its thermal behaviour is described. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. Fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the waste consisted of quartz, kaolinite, and mica, and that ceramic formulations containing up to 66% of waste can be used for the production of ceramics with porosities higher than 40% and strength of about 70 MPa.

  12. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    for the model are e.g. distribution of the wasteproduct in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components.Output data of the model are product specific estimates of 1) emissions to atmosphere 2) emissions to aquatic recipients 3) remainsin...... disposed inlandfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND. In the model, waste products are subdivided into fivegroups of components: general organic matter (e.g. paper), specific organic compounds (e.g. organic solvents), inert components(e.g. PVC), metals (e.g. cadmium...... of materials and components and the manufacture, transportation and use of the product to thefinal disposal and possible recycling of the product. Although LCA has developed significantly during recent years, product specific emissions from disposed waste have only got minorattention in the literature leaving...

  13. Prevention of ARD through stabilization of waste rock with alkaline by-products : results from a meso-scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, M.; Allard, B. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Sartz, L.; Karlsson, S. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Bergskraft Bergslagen, Kopparberg (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Mine waste can be mixed with alkaline materials to neutralize and increase the immobilization of trace elements. An impermeable layer can also be created if the alkaline additions react with the waste to form hardpans. Alkaline injection processes have been used in the western United States, where approximately 2 to 3.5 million tonnes of mine tailings have been limed with calcite, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}), and calcium oxide (CaO). In this study, stabilization experiments were conducted to simulate conditions where weathered mine waste was mixed with various alkaline materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions for preventing the oxidation of mine waste isolating surfaces. The alkaline materials included fly ash, lime mud, green liquor dregs, and lime kiln dust. The mine waste and alkaline materials were layered in barrels. Expanded clay aggregates were used to minimize the risk of clogging. Results of the experiments showed that the pH in the alkaline-treated systems increased between 1.3 and 27 pH units when compared with untreated reference samples. The increased pH resulted in a decrease in trace element concentrations of approximately 96 percent. The samples containing fly ash performed better than other systems. 4 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.W.; Yan, Z.; Han, B.Z.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen- Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and

  15. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture

  16. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.W.; Yan, Z.; Han, B.Z.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen- Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and cultur

  17. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Yang Yu; Liang-Yu Huang; I-Ching Kuan; Shiow-Ling Lee

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipa...

  18. Determining waste lipids stability and possible effects in bio diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, L.; Ciudad, G.; Navia, R.

    2009-07-01

    Waste lipids are a sustainable raw material alternative for bio diesel production, avoiding excessive use of agricultural soil. However, this raw material can be degraded in a short time of storage, affecting bio diesel production process and quality. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible degradation of waste frying oil (WFO) and animal fat (AF), monitoring parameters that could affect the bio diesel quality. (Author)

  19. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.T.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  20. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...... incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste...

  1. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM COW WASTE AND UTILIZATION OF BIOGAS WASTE AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology activities for cattle ranchers and salacca farmers was done with the aim to utilize added-value of cattle waste to energy needs and use of biogas waste as organic fertilizer on salacca crops. Implementation of activities have been done at cattle ranchers in the village of Mlambangan, one of village on Berbah Sub-district at Sleman district in the form of demonstration plots and the salacca of the farmer’s crop in the village of Margososno, one of village on Srumbung Sub-district, at Magelang District, in the form of training and implementation in the field. Results of Demonstration Plot creation digester quite successful, because the material is available in sufficient and sustainable as well as the active force. The results of laboratory tests on the levels of N, P, and K from the waste produced biogas respectively 0.07 percent, 0.29 percent, and 3.21 percent, while for solid waste cow respectively 1.64 percent, 0, 99 percent, and 4.38 percent. Utilization of waste at biogas plants responded positively salacca by farmers, given the limited supply of organic fertilizer in the planting location of salacca, this is due to the limited cattle in the planting location of salacca.

  2. Solid olive waste in environmental cleanup: oil recovery and carbon production for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamouz, Amer; Hilal, Hikmat S; Nassar, Nashaat; Mardawi, Zahi

    2007-07-01

    A potentially-economic three-fold strategy, to use solid olive wastes in water purification, is presented. Firstly, oil remaining in solid waste (higher than 5% of waste) was recovered by the Soxhlet extraction technique, which can be useful for the soap industry. Secondly, the remaining solid was processed to yield relatively high-surface area active carbon (AC). Thirdly, the resulting carbon was employed to reversibly adsorb chromate ions from water, aiming to establish a water purification process with reusable AC. The technique used here enabled oil recovery together with the production of a clean solid, suitable for making AC. This process also has the advantage of low production cost.

  3. Evaluation of Quality of Output Product in the Technology Group for Pyrolisis of Organic Waste Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav HONUS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ecological removal of organic polymer materials and wastes polluting the environment is very much alive and it is clear that it will take on ever greater importance. a promising and innovative technology for environmentally friendly disposal of waste organic matter is pyrolysis. This method of thermal processing of waste for its degradation as well as a source of valuable energy products using the new system Pyromatic. This paper presents its technical description and evaluation of the quality of output product from the pyrolysis of tires, plastics and coal.

  4. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation.

  5. Ozone pretreatment of process waste water generated in course of fluoroquinolone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Fares; Pelzer, David; Zuehlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    During production of active pharmaceutical ingredients, process waste water is generated at several stages of manufacturing. Whenever possible, the resulting waste water will be processed by conventional waste water treatment plants. Currently, incineration of the process waste water is the method to eliminate compounds with high biological activity. Thus, ozone treatment followed by biological waste water treatment was tested as an alternative method. Two prominent representatives of the large group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin) were investigated, focussing on waste water of the bulk production. Elimination of the target compounds and generation of their main transformation products were determined by liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The obtained results demonstrated, that the concentration of moxifloxacin and its metabolites can be effectively reduced (>99.7%) prior entering the receiving water. On the contrary, the concentration of ciprofloxacin and its metabolites remained too high for safe discharge, necessitating application of prolonged ozonation for its further degradation. The required ozonation time can be estimated based on the determined kinetics. To assure a low biological activity the ecotoxicity of the ozonated waste water was investigated using three trophic levels. By means of multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) experiments several new transformation products of the fluoroquinolones were identified. Thus, previously published proposed structures could be corrected or confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid recovered fuel production from biodegradable waste in grain processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Petraskiene, Violeta

    2013-04-01

    Management of biodegradable waste is one of the most important environmental problems in the grain-processing industry since this waste cannot be dumped anymore due to legal requirements. Biodegradable waste is generated in each stage of grain processing, including the waste-water and air emissions treatment processes. Their management causes some environmental and financial problems. The majority of Lithuanian grain-processing enterprises own and operate composting sites, but in Lithuania the demand for compost is not given. This study focused on the analysis of the possibility of using biodegradable waste for the production of solid recovered fuel, as a local renewable fuel with the purpose of increasing environmental performance and decreasing the direct costs of grain processing. Experimental research with regard to a pilot grain-processing plant has proven that alternative fuel production will lead to minimizing of the volume of biodegradable waste by 75% and the volume of natural gas for heat energy production by 62%. Environmental indicators of grain processing, laboratory analysis of the chemical and physical characteristics of biodegradable waste, mass and energy balances of the solid recovered fuel production, environmental and economical benefits of the project are presented and discussed herein.

  7. Application of the coal-mining waste in building ceramics production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich

    Full Text Available In the process of construction ceramics production a substantial quantity of non-renewable natural resources - clays - are used. One of the ways of science development in building materials production is investigation of the possibility of regular materials production using technogenic waste. Application of coal-mining waste (technogenic raw material in charge composition for production of ceramic products provides rational use of fuel, contributes to implementation of resource saving technologies on construction materials production enterprises. Though science development on revealing new raw material sources should be conducted with account for safety, reliability, technical, ecological and economical sides of the problem, which is especially current. The article deals with the problem of coal-mining waste usage in building ceramics production instead of fresh primary component (clay, fluxes, thinning agents and combustible additives. The interdependence between the density and shrinkage of the ceramic products and the amount and quality of coal-mining waste in its composition was established. The optimal proportion of coal-mining waste and clay in building ceramics production was estimated.

  8. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and

  9. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-10-15

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO₄·7H₂O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH₂PO₄ and CaCl₂·2H₂O had a significantly negative effect (p-valueindustrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO₄·7H₂O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.

  10. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Izmirlioglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO4·7H2O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH2PO4 and CaCl2·2H2O had a significantly negative effect (p-value < 0.05. Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO4·7H2O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.

  11. Enzymatical hydrolysis of food waste and ethanol production from the hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shoubao; Yao, Jianming [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering of Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Jun; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao; Ye, Jianfeng [Hefei Research Center of Ion Beam Engineering and Technology, Hefei 230088 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The aim of present paper was to investigate the prospect for the use of food waste, an important municipal waste, as a potential substrate to generate hydrolysates for fuel ethanol production. The critical variables that affected reducing sugar production from food waste were identified by Plackett-Burman design (glucoamylase loud, time, temperature and pH) and further optimized by using a four factor central composite design of response surface methodology. According to the results of response surface analysis, the optimum conditions for reducing sugar production were determined to be glucoamylase loud of 142.2 u/g, saccharification pH of 4.82, enzyme reaction temperature of 55 C, enzyme reaction time of 2.48 h. Reducing sugar production (164.8 g/L) in the optimized condition was in good agreement with the value predicted by the quadratic model (164.3 g/L), thereby confirming its validity. Furthermore, the obtained liquid phase of food waste hydrolysate was utilized for production of ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058 fermentation. In order to develop an economical process for transforming food waste hydrolysates to ethanol, non-sterilized and sterilized processes were compared in the experiments. The result shows non-sterilized fermentation without undergoing heat treatment was better due to the unspoiled nutrients inside. These results helped to find the effective strategies to utilize food waste for ethanol production. (author)

  12. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  13. Composition and production rate of medical waste from a small producer in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graikos, Anastasios; Voudrias, Evangelos; Papazachariou, Athanasios; Iosifidis, Nikolaos; Kalpakidou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rate of medical waste from the health care facility of social insurance institute, a small waste producer in Xanthi, Greece. Specifically, produced medical waste from the clinical pathology (medical microbiology) laboratory, the X-ray laboratory and the surgery and injection therapy departments of the health facility was monitored for six working weeks. A total of 240 kg medical solid waste was manually separated and weighed and 330 L of liquid medical waste was measured and classified. The hazardous waste fraction (%w/w) of the medical solid waste was 91.6% for the clinical pathology laboratory, 12.9% for the X-ray laboratory, 24.2% for the surgery departments and 17.6% for the injection therapy department. The infectious waste fraction (%w/w) of the hazardous medical solid waste was 75.6% for the clinical pathology laboratory, 0% for the X-ray laboratory, 100% for the surgery departments and 75.6% for the injection therapy department. The total hazardous medical solid waste production rate was 64+/-15 g/patient/d for the clinical pathology laboratory, 7.2+/-1.6 g/patient/d for the X-ray laboratory, 8.3+/-5.1 g/patient/d for the surgery departments and 24+/-9 g/patient/d for the injection therapy department. Liquid waste was produced by the clinical pathology laboratory (infectious-and-toxic) and the X-ray laboratory (toxic). The production rate for the clinical pathology laboratory was 0.03+/-0.003 L/patient/d and for the X-ray laboratory was 0.06+/-0.006 L/patient/d. Due to the small amount produced, it was suggested that the most suitable management scheme would be to transport the hazardous medical waste, after source-separation, to the Prefectural Hospital of Xanthi to be treated with the hospital waste. Assuming this data is representative of other small medical facilities, medical waste production can be estimated for such facilities distributed around Greece.

  14. UTILIZATION OF POULTRY, COW AND KITCHEN WASTES FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Animasahun

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of solid wastes generated in developing countries such as Nigeria has steadily increased over the last two decades as a result of population explosion and continuous growth of industries and agricultural practices. In agriculture, particularly cattle rearing, large quantities of cow wastes are generated, which could be used as biogas inputs to compliment the fuel usage alternative. In addition, a large number of families generate heavy wastes in the kitchen on a daily basis, which could be converted to economic benefits. In this work, a comparative study of biogas production from poultry droppings, cattle dung, and kitchen wastes was conducted under the same operating conditions. 3kg of each waste was mixed with 9L of water and loaded into the three waste reactors. Biogas production was measured for a period of 40 days and at an average temperature of 30.5oC. Biogas production started on the 7th day, and attained maximum value on the 14th days for reactor 1. Production reached its peak on the 14th day with 85´10-3dm3 of gas produced in reactor 2. For reactor 3, biogas production started on the 8th day and production reached a peak value on the 14th day. The average biogas production from poultry droppings, cow dung and kitchen waste was 0.0318dm3/day, 0.0230dm3/day and 0.0143dm3/day, respectively. It is concluded that the wastes can be managed through conversion into biogas, which is a source of income generation for the society.

  15. Strategies for reducing supplemental medium cost in bioethanol production from waste house wood hydrolysate by ethanologenic Escherichia coli: inoculum size increase and coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Naoyuki; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we report a simultaneous realization of both efficient ethanol production and saving medium nutrient (corn steep liquor [CSL]) during bioethanol fermentation of overliming-treated hydrolysate of waste house wood (WHW) using ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11. In cultivation using WHW hydrolysate supplemented with 4% (v/v) CSL and 0.2 g-dry cell weight (DCW)/l E. coli KO11 cells, the overall ethanol yield reached 84% of the theoretical value at 61 h. When we conducted the cultivation with 1% CSL to reduce the supplemental medium cost, the overall ethanol yield remained in the range of 66-72% even at 90 h. We proposed two alternative methods for increasing the overall yield even with 1% CSL. The first method involved increasing the inoculum size of E. coli KO11 up to 0.8 g-DCW/l, where 83% of the overall yield was attained at 60 h of cultivation. The second method involved the coculture of 0.2 g-DCW/l E. coli KO11 together with 0.02 g-DCW/l of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ1, and the overall yield reached 81% at 47 h of cultivation.

  16. Development of healthy marine ingredients from waste products from smoked rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    it is not possible to increase the production of fish oil from wild fish further. A possible source of omega-3 oils for human consumption is waste products from the fish industry. At present only approximately 40 % of the fish is used for human consumption and the rest is turned into waste products. Rainbow trout...... is the main species produced in Danish fresh water farming. By-products from the filleting process (head, bones, tail and intestine) are at present turned into ensilage and sold to the mink industry with low revenue. The aim of the DANFOMEGA project is therefore to use these waste products for the development...... of new high quality omega-3 oils and protein products and to evaluate the potential of these ingredients in a number of food applications. One of the challenges when producing and using fish oils is to obtain good sensory properties and high oxidative stability. Therefore, the process for extracting...

  17. Ethanol production from kitchen waste using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Kai; An, Ming-Zhe; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Koike, Yoji [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., 1-7-7 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Wu, Xiao-Lei [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A process for producing ethanol from kitchen waste was developed in this study. The process consists of freshness preservation of the waste, saccharification of the sugars in the waste, continuous ethanol fermentation of the saccharified liquid, and anaerobic treatment of the saccharification residue and the stillage. Spraying lactic acid bacteria (LCB) on the kitchen waste kept the waste fresh for over 1 week. High glucose recovery (85.5%) from LCB-sprayed waste was achieved after saccharification using Nagase N-40 glucoamylase. The resulting saccharified liquid was used directly for ethanol fermentation, without the addition of any nutrients. High ethanol productivity (24.0 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}) was obtained when the flocculating yeast strain KF-7 was used in a continuous ethanol fermentation process at a dilution rate of 0.8 h{sup -1}. The saccharification residue was mixed with stillage and treated in a thermophilic anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); a VTS loading rate of 6 g l{sup -1} d{sup -1} with 72% VTS digestion efficiency was achieved. Using this process, 30.9 g ethanol, and 65.2 l biogas with 50% methane, was produced from 1 kg of kitchen waste containing 118.0 g total sugar. Thus, energy in kitchen waste can be converted to ethanol and methane, which can then be used as fuels, while simultaneously treating kitchen waste. (author)

  18. Mapping ENM from consumer products in solid waste flows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    To address the challenges regarding management of waste from ENM-enabled consumer products, we mapped the flow of these products available online in Denmark and the EU. To do this, we used the Nanodatabase (www.nanodb.dk). A representative sample of products from the database was analyzed...... of managing nanowaste....

  19. Biopolymers production with carbon source from the wastes of a beer brewery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoeby Ai Ling

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential and feasibility of malt wastes, and other food wastes, such as soy wastes, ice-cream wastes, confectionery wastes, vinegar wastes, milk waste and sesame oil, in the induction of biosynthesis of PHA, in the cellular assembly of novel PHA with improved physical and chemical properties, and in the reduction of the cost of PHA production. In the first part of the experiments, a specific culture of Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 was selected to ferment several types of food wastes as carbon sources into biopolymers. In addition, the biopolymer production, by way of using malt waste, of microorganisms from municipal activated sludge was also investigated. In the second part, the experiments focused on the synthesis of biopolymer with a higher molecular mass via the bacterial strain, which was selected and isolated from sesame oil, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PHB were studied by GPC. Molecular weight of PHB produced from various types of food wastes by Alcaligenes latus was higher than using synthetic sucrose medium as nutrient, however, it resulted in the reverse by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thermal properties of biopolymers were studied by DSC and TG. Using malt wastes as nutrients by Alcaligenes latus gave a higher melting temperature. Using sucrose, confectionery and sesame oil as nutrients by Staphylococcus epidermidis gave higher melting temperature. Optimization was carried out for the recovery of microbial PHB from Alcaligenes latus. Results showed that molecular weight can be controlled by changing the hypochlorite concentration, the ratio of chloroform to hypochlorite solution and the extraction time. In addition, the determination of PHB content by thermogravimetric analysis method with wet cell was the first report in our study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in Hamadan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Koolivand, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Yunesian, Massoud; Omrani, Gasemali

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the components, composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in dental offices in Hamadan. A total of 28 offices, including ten general dentist offices, eight specialist dentist offices, five practical dentist offices and five denture maker offices were selected in a random way. Three samples from each selected type were taken and the waste was manually separated into 74 sub-fractions and each sub-fraction was weighed. The results showed that the total annual dental waste production in dental offices was 41947.43 kg. Domestic type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic waste constituted 71.15, 21.40, 7.26 and 0.18%, respectively of this amount. Only seven fractions including gypsum, latex gloves, nylon, dental impression material, used medicine ampoules, saliva-contaminated paper towels and saliva ejectors constituted about 80% of the waste. It was also indicated that there were no effective activity for waste minimization, separation, reuse and recycling in dental offices and the management of sharps, potentially infectious waste and other hazardous waste was poor.

  1. Batch dark fermentation from enzymatic hydrolyzed food waste for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Ye, Min; Zhu, Ai Jun; Zhao, Hong Ting; Li, Yong Feng

    2015-09-01

    A combination bioprocess of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and dark fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was developed. Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were utilized in SSF from food waste to generate glucoamylase and protease which were used to hydrolyze the food waste suspension to get the nutrients-rich (glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN)) hydrolysate. Both glucose and FAN increased with increasing of food waste mass ratio from 4% to 10% (w/v) and the highest glucose (36.9 g/L) and FAN (361.3mg/L) were observed at food waste mass ratio of 10%. The food waste hydrolysates were then used as the feedstock for dark fermentative hydrogen production by heat pretreated sludge. The best hydrogen yield of 39.14 ml H2/g food waste (219.91 ml H2/VSadded) was achieved at food waste mass ratio of 4%. The proposed combination bioprocess could effectively accelerate the hydrolysis rate, improve raw material utilization and enhance hydrogen yield.

  2. Mechanical pretreatment of waste paper for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Alaswad, A; El-Hassan, Z; Olabi, A G

    2017-10-01

    In the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic materials such as waste paper, the accessibility of microorganisms to the fermentable sugars is restricted by their complex structure. A mechanical pretreatment with a Hollander beater was assessed in order to reduce the biomass particle size and to increase the feedstock' specific surface area available to the microorganisms, and therefore improve the biogas yield. Pretreatment of paper waste for 60min improves the methane yield by 21%, from a value of 210ml/gVS corresponding to untreated paper waste to 254ml/gVS. 30min pretreatment have no significant effect on the methane yield. A response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of the beating time and feedstock/inoculum ratio on the methane yield. An optimum methane yield of 253ml/gVS was achieved at 55min of beating pretreatment and a F/I ratio of 0.3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    Optimal utilization of biomass and waste for energy purposes offers great potentials for reducing fossil fuel dependency and resource consumption. The common understanding is that bioenergy decreases greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as the carbon released during energy conversion has previously been...... a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was doneby integrating...... the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done...

  4. Lab-scale Technology for Biogas Production from Lignocellulose Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Krátký

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently-operating biogas plants are based on the treatment of lignocellulose biomass, which is included in materials such as agriculture and forestry wastes, municipal solid wastes, waste paper, wood and herbaceous energy crops. Lab-scale biogas technology was specially developed for evaluating the anaerobic biodegrability and the specific methane yields of solid organic substrates. This technology falls into two main categories – pretreatment equipments, and fermentation equipments. Pretreatment units use physical principles based on mechanical comminution (ball mills, macerator orhydrothermal treatment (liquid hot water pretreatment technology. The biochemical methane potential test is used to evaluate the specific methane yields of treated or non-treated organic substrates. This test can be performed both by lab testing units and by lab fermenter.

  5. AN ENZYMATIC PROCESS OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURAL WASTES BY Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC 173) AND Zymomonas mobilis (2427)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Pranavya; C. Saravanamurugan; S. Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    .... In recent years efforts have been directed towards the utilization of cheap renewable agricultural resources such as banana peel, waste paper, sugarcane waste as alternative substrate for ethanol production...

  6. Utilization of ash products from combustion of shredded solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, P.F.; Mullen, J.F. (Energy Answers Corp, Albany, NY (US))

    1988-01-01

    One of the major problems with the siting, permitting, construction, and operation of a municipal solid waste-to- energy facility is the disposal of residues. As resource recovery increasingly becomes the disposal option of choice and necessity for municipalities across the country, the foci of environmental concerns has switched from groundwater contamination and inappropriate land use issues associated with landfilling, to air pollution control and residue disposal issues associated with waste combustion. It is suggested that the two separate ash streams can no longer reasonably be considered one and should be analyzed and treated separately, thereby increasing and enhancing the opportunity to recycle from the bottom ash (75 percent) and to focus on a reduced quantity of fly ash material (25 percent) for fixation and reuse or disposal. Such action would conform to the principles of, and the present regulatory trend towards waste minimization. However, there are many regulatory, institutional, and logistical barriers to such promising and seemingly simple waste reduction strategies. While the spirit of solid and hazardous waste legislation may emphasize waste minimization, ambiguities in the regulations have undermined the actual intent, creating an environment of confusion and indecisiveness with respect to treatment and disposal of ash from resource recovery facilities. This book reports on a research and development program to assess the feasibility and possible environmental impacts of utilizing a selected fraction of the bottom ash stream from processed refuse fuel-fired boilers as an aggregate substitute. The purpose of the research program is to develop data on the characteristics of bottom ash during exposure to rain and weathering in proposed applications.

  7. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  8. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  9. Environmental-Economic Assessment Of Generation, Flow And Efficiency Of Use Of Production And Consumption Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. G.; Golofastova, N. N.; Galanina, T. V.; Koroleva, T. G.; Mikhailova, Ya S.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of environmental and economic analysis of industrial and economic activities of an enterprise to assess the generation, flow and efficiency of production and consumption waste. The purpose of research is the analysis and the development of theoretical propositions for the functioning of the system of environmental and economic indicators for the effective management of production and consumption waste in the enterprise. The analysis of the existing systems of environmental and economic indicators taking into consideration the industry characteristics and the types of negative impacts is carried out. The main result of the study is the development of the system of environmental and economic indicators of production and consumption waste, adapted to the modern requirements. The results of the study can be recommended to support the effective management decision-making concerning waste management and the establishment of appropriate infrastructure.

  10. Production of Biogas through Anaerobic Cofermentation of Cattle Slurry with Biscuit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamrádová K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the model of anaerobic co-fermentation of cattle slurry with biscuit waste. It was confirmed that the waste from the food industry is a valuable biogas substrate. The highest specific production of methane (0.49 mN3·kgVS-1 was achieved in the co-fermentation of 20 wt% biscuit waste with cattle slurry. The feed mixture contained 22 wt% of total solids. The biscuit waste has the specific production of biogas 0.66 mN 3·kg-1 and the specific production of methane 0.38 mN 3·kg-1.

  11. Biohydrogen production in the suspended and attached microbial growth systems from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Li, Feifei; Tang, Junhong

    2016-10-01

    Waste pastry was hydrolyzed by glucoamylase and protease which were obtained from solid state fermentation of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae to produce waste pastry hydrolysate. Then, the effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (4-12h) on hydrogen production rate (HPR) in the suspended microbial growth system (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and attached microbial growth system (continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor, CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate were investigated. The maximum HPRs of CSTR (201.8mL/(h·L)) and CMISR (255.3mL/(h·L)) were obtained at HRT of 6h and 4h, respectively. The first-order reaction could be used to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of waste pastry. The carbon content of the waste pastry remained 22.8% in the undigested waste pastry and consumed 77.2% for carbon dioxide and soluble microbial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study which reports biohydrogen production from waste pastry.

  12. Waste of Felling and On-Site Production of Teak Squarewood of the Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major suppliers of teak wood for the raw material of furniture industry in Indonesia are Perum Perhutani, community forests, and private forests.  Community teak forest management produce roundwood or squarewood, in which squarewood is produced on the felling site by the use of chainsaw after felling and bucking activities. Utilization of teak wood from community forest has been practiced for decades, however information on the extent of utilization and the quantity of wood waste have not been published to a greater extent. The present research was intended to determine and analyze the extent of utilization and teak wood waste produced from felling and bucking, and on-site squarewood production of community forests.  Quantification of wood waste from felling and bucking was based on the whole tree method, while that of squarewood production was based on the percentage of yield. It was found that the quantity of teak felling and bucking wood waste in community forest was reaching 28% of felled wood volume that consisted of branch and twig (46.15%, upper trunk (30.77%, short cut off (15.38%, and stumps (7.69%. The largest part of the wood waste of teak felling and bucking satisfied the requirement as raw material of wood working industry according to Indonesian National Standard. On-site production of squarewood increased the quantity of wood waste in the forests (in the form of slabs and sawdust.Keywords: wood waste, felling, bucking, squarewood, community forest

  13. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  14. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  15. A novel bioconversion for value-added products from food waste using Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Zheng, Dong; Yao, Binghua; Cai, Zizhe; Zhao, Zhimin; Wu, Shengqing; Cong, Peiqing; Yang, Depo

    2017-03-01

    Food waste, as a major part of the municipal solid waste has been generated increasingly worldwide. Efficient and feasible utilization of this waste material for productivity process is significant for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study, Musca domestica larva was used as the carrier to conduct a bioconversion with food waste to get the value-added maggot protein, oil and organic fertilizers. Methods of adult flies rearing, culture medium adjuvant selection, maggot culture conditions, stocking density and the valorization of the waste have been explored. From the experimental results, every 1000g culture mediums (700g food waste and 300g adjuvant) could be disposed by 1.5g M. domestica eggs under proper culture conditions after emergence in just 4days, 42.95±0.25% of which had been consumed and the culture medium residues could be used as good organic fertilizers, accompanying with the food waste consumption, ∼53.08g dried maggots that contained 57.06±2.19% protein and 15.07±2.03% oil had been produced. The maggot protein for its outstanding pharmacological activities is regarded as a good raw material in the field of medicine and animal feeding. Meanwhile, the maggot oil represents a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In our study, the maggot biodiesel was obtained after the procedure of transesterification reaction with methanol and the productivity was 87.71%.

  16. On-site production of crude glucoamylase for kitchen waste hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Qiang; Wang, Qun Hui; Liu, Ying Ying; Ma, Hong Zhi

    2010-06-01

    Kitchen waste from dining rooms accounts for a considerable proportion of municipal solid garbage, and economical recycle ways are needed to be developed. This study investigated glucoamylase production from kitchen waste and the feasibility of kitchen waste hydrolysis by the crude enzymes produced. The key problems of high water content and poor porosity in kitchen waste for glucoamylase production under solid-state fermentation could be solved readily by the addition of corn stover or paddy husk. As a support medium, corn stover was better than paddy husk. Smashed kitchen waste (sKW) mixed with corn stover in the ratio of 3.75 : 1 (dry basis) produced 1838 U g(-1) of glucoamylase by Aspergillus niger UV-60 within 96 h. The enzyme productivity from kitchen waste was over two-fold higher than that from wheat bran with additional nutrients. Without any recovery treatment, the produced glucoamylase could be used directly to hydrolyse sKW slurry. The optimum enzyme dose 8% (crude enzyme/kichen waste, w/w) was not too big, and was sufficient to hydrolyse 10% (dry basis) sKW slurry to produce a maximum amount of reducing sugar of 55.4 g L(-1).

  17. Valorization of bakery waste for biocolorant and enzyme production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Ariful; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Koutinas, Apostolis; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-08-10

    A concept of utilizing bakery waste as a nutrient source for the fermentative production of bio-colorant by Monasucus purpureus has been developed. The proposed ideas provide an innovative approach to establish a system or method to reduce the bakery waste problem encountered by Hong Kong or other countries. Bakery waste collected from bakery store was used in submerged and solid-state fermentation of Monascus purpureus to produce bio-colorant, which could potentially be applied in food and textile industries. The feasibility of utilizing bakery waste hydrolysate deriving from hydrolytic reactions by Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae for fermentative pigment production was investigated. Preliminary data from bakery waste hydrolysate experiment presented that the highest pigment yield (about 24AU/g glucose) was obtained with bakery waste hydrolysate containing 5g/L initial glucose. Results from the solid state fermentation studies presented that the highest activity of glucoamylase and protease achieved was 8U/g and 117U/g respectively, at an initial moisture content of 55% and 65% respectively at 30°C incubation temperature. The outcome from this study demonstrated that Monascus purpureus constitutes a promising host for bio-colorant and enzyme production using recovered sugars and amino acids from bakery waste.

  18. DECOMPOSITION OF BLACK LIQUOR BY ULTRASOUND PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaohui; ZHOU Shan; LU Xiaohua

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-induced cavitation is an effective way in oxidizing organic contaminants in wastewater either as the independent operation unit or in combination with other oxidation methods. In this paper, black liquor and filtrate after acidifying and settling were sonicated. The effect of working parameters on ultrasonic degradation of black liquor, such as different combination methods, frequency, power supply, initial concentration, pH, duration time, ionic strength and catalyst were studied. The results were as follows: (1) At the conditions of 40kHz, 100W, 4h, pH at 6 and temperature 30±2℃, utilizing US/US-H2O2/US-Fenton, weak-orange filtrate turned to colloid with the increase of time and little sediment produced after settling. Especially filtrate came to be milk white collides and upper water approached to nearly achromatic by US-Fenton. Compared with the US, US-H2O2/US-Fenton COD (Chemical oxidation demand) removal ratio can increase 15%, 30% respectively. Because of more hydroxyl radicals produced in the reaction process; (2) At the condition of 100W and 4h, the degradation efficiency of black liquor was better at 40kHz over at 20kHz. Moreover black liquor can be biodegraded easily. Those based on that the big molecule of contaminants in aqueous solution can be changed into the little molecule with ultrasound (3) At the condition of 40kHz and 4h, the COD removal ratio of black liquor was more higher at 60W than at 80W, while the removal ratio of COD at 60W was nearly close to the ratio at 100W; (4) The initial concentration of black liquor influenced the effect of sonochemical degradation; (5) The variation of pH had no effect on degradation; (6) The longer the duration time, the greater the removal ratio of COD. But this ratio increased slowly after 4h; (7) Adding 0.2g/L NaCl to change the ionic strength of the black liquor, the COD removal ratio can increase 10%; (8) The degradation rates increased by the coexistent catalysts of TiO2, Co2+ and Ag+.

  19. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, M