WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste electronic resource

  1. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  3. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env...... and the environment, as well as many metals that have the potential of being recycled and reused. This makes the waste fraction (WEEE) very interesting as it is a problematic waste as well as an important secondary resource.......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  4. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  5. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  6. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  7. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  8. Urban Waste Grease Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1999-03-17

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban waste grease resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Two major categories (yellow grease feedstock collected from restaurants by rendering companies; and grease trap wastes from restaurants, which can either be pumped into tank trucks for disposal or flow through municipal sewage systems into wastewater treatment plants) were considered in this study.

  9. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

    2013-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ≤ 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization.

  10. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  11. Educating for Electronic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    While mission statements for various libraries and information centers necessarily vary, all librarians face "two very pressing charges: make voluminous numbers of electronic resources as visible as possible in a landscape of multiple access points and simultaneously manage all the technology, tasks, and data necessary to facilitate such…

  12. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  13. E-waste management and resources recovery in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadoudi, Kiyan; Kim, Junbeum; Laratte, Bertrand; Lee, Seung-Jin; Troussier, Nadège

    2015-10-01

    There are various issues of concern regarding electronic waste management, such as the toxicity of hazardous materials and the collection, recycling and recovery of useful resources. To understand the fate of electronic waste after collection and recycling, a products and materials flow analysis should be performed. This is a critical need, as material resources are becoming increasingly scarce and recycling may be able to provide secondary sources for new materials in the future. In this study, we investigate electronic waste systems, specifically the resource recovery or recycling aspects, as well as mapping electronic waste flows based on collection data in France. Approximately 1,588,453 t of new electrical and electronic equipment were sold in the French market in 2010. Of this amount, 430,000 t of electronic waste were collected, with the remaining 1,128,444 t remaining in stock. Furthermore, the total recycled amounts were 354,106 t and 11,396 t, respectively. The main electronic waste materials were ferrous metals (37%), plastic (22%), aluminium (12%), copper (11%) and glass (7%). This study will contribute to developing sustainable electronic waste and resource recycling systems in France. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. WasteWise Resource Management: Innovative Solid Waste Contracting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource management is an innovative contractual partnership between a waste-generating organization and a qualified contractor that changes the nature of current disposal services to support waste minimization and recycling.

  15. Export of electronics equipment waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Lovegrove, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Electronics equipment waste ("e-waste") includes discarded computers, computer monitors, television sets, and cell phones. Less than 10% of e-waste is currently recycled. The United States and other developed countries export e-waste primarily to Asia, knowing it carries a real harm to the poor communities where it will be discarded. A 2006 directive bans the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and certain brominated flame retardants in most electronics products sold in the EU. A similar directive facilitates the development and design of clean electronics products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle, and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals. These useful approaches apply only regionally and cover only a fraction of the hazardous substances used in electronics manufacture, however. There is an urgent need for manufacturers of electronics products to take responsibility for their products from production to end-of-life, and for much tighter controls both on the transboundary movement of e-waste and on the manner in which it is recycled. Manufacturers must develop clean products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals.

  16. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  17. Electronic waste and informal recycling in Kathmandu, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Thapa, Khim B.; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2018-01-01

    any advancement in this sector. We characterize the informal recycling chain in Kathmandu, where a workforce of more than 10,000 people handles the recyclable items in various waste streams, including electronic waste (e-waste). A field study, supported by key informant interviews, questionnaire...... surveys, and site observations was conducted to understand the local recycling sector, the lifecycle of electronic products, and the relevant stakeholders. E-waste is found to be an integral part of the existing solid waste management chain and, therefore, needs to be addressed collectively. We identify...... the challenges and opportunities towards building a sustainable system for managing e-waste, and offer propositions for a resource-oriented waste management system. This study can serve as a baseline for future research on informal waste recycling, e-waste in particular, in Nepal and similar developing economies...

  18. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal

    is fraught with the risk of shifting the supply security problem from one type of non‐renewable resources (fossil fuels) to another type (metals), in particular the specialty metals such as rare earth elements e.g. neodymium and dysprosium. This PhD work presented an in‐depth analysis of potential resource...... constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies in future, along with an insight into the resource criticality assessment methodologies, detailed material flow analysis (MFA) of critical resources, and recovery of critical resources from the waste streams. The key findings of this PhD study were......, and is dispersed over a myriad of different products in the present waste flows, rendering their economically feasible recovery from waste.    This study has revealed the complete loss of neodymium and dysprosium in the current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system...

  19. Waste prevention for sustainable resource and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Shin-Ichi; Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    a sustainable society. 3R and resource management policies, including waste prevention, will play a crucial role. Approaches using material/substance flow analyses have become sophisticated enough to describe the fate of resources and/or hazardous substances based on human activity and the environment......, including the final sink. Life-cycle assessment has also been developed to evaluate waste prevention activities. Regarding target products for waste prevention, food loss is one of the waste fractions with the highest priority because its countermeasures have significant upstream and downstream effects...

  20. Cleaning Up Electronic Waste (E-Waste)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While accurate data on the amount of e-waste being exported from the U.S. are not available, the United States government is concerned that these exports are being mismanaged abroad, causing serious public health and environmental hazards.

  1. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  2. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  3. Waste prevention for sustainable resource and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Shin-Ichi; Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    a sustainable society. 3R and resource management policies, including waste prevention, will play a crucial role. Approaches using material/substance flow analyses have become sophisticated enough to describe the fate of resources and/or hazardous substances based on human activity and the environment....... Persistent organic pollutants and hazardous compounds should also be taken into account in the situation where recycling activities are globally widespread for the promotion of a material-cycling society....

  4. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Public Health School, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Shi, Wenxiao [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Yutao [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Shanda South Road 27, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Xiangzhi, E-mail: xiangzhi@sdu.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  6. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  7. Environmentally conscious management of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Prades Costa, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Rapid technological change, low initial cost, and the fast obsolescence of the electrical and electronic equipments have resulted in a fast‐growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Electronic waste, e‐waste, e‐scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices. The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems because electronic...

  8. Electronic waste management approaches: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiddee, Peeranart [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Human toxicity of hazardous substances in e-waste. ► Environmental impacts of e-waste from disposal processes. ► Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) to and solve e-waste problems. ► Key issues relating to tools managing e-waste for sustainable e-waste management. - Abstract: Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. This paper presents an overview of toxic substances present in e-waste, their potential environmental and human health impacts together with management strategies currently being used in certain countries. Several tools including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) have been developed to manage e-wastes especially in developed countries. The key to success in terms of e-waste management is to develop eco-design devices, properly collect e-waste, recover and recycle material by safe methods, dispose of e-waste by suitable techniques, forbid the transfer of used electronic devices to developing countries, and raise awareness of the impact of e-waste. No single tool is adequate but together they can complement each other to solve this issue. A national scheme such as EPR is a good policy in solving the growing e-waste problems.

  9. Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gramatyka; R. Nowosielski; P. Sakiewicz

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the current status of waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling anddisposal in Europe, and its impact on the environment, human health and the economy.Design/methodology/approach: The production of electric and electronic equipment is one of the fastestgrowing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of WEEE. Increased recycling of WEEE issupposed to limit the total quantity of waste going to final disposal.Findings: Based on comprehensive bi...

  10. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of electronic waste in India: Current scenario, dilemmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to quantify the amount of E-waste generated in India with the related stakeholder involvement. Electronic waste (E-waste) or waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE), which is relatively a recent addition to the hazardous waste stream, is drawing rapid attention across the globe as the quantity ...

  12. Electronics waste management: Indian practices and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava [Department of Chemical Engineering. University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C.Road. Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a popular, informal name for discarded electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) with all of their peripherals at their end-of-life. WEEE constitutes 8% of municipal waste and is one of the fastest growing waste streams. The fraction of precious and other metals in e-waste is over 60%, while pollutants comprise a meager 2.70%. Given the volume of WEEE generated containing toxic materials, it emerges as a risk to the society. Considering the high toxicity of these pollutants especially when burned or recycled in uncontrolled environments, the Basel Convention has identified e-waste as hazardous, and developed a framework for controls on transboundary movement of such waste. In contrast, WEEE can offer a tremendous business opportunity if it would treat in proper manner. The management of the WEEE has thus become a global challenge in today's world. Several nations across the globe have implemented or are about to implement WEEE regulations based on the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). Both existing and proposed solutions are implemented with various degrees of centralization. Practical implementations however, can give rise to absurd organizational outcomes. In the light of these findings, the present paper deals with the Indian initiatives on the WEEE management keeping pace with the international scenario. Initially, this paper aims to draw an overview on the basics of WEEE. Next, the international legislative practices followed by Indian initiatives intended to help manage these growing quantities of this waste stream are discussed.

  13. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore aims to highlight the potentials of wood waste as a viable resource for economic growth and sustainable development and thereby pique the people's interest in the proper management and harnessing of wood waste. Keywords: Sustainable development, Wood waste, Wood waste management, Wood ...

  14. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  15. Sustainable Steel Carburization by Using Snack Packaging Plastic Waste as Carbon Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyan Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research regarding waste conversion to resources technology has attracted growing attention with the continued increase of waste accumulation issues and rapid depletion of natural resources. However, the study, with respect to utilizing plastics waste as carbon resources in the metals industry, is still limited. In this work, an environmentally friendly approach to utilize snack packaging plastic waste as a valuable carbon resources for steel carburization is investigated. At high temperature, plastic waste could be subject to pyrolytic gasification and decompose into small molecular hydrocarbon gaseous products which have the potential to be used as carburization agents for steel. When heating some snack packaging plastic waste and a steel sample together at the carburization temperature, a considerable amount of carbon-rich reducing gases, like methane, could be liberated from the plastic waste and absorbed by the steel sample as a carbon precursor for carburization. The resulting carburization effect on steel was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer techniques. These investigation results all showed that snack packaging plastic waste could work effectively as a valuable carbon resource for steel carburization leading to a significant increase of surface carbon content and the corresponding microstructure evolution in steel.

  16. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  17. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  18. Electronic Waste: A Growing Challenge In Nigeria | Ukem | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a consequence, large numbers of electronic ICT products become obsolete each year, and constitute electronic waste. This paper discusses this growing problem of electronic waste from the Nigerian perspective, and highlights factors that can militate against the successful management of such waste in Nigeria.

  19. Management of construction and demolition wastes as secondary building resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Lyubov; Ivanova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes the methods of management of construction and demolition wastes. The authors developed suggestions for improving the management system of the turnover of construction and demolition wastes. Today the issue of improving the management of construction and demolition wastes is of the same importance as problems of protecting the life-support field from pollution and of preserving biological and land resources. The authors educed the prospective directions and methods for improving the management of the turnover processes for construction and demolition wastes, including the evaluation of potential of wastes as secondary raw materials and the formation of a centralized waste management system.

  20. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance...... of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies...... 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive...

  1. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  2. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  3. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  4. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  5. Health and Environmental Hazards of Electronic Waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Anwesha

    2016-04-01

    Technological waste in the form of electronic waste (e-waste) is a threat to all countries. E-waste impacts health and the environment by entering the food chain in the form of chemical toxicants and exposing the population to deleterious chemicals, mainly in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. This special report tries to trace the environmental and health implications of e-waste in India. The author concludes that detrimental health and environmental consequences are associated with e-waste and the challenge lies in producing affordable electronics with minimum chemical toxicants.

  6. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  7. Regional Platform on Personal Computer Electronic Waste in Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Donation of personal computers - whether from Northern to Southern countries or from government or the private sector to civil society organizations - has resulted in large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing and transition countries. The quantity and toxicity of e-waste is posing increasing occupational and ...

  8. Pyrolysis of electrical and electronic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, I.; Caballero, B.M.; Chomon, M.J.; Laresgoiti, M.F.; Torres, A.; Fernandez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela T.S. de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alda, Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Arnaiz, S. [Centro Tecnologico GAIKER, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 2002, 48170 Zamudio (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    A preliminary study of the possibilities of pyrolysis for recovering wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been carried out. Four type of samples coming from real WEEEs streams, including wires of polyethylene (PE), table phones, mobile phones and printed circuit boards (PCB) have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5 dm{sup 3} autoclave at 500 C for 30 min. PE wires yield 44.1 wt.% of wax-like liquids, 23 wt.% gases and a solid product mainly composed of Cu and Al together with some char formed during the process. Table and mobile phones give quite similar results, 53 and 57 wt.%, respectively of brown-coloured fluid liquids, {approx}12 wt.% gases and a solid which contains several metals (Cu, Al, Fe, Zn, Ni, etc.) together with a significant amount of char ({approx}50% with respect to solids). Printed circuit boards yield only 16.2 wt.% brown-coloured fluid liquids and 7.3 wt.% gases, and leave 76.5 wt.% of solids which include a wide variety of metals (from Fe to precious metals) which are present in the original circuit board waste. In all the cases the polymer-free metals may be separated and recycled, the gases may be enough energy sources to self-sustain the process and the liquids may have a potential use as energy or chemicals source. (author)

  9. Comparative assessment of metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste with special emphasis on bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anshu; Hait, Subrata

    2017-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the urban environment worldwide. The core component of printed circuit board (PCB) in e-waste contains a complex array of metals in rich quantity, some of which are toxic to the environment and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, the recycling of e-waste is an important aspect not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of metals for economic growth. Conventional approaches for recovery of metals from e-waste, viz. pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques, are rapid and efficient, but cause secondary pollution and economically unviable. Limitations of the conventional techniques have led to a shift towards biometallurgical technique involving microbiological leaching of metals from e-waste in eco-friendly manner. However, optimization of certain biotic and abiotic factors such as microbial species, pH, temperature, nutrients, and aeration rate affect the bioleaching process and can lead to profitable recovery of metals from e-waste. The present review provides a comprehensive assessment on the metallurgical techniques for recovery of metals from e-waste with special emphasis on bioleaching process and the associated factors.

  10. Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jirang; Zhang, Lifeng

    2008-10-30

    Waste electric and electronic equipment, or electronic waste, has been taken into consideration not only by the government but also by the public due to their hazardous material contents. In the detailed literature survey, value distributions for different electronic waste samples were calculated. It is showed that the major economic driver for recycling of electronic waste is from the recovery of precious metals. The state of the art in recovery of precious metals from electronic waste by pyrometallurgical processing, hydrometallurgical processing, and biometallurgical processing are highlighted in the paper. Pyrometallurgical processing has been a traditional technology for recovery of precious metals from waste electronic equipment. However, state-of-the-art smelters are highly depended on investments. Recent research on recovery of energy from PC waste gives an example for using plastics in this waste stream. It indicates that thermal processing provides a feasible approach for recovery of energy from electronic waste if a comprehensive emission control system is installed. In the last decade, attentions have been removed from pyrometallurgical process to hydrometallurgical process for recovery of metals from electronic waste. In the paper, hydrometallurgical processing techniques including cyanide leaching, halide leaching, thiourea leaching, and thiosulfate leaching of precious metals are detailed. In order to develop an environmentally friendly technique for recovery of precious metals from electronic scrap, a critical comparison of main leaching methods is analyzed for both economic feasibility and environmental impact. It is believed that biotechnology has been one of the most promising technologies in metallurgical processing. Bioleaching has been used for recovery of precious metals and copper from ores for many years. However, limited research was carried out on the bioleaching of metals from electronic waste. In the review, initial researches on the

  11. Sustainable transition of electronic products through waste policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    The European Union's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directive makes a challenging case for transition theory and its different aspects, as it represents an ongoing and still open-ended case. At present the objectives of the directive are not met: the amount of electronic waste...... is increasing, and the resulting waste is poorly managed. With its starting point in the multi-level perspective of transition theory, this case study analyzes how the outcome of the WEEE directive is constituted in the interplay between the somewhat detached regimes of electronics and waste management. The two...

  12. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for State and Local Government/Solid Waste Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by state and local government/solid waste planners. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  13. Potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22942704

  15. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua Ling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Managing resources and reducing waste in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Virginia; Wells, Bill

    2016-05-18

    The NHS is under pressure to increase its effectiveness and productivity. Nurses are tasked with delivering effective and efficient care, as well as improving patient safety, experiences and results. The reduction of waste in service delivery, care and treatment can release time and resources for nurses to engage in direct patient care. Nurses have an important role in reducing waste and influencing other professionals in the healthcare environment to increase their efficiency and productivity.

  17. [Utilization of organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiaojia; Liu, Jinghong; Yang, Guidi; Huang, Biao

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, one hundred percent of condensed sulfate paper pulp waste liquid was used as the raw material of adhesive, and the activation of its lignin as well as the improving effects of phenol formaldehyde resin and polyfunctional aqueous polymer isocyanate (PAPI) were studied. The results showed that adding formaldehyde to the waste liquid could increase the reactivity of contained lignin, and adding 30% phenol formaldehyde resin or 20% PAPI could make the waste liquid in place of pure phenol formaldehyde resin for producing class I plywood. Furthermore, the cost could be reduced by 55.5% and 49.0%, respectively, in comparing with pure phenol formaldehyde resin. This approach fully used the organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid, reduced environment pollution at the same time, and had unexceptionable economic, social and ecological benefits. The feasibility of preparing adhesives from paper pulp waste liquid was also analyzed by infrared spectrum.

  18. Recovery of metals and nonmetals from electronic waste by physical and chemical recycling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Muammer

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the existing and state of art knowledge for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling. Electrical and/or electronic devices which are unwanted, broken or discarded by their original users are known as e-waste. The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of e-waste problem, strategies of e-waste management and various physical, chemical and metallurgical e-waste recycling processes, their advantages and disadvantages towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with special attention towards extraction of both metallic values and nonmetallic substances. The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals Hg, Cd, Pb, etc., brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. Due to the presence of these substances, e-waste is generally considered as hazardous waste and, if improperly managed, may pose significant human and environmental health risks. This review describes the potential hazards and economic opportunities of e-waste. Firstly, an overview of e-waste/printed circuit board (PCB) components is given. Current status and future perspectives of e-waste/PCB recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling methods, liberation and classification processes are also covered. Manual selective dismantling after desoldering and metal-nonmetal liberation at -150μm with two step crushing are seen to be the best techniques. After size reduction, mainly physical separation processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation, etc. have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and nonmetals, along with useful utilizations of the nonmetallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining. Suitable PCB recycling flowsheets for industrial applications are also given

  19. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...... of implementing training programmes to encourage the use of the e-library. Findings: Training sessions increase the usage of library e-resources significantly; however, the effect seems to be short-lived and training sessions alone may not increase the overall long-term usage. Originality/value: The present paper...... presents a study of training sessions as means to increase awareness and usage of library e-resources. Implications for the planning of training are discussed....

  20. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...... of implementing training programmes to encourage the use of the e-library. Findings: Training sessions increase the usage of library e-resources significantly; however, the effect seems to be short-lived and training sessions alone may not increase the overall long-term usage. Originality/value: The present paper...... presents a study of training sessions as means to increase awareness and usage of library e-resources. Implications for the planning of training are discussed....

  1. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we comprehensively map and estimate the flows of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and the corresponding waste (WEEE) in Denmark. The quantitative analysis is supplemented with a thorough diagnosis of the WEEE management system. Dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) is used...... in 2015. In terms of the PoM quantity, the EEE market is found saturated, and can be expected to remain largely unchanged over the next decade. Consequently, there will not be any significant increase in WEEE quantities. Denmark has a well-established WEEE management system that has been performing...... adequately against the WEEE Directive. However, the new set of legislations means a need for recalibration of the performance indicators for the system. A more robust and systematic documentation of the flows will support the WEEE management system in achieving higher resource recovery....

  2. Technical resource document for assured thermal processing of wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrow, R.L.; Fisk, G.A.; Hartwig, C.M.; Hurt, R.H.; Ringland, J.T.; Swansiger, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    This document is a concise compendium of resource material covering assured thermal processing of wastes (ATPW), an area in which Sandia aims to develop a large program. The ATPW program at Sandia is examining a wide variety of waste streams and thermal processes. Waste streams under consideration include municipal, chemical, medical, and mixed wastes. Thermal processes under consideration range from various incineration technologies to non-incineration processes such as supercritical water oxidation or molten metal technologies. Each of the chapters describes the element covered, discusses issues associated with its further development and/or utilization, presents Sandia capabilities that address these issues, and indicates important connections to other ATPW elements. The division of the field into elements was driven by the team`s desire to emphasize areas where Sandia`s capabilities can lead to major advances and is therefore somewhat unconventional. The report will be valuable to Sandians involved in further ATPW program development.

  3. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  4. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for Small Businesses and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by small businesses and organizations. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  5. Chemistry of nuclear resources, technology, and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, O.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Chemistry is being called on today to obtain useful results in areas that have been found very difficult for it in the past, but new instrumentation and new theories are allowing much progress. The area of hydrolytic phenomena and colloid chemistry, as exemplified by the plutonium polymer problem, is clearly entering a new phase in which it can be studied in a much more controlled and understandable manner. The same is true of the little studied interfacial regions, where so much important chemistry occurs in solvent extraction and other systems. The studies of the adsorption phenomena on clays are an illustration of the new and useful modeling of geochemical phenomena that is now possible. And finally, the chemist is called upon to participate in the developement and evaluation of models for nuclear waste isolation requiring extrapolations of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years into the future. It is shown that chemistry may be useful in keeping the extrapolations in the shorter time spans, and also in selecting the best materials for containment. 36 figures.

  6. Frontiers and prospects for recycling Waste Electrical and Electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the frontlines and projections for the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Nigeria. The paper identified the sources of WEEE, showed chemical characterization of some WEEE components and presented measures to minimize these wastes through recycling opportunities.

  7. Trade Measures for Regulating Transboundary Movement of Electronic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Emcee Christian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available International trade in used electrical and electronics equipment (UEEE provides an avenue for socio-economic development in the developing world and also serves as a conduit for transboundary dumping of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE also referred to as electronic waste or e-waste. The latter problem arises from the absence of a regulatory framework for differentiating between functional UEEE and junk e-waste. This has resulted in both functional UEEE and junk e-waste being concurrently shipped to developing countries under the guise of international trade in used electronics. Dealing with these problems will require effective regulation of international trade in UEEE from both exporting and importing countries. Although, the export of e-waste from the European Community to developing countries is currently prohibited, significant amount of e-waste from the region continue to flow into developing countries due to lax regulatory measures in the latter. Hence, there is need for a regulatory regime in developing countries to complement the prohibitory regime in the major e-waste source countries. This paper proposes trade measures modelled in line with WTO rules which could be adopted by developing countries in addressing these problems. The proposed measures include the development of a compulsory certification and labelling system for functional UEEE as well as trade ban on commercial importation of UEEE not complying with the said certification and labelling system. The paper then goes further to examine these proposed measures in the light of WTO rules and jurisprudence.

  8. Methods for recovering metals from electronic waste, and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tedd E; Parkman, Jacob A; Diaz Aldana, Luis A; Clark, Gemma; Dufek, Eric J; Keller, Philip

    2017-10-03

    A method of recovering metals from electronic waste comprises providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor and providing an electrolyte comprising at least ferric ions in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor. The method further includes contacting the powders within the first reactor and the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from each reactor into the electrolyte and reduce at least some of the ferric ions to ferrous ions. The ferrous ions are oxidized at an anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions. The powder within the second reactor comprises a higher weight percent of the at least one base metal than the powder in the first reactor. Additional methods of recovering metals from electronic waste are also described, as well as an apparatus of recovering metals from electronic waste.

  9. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  10. Mineral resources and the environment. Supplementary report: resource recovery from municipal solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Due to physical constraints as well as capital, manpower, and other constraints, conservation of materials, particularly through the recovery of resources and energy from municipal solid wastes, is urgently needed. This report examines both the technical and social issues that must be treated in order for resource recovery from wastes to be used nationwide. Federal, state, and local governments are urged to help in the shift from municipal waste disposal to resource recovery by providing necessary incentives, by making information available to the public, and by supporting R and D efforts. An overall systems approach is needed for resource recovery, which would include these technical elements: product design, a waste collection system, a resource recovery facility, and market sectors for recovered energy and materials. The most severe problems in setting up resource recovery systems seem to be institutional ones. It is recommended that policies, regulations, standards, and taxes for these systems be as simple and broad as possible. Methods to promote markets for recovered materials and energy are discussed, including a government or private purchasing and stockpiling program. (BYB)

  11. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Management and Valorization of Electronic and Computer Wastes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Because of their undeveloped condition, African countries receive tonnes of second-hand computers and electronic equipment from more advanced countries. More and more voices are calling for legislative and regulatory provisions to deal with the electronic and computer waste thus generated. So far, little is known about ...

  13. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  14. Resource Recovery from Waste: Restoring the Balance between Resource Scarcity and Waste Overload

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anne P M Velenturf; Phil Purnell

    2017-01-01

    .... The transition requires scientific and technological progress, including the development of low-energy biogeochemical technologies for resource recovery, and multi-dimensional value assessment tools...

  15. Building local capacity to address the flow of e-wastes and electrical and electronic products destined for reuse in selected African countries and augment the sustainable management of resources through the recovery of materials in e-wastes. Component 1. Flows of used and end-of-life e-products from Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seum, Stefan; Hermann, Andreas

    2010-08-11

    This study is integral part of the E-waste Africa Project. The aim of the research is to identify the principle pathways of used electronic and electric equipment (EEE) from Europe to West Africa as well as potential leakage points for end-of-life products that are mandatory required under the WEEE directive to undergo sound waste treatment within Europe. The study focuses on sources, destinations and volumes of used EEE exports as well as on the characteristics of the export business. The role of the two ports and regions in focus will be analysed.

  16. Disposal of waste computer hard disk drive: data destruction and resources recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guoqing; Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-06-01

    An increasing quantity of discarded computers is accompanied by a sharp increase in the number of hard disk drives to be eliminated. A waste hard disk drive is a special form of waste electrical and electronic equipment because it holds large amounts of information that is closely connected with its user. Therefore, the treatment of waste hard disk drives is an urgent issue in terms of data security, environmental protection and sustainable development. In the present study the degaussing method was adopted to destroy the residual data on the waste hard disk drives and the housing of the disks was used as an example to explore the coating removal process, which is the most important pretreatment for aluminium alloy recycling. The key operation points of the degaussing determined were: (1) keep the platter plate parallel with the magnetic field direction; and (2) the enlargement of magnetic field intensity B and action time t can lead to a significant upgrade in the degaussing effect. The coating removal experiment indicated that heating the waste hard disk drives housing at a temperature of 400 °C for 24 min was the optimum condition. A novel integrated technique for the treatment of waste hard disk drives is proposed herein. This technique offers the possibility of destroying residual data, recycling the recovered resources and disposing of the disks in an environmentally friendly manner.

  17. Characteristics of waste automotive glasses as silica resource in ferrosilicon synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, Rifat; Rajarao, Ravindra; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-02-01

    This fundamental research on end-of-life automotive glasses, which are difficult to recycle, is aimed at understanding the chemical and physical characteristics of waste glasses as a resource of silica to produce ferrosilicon. Laboratory experiments at 1550°C were carried out using different automotive glasses and the results compared with those obtained with pure silica. In situ images of slag-metal separation showed similar behaviour for waste glasses and silica-bearing pellets. Though X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed different slag compositions for glass and silica-bearing pellets, formation of ferrosilicon was confirmed. Synthesized ferrosilicon alloy from waste glasses and silica were compared by Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Silicon concentration in the synthesized alloys showed almost 92% silicon recovery from the silica-bearing pellet and 74-92% silicon recoveries from various waste glass pellets. The polyvinyl butyral (PVB) plastic layer in the windshield glass decomposed at low temperature and did not show any detrimental effect on ferrosilicon synthesis. This innovative approach of using waste automotive glasses as a silica source for ferrosilicon production has the potential to create sustainable pathways, which will reduce specialty glass waste in landfill. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Linking emerging hazardous waste technologies with the electronic information era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.E.; Suk, W.A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Blackard, B. [Technology Planning and Management Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In looking to the future and the development of new approaches or strategies for managing hazardous waste, it is important to understand and appreciate the factors that have contributed to current successful approaches. In the United States, several events in the last two decades have had a significant impact in advancing remediation of hazardous waste, including environmental legislation, legislative reforms on licensing federally funded research, and electronic transfer of information. Similar activities also have occurred on a global level. While each of these areas is significant, the electronic exchange of information has no national boundaries and has become an active part of major hazardous waste research and management programs. It is important to realize that any group or society that is developing a comprehensive program in hazardous waste management should be able to take advantage of this advanced approach in the dissemination of information. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Electrical and Electronical Waste Generation in Turkey: Bursa Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güray SALİHOĞLU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and electronical equipment that gradually take more place in our daily life, spend their service life in short times and become an e-waste problem to be solved.  Because of the hazardous components they contain, e-waste can cause environmental and human health threats if they are not properly managed. If they are managed properly, they can be a valuable raw material source, since they contain valuable metals such as copper, silver, gold, palladium and recyclable components such as plastics and metals. According to a research conducted in 2014, the global e-waste amount accounts to a source worth 52 billion $; however, only 16% of this source has been properly recycled. It is important to know the potential e-waste amount and the behaviors of people in the production of e-waste to realize a proper e-waste management in our country. The amount and property of electrical and electronic equipment and e-waste generation potential per person in Bursa was investigated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared and applied to a group of people including 31 families (100 person. The questions were to investigate the behaviors in the use, replacement, and management of electrical and electronical equipment. The findings showed that usage of lamps (fluorescent and others were higher than the other equipment, and usage of mobile phones were found to be highest in terms of devices. It was also found that when the mobiles become e-waste since the owners do not want to use them, they are not just thrown away and kept at homes instead. E-waste generation potential of a person from the families investigated was estimated to be 8.14 kg/year.

  20. Electronic Waste: A Growing Concern in Today's Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khurrum S. Bhutta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent past, the global market of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE has grown exponentially, while the lifespan of these products has become increasingly shorter. More of these products are ending up in rubbish dumps and recycling centers, posing a new challenge to policy makers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the e-Waste problem and to put forward an estimation technique to calculate the growth of e-Waste.

  1. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat Library, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 195 ... Information Impact Vol. 6 (2) 2015. Introduction. The concept of "e-resources" which stands for electronic resources has become a global phenomenon which emerged as a ... Science, Delta State University Abaraka,.

  2. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  3. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  5. Challenges in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management: A Profitability Assessment in Three European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE is known as an important source of secondary raw materials. Since decades, its treatment allowed to recover great amounts of basic resources. However, the management of electronic components embedded in WEEE still presents many challenges. The purpose of the paper is to cope with some of these challenges through the definition of an economic model able to identify the presence of profitability within the recovery process of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs. To this aim, a set of common economic indexes is used within the paper. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on a set of critical variables is conducted to evaluate their impact on the results. Finally, the combination of predicted WEEE volumes (collected during the 2015–2030 period in three European countries (Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom and related economic indexes quantify the potential advantage coming from the recovery of this kind of waste in the next future.

  6. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined.Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity.Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner.Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited.Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence.Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached. 

  7. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  8. Electronic Resource Management: Functional Integration in Technical Services

    OpenAIRE

    Stachokas, George

    2014-01-01

    Declining usage of print materials along with increasing usage of electronic resources makes it necessary for libraries to reallocate personnel from print management to electronic resources management. Electronic resources management should be the primary focus of technical services units in the early twenty-first century. Print should no longer be treated as the default format, and the work of library staff must be reorganized and reintegrated with librarians and other professionals to refle...

  9. A wasted resource: cod discards in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Aarts, Geert

    2012-01-01

    The public, political, and stakeholder perception of fisheries discards is that they are a waste of a valuable resource. In the North Sea, fisheries discards are some of the highest in the world. Cod (Gadus morhua) has contributed considerably to the amount discarded. The declining cod stock within......, spatially and temporally, in discarding over the past decade while pinpointing the major reasons to why it occurs. We discuss how such information can be used to improve future fishing activities and their subsequent catch compositions under a discard...

  10. Concentration of precious metals during their recovery from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayumil, R; Khanna, R; Rajarao, R; Mukherjee, P S; Sahajwalla, V

    2016-11-01

    The rapid growth of electronic devices, their subsequent obsolescence and disposal has resulted in electronic waste (e-waste) being one of the fastest increasing waste streams worldwide. The main component of e-waste is printed circuit boards (PCBs), which contain substantial quantities of precious metals in concentrations significantly higher than those typically found in corresponding ores. The high value and limited reserves of minerals containing these metals makes urban mining of precious metals very attractive. This article is focused on the concentration and recovery of precious metals during pyro-metallurgical recycling of waste PCBs. High temperature pyrolysis was carried out for ten minutes in a horizontal tube furnace in the temperature range 800-1350°C under Argon gas flowing at 1L/min. These temperatures were chosen to lie below and above the melting point (1084.87°C) of copper, the main metal in PCBs, to study the influence of its physical state on the recovery of precious metals. The heat treatment of waste PCBs resulted in two different types of solid products, namely a carbonaceous non-metallic fraction (NMFs) and metallic products, composed of copper rich foils and/or droplets and tin-lead rich droplets and some wires. Significant proportions of Ag, Au, Pd and Pt were found concentrated within two types of metallic phases, with very limited quantities retained by the NMFs. This process was successful in concentrating several precious metals such as Ag, Au, Pd and Pt in a small volume fraction, and reduced volumes for further processing/refinement by up to 75%. The amounts of secondary wastes produced were also minimised to a great extent. The generation of precious metals rich metallic phases demonstrates high temperature pyrolysis as a viable approach towards the recovery of precious metals from e-waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recycling of the Electronic Waste Applying the Plasma Reactor Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázár Marián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses a high-temperature gasification process and melting of electronic components and computer equipment using plasma reactor technology. It analyses the marginal conditions of batch processing, as well as the formation of solid products which result from the procedure of waste processing. Attention is also paid to the impact of the emerging products on the environment.

  12. Recycling of the Electronic Waste Applying the Plasma Reactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, Marián; Jasminská, Natália; Čarnogurská, Mária; Dobáková, Romana

    2016-12-01

    The following paper discusses a high-temperature gasification process and melting of electronic components and computer equipment using plasma reactor technology. It analyses the marginal conditions of batch processing, as well as the formation of solid products which result from the procedure of waste processing. Attention is also paid to the impact of the emerging products on the environment.

  13. The logging waste as inexhaustible resource for alternative energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryazkin Anatoliy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that during the production and consumption of fuel wood for bioenergy projects in the organization of the Northwest and other regions of Russia there is the problem of lack of raw materials. It is established that the waste timber, during cutting on average, about 20% of the stock of standing timber. This value varies according to region, type forest resources and the skills, and technical equipment performer. Therefore, the main purpose of the article is a system evaluation of the use of forest residues in Russia. The authors present data on volumes of raw materials for production of wood chips and pellets on example, the Northwest region of Russia. Only about 30% of wood chips are now received from wood waste, bulk wood chips, and pellets produced from the wood of stems. Small volume of use of bark, twigs, branches, tops, stumps, and roots is due imperfection of processing technologies. Another important issue addressed in the article – the lack of standards and guides taxation inventory valuation and structure of the waste in many regions of Russia. This primarily relates to the hardwood. Research has shown that, depending on tree species, the structure and volume of waste are significantly different. Expert evaluation conducted by the authors shows that the proportion of forest residues from 5 to 20% of the stock of wood. It is found that in different forest types share twigs, branches, stumps, and roots vary considerably according to species of tree. But even within the forest reserves such as twigs, branches, and underground parts of the same species depend strongly on the age of stands and their completeness, and the differences may reach 2 to 5 times the size.

  14. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  15. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution of information technology in the twentieth century has influenced students' use of information resources. Today, many students access information electronically via the Internet using desktop, laptop, palmtop and mobile phones. Electronic resources supply all the information that a library provides through ...

  16. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  17. Use of electronic resources by undergraduates in two selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to know the extent of use of electronic resources and identify the type of electronic resources used by undergraduates in universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The study population includes all undergraduate students in the faculty of engineering in Niger Delta ...

  18. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  19. Use of electronic information resources in goverment libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Omahen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the use of electronic information resources in government libraries in Slovenia. It starts with the definition of government libraries and electronic publications. On a selected sample of government libraries, the state of the usage of electronic information resources in government libraries was studied. On the basis of interviews, carried out in five government libraries, it was established that government libraries mostly do not focus on, or even think about, the use of electronic information resources. What they have and use seems self-evident to them.

  20. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  1. Electronic information resources for food toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K

    2002-04-25

    This manuscript provides a brief overview of many useful Internet resources concerning food toxicology. Specific topic areas include pesticide residues, food additives, natural toxins, environmental contaminants, and food allergies; numerous links and evaluative information are provided within each topic area. Several helpful Internet resources have been identified and include government, industry, academic, and consumer sites.

  2. Optimum Resource Allocation and Eliminating Waste Inside Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandru Nagarajan Sathiyabama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to allocate optimum resources for wrapping section and suggesting a suitable method that need to be in place for successful elimination of waste inside the food industry wrapping section. It also includes identifying the main reasons for various types of wastages inside wrapping section and cost of all the wastages. The paper is based on the observation and research using the approach of lean tools and techniques. The methodology used for evaluating data is value stream mapping and some statistical SPSS tools for analysis. Data’s are real and are gathered from three different production shifts inside a food industry wrapping section. The main reasons for wastages inside the wrapping section are highlighted. Finally, the paper was concluded by estimating total cost of wastages and recommended suitable way to save the wastage costs. The need of change of jaws inside the wrapping machines, regular maintenance of all machines throughout the industry and training the personnel are recommended. The possible methods along with its benefits to reduce waste, operators, improve productivity and business growth was also highlighted.

  3. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  4. Health seeking behaviours among electronic waste workers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asampong, Emmanuel; Dwuma-Badu, Kwaku; Stephens, Judith; Srigboh, Roland; Neitzel, Richard; Basu, Niladri; Fobil, Julius N

    2015-10-16

    Electronic waste workers are prone to various illnesses and injuries from numerous hazards thus the need for them to seek health care. The aim of this study was to describe health-seeking behavior, and social and other factors affecting this behavior, among electronic waste workers at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed qualitatively from a grounded theory perspective. Workers experienced various kinds of ailments. These included physical injuries, chest and respiratory tract associated symptoms, malaria, headaches, body pains and stomach discomfort. They reported seeking health care from multiple sources, and the main determinants of health seeking behaviour were severity of illness, perceived benefit of treatment, accessibility of service, quality of service, ease of communication with service provider and cost of health care. Multiple sources of health care were used by the e-waste workers. As cost was a major barrier to accessing formal health care, most of the workers did not subscribe to health insurance. Since enrollment in health insurance is low amongst the workers, education campaigns on the need to register with the National Health Insurance Scheme would facilitate access to formal health care and could result in improved health outcomes among e-waste workers.

  5. The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osibanjo, O; Nnorom, I C

    2007-12-01

    Information and telecommunications technology (ICT) and computer Internet networking has penetrated nearly every aspect of modern life, and is positively affecting human life even in the most remote areas of the developing countries. The rapid growth in ICT has led to an improvement in the capacity of computers but simultaneously to a decrease in the products lifetime as a result of which increasingly large quantities of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) are generated annually. ICT development in most developing countries, particularly in Africa, depends more on secondhand or refurbished EEEs most of which are imported without confirmatory testing for functionality. As a result large quantities of e-waste are presently being managed in these countries. The challenges facing the developing countries in e-waste management include: an absence of infrastructure for appropriate waste management, an absence of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste, an absence of any framework for end-of-life (EoL) product take-back or implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR). This study examines these issues as they relate to practices in developing countries with emphasis on the prevailing situation in Nigeria. Effective management of e-waste in the developing countries demands the implementation of EPR, the establishment of product reuse through remanufacturing and the introduction of efficient recycling facilities. The implementation of a global system for the standardization and certification/labelling of secondhand appliances intended for export to developing countries will be required to control the export of electronic recyclables (e-scarp) in the name of secondhand appliances.

  6. Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Hoitink, H.; Bidlingmaier, W.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled spreading of waste materials leads to health problems and environmental damage. To prevent these problems a waste management infrastructure has been set to collect and dispose of the waste, based on a hierarchy of three principles: waste prevention, recycling/reuse, and final disposal.

  7. Tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment was investigated. Study was carried out using basic physical and chemical methods, ie. mechanical separation via crushing, leaching of silver layer in diluted HNO3, grinding and oxidation of anodes and thermic reduction with metallic reducing agent. A recovery rate of anodes was determined at 96%, and recycling efficiency of tantalum to pure form was determined more than 50%. Also was made mass balance.

  8. Multiple elemental exposures amongst workers at the Agbogbloshie electronic waste (e-waste) site in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigboh, Roland Kofi; Basu, Niladri; Stephens, Judith; Asampong, Emmanuel; Perkins, Marie; Neitzel, Richard L; Fobil, Julius

    2016-12-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is growing worldwide and raising a number of environmental health concerns. One of the largest e-waste sites is Agbogbloshie (Ghana). While several toxic elements have been reported in Agbogbloshie's environment, there is limited knowledge of human exposures there. The objectives of this study were to characterize exposures to several essential (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc) and toxic (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) elements in the urine and blood of male workers (n = 58) at Agbogbloshie, as well as females (n = 11) working in activities that serve the site, and to relate these exposures to sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. The median number of years worked at the site was 5, and the average worker indicated being active in 6.8 tasks (of 9 key e-waste job categories). Additionally, we categorized four main e-waste activities (in brackets % of population self-reported main activity): dealing (22.4%), sorting (24.1%), dismantling (50%), and burning (3.4%) e-waste materials. Many blood and urinary elements (including essential ones) were within biomonitoring reference ranges. However, blood cadmium (1.2 μg/L median) and lead (6.4 μg/dl; 67% above U.S. CDC/NIOSH reference level), and urinary arsenic (38.3 μg/L; 39% above U.S. ATSDR value) levels were elevated compared to background populations elsewhere. Workers who burned e-waste tended to have the highest biomarker levels. The findings of this study contribute to a growing body of work at Agbogbloshie (and elsewhere) to document that individuals working within e-waste sites are exposed to a number of toxic elements, some at potentially concerning levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple Elemental Exposures Amongst Workers at the Agbogbloshie Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Site in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigboh, Roland Kofi; Basu, Niladri; Stephens, Judith; Asampong, Emmanuel; Perkins, Marie; Neitzel, Richard L.; Fobil, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is growing worldwide and raising a number of environmental health concerns. One of the largest e-waste sites is Agbogbloshie (Ghana). While several toxic elements have been reported in Agbogbloshie’s environment, there is limited knowledge of human exposures there. The objectives of this study were to characterize exposures to several essential (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc) and toxic (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) elements in the urine and blood of male workers (n=58) at Agbogbloshie, as well as females (n=11) working in activities that serve the site, and to relate these exposures to sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. The median number of years worked at the site was 5, and the average worker indicated being active in 6.8 tasks (of 9 key e-waste job categories). Additionally, we categorized four main e-waste activities (in brackets % of population self-reported main activity): dealing (22.4%), sorting (24.1%), dismantling (50%), and burning (3.4%) e-waste materials. Many blood and urinary elements (including essential ones) were within biomonitoring reference ranges. However, blood cadmium (1.2 ug/L median) and lead (6.4 ug/dl; 67% above U.S. CDC/NIOSH reference level), and urinary arsenic (38.3 ug/L; 39% above U.S. ATSDR value) levels were elevated compared to background populations elsewhere. Workers who burned e-waste tended to have the highest biomarker levels. The findings of this study contribute to a growing body of work at Agbogbloshie (and elsewhere) to document that individuals working within e-waste sites are exposed to a number of toxic elements, some at potentially concerning levels. PMID:27580259

  10. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  11. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, A.B., E-mail: absuriani@yahoo.com [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Dalila, A.R. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N. [Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak 35900 (Malaysia); Soga, T.; Tanemura, M. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe{sub 3}C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe{sub 3}C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm{sup −1} at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm{sup −2}, respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters.

  12. Identification and recovery of rare-earth permanent magnets from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, A; Venkatesan, P; Jönsson, C; Poenaru, I; Hall, B; Yang, Y; Walton, A; Güth, K; Gauß, R; Gutfleisch, O

    2017-10-01

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are a strategic material for a number of emerging technologies. They are a key component in the most energy efficient electric motors and generators, thus, they are vital for energy technologies, industrial applications and automation, and future forms of mobility. Rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, dysprosium and praseodymium are also found in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in volumes that grow with the technological evolution, and are marked as critical elements by the European Commission due to their high economic importance combined with significant supply risks. Recycling could be a good approach to compensate for the lack of rare earths (REs) on the market. However, less than 1% of REs are currently being recycled, mainly because of non-existing collection logistics, lack of information about the quantity of RE materials available for recycling and recycling-unfriendly product designs. To improve these lack of information, different waste streams of electrical and electronic equipment from an industrial recycling plant were analyzed in order to localize, identify and collect RE permanent magnets of the Nd-Fe-B type. This particular type of magnets were mainly found in hard disk drives (HDDs) from laptops and desktop computers, as well as in loudspeakers from compact products such as flat screen TVs, PC screens, and laptops. Since HDDs have been investigated thoroughly by many authors, this study focusses on other potential Nd-Fe-B resources in electronic waste. The study includes a systematic survey of the chemical composition of the Nd-Fe-B magnets found in the selected waste streams, which illustrates the evolution of the Nd-Fe-B alloys over the years. The study also provides an overview over the types of magnets integrated in different waste electric and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health sciences in Ghana. ... Methods: Two e-learning materials were developed, one on the polymerase ... 95% (18) at UG report having access to a computer for learning purposes.

  14. Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-05-30

    The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low

  15. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  16. Integrating Electronic Resources into the Library Catalog: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gail; Aldana, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Mississippi Libraries to catalog purchased electronic resources so that access to these resources is available only via the Web-based library catalog. Discusses collaboration between cataloging and systems personnel; and describes the MARC catalog record field that contains the information needed to locate…

  17. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  18. Forecasting waste compositions: A case study on plastic waste of electronic display housings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Jef R; Vanegas, Paul; Kellens, Karel; Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R

    2015-12-01

    Because of the rapid succession of technological developments, the architecture and material composition of many products used in daily life have drastically changed over the last decades. As a result, well-adjusted recycling technologies need to be developed and installed to cope with these evolutions. This is essential to guarantee continued access to materials and to reduce the ecological impact of our material consumption. However, limited information is currently available on the material composition of arising waste streams and even less on how these waste streams will evolve. Therefore, this paper presents a methodology to forecast trends in the material composition of waste streams. To demonstrate the applicability and value of the proposed methodology, it is applied to forecast the evolution of plastic housing waste from flat panel display (FPD) TVs, FPD monitors, cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and CRT monitors. The results of the presented forecasts indicate that a wide variety of plastic types and additives, such as flame retardants, are found in housings of similar products. The presented case study demonstrates that the proposed methodology allows the identification of trends in the evolution of the material composition of waste streams. In addition, it is demonstrated that the recycling sector will need to adapt its processes to deal with the increasing complexity of plastics of end-of-life electronic displays while respecting relevant directives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio/video equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  1. The use of urban wood waste as an energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Danilova, D. A.; Khasanov, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The capabilities use of wood waste in the Ekaterinburg city, generated during the felling of trees and sanitation in the care of green plantations in the streets, parks, squares, forest parks was investigated in this study. In the cities at the moment, all the wood, that is removed from city streets turns into waste completely. Wood waste is brought to the landfill of solid household waste, and moreover sorting and evaluation of the quantitative composition of wood waste is not carried out. Several technical solutions that are used in different countries have been proposed for the energy use of wood waste: heat and electrical energy generation, liquid and solid biofuel production. An estimation of the energy potential of the city wood waste was made, for total and for produced heat and electrical energy based on modern engineering developments. According to our estimates total energy potential of wood waste in the city measure up more 340 thousand GJ per year.

  2. New Zealand’s Food Waste: Estimating the Tonnes, Value, Calories and Resources Wasted

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian John Reynolds; Miranda Mirosa; Brent Clothier

    2016-01-01

    We used macro-economic data and aggregated waste data to estimate that, in 2011, New Zealand households generated over 224,000 tonnes of food waste, and New Zealand industry generated over 103,000 tonnes of food waste...

  3. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  4. Illegal traficking of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the problem of used and discarded electrical and electronic devices is increasingly in the focus of governments', NGOs' and the media's attention. In addition to concerns about the volume of waste and the potential risks to human health and the environment from improper management, a topic that has caused the most concern is the cross-border movement of discarded electrical and electronic equipment and their placement in underdeveloped countries and developing countries. This attention has resulted in regulations at the local, national, regional and international levels, including provisions relating to the collection, treatment and export of electronic products. Illegal trade and disposal is particularly dangerous if it is taken into account that these illegal activites are often linked to organized crime in connection with other serious crimes against health, environment and economy.

  5. CDC and ATSDR electronic information resources for health officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, A; O'Carroll, P W

    1996-12-01

    This article catalogs some of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) more important information resource offerings, which make public health information accessible via computer and automated telephone systems and on electronic media (diskette and CD-ROM). We review mechanisms for (1) finding and retrieving CDC reports, (2) querying CDC's numeric data files, (3) transmitting surveillance and other data files to CDC, (4) exchanging electronic mail with CDC staff, and (5) disseminating state and local public health information and data by using CDC tools. Each resource is followed with a section on how to obtain access to these resources.

  6. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  7. Indicators to assess the recovery of natural resources contained in demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussat, Nicolas; Méhu, Jacques; Dujet, Christiane

    2009-03-01

    Demolition waste materials are one of the major industrial waste deposits in many countries and represent an important quantity of potential resources that are not exploited, because the major part of these wastes go to landfill. Indeed, recycling or recovery of demolition waste can reduce the need of primary natural resources. This article gives indicators and a method to analyse demolition waste management with regard to the use of resources contained in these wastes. Demolition wastes are characterized by their contents in energy and raw materials. This content is quantified on the basis of the sum of energy and raw materials necessary for the construction of the building considering the non-renewable character of materials contained in wastes. In fact, this content represents the environmental investment which was necessary to construct the building. An energy balance and a mass balance, with this concept of ;raw material and energy' content, can allow a strategy of waste management to be determined in order to salvage the most important parts of energy and raw materials contained in demolition waste, and so identify the strategy which permits a maximum fraction of the initial environmental investment to be saved. Five waste management scenarios concerning building demolition were assessed with this method and these indicators, and the results are presented in this article.

  8. Management of waste from electrical and electronic equipment: The case of television sets and refrigerators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loizidou, M; Moustakas, K; Rousis, K; Papadopoulos, A; Stylianou, M

    2008-01-01

    Waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) constitutes one of the most complicated solid waste streams, in terms of its composition, and, as a result, it is difficult to be effectively managed...

  9. New Zealand’s Food Waste: Estimating the Tonnes, Value, Calories and Resources Wasted

    OpenAIRE

    Christian John Reynolds; Miranda Mirosa; Brent Clothier

    2016-01-01

    We used macro-economic data and aggregated waste data to estimate that, in 2011, New Zealand households generated over 224,000 tonnes of food waste, and New Zealand industry generated over 103,000 tonnes of food waste. We split New Zealand’s food waste into 14 food-waste categories and found that 7% is related to “fresh” produce, and 93% “processed” food waste. The value of New Zealand’s food waste in 2011 is estimated to be NZ $568 million, or $131 per person. Furthermore, New Zealand’s food...

  10. USE OF VIDEO IN MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Denisenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread introduction of electronic educational resources in the educational process requires the development of a scientific basis for all aspects related to their creation and use. These modern means are designed not just to convey to learners the required course material, but also to create conditions for its most effective study. This is possible in conditions of reasonable approach to the presentation of educational material on the screen. The article is devoted to consideration of the problem of presenting educational material in electronic educational resources. Visuals are powerful didactic tool that enhances the perception and understanding of educational information. Particular attention is paid to the use of such a powerful medium like video. Investigated the role and importance of video in the learning process, their educational opportunities and benefits. Shows types of video and their use in electronic educational resources. Grounded requirements for training videos. The recommendations are given on the use of video in combination with other media in electronic educational resources. Adduced the example a real electronic multimedia educational resource and shows the possibility of using video.

  11. Characterisation of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and implications for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Mäurer, Andreas; Wolz, Gerd; van Eldik, Rudi

    2007-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in the end-of-life management of polymers present in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This is mainly due to high recycling and recovery quotas set by the European WEEE directive, which can only be fulfilled by including the plastic fraction in recycling and recovery approaches. Previous studies identified a high material diversity and various contaminants in WEEE plastics, including heavy metals, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as well as polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/F). These substances are regulated by European directives that limit their levels in marketable products. Consequently, both material diversity and contaminants are strong arguments against material recycling and point to hazardous waste treatment. However, recent developments in the production of flame retardants and electrical and electronic goods aimed to reduce contaminants and material diversity. Thus, the present study summarises updated contaminant levels of plastic fractions of European WEEE, as well as data on materials in waste housing polymers. Material characterisation revealed housing fractions to be interesting sources for polymer recycling, which however has to implement potent material separation and/or bromine elimination techniques. With respect to contaminants, our data indicate an effective phase-out of PBB, but still high levels of PBDE and PBDD/F are found. Sources and implications for the material recycling and thermal recovery approaches are discussed in detail.

  12. Lean manufacturing implementation in reducing waste for electronic assembly line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Nurul Husna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is the most convenient way to eliminate unnecessary waste and can provide what customers demand. This paper presents possibilities and sustainability of application of lean manufacturing method by using a virtual simulation of the workers performance in a line production of small and medium industry. Actual case study and Witness simulation were used in this study to find the waste that exists in the production and identified the performance of workers in the production line. Lean manufacturing concept has identified and rectified problems related to low productivity in the assembly line. The case study is involved a line production for electronic part assembly. The result of this preliminary study should illustrate the relationship of worker’s performance by lean manufacturing method as well as the productivity improvements which help to reduce cost for manufacturer. Lean manufacturing method has been used during the study to reduce the cost when waste is eliminated by reducing the workstation without reducing the performance of the production. The performance of the production is increased when allocating the labor in a needed working area. Lastly, the study also proves that the new layout has improved the process to be used for future production process.

  13. Designing effective partnerships for waste-to-resource initiatives: Lessons learned from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Donovan; Santucci, Lorenzo; Fraser, Rowan; Aleluia, Joao; Chomchuen, Laksiri

    2015-12-01

    Cities in developing countries across Asia-Pacific are struggling to effectively manage municipal solid waste (MSW). This is especially the case in secondary cities and small towns, which often face a lack of resources and know-how. Because the waste stream in these cities is usually high in organic content (50-80%) and recyclable materials (10-20%), waste-to-resource initiatives are viable options for sustainable MSW management. Waste-to-resource initiatives that are low-cost, low-tech, decentralised and community-based offer municipalities useful solutions for managing their MSW. However, the sustainability of such solutions depends on a number of key factors, such as the separation of waste at source, the effective engagement of communities and steady and predictable sources of revenue. Using quantitative data and qualitative information derived from field experience, this paper concludes that effective partnerships between a diverse range of stakeholders must be designed and fostered in order to achieve sustainability. The paper provides an analysis of stakeholder roles for the establishment of effective partnerships in four case study cities of Matale and Ratnapura (Sri Lanka) and Kon Tum and Quy Nhon (Viet Nam), where waste-to-resource facilities have been established, and explores the resources of stakeholders and how these can be mobilised to support waste-to-resource initiatives for revenue generation and long-term sustainability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  15. Recycling Waste Electrical Socket as a Carbon Resource in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Globally, millions of waste electrical sockets (WES) are generated annually. This category of waste material is difficult to recycle because they are thermosetting polymers which cannot be remoulded after setting. In this work, the reduction of medium grade Agbaja iron ore from Nigeria, by carbonaceous ...

  16. Recycling Waste Electrical Socket as a Carbon Resource in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, millions of waste electrical sockets (WES) are generated annually. This category of waste material is difficult to recycle because they are thermosetting polymers which cannot be remoulded after setting. In this work, the reduction of medium grade Agbaja iron ore from Nigeria, by carbonaceous materials generated ...

  17. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  18. From Waste Management to Resource Efficiency—The Need for Policy Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Wilts

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Treating waste as a resource and the design of a circular economy have been identified as key approaches for resource efficiency. Despite ambitious targets, policies and instruments that would enable a transition from a conventional waste management to an integrated and comprehensive resource management are still missing. Moreover, this will require innovative policy mixes which do not only address different end-of-pipe approaches but integrate various resource efficiency aspects from product design to patterns of production and consumption. Based on the results of a project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development named “POLFREE—Policy Options for a resource efficient economy”, this paper addresses several aspects of the conceptualization of policy mixes with regard to waste as a specific resource efficiency challenge. The guiding research interest of this paper is the combination of policies necessary to create a full circular economy. In a first step, the present waste policy frameworks, institutions and existing incentives at national level are examined in order to disclose regulatory and policy gaps. Based on this, the second part of the paper describes and analyses specific waste-related resource efficiency instruments with regard to their potential impacts under the constraints of various barriers. Based on the assessment of the country analyses and the innovative instruments, the paper draws conclusions on waste policy mixes and political needs.

  19. From waste to resource : the trade in wastes and global recycling economies.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregson, N.; Crang, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    We outline the frameworks that shape and hold apart waste debates in and about Global North and South and that hinder analysis of flows between them. Typically waste is addressed as municipal waste, resulting in a focus on domestic consumption and urban governance, and a resulting emphasis on cities and the national scale. The prevailing ways of addressing the increasingly global flows of wastes between North and South are those of global environmental justice and are underpinned by the geogr...

  20. Use of Drying Technologies for Resource Recovery from Solid Wastes and Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Alba, Ric; Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John A.; Polonsky, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Long term storage of unprocessed biological wastes and human wastes can present major health issues and a loss of potential resources. Space vehicles and planetary habitats are typically resource-scarce or resource-limited environments for long-term human habitation. To-date, most of the resources will need to be supplied from Earth, but this may not be possible for long duration human exploration. Based on present knowledge, there is only very limited in-situ resources on planetary habitats. Hence, the opportunity to "live off the land" in a planetary habitat is limited. However, if we assume that wastes generated by human explorers are viewed as resources, there is great potential to utilize and recycle them, thereby reducing the requirements for supply Earth and enabling the "live off the land" exploration scenario. Technologies used for the recovery of resources from wastes should be reliable, safe, easy to operate, fail-proof, modular, automated and preferably multifunctional in being capable of handling mixed solid and liquid wastes. For a lunar habitat, energy does not appear to be the major driving factor amongst the technologies studied. Instead, reliability appears to be more important[1] . This paper reports studies to date on drying technologies to remove water from solid wastes and brines. Experimental performance data obtained for recovery water from wastes and brine are presented. Simplicity of operation of hardware and energy efficiency are discussed. Some improvements and modifications to hardware were performed. Hopefully, this information will assist in future efforts in the "downselection" of technologies for recovery of water and resources from solid wastes and brines.

  1. Electronic and electrical waste. A literature study; Elektrisk og elektronisk avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Anders Ingvar Gire; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2011-07-01

    In 2011 Oestfoldforskning won an award, organized by Elretur, which will be used to develop a modeling tool for climate, environment and resource accounting for the collection and recycling of electrical and electronic (EE) waste. In this context, it has been made a literature study that will provide the knowledge and foundation for issues in the future work. The amount of EE is growing at a rapid pace, as technological developments. EE changes constantly character and has such a variety of materials and toxic substances, which makes the handling of a complex affair. Norway is a pioneer when it comes to the collection and recycling of EE. Approximately 90% of EE is recovered, of which 83% is recycled, 8% heat is recovered, while the remaining amount is deposited (8%) or destroyed in incinerators (1%). Through the EU Waste Directive and the Norwegian waste is EE industry obliged to receive EE, and to ensure that this will be treated and recycled in a safe and environmentally sound manner. There are currently five recycling companies to take care of the handling and recycling of EE on behalf of EE industry. There are many studies that examine the material composition of EE, particularly in terms of metals and toxic substances. Many metals are scarce resources and has a high market value, so that material is preferable both from an environmental perspective and economically. In literature searches undertaken only found two LCA studies looking at the entire waste stream of EE. Both studies are conducted for the Swiss recycling system, and compare the environmental impacts arising from the incineration and landfill. That is, if all EE either incinerated and the energy recovered, or if anything is deposited. The result of the life-cycle analyzes show that recycling is not besides environmental pollution, but if you look at the options, then recycling significantly less environmental impact. This is due primarily to avoid primary production. In the waste stream, there are

  2. Application of Life Cycle Assessment on Electronic Waste Management: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-01

    Electronic waste is a rich source of both valuable materials and toxic substances. Management of electronic waste is one of the biggest challenges of current worldwide concern. As an effective and prevailing environmental management tool, life cycle assessment can evaluate the environmental performance of electronic waste management activities. Quite a few scientific literatures reporting life cycle assessment of electronic waste management with significant outcomes have been recently published. This paper reviewed the trends, characteristics, research gaps, and challenges of these studies providing detailed information for practitioners involved in electronic waste management. The results showed that life cycle assessment studies were most carried out in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The research subject of the studies mainly includes monitors, waste printed circuit boards, mobile phones, computers, printers, batteries, toys, dishwashers, and light-emitting diodes. CML was the most widely used life cycle impact assessment method in life cycle assessment studies on electronic waste management, followed by EI99. Furthermore, 40% of the reviewed studies combined with other environmental tools, including life cycle cost, material flow analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis, emergy analysis, and hazard assessment which came to more comprehensive conclusions from different aspects. The research gaps and challenges including uneven distribution of life cycle assessment studies, life cycle impact assessment methods selection, comparison of the results, and uncertainty of the life cycle assessment studies were examined. Although life cycle assessment of electronic waste management facing challenges, their results will play more and more important role in electronic waste management practices.

  3. Application of Life Cycle Assessment on Electronic Waste Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-01

    Electronic waste is a rich source of both valuable materials and toxic substances. Management of electronic waste is one of the biggest challenges of current worldwide concern. As an effective and prevailing environmental management tool, life cycle assessment can evaluate the environmental performance of electronic waste management activities. Quite a few scientific literatures reporting life cycle assessment of electronic waste management with significant outcomes have been recently published. This paper reviewed the trends, characteristics, research gaps, and challenges of these studies providing detailed information for practitioners involved in electronic waste management. The results showed that life cycle assessment studies were most carried out in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The research subject of the studies mainly includes monitors, waste printed circuit boards, mobile phones, computers, printers, batteries, toys, dishwashers, and light-emitting diodes. CML was the most widely used life cycle impact assessment method in life cycle assessment studies on electronic waste management, followed by EI99. Furthermore, 40% of the reviewed studies combined with other environmental tools, including life cycle cost, material flow analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis, emergy analysis, and hazard assessment which came to more comprehensive conclusions from different aspects. The research gaps and challenges including uneven distribution of life cycle assessment studies, life cycle impact assessment methods selection, comparison of the results, and uncertainty of the life cycle assessment studies were examined. Although life cycle assessment of electronic waste management facing challenges, their results will play more and more important role in electronic waste management practices.

  4. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  5. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  6. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the media (internet, cyber café, Phone and University cafe). 2. There is no significant difference in the level of use of electronic resources between male and female postgraduate students of the department of educational technology and library science in the University of Uyo. 3. There is no significant difference in the of.

  7. Printed And Electronic Resources Utilization By Agricultural Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the use of printed and electronic resources by agricultural science students in three Nigerian universities. A two-part questionnaire was designed to elicit necessary information from the respondents selected for the study. One thousand three hundred (1300) respondents from faculties of Agriculture in ...

  8. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  9. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. The Taro Yamane's sample size formula was used to determine sample size of 276 respondents from the total population of the study and systematic random sampling was used to select the ...

  10. Electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the state of electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in Southern part of Nigeria, highlighting the prospects and the challenges. The study was an empirical research which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The questionnaire was used to collect data from the ...

  11. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  12. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  13. Use of Internet and Electronic Resources amongst Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Nigerian private university is newly venturing into p ostgraduate study programs and has an enrolled postgraduate student population of about a hundred. This study evaluates the postgraduate students' use of library; their information format preference, internet access and electronic resources used in their various ...

  14. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The selection of the sample universities was purposive. ... This was demonstrated in the increased number of proposals prepared, submitted and funded, research reports submitted, journal articles published and chapters in books and books published with increased access to and use of electronic information resources.

  15. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  16. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an empirical study that examined the association between gender and the use of electronic information resources among postgraduate students at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in December 2005 and integrated both qualitative and quantitative research ...

  17. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services in A.B.U & UNIBEN MTN Net Libraries. ... Lastly, management of the MTN Net Libraries should conduct user studies annually in order to have feedback from users on how well the library is meeting their information needs. The results of the survey should ...

  18. Skills and training needs for use of electronic information resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article reports on the findings regarding students' knowledge, skill and training needs in using Electronic Information Resources (EIRs). Data was collected using a questionnaire-based survey administered to 1123 undergraduate students. Probability sampling was used to sample students across the four universities, ...

  19. Think Locally: A Prudent Approach to Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson-Sundell, Nat

    2011-01-01

    A few articles have drawn some amount of attention specifically to the local causes of the success or failure of electronic resource management system (ERMS) implementations. In fact, it seems clear that local conditions will largely determine whether any given ERMS implementation will succeed or fail. This statement might seem obvious, but the…

  20. New Zealand’s Food Waste: Estimating the Tonnes, Value, Calories and Resources Wasted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian John Reynolds

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used macro-economic data and aggregated waste data to estimate that, in 2011, New Zealand households generated over 224,000 tonnes of food waste, and New Zealand industry generated over 103,000 tonnes of food waste. We split New Zealand’s food waste into 14 food-waste categories and found that 7% is related to “fresh” produce, and 93% “processed” food waste. The value of New Zealand’s food waste in 2011 is estimated to be NZ $568 million, or $131 per person. Furthermore, New Zealand’s food waste represents 163 × 109 calories in total, and avoidable food waste would be able to feed between 50,000 and 80,000 people a year. New Zealand food waste embodies 4.2 × 106 tonnes of CO2-e, 4.7 × 109 m3 of water, and 29 × 103 TJ of energy. Nonetheless, we find that, compared to other nations, New Zealanders waste less food per capita by weight, value and calorie.

  1. Acute toxicity assessment of crude lead-extract from electronic waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead, with its toxic emission and pollution, is one of the hazardous chemical components of electronic wastes (e-wastes) rapidly generated in developing countries. This study assessed the environmental health effects of crude lead extracted from e-wastes materials, as determined by its acute toxicity (rat, oral). Diluted ...

  2. Exergy losses of resource recovery from a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Laner, D.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Metal resources recovered from waste incineration bottom ash (BA) are of lower quality as compared to primary resources, but to date no framework for expressing the quality losses exists. Exergy is a concept that may have the potential to evaluate the resource quality in waste management. In this......Metal resources recovered from waste incineration bottom ash (BA) are of lower quality as compared to primary resources, but to date no framework for expressing the quality losses exists. Exergy is a concept that may have the potential to evaluate the resource quality in waste management....... In this study, focusing on recovery from waste-to-energy plants with basic and advanced BA treatment, the goal is to give an indication about quality of selected recovered resources (Fe, Al, and Cu) by means of exergy analysis. Metal flows are modeled through both incineration scenarios, and then chemical...... exergy values are assigned to all flows, allowing for quantifying various types of exergy losses. The exergy losses determined here are those caused by (1) oxidative changes in the thermal process (irreversible exergy destruction), (2) material losses (low recovery efficiencies), and (3) mixing of metals...

  3. Development of demand forecasting tool for natural resources recouping from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Atiq Uz; Lehmann, Steffen

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable waste management requires an integrated planning and design strategy for reliable forecasting of waste generation, collection, recycling, treatment and disposal for the successful development of future residential precincts. The success of the future development and management of waste relies to a high extent on the accuracy of the prediction and on a comprehensive understanding of the overall waste management systems. This study defies the traditional concepts of waste, in which waste was considered as the last phase of production and services, by putting forward the new concept of waste as an intermediate phase of production and services. The study aims to develop a demand forecasting tool called 'zero waste index' (ZWI) for measuring the natural resources recouped from municipal solid waste. The ZWI (ZWI demand forecasting tool) quantifies the amount of virgin materials recovered from solid waste and subsequently reduces extraction of natural resources. In addition, the tool estimates the potential amount of energy, water and emissions avoided or saved by the improved waste management system. The ZWI is tested in a case study of waste management systems in two developed cities: Adelaide (Australia) and Stockholm (Sweden). The ZWI of waste management systems in Adelaide and Stockholm is 0.33 and 0.17 respectively. The study also enumerates per capita energy savings of 2.9 GJ and 2.83 GJ, greenhouse gas emissions reductions of 0.39 tonnes (CO2e) and 0.33 tonnes (CO2e), as well as water savings of 2.8 kL and 0.92 kL in Adelaide and Stockholm respectively.

  4. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of corroded metal waste forms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, N. L.

    2005-04-15

    This report documents the results of analyses with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area electron diffraction (ED) of samples of metallic waste form (MWF) materials that had been subjected to various corrosion tests. The objective of the TEM analyses was to characterize the composition and microstructure of surface alteration products which, when combined with other test results, can be used to determine the matrix corrosion mechanism. The examination of test samples generated over several years has resulted in refinements to the TEM sample preparation methods developed to preserve the orientation of surface alteration layers and the underlying base metal. The preservation of microstructural spatial relationships provides valuable insight for determining the matrix corrosion mechanism and for developing models to calculate radionuclide release in repository performance models. The TEM results presented in this report show that oxide layers are formed over the exposed steel and intermetallic phases of the MWF during corrosion in aqueous solutions and humid air at elevated temperatures. An amorphous non-stoichiometric ZrO{sub 2} layer forms at the exposed surfaces of the intermetallic phases, and several nonstoichiometric Fe-O layers form over the steel phases in the MWF. These oxide layers adhere strongly to the underlying metal, and may be overlain by one or more crystalline Fe-O phases that probably precipitated from solution. The layer compositions are consistent with a corrosion mechanism of oxidative dissolution of the steel and intermetallic phases. The layers formed on the steel and intermetallic phases form a continuous layer over the exposed waste form, although vertical splits in the layer and corrosion in pits and crevices were seen in some samples. Additional tests and analyses are needed to verify that these layers passivate the underlying metals and if passivation can break

  5. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  6. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocoiu, Carmen Nadia; Colesca, Sofia Elena; Rudăreanu, Costin; Popescu, Maria-Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Around the world there are growing concerns for waste electrical and electronic equipment. This is motivated by the harmful effects of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the environment, but also by the perspectives of materials recovery. Differences between countries regarding waste electrical and electronic equipment management are notable in the European Union. Romania is among the countries that have made significant efforts to comply with European Union regulations, but failed reaching the collection target. The article presents a mini review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system in Romania, based on legislation and policy documents, statistical data, research studies and reports published by national and international organisations. The article debates subjects like legislative framework, the electrical and electronic equipment Romanian market, the waste electrical and electronic equipment collection system, waste electrical and electronic equipment processing and waste electrical and electronic equipment behaviour. The recast of the European directive brings new challenges to national authorities and to other stakeholders involved in the waste electrical and electronic equipment management. Considering the fact that Romania has managed a collection rate of roughly 1 kg capita(-1) in the last years, the new higher collection targets established by the waste electrical and electronic equipment Directive offer a serious challenge for the management system. Therefore, another aim of the article is to highlight the positive and negative aspects in the Romanian waste electrical and electronic equipment field, in order to identify the flows that should be corrected and the opportunities that could help improve this system to the point of meeting the European standards imposed by the European Directive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Metals, non-metals and PCB in electrical and electronic waste--actual levels in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morf, Leo S; Tremp, Josef; Gloor, Rolf; Schuppisser, Felix; Stengele, Markus; Taverna, Ruedi

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of waste of small electrical and electronic equipment (s-WEEE), a rapidly growing waste stream, was determined for selected metals (Cu, Sb, Hg etc.) and non-metals (Cl, Br, P) and PCBs. During a 3-day experiment, all output products and the s-WEEE input mass flows in a WEEE recycling plant were measured. Only output products were sampled and analyzed. Material balances were established, applying substance flow analysis (SFA). Transfer coefficients for the selected substances were also determined. The results demonstrate the capability of SFA to determine the composition of the highly heterogeneous WEEE for most substances with rather low uncertainty (2 sigma +/- 30%). The results confirm the growing importance of s-WEEE regarding secondary resource metals and potential toxic substances. Nowadays, the thirty times smaller s-WEEE turns over larger flows for many substances, compared to municipal solid waste. Transfer coefficient results serve to evaluate the separation efficiency of the recycling process and confirm--with the exception of PCB and Hg--the limitation of hand-sorting and mechanical processing to separate pollutants (Cd, Pb, etc.) out of reusable fractions. Regularly applied SFA would serve to assess the efficacy of legislative, organizational and technical measures on the WEEE.

  8. Recycling Waste Polyurethane as a Carbon Resource in Ironmaking*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... “Gasification and Reduction Behaviour of. Plastic and Iron Ore Mixtures by Microwave. Heating”, ISIJ Int., Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 602 -. 607. Rajarao, R., Mansuri, I. A., Dhunna, R., Khanna,. R. and. Sahajwalla,. V.,. (2014),. “Characterisation of Gas Evolution and Char. Structural Change during Pyrolysis of Waste.

  9. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    These technologies include combustion, gasification and pyrolysis. Combustion technology involves recovering energy from wood waste through the production of steam in boiler super-heater tubes. The steam may be used to generate electricity in a steam turbine generator or sold directly for commercial or process heat.

  10. Recycling Waste Polyurethane as a Carbon Resource in Ironmaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, major avenues available for dealing with waste Poly-Urethane (PU) are disposal at landfill sites and incineration. However, PU contains high levels of carbon and hydrogen that can be recovered for use as reductant in metal extraction processes. In this work the use of post-consumer PU as reductant for the ...

  11. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

  13. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  14. A plan to create a zero waste society: transforming waste into resources

    OpenAIRE

    Peljhan Korošec, Jožica

    2016-01-01

    It is only reasonable to become a zero waste society and for producers to immediately start redesigning products, and for us to make the transition in our mentality to stop buying products that we do not really need or products that we could, in fact, borrow. In the interim (transitional period), until all our products are sustainable ones, waste incinerators (thermal treatment that utilises energy recovery) will still be unavoidable. However, this does not mean that new ones will need to be ...

  15. Lab-scale thermal analysis of electronic waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong, E-mail: jhong@ustc.edu.cn; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • We provided the experimental evidence that WEEE can be recovered by pyrolysis method. • We explored the thermochemical behaviors of WEEE using online TG–FTIR–MS technology. • The intramolecular oxygen atoms play a pivotal role in the formation of PBDD/Fs. - Abstract: In this work, we experimentally revealed the thermochemical decomposition pathway of Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) containing electronic waste plastics using an online thermogravimetric–fourier transform infrared–mass spectroscopy (TG–FTIR–MS) system, a high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass (HRGC–MS) spectroscopy, and a fixed-bed reactor. We found the distribution and species of produced bromides can be easily controlled by adjusting pyrolytic temperature, which is particularly crucial to their recycle. From the analysis of the liquid and solid phase obtained from the fixed-bed reactor, we proposed that the ·Br radicals formed during the pyrolysis process may be captured by organic species derived from the depolymerization of plastics to form brominated compounds or by the inorganic species in the plastics, and that these species remained in the char residue after pyrolysis. Our work for the first time demonstrates intramolecular oxygen atoms play a pivotal role in the formation of PBDD/Fs that pyrolysis of oxygen-free BFRs is PBDD/Fs-free, whereas pyrolysis of oxygen-containing BFRs is PBDD/Fs-reduced.

  16. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  17. Waste to resource: Converting paper mill wastewater to bioplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Marang, Leonie; Tamis, Jelmer; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Dijkman, Henk; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2012-11-01

    In this study we investigated the feasibility of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by microbial enrichments on paper mill wastewater. The complete process includes (1) paper mill wastewater acidogenic fermentation in a simple batch process, (2) enrichment of a PHA-producing microbial community in a selector operated in sequencing batch mode with feast-famine regime, (3) Cellular PHA content maximization of the enrichment in an accumulator in fed-batch mode. The selective pressure required to establish a PHA-producing microbial enrichment, as derived from our previous research on synthetic medium, was validated using an agro-industrial waste stream in this study. The microbial enrichment obtained could accumulate maximum up to 77% PHA of cell dry weight within 5 h, which is currently the best result obtained on real agro-industrial waste streams, especially in terms of biomass specific efficiency. Biomass in this enrichment included both Plasticicumulans acidivorans, which was the main PHA producer, and a flanking population, which exhibited limited PHA-producing capacity. The fraction of P. acidivorans in the biomass was largely dependent on the fraction of volatile fatty acids in the total soluble COD in the wastewater after acidification. Based on this observation, one simple equation was proposed for predicting the PHA storage capacity of the enrichment. Moreover, some crucial bottlenecks that may impede the successful scaling-up of the process are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Disposing and recycling waste printed circuit boards: disconnecting, resource recovery, and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-20

    Over the past decades, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered e-waste recycling activities. After a decade of effort, disassembly and raw materials recycling of environmentally friendly e-waste have been realized in specialized companies, in China, and law enforcement for illegal activities of e-waste recycling has also been made more and more strict. So up to now, the e-waste recycling in China should be developed toward more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are the most complex, hazardous, and valuable components of e-waste, are selected as one typical example in this article that reviews the status of related regulations and technologies of WPCBs recycling, then optimizes, and integrates the proper approaches in existence, while the bottlenecks in the WPCBs recycling system are analyzed, and some preliminary experiments of pinch technologies are also conducted. Finally, in order to provide directional guidance for future development of WPCBs recycling, some key points in the WPCBs recycling system are proposed to point towards a future trend in the e-waste recycling industry.

  19. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Masters, Elizabeth T; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Smith, David M; Faulkner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The management of fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR) database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years) with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1) ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Patients were predominantly female (81.4%), Caucasian (87.7%), with a mean (standard deviation) age of 54.4 (14.8) years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of "medication orders" and "physician office visits," with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5) drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1) office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased ( P FM patients.

  20. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) estimation: A case study of Ahvaz City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Babaei, Aliakbar; Takdastan, Afshin; Bagheri, Nastaran

    2015-03-01

    The development of new technologies and the increasing consumption of electronic and electrical equipment have led to increased generation of e-waste in the municipal waste streams. This waste due to the presence of hazardous substances in its composition needs specific attention and management. The present study was carried out in Ahvaz metropolis using a survey method in 2011. For estimating the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generated, the "use and consumption" method was used. In order to determine the amounts of the electrical and electronic equipment that were used and their lifetime, and for investigating the current status of e-waste management in Ahvaz, an appropriate questionnaire was devised. In 2011, the total number of discarded electronic items was 2,157,742 units. According to the average weight of the equipment, the total generation of e-waste was 9952.25 metric tons per year and was 9.95 kg per capita per year. The highest e-waste generated was related to air conditioners, with 3125.36 metric tons per year, followed by the wastes from refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, and televisions. The wastes from desktop computers and laptops were 418 and 63 metric tons/year, respectively, and the corresponding values per capita were 0.42 and 0.063 kg, respectively. These results also showed that 10 tons fixed phones, 25 tons mobile phones, and by considering an average lifetime of 3 years for each lamp about 320 tons lamps were generated as e-waste in Ahvaz in the year 2011. Based on this study, currently there is not an integrated system for proper management of WEEE in Ahvaz, and this waste stream is collected and disposed of with other municipal waste. Some measures, including a specific collection system, recycling of valuable substances, and proper treatment and disposal, should be done about such waste. Ahvaz is one of the most important economic centers of Iran, and to the best of our knowledge, no study has been

  1. Research on the Environmental Performance Evaluation of Electronic Waste Reverse Logistics Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Fei-Yang; Tong, Tong

    According to the characteristic of e-waste reverse logistics, environmental performance evaluation system of electronic waste reverse logistics enterprise is proposed. We use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method to evaluate the system. In addition, this paper analyzes the enterprise X, as an example, to discuss the evaluation method. It's important to point out attributes and indexes which should be strengthen during the process of ewaste reverse logistics and provide guidance suggestions to domestic e-waste reverse logistics enterprises.

  2. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  3. Toxic metal levels in Nigerian electronic waste workers indicate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data indicate that the elevated body burden of toxic metals in the e-waste exposed population is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with crude e-waste management practices in Nigeria. In addition, the potential health implications of exposure to these toxic metals, such as chronic kidney disease, ...

  4. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menad, N; Guignot, S; van Houwelingen, J A

    2013-03-01

    Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink-float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC-ABS, PS and rest product. The fractions were characterised by using the methodology described in this paper. The results show that the grade and liberation degree of the plastic products ABS, PC-ABS and PS are close to 100%. Sink-float separation and infrared plastic identification equipment confirms the high plastic quality. On the basis of these findings, a global

  5. Discard mitigation – what we can learn from waste minimization practices in other natural resources?

    OpenAIRE

    Stockhausen, Björn; OFFICER R.a.; SCOTT ROBERT

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to the problem of discarding in fisheries have been debated for decades. Despite this attention, measures to ameliorate discarding have had limited success. Regulators, researchers, and industry continue to struggle with fisheries management and foregone yield in the face of the continued wastage of valuable resources due to discarding. Waste minimization and by-product utilization are powerful imperatives in other sectors that are also reliant on the harvest of natural resources...

  6. COLLECTIONS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES AND THEIR METADESCRIPTIONS AS COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ELECTRONIC LIBRARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya V. Savchenko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific research components of digital libraries, the main ones being the collection of electronic scientific information resources. An important specific characteristics of collections of scientific information resources, resources of their formation, structure collections, methods of their organization, technology creation, support and use of scientific collections, the role and function of metadata in collections and metadata management technology are represented. On the stage of planning and introduction of scientific e-libraries there can be used results of researches presented in the article, namely: chart of forming of collections of scientific informative resources; stages of planning and development of metadescriptions, and similarly the use of standard the Dublin kernel, creation of metadescriptions.

  7. Enhancing gold recovery from electronic waste via lixiviant metabolic engineering in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Song Buck; Natarajan, Gayathri; Rahim, Muhammad Nadjad bin Abdul; Tan, Hwee Tong; Chung, Maxey Ching Ming; Ting, Yen Peng; Yew, Wen Shan

    2013-01-01

    Conventional leaching (extraction) methods for gold recovery from electronic waste involve the use of strong acids and pose considerable threat to the environment. The alternative use of bioleaching microbes for gold recovery is non-pollutive and relies on the secretion of a lixiviant or (bio)chemical such as cyanide for extraction of gold from electronic waste. However, widespread industrial use of bioleaching microbes has been constrained by the limited cyanogenic capabilities of lixiviant-producing microorganisms such as Chromobacterium violaceum. Here we show the construction of a metabolically-engineered strain of Chromobacterium violaceum that produces more (70%) cyanide lixiviant and recovers more than twice as much gold from electronic waste compared to wild-type bacteria. Comparative proteome analyses suggested the possibility of further enhancement in cyanogenesis through subsequent metabolic engineering. Our results demonstrated the utility of lixiviant metabolic engineering in the construction of enhanced bioleaching microbes for the bioleaching of precious metals from electronic waste.

  8. SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REUSE OF ELECTRONIC WASTE ORIGINATED FROM PERSONAL COMPUTERS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eugênio Simonetto; Osvaldo Quelhas; Vesna Spasojević Brkić; Goran Putnik; Cátia Alves; Hélio Castro

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are part of the day to day activities of a large part of world population, however its use involves a growing generation of electronic waste (ewaste...

  9. Water from (waste)water--the dependable water resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water resource depends upon close examination and synthesis of elements from infrastructure and facilities planning, wastewater treatment plant siting, treatment process reliability, economic and financial analyses, and water utility management. In this paper, fundamental concepts of water reuse are discussed including definitions, historical developments, the role of water recycling in the hydrologic cycle, categories of water reuse, water quality criteria and regulatory requirements, and technological innovations for the safe use of reclaimed water. The paper emphasizes the integration of this alternative water supply into water resources planning, and the emergence of modern water reclamation and reuse practices from wastewater to reclaimed water to repurified water.

  10. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  11. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  13. Evaluation of waste mushroom logs as a potential biomass resource for the production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Koo, Bon-Wook; Choi, Joon-Weon; Choi, Don-Ha; Choi, In-Gyu

    2008-05-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of using waste mushroom logs as a biomass resource for alternative energy production, the chemical and physical characteristics of normal wood and waste mushroom logs were examined. Size reduction of normal wood (145 kW h/tone) required significantly higher energy consumption than waste mushroom logs (70 kW h/tone). The crystallinity value of waste mushroom logs was dramatically lower (33%) than normal wood (49%) after cultivation by Lentinus edodes as spawn. Lignin, an enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitor in sugar production, decreased from 21.07% to 18.78% after inoculation of L. edodes. Total sugar yields obtained by enzyme and acid hydrolysis were higher in waste mushroom logs than in normal wood. After 24h fermentation, 12 g/L ethanol was produced on waste mushroom logs, while normal wood produced 8 g/L ethanol. These results indicate that waste mushroom logs are economically suitable lignocellulosic material for the production of fermentable sugars related to bioethanol production.

  14. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  15. THE JEOPARDIZED SITUATION OF ELECTRONIC WASTE IN BANGLADESH: CAN CUSTOMIZED POLICY APPROACH SOLVE THE CHALLENGE?

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Md. Bahauddin; Tariq Muhammad Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amountonly 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills,  rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazar...

  16. Plastic waste as a resource. Strategies for reduction and utilization of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqual i Camprubí, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Plastic materials have experienced a spectacular rate of growth in recent decades, consequently, production of plastics, and likewise their consumption, has increased markedly since 1950. Moreover, they are lightweight and durable, as well as can be moulded into a variety of products that can be manufactured in many different types of plastic and in a wide range of applications. Inevitably, continually increasing amounts of used plastic are originating daily, resulting in a plastic waste prob...

  17. Environmental impact assessment of waste electronic and electric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WEEE) management practices in developing countries through leaching tests. ... Lead was the predominant heavy metal to leach from the waste material and 5617±739 mg/kg Pb was released by the standard pH-controlled leaching test.

  18. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  19. Informal electronic waste recycling: a sector review with special focus on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y L; Reuter, Markus A

    2011-04-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electronic waste – an emerging threat to the environment of urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the emerging problems in developed and developing countries worldwide. It comprises of a multitude of components with valuable materials, some containing toxic substances, that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment. Previous studies show that India has generated 0.4 million tons of e-waste in 2010 which may increase to 0.5 to 0.6 million tons by 2013–2014. Coupled with lack of appropriate infrastructural facilities and procedures for its disposal and recycling have posed significant importance for e-waste management in India. In general, e-waste is generated through recycling of e-waste and also from dumping of these wastes from other countries. More of these wastes are ending up in dumping yards and recycling centers, posing a new challenge to the environment and policy makers as well. In general electronic gadgets are meant to make our lives happier and simpler, but the toxicity it contains, their disposal and recycling becomes a health nightmare. Most of the users are unaware of the potential negative impact of rapidly increasing use of computers, monitors, and televisions. This review article provides a concise overview of India’s current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal, recycling operations and mechanisms to improve the condition for better environment. PMID:24444377

  1. Solid waste landfills under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document provides guidance for meeting: (1) Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste (40 CFR 241); (2) Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257); and (3) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) (40 CFR Part 258). Revisions to 40 CFR 257 and a new Part 258 were published in the Federal Register (56 FR 50978, 10/9/91). The Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste set requirements and recommended procedures to ensure that the design, construction, and operation of land disposal sites is done in a manner that will protect human health and the environment. These regulations are applicable to MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs (e.g., landfills used only for the disposal of demolition debris, commercial waste, and/or industrial waste). These guidelines are not applicable to the, land disposal of hazardous, agricultural, and/or mining wastes. These criteria are to be used under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in determining which solid waste disposal facilities pose a reasonable possibility of adversely affecting human health or the environment. Facilities failing to satisfy these criteria will be considered to be open dumps which are prohibited under Section 4005 of RCRA. The Criteria for MSWLFs are applicable only to MSWLFs, including those MSWLFs in which sewage sludge is co-disposed with household waste. Based on specific criteria, certain MSWLFs are exempt from some, or all, of the regulations of 40 CFR 258. MSWLFs that fail to satisfy the criteria specified in 40 CFR 258 are also considered open dumps for the purposes of Section 4005 of RCRA. Through the use of a series of interrelated flow diagrams, this guidance document directs the reader to each design, operation, maintenance, and closure activity that must be performed for MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs.

  2. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menad, N., E-mail: n.menad@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Guignot, S. [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Houwelingen, J.A. van, E-mail: recy.cling@iae.nl [Recycling Consult, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  3. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RECOVERY OF CRITICAL MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, T. E.; Diaz, L. A.; Clark, G. G.; Keller, P.

    2016-09-01

    As electronic technology continues to evolve there is a growing need to develop processes which recover valuable material from antiquated technology. This need follows from the environmental challenges associated with the availability of raw materials and fast growing generation of electronic waste. Although just present in small quantities in electronic devices, the availability of raw materials, such as rare earths and precious metals, becomes critical for the production of high tech electronic devices and the development of green technologies (i.e. wind turbines, electric motors, and solar panels). Therefore, the proper recycling and processing of increasing volumes of electronic waste present an opportunity to stabilize the market of critical materials, reducing the demand of mined products, and providing a proper disposal and treatment of a hazardous waste stream. This paper will describe development and techno-economic assessment of a comprehensive process for the recovery of value and critical materials from electronic waste. This hydrometallurgical scheme aims to selectively recover different value segments in the materials streams (base metals, precious metals, and rare earths). The economic feasibility for the recovery of rare earths from electronic waste is mostly driven by the efficient recovery of precious metals, such as Au and Pd (ca. 80 % of the total recoverable value). Rare earth elements contained in magnets (speakers, vibrators and hard disk storage) can be recovered as a mixture of rare earths oxides which can later be reduced to the production of new magnets.

  4. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  5. Unlocking the resource potential of organic waste: a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greben, Harma A; Oelofse, Suzan H H

    2009-10-01

    In many countries, especially on the Asian continent, waste is considered a valuable renewable energy resource. At present 40% of waste generated in South Africa comprises organic material which, when digested supplies biogas. The biogas produced can either be used as it is, or it can be delivered as electricity using gas turbines. The electricity generated can be added to the national grid. In light of the increased demand for energy in South Africa, alternative sources of energy are required. When taking the examples of the Asian countries, where anaerobic digestion of waste is applied in rural areas to produce energy for cooking and lighting, it can be hypothesized that this technology could be transferred especially to the rural areas of South Africa. Small-scale anaerobic digestion is presently being implemented by a private company in Ivory Park, South Africa, illustrating that anaerobic digestion in South Africa may be a means of unlocking the energy potential of organic waste. This paper evaluates the requirements for an enabling governance environment to unlock the full potential of organic waste as renewable energy resource.

  6. A joint European and African research & innovation agenda on waste management. Waste as a resource: Recycling & recovery of raw materials (2014-2020)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 A joint European and African research & innovation agenda on waste management. Waste as a resource: Recycling & recovery of raw materials (2014-2020) Edited by Godfrey, L. and Mena-Abela, C. Abstract Europe has the know-how, technology...

  7. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-03-01

    A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Resource recovery from municipal solid waste by mechanical heat treatment: An opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Ibrahim, Nurazim; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in Malaysia consists of 50 to 60 % of food wastes. In general, food wastes are commingled in nature and very difficult to be managed in sustainable manner due to high moisture content. Consequently, by dumping food wastes together with inert wastes to the landfill as final disposal destination incurs large space area and reducing the lifespan of landfill. Therefore, certain fraction of the MSW as such; food wastes (FW) can be diverted from total disposal at the landfill that can improve landfill lifespan and environmental conservation. This study aims to determine the resource characteristics of FW extracted from USM cafeteria by means of mechanical heat treatment in the presence of autoclaving technology. Sampling of FW were conducted by collecting FW samples from disposal storage at designated area within USM campus. FW characteristics was performed prior and autoclaving process. The results have demonstrated that bones fraction was the highest followed by vegetable and rice with 39, 27 and 10%, respectively. Meanwhile, based on autoclaving technique, moisture content of the FW (fresh waste) were able to be reduced ranging from 65-85% to 59-69% (treated waste). Meanwhile, chemical characteristics of treated FW results in pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio, TP, and TK 5.12, 27,6%, 1.6%, 17.3%, 0.9% and 0.36%. The results revealed that autoclaving technology is a promising approach for MSW diversion that can be transformed into useful byproducts such as fertilizer, RDF and recyclable items.

  9. Resource-saving recycling technology of lipid-containing waste of the fishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkotilo V. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the resource component of fish waste is underutilized, while it has unique properties of fish raw material. The topical area of research is the search for new technologies for processing waste to produce fish oil as a valuable source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and other biologically active substances. In the work the technology of enzymatic hydrolysis of fish wastes has been tested and compared with the traditional thermal technology of obtaining fat from fish waste. The object of the study has been frozen waste from the herring processing. The optimal parameters of obtaining fish oil from processing wastes has been determined by simulating the process by the method of mathematical planning of experiment using orthogonal central composite plan of the second order for two factors. The variation of the factors of traditional thermal processing has been carried out in the temperature range of 60 ± 10 °C for 120 ± 20 min. Enzymatic hydrolysis has been held using the enzyme preparation of proteolytic action Protosubtilin G3x (Protosubtilin G3x in the range factors of 0.20 ± 0.05 g/kg dose of enzyme for 80 ± 20 min at the optimal temperature of hydrolysis. Organoleptic indicators of fat (appearance, color, smell, taste, transparency have been determined in accordance with the requirements of state standards. The derived lipid drug has been subjected to research on indicators of safety in accordance with the requirements of Technical regulations of the Customs Union "On safety of food products". The safety performance of the obtained samples of fat (peroxide and acid numbers has been determined by the standard methods. The constructed mathematical models contribute to optimizing the processing of fish waste. Comparison of the quality and safety indices of the obtained fish oil preparations has allowed substantiate the advantages of enzymatic processing of fish waste.

  10. Survey Data About Recycling Electronic Waste in the Municipality of Medianeira - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Abreu Bueno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as its theme the management of electronic waste in the municipality of Medianeira-PR and will aim to address and verify that the computer companies and electronics installed in the municipality of Medianeira are allocating their waste correctly, whether the population has knowledge of this residue as well to have access to collection points to make the allocation of junk. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaire administered to the population and enterprises throughout the municipality. It was found that although companies have concern about waste disposal and direct them to the company responsible for separating and processing all the garbage collected, the population has little information on the correct destination, much has improved, with respect the creation of instruments to regulate the problem of electronic waste in the municipality and the development of campaigns and programs to the population to which it directs the waste to collection points to ensure the best utilization of this waste, to minimize the costs of public with the final disposition and allow the improvement of environmental conditions and quality of life of residents. Keywords: Waste, Collection, Environment, Environmental education.

  11. Metal Extraction Processes for Electronic Waste and Existing Industrial Routes: A Review and Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khaliq

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful life of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE has been shortened as a consequence of the advancement in technology and change in consumer patterns. This has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste that needs to be managed. The handling of e-waste including combustion in incinerators, disposing in landfill or exporting overseas is no longer permitted due to environmental pollution and global legislations. Additionally, the presence of precious metals (PMs makes e-waste recycling attractive economically. In this paper, current metallurgical processes for the extraction of metals from e-waste, including existing industrial routes, are reviewed. In the first part of this paper, the definition, composition and classifications of e-wastes are described. In the second part, separation of metals from e-waste using mechanical processing, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are critically analyzed. Pyrometallurgical routes are comparatively economical and eco-efficient if the hazardous emissions are controlled. Currently, pyrometallurgical routes are used initially for the segregation and upgrading of PMs (gold and silver into base metals (BMs (copper, lead and nickel and followed by hydrometallurgical and electrometallurgical processing for the recovery of pure base and PMs. For the recycling of e-waste in Australia, challenges such as collection, transportation, liberation of metal fractions, and installation of integrated smelting and refining facilities are identified.

  12. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tridimensional modelling and resource estimation of the mining waste piles of São Domingos mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre; Matos, João; Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) northern sector, near the Portuguese/Spanish border, the outcropping São Domingos deposit was mined since Roman time. Between 1854 and 1966 the Mason & Barry Company developed open pit excavation until 120 m depth and underground mining until 420 m depth. The São Domingos subvertical deposit is associated with felsic volcanics and black shales of the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex and is represented by massive sulphide and stockwork ore (py, cpy, sph, ga, tt, aspy) and related supergene enrichment ore (hematite gossan and covellite/chalcocite). Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan (W1), felsic volcanic and shales (W2), shales (W3) and mining waste landfill (W4). Using the LNEG (Portuguese Geological Survey) CONASA database (company historical mining waste characterization based on 162 shafts and 160 reverse circulation boreholes), a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering some constraints to waste removal, such as the Mina de São Domingos village proximity of the wastes, the industrial and archaeological patrimony (e.g., mining infrastructures, roman galleries), different resource scenarios were considered: unconditioned resources (total estimates) and conditioned resources (only the volumes without removal constraints considered). Using block modelling (SURPAC software) a mineral inferred resource of 2.38 Mt @ 0.77 g/t Au and 8.26 g/t Ag is estimated in unconditioned volumes of waste. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4.0 Mt @ 0.64 g/t Au and 7.30 g/t Ag is presented, corresponding to a total metal content of 82,878 oz t Au and 955,753 oz t Ag. Keywords. São Domingos mine, mining waste resources, mining waste pile modelling, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

  14. Towards an Assessment Methodology to Support Decision Making for Sustainable Electronic Waste Management Systems: Automatic Sorting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Barletta; Jon Larborn; Mahesh Mani; Björn Johannson

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of structured methodologies to support stakeholders in accessing the sustainability aspects for e-waste management. Moreover, the increasing volume of electronic waste (e-waste) and the availability of automated e-waste treatment solutions demand frequent reconfigurations of facilities for efficient e-waste management. To fill this gap and guide such ongoing developments, this paper proposes a novel methodological framework to enable the assessing, visualizing and comparing of...

  15. Environmental impact assessment of waste electronic and electric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, under the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) extraction test, 6879 ± 1342 mg/kg dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured. It was also confirmed that the leachability of Pb and Cd exceeds the regulatory limit of TCLP. Lead was the predominant heavy metal to leach from the waste material ...

  16. Use of blood in elective surgery: An area of wasted hospital resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowayan, S A

    1994-07-01

    Unavailability of blood is a common cause of canceled operations but clinicians' blood ordering habits have been shown to waste hospital resources. A prospective audit was set up in a blood bank in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. Data were separately logged on blood transfusion for all surgical operations between August 1991 and December 1992. Standard terminology was employed. During the 16 months, 565 consecutive operations were logged. Only two of eight departments met the criterion of efficient blood ordering, vis-a-vis a C:T ratio (units crossmatched divided by units transfused) of 2.5:1. Similarly, in the four most frequently performed operations, the transfusions index (Ti) was inefficiency in blood ordering for surgical operations, plus its attendant waste of resources. It is recommended that unless written and binding guidelines are published on a nationwide basis, clinicians' inefficient methods in ordering blood are unlikely to alter rapidly.

  17. Maximization of revenues for power sales from a solid waste resources recovery facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The report discusses the actual implementation of the best alternative in selling electrical power generated by an existing waste-to-energy facility, the Metro-Dade County Resources Recovery Plant. After the plant processes and extracts various products out of the municipal solid waste, it burns it to produce electrical power. The price for buying power to satisfy the internal needs of our Resources Recovery Facility (RRF) is substantially higher than the power price for selling electricity to any other entity. Therefore, without any further analysis, it was decided to first satisfy those internal needs and then export the excess power. Various alternatives were thoroughly explored as to what to do with the excess power. Selling power to the power utilities or utilizing the power in other facilities were the primary options.

  18. Extractive waste exploitation towards the natural resource preservation: two Italian case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Biglia, Giulio; Mehta, Neha; Rodeghiero, Franco

    2017-04-01

    In 2012 the extractive industry represented the second most important sector in terms of waste quantities produced in the EU-27 (29% or 734 million tons). Italy was and still is one of the most important countries as for quarry and mine exploitation, with a consequent huge production of extractive waste (EW; represented by rock waste, operating residues and tailings), which are present in mining dumps (EW facilities). The EU guidelines about waste management aim to the exploitation, based on environmental protection, of any kind of material which can be recovered and recycled, with a consequent natural resources preservation. The decision n. 1600/2002/CE, establishing the VI Environment Action Program, pushes to the revision of the legislation on waste and to the development of specific actions for waste prevention and management. The decisive factors to achieve these results are the minimization of waste production and the recovery of as much waste as possible from the different productive cycles and from landfills, including EW facilities. According to this approach, "WASTE" must be considered as a "RESOURCE", and "LANDFILLS" as "NEW ORE BODIES". In the recent years several projects investigate the recovery of Critical Raw Materials (CRM) and SRM from landfills (Smart Ground, Prosum, etc.). The main objective of the present research, which is one of the activities linked to Smart Ground project (Grant Agreement No 641988), is the estimation of the SRM and CRM present in two selected Italian EW facilities: - Campello Monti mining site (NE Piedmont Region), important for Ni exploitation. The area is characterized by the presence of EW facilities, mainly represented by rock waste and operating residues. - Gorno mining site (N Lombardy Region), famous for Zn exploitation. The area is characterized by the presence of several EW facility areas, mainly represented by rock waste dumps and tailing basins. To appreciate if an EW facility can be considered as an "ore body

  19. Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households' willingness to pay advanced recycling fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-09-01

    The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that age, income, beliefs about government and business roles, proximity to existing recycling facilities, community density, education, and environmental attitudes are significant factors for explaining people's willingness to pay an advanced recycling fee (ARF) for electronics. Most respondents are willing to support a 1% ARF. Our results suggest that policymakers should target middle-aged and older adults, improve programs in communities with existing recycling centers or in rural communities, and consider public-private partnerships for e-waste recycling programs.

  20. Water absorption and retention of porous ceramics fabricated by waste resources

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoaki, KATO; Masayoshi, Ohashi; Masayoshi, Fuji; Minoru, Takahashi

    2008-01-01

    Several counter measures have been carried out for mitigating heat island effect. One of those is installing on top of the roof with base materials having planted vegetation. The base materials are required good water absorption and retention which is necessary for the plant to survive. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the relationship between water absorption and water retention within the pore structures of porous ceramics. The raw materials of the ceramics were used waste resources...

  1. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chia-Ching; Yamada, Tetsuji; Chiu, I-Ming; Liu, Yi-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases). Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the...

  2. What Institutional Dynamics Guide Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Refurbishment and Reuse in Urban China?

    OpenAIRE

    Steuer, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    For over two decades China has faced a veritable e-waste challenge due to the continuous increase in quantities of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) coming from foreign and domestic sources. Over more than a decade, the government’s response has been focussed on developing large-scale recycling facilities so as to recover the valuable materials within WEEE. Simultaneously, China is home to a vast, informal segment, which engages in the collection, refurbishment, and processing ...

  3. Electronic Waste Management in Educational Institutions of Ambo Town, Ethiopia, East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abenezer Wakuma Kitila

    2016-01-01

    Rapid technological advancements, scale economies, and high obsolescence rate contributes a significant role in generating e-waste. The study examines electronic waste management in educational institutions of Ambo town namely; Ambo University, Ambo Micro Business and TVET Colleges. It employs survey research and comparative study. The main data gathering tools were questionnaires, interviews, observation and review of documents. Through purposive sampling technique, property management heads...

  4. Structured identification of response options to address environmental health risks at the Agbogbloshie electronic waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazabon, Danielle; Fobil, Julius N; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2017-11-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing problem across low- and middle-income countries. Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana) is among the world's largest and most notorious e-waste sites, with an increasing number of studies documenting a range of environmental health risks. The present study aimed to provide national, regional, and international stakeholders with a summary of expert opinion on the most pressing problems arising from e-waste activities at Agbogbloshie, as well as suggested solutions to address these problems. Structured interviews were performed between April and September 2015 that used a Logical Framework Approach as a scoping exercise to gauge problems and benefits of e-waste recycling, and the Delphi methodology to identify response options. Stakeholders (n = 19) from 15 institutions were interviewed with 2 rounds of a Delphi Poll: open-ended interviews followed by an electronic questionnaire in which experts ranked various proposed response options based on health, environmental, social, and economic benefit and feasibility. The goal was to prioritize potential interventions that would address identified problems at Agbogbloshie. Experts identified the most beneficial and feasible options in decreasing rank order as follows and prefaced by the statement "it is recommended that": 1) there be further research on the health effects; 2) e-waste workers be given appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) the Ministry of the Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation re-visit Ghana's Hazardous Waste Bill; 4) e-waste workers be involved in the planning process of interventions and are be kept informed of any results; and 5) there be increased education and sensitization on hazards related to e-waste for both workers and the general public. These solutions are discussed in relation to ongoing dialogue at the international level concerning e-waste recycling interventions, with strengths and weaknesses examined for the Ghanaian context. Integr

  5. Fertilization effects of organic waste resources and bottom wood ash: results from a pot experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brod

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a pot experiment to study the fertilization effects of four N- and P-rich organic waste resources alone and in combination with K-rich bottom wood ash at two application rates (150 kg N ha–1 + 120 kg K ha–1, 300 kg N ha-1 + 240 kg K ha–1. Plant-available N was the growth-limiting factor. 48–73% of N applied with meat and bone meal (MBM and composted fish sludge (CFS was taken up in aboveground biomass, resulting in mineral fertilizer equivalents (MFE% of 53–81% for N uptake and 61–104% for yield. MFE% of MBM and CFS decreased for increasing application rates. Two industrial composts had weak N fertilization effects and are to be considered soil conditioners rather than fertilizers. Possible P and K fertilization effects of waste resources were masked by the soil’s ability to supply plant-available P and K, but effects on plant-available P and K contents in soil suggest that the waste resources may have positive effects under more nutrient-deficient conditions.

  6. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  7. Bioethanol Production from Waste Potatoes as a Sustainable Waste-to-energy Resource via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A. A.; Shah, F. A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ever increasing demand of energy and corresponding looming depletion of fossil fuels have transpired into a burning need of time to vie for alternative energy resources before the traditional energy sources are completely exhausted. Scientists are continuously working on sustainable energy production as an alternate source of energy to meet the present and future requirements. This research deals with conversion of the starch to fermentable carbon source (sugars) by fermentation through liquefaction by using yeast and alpha- amylase. The results show that the significant bioethanol production was achieved while using the parameters like temperature (30 °C) pH (6) and incubation time of 84 hrs. About 90 ml of bioethanol was produced from potato intake of 800 g. Pakistan being an agricultural country is rich in potato crop and this research bodes well to open new vistas to arrest the energy shortage in this part of the world

  8. Urban waste landfill planning and karstic groundwater resources in developing countries: the example of Lusaka (Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, J.; Nyambe, I. A.; Di Gregorio, A.; Di Gregorio, F.; Simasiku, S.; Follesa, R.; Nkemba, S.

    2004-06-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia with more than two million inhabitants, derives approximately 70% of its water requirements from groundwater sourced in the underlying karstic Lusaka aquifer. This water resource is, therefore, extremely important for the future of the population. The characteristics of the aquifer and the shallow water table make the resource vulnerable and in need of protection and monitoring. A joint project between the Geology Departments of the University of Cagliari and the School of Mines of the University of Zambia, to investigate the "Anthropogenic and natural processes in the Lusaka area leading to environmental degradation and their possible mitigation" was carried out in July 2001. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of the present environmental degradation, assessing the vulnerability of the carbonatic aquifer and the degree of pollution of the groundwater and to make proposals to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Analyses of water samples collected during project indicate some areas of concern, particularly with respect to the levels of ammonia, nitrates and some heavy metals. As groundwater quality and quantity are prerogatives for a healthy and sustainable society, the study offers guidelines for consideration by the local and national authorities. Uptake of these guidelines should result in a number of initiatives being taken, including: (a) closure or reclamation of existing waste dumps; (b) upgrading of existing waste dumps to controlled landfills; (c) establishing new urban waste landfills and plants in geo-environmentally suitable sites; (d) local waste management projects in all compounds (residential areas) to prevent and reduce haphazard waste dumping; (e) enlarging sewerage drainage systems to all compounds; (f) enforcing control on groundwater abstraction and pollution, and demarcation of zones of control at existing drill holes; (g) providing the city with new water supplies from outside the

  9. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease - resources Hemophilia - resources Herpes - resources Incest - resources Incontinence - resources Infertility - resources Interstitial cystitis - resources Kidney disease - resources Leukemia - resources Liver disease - resources Loss ...

  10. RECOVERY OF GOLD (Au) AND SILVER (Ag) METALS IN THE ELECTRONIC WASTE THROUGH MULTILEVEL PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Marwati; Regina Tutik Padmaningrum; Sunarto Sunarto

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to determine the percent recovery of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) in the electronic waste such as CD-RW and determine the purity of gold and silver metals in the electronic waste such as CD-RW that through multilevel precipitation process. The first step was the optimization of the concentration of thiourea and time dissolution of gold and silver in the sample. The concentration of thiourea and the time dissolution optimum obtained from conentration of gold and silver maximum....

  11. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muddasar; Miles, Nicholas J; Hall, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Innovative approach for the valorization of useful metals from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Dumitrescu, D. V.; Constantin, I.; Soare, V.; Popescu, A.-M. J.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    Waste electric and electronic equipment are an important secondary source of rare and precious metals and their processing through ecological technologies constitutes a major concern in the European Union and significantly contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution and to the preservation of valuable resources of nonferrous metals. The paper presents an innovative approach for the complex valorization of useful metals contained in WEEE. The method consists in the melting of WEEE in a furnace in a microwave field at temperatures of 1000 ÷1200°C, for the complete separation of the metallic fraction from the organic components. The gases resulting from the melting process were also treated/neutralized in a microwave environment and the obtained metallic bulk (multi-component alloy) was processed through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods. The major elements in the metallic bulk (Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb) were separated/recovered by anodic dissolution, respectively by leaching in nitric acid followed by cementation using various agents, or by electrodeposition. Depending on the electrochemical parameters, cathodic deposits consisting of Cu, with a purity higher than 99.9%, or of Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Zn alloys were obtained. Silver was valorized by leaching/precipitation with NaCl and the gold concentrated in the anodic slime will be recovered by thiourea extraction. The experiments performed demonstrate the possibility of ecological and efficient processing of WEEE in a microwave field and the recovery of nonferrous and precious metals through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods.

  13. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed.

  14. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  15. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  16. Utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was analysed using descriptive statistics of percentage and frequency counts. ... available in the Ramat Library for the purpose of enhancing learning outcome. Keywords: e-Resources, information resources, utilization, Ramat library ...

  17. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management in Botswana: Prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, Daniel; Li, Baizhan; Li'ao, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The management of waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) is a major challenge in developing and transition countries. The paper investigates recent strategies to manage this waste stream in an environmentally sound way. Obsolete electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) are a complex waste category containing both hazardous and valuable substances. Many countries and regions in the world are undertaking extensive scientific research to plan and develop effective collection and treatment systems for end-of-life EEE. In developing countries such as Botswana, effective strategies that cover all stages throughout the lifecycle of products, particularly at the end-of-life, still lag behind. Infrastructure, pre-processing, and end-processing facilities and innovative technologies for end-of-life management of e-waste are noticeably absent due to lack of investment and high costs of its management. The objective of the paper is to present the e-waste situation in Botswana, highlighting (a) measures taken in the form of legislative and policy regulations; (b) existing practices to manage e-waste; and (c) effective solutions for e-waste management in emerging economies. Studies from other countries on e-waste management issues provided insights on the "best" technical and logistical pre-processing and end-processing strategies to treat hazardous waste. The paper also highlights key societal factors that affect successful implementation of cost-effective collection and value recovery of end-of-life EEE. These include unavailability of national "e-waste policy," absence of formal take-back system, absence of financing and subsidies, inadequate source separation programmes, absence of technical and logistical integration of pre-processing and end-processing facilities, and limited infrastructure and access to technologies and investment. Effective strategies such as an "integrated approach" (mixed options), access to technologies, establishment of pre-processing and

  18. E-Waste and the Sustainable Organisation: Griffith University's Approach to E-Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Georgina; Wolski, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide details of Griffith University's (GU) approach for sustainably dealing with electronic waste (e-waste) and the benefits of using the e-waste programme as a valuable educational case study for ESD. Design/methodology/approach: The e-waste programme is explained with reference to key resources and literature, so…

  19. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  20. The Tenuous Use of Exergy as a Measure of Resource Value or Waste Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roydon A. Fraser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exergy is a thermodynamic concept that has been widely promoted for assessing and improving sustainability, notably in the characterization of resources and wastes. Despite having many notable benefits, exergy is often misused by authors who tend to apply it as an intrinsic characteristic of an object (i.e., as a static thermodynamic variable. Using both theoretical and empirical evidence the authors present five key limitations that must be overcome before exergy can be applied to characterize objects: (1 the incompatibility between exergy quality and resource quality; (2 the inability of exergy to characterize non work-producing resources via the concentration exergy; (3 the constraints placed on the derivation of exergy; (4 problems with the exergy reference environment; and (5 the multiple perspectives applied to exergy analysis. Until the limitations are addressed, exergy should only be used for its original purpose as a decision making tool for engineering systems analysis.

  1. Shared responsibility for managing electronic waste: a case study of Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2009-12-01

    Based on high disposal and low recycling rates of electronic waste (e-waste) and continued exportation to developing countries, reliance on municipal responsibility for e-waste management has been unsuccessful in the United States. This case study examines Maine's program, which was the first US state to mandate producer responsibility for recycling household e-waste. Maine's program established a shared cost responsibility among producers, municipalities, and consumers. The study found that Maine's program resulted in a significant reduction in disposal and a corresponding increase in environmentally sound recycling. In the first 3 years of the program, 6.406 million kg of household e-waste was collected and recycled for a population of 1.32 million. The new program, implemented in 2006, increased the number of e-waste items collected and recycled by 108% in the first year, 170% in the second year, and 221% in the third year. The program decreased direct economic costs to municipalities and households because of the shared cost approach and for the first time established costs for producers. There was no empirical evidence indicating that producers have or will improve the recyclability of electronic products to reduce recycling costs. While other weaknesses were that found potentially limit the adoption of Maine's program, its positive aspects warrant consideration by other governments.

  2. Greener approach for the extraction of copper metal from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Prashant; Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2016-11-01

    Technology innovations resulted into a major move from agricultural to industrial economy in last few decades. Consequently, generation of waste electronic and electrical equipments (WEEE) has been increased at a significant rate. WEEE contain large amount of precious and heavy metals and therefore, can be considered a potential secondary resource to overcome the scarcity of metals. Also, presence of these metals may affect the ecosystem due to lack of adequate management of WEEE. Building upon our previous experimental investigations for metal extraction from spent catalyst, present study explores the concept of green technology for WEEE management. Efforts have been made to recover base metal from a printed circuit board using eco-friendly chelation technology and results were compared with the conventional acid leaching method. 83.8% recovery of copper metal was achieved using chelation technology whereas only 27% could be recovered using acid leaching method in absence of any oxidant at optimum reaction conditions. Various characterization studies (energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductive coupled plasma spectrophotometry) of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and residues were performed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. Significant metal extraction, more than 96% recovery of chelating agent, recycling of reactant in next chelation cycle and nearly zero discharge to the environment are the major advantages of the proposed green process which articulate the transcendency of chelation technology over other conventional approaches. Kinetic investigation suggests diffusion controlled process as the rate determining step for the chelate assisted recovery of copper from WEEE with activation energy of 22kJ/mol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic evaluation of an electrochemical process for the recovery of metals from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Luis A; Lister, Tedd E

    2017-12-08

    As the market of electronic devices continues to evolve, the waste stream generated from antiquated technology is increasingly view as an alternative to substitute primary sources of critical a value metals. Nevertheless, the sustainable recovery of materials can only be achieved by environmentally friendly processes that are economically competitive with the extraction from mineral ores. Hence, This paper presents the techno-economic assessment for a comprehensive process for the recovery of metals and critical materials from e-waste, which is based in an electrochemical recovery (ER) technology. Economic comparison is performed with the treatment of e-waste via smelting, which is currently the primary route for recycling metals from electronics. Results indicate that the electrochemical recovery process is a competitive alternative for the recovery of value from electronic waste when compared with the traditional black Cu smelting process. A significantly lower capital investment, 2.9 kg e-waste per dollar of capital investment, can be achieved with the ER process vs. 1.3 kg per dollar in the black Cu smelting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of the quantities of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feszty, Katalin; Murchison, Colin; Baird, Jim; Jamnejad, Gholam

    2003-06-01

    The EC Directives on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and on the Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) in electrical and electronic equipment forms the basis of legislative control over the ultimate recovery and disposal of electronic and electrical products. Understanding the quantities and composition of WEEE arising will be critical in the development of an appropriate collection and recovery infrastructure to meet the requirements of the directive. However in advance of implementation of the directive only limited information is currently available. This paper reviews recent estimates of WEEE arisings, considers the results of trial collection schemes, and presents the findings of the authors own analysis of WEEE arisings in Scotland. The results cover the period of 1998-2008 and suggest that the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment will increase until 300,000-350,000 metric tons per annum is reached.

  5. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  6. RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

  7. Bridging the Two Cultures: A Collaborative Approach to Managing Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, John; Ryan, Patti

    2002-01-01

    Highlights an example of cross-discipline collaboration in an academic library and describes a collaborative approach to managing electronic resources that is used at York University (Canada). Explains a model in which a science librarian and a humanities/social science librarian work together to manage electronic resources. (Author/LRW)

  8. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  9. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  10. Application of the electronic educational resources in the higher educational institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Петрович Колошеин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In article approaches to effective application of electronic educational resources are described. The analysis of methods and forms of education in higher education institution is carried out, the principles of application of the electronic educational resources, adequate to used methods and forms of education are established.

  11. Application of the electronic educational resources in the higher educational institution

    OpenAIRE

    Александр Петрович Колошеин

    2014-01-01

    In article approaches to effective application of electronic educational resources are described. The analysis of methods and forms of education in higher education institution is carried out, the principles of application of the electronic educational resources, adequate to used methods and forms of education are established.

  12. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  13. Analysis of potential RDF resources from solid waste and their energy values in the largest industrial city of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2009-05-01

    The production potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in the largest industrial city of Korea is discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy potential of the RDF obtained from utilizing combustible solid waste as a fuel resource. The total amount of generated solid waste in the industrial city was more than 3.3 million tonnes, which is equivalent to 3.0tonnes per capita in a single year. The highest amount of solid waste was generated in the city district with the largest population and the biggest petrochemical industrial complex (IC) in Korea. Industrial waste accounted for 89% of the total amount of the solid waste in the city. Potential RDF resources based on combustible solid wastes including wastepaper, wood, rubber, plastic, synthetic resins and industrial sludge were identified. The amount of combustible solid waste that can be used to produce RDF was 635,552tonnes/yr, consisting of three types of RDF: 116,083tonnes/yr of RDF-MS (RDF from municipal solid waste); 146,621tonnes/yr of RDF-IMC (RDF from industrial, municipal and construction wastes); and 372,848tonnes/yr of RDF-IS (RDF from industrial sludge). The total obtainable energy value from the RDF resources in the industrial city was more than 2,240,000x10(6)kcal/yr, with the following proportions: RDF-MS of 25.6%, RDF-IMC of 43.5%, and RDF-IS of 30.9%. If 50% or 100% of the RDF resources are utilized as fuel resources, the industrial city can save approximately 17.6% and 35.2%, respectively, of the current total disposal costs.

  14. THE JEOPARDIZED SITUATION OF ELECTRONIC WASTE IN BANGLADESH: CAN CUSTOMIZED POLICY APPROACH SOLVE THE CHALLENGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Md. Bahauddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amountonly 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills,  rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  15. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  16. Use of Internet and Electronic Resources amongst Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicate that the study group has regular access to the internet , and preferred using free online resources from Google and Wikipedia to institutionally subscribed academic online resources in databases such as HINARI, EBSCO Host, Questia , JSTOR and High Beam.This shows that technology alone cannot help ...

  17. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  18. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  19. Extraction of lead from waste CRT funnel glass by generating lead sulfide - An approach for electronic waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Hui, Wenlong

    2017-09-01

    Waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is the key and difficult points in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) disposal. In this paper, a novel and effective process for the detoxification and reutilization of waste CRT funnel glass was developed by generating lead sulfide precipitate via a high-temperature melting process. The central function in this process was the generation of lead sulfide, which gathered at the bottom of the crucible and was then separated from the slag. Sodium carbonate was used as a flux and reaction agent, and sodium sulfide was used as a precipitating agent. The experimental results revealed that the lead sulfide recovery rate initially increased with an increase in the amount of added sodium carbonate, the amount of sodium sulfide, the temperature, and the holding time and then reached an equilibrium value. The maximum lead sulfide recovery rate was approximately 93%, at the optimum sodium carbonate level, sodium sulfide level, temperature, and holding time of 25%, 8%, 1200°C, and 2h, respectively. The glass slag can be made into sodium and potassium silicate by hydrolysis in an environmental and economical process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  1. Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As resulted of these process; dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released and harmful to the surrounding environment, engaged workers, and also residents inhabiting near the sites. The informal e-waste sectors are growing rapidly in the developing countries over than in the developed countries because of cheapest labor cost and week legislations systems. It has been confirmed that contaminates are moving through the food chain via root plant translocation system, to the human body thereby threatening human health. We have suggested some possible solution toward in which plants and microbes combine to remediate highly contaminated sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental impacts and resource losses of incinerating misplaced household special wastes (WEEE, batteries, ink cartridges and cables)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Damgaard, Anders; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    to quantify the impact of abiotic resources not recovered from incineration residues. This appeared to be a significant impact category, and the special waste contributed about 96% of this category although it by weight makes up only 0.5% of the waste. Furthermore, enhancing the recovery of iron (Fe......) and aluminum (Al) from the ashes would not affect the loss of abiotic resources significantly. Only by recovering elements as platinum (Pt), copper (Cu), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) would it be possible to reduce the loss of abiotic resources from the system. These elements are primarily found in misplaced...

  3. 15. dialogue on waste management MV. Current developments in waste and resources economics. Proceedings; 15. Dialog Abfallwirtschaft MV. Aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Abfall und Ressourcenwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the 15th dialogue on waste management MV at the University of Rostock (Rostock, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13th June, 2012, the following lectures were held: (1) 20 Years GAA - 20 years of successful work (Hartwig Roessler); (2) Acquisition and evaluation of waste management data in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania - A basis for planning for strategies according to Cycle and Waste Management Act KrWG (Helmut Kietzmann); (3) Demographic change in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania - Implications for the waste management (Matthias Leuchter); (4) The HPWM project (Jan Marquardt); (5) Consequences of the modified legal and regulatory situation for the operation of refuse-fuelled power stations (Kurt Wengenroth); (6) Foodstuffs in the waste - Analysis and mitigation proposals (Jakob Barabosz); (7) Disposal of electric and electronic equipment as well as manufacturer responsibility (Vera Susanne Rotter); (8) Advanced waste management concepts in developing countries - foundable? Realizable? Sustainable? (Wolfgang Pfaff-Simoneit); (9) Further development of the mechanical-biological waste treatment (Stephan Schuett); (10) Airjet-pipecleaner - the automatic cleaning facility for ventilation nozzles (Armin Seidel); (11) Exploitation of reusable materials from bottom ash (Dirk Bludau); (12) Is the thermal treatment suitable for the utilization of glass-fibre reinforced plastics wastes? (Karl-Heinz Plepla); (13) Recyclability of bioplastics(An-Sophie Kitzler); (14) Development of process-oriented quality inspections for the near private collection of refuse and recyclable material (Nico Schulte).

  4. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  5. Generation amount prediction and material flow analysis of electronic waste: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbing; Tanaka, Masaru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2006-10-01

    The draft legislation on e-waste prepared by the Chinese national government assigns management responsibility to local governments. It is an urgent task for the municipal government to plan an effective system as soon as possible to divert the e-waste flow from the existing informal e-waste recycling processes. This paper presents a case study implemented in Beijing, the capital city of China, with the purpose of predicting the amount of obsolete equipment for five main kinds of electronic appliances from urban households and to analyse the flow after the end of their useful phase. The amount to be handled was 885,354 units in 2005 and is predicted to double by 2010. Due to consumption growth and the expansion of urbanization it is estimated that the amount will increase to approximate 2,820,000 units by 2020: 70% of the obsolete appliances will be awaiting collection for possible recycling, 7% will be stored at the owner's home for 1 year on average and 4% will be discarded directly and enter the municipal solid waste collecting system. The remaining items will be reused for about 3 years on average after the change of ownership. The results of this study will assist the waste management authorities of Beijing to plan the collecting system and facilities needed for management of e-waste generated in the near future.

  6. Electrodialytic upgrading of MSWI APC residue from hazardous waste to secondary resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Parés Viader, Raimon

    The aim of this project was to contribute to the development of electrodialytic treatment technology of air pollution control residues (APC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) to obtain maximal leaching reduction by optimization of treatment time and current density for different types...... of MSWI APC residues. The concept idea was in a pilot scale unit to reduce the mobility of toxic elements and salts by electrodialytic treatment enough for the residual product to constitute an environmentally safe resource for substitution of virgin resources in construction material e.......g. for substitution of cement or fillers in concrete. In general leaching could not be reduced by optimizing current density and treatment time in the pilot scale stack treatment unit, as hypothesized, even though there was evidence of dependency on current density for e.g. zinc, this was not true for most elements...

  7. Recovery of energy and nutrient resources from cattle paunch waste using temperature phased anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul D; Mehta, Chirag M; Carney, Chris; Batstone, D J

    2016-05-01

    Cattle paunch is comprised of partially digested cattle feed, containing mainly grass and grain and is a major waste produced at cattle slaughterhouses contributing 20-30% of organic matter and 40-50% of P waste produced on-site. In this work, Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) and struvite crystallization processes were developed at pilot-scale to recover methane energy and nutrients from paunch solid waste. The TPAD plant achieved a maximum sustainable organic loading rate of 1-1.5kgCODm(-3)day(-1) using a feed solids concentration of approximately 3%; this loading rate was limited by plant engineering and not the biology of the process. Organic solids destruction (60%) and methane production (230LCH4kg(-1) VSfed) achieved in the plant were similar to levels predicted from laboratory biochemical methane potential (BMP) testing. Model based analysis identified no significant difference in batch laboratory parameters vs pilot-scale continuous parameters, and no change in speed or extent of degradation. However the TPAD process did result in a degree of process intensification with a high level of solids destruction at an average treatment time of 21days. Results from the pilot plant show that an integrated process enabled resource recovery at 7.8GJ/dry tonne paunch, 1.8kgP/dry tonne paunch and 1.0kgN/dry tonne paunch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  9. How are WEEE doing? A global review of the management of electrical and electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Cherrett, T J

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents and critically analyses the current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) management practices in various countries and regions. Global trends in (i) the quantities and composition of WEEE; and (ii) the various strategies and practices adopted by selected countries to handle, regulate and prevent WEEE are comprehensively examined. The findings indicate that for (i), the quantities of WEEE generated are high and/or on the increase. IT and telecommunications equipment seem to be the dominant WEEE being generated, at least in terms of numbers, in Africa, in the poorer regions of Asia and in Latin/South America. However, the paper contends that the reported figures on quantities of WEEE generated may be grossly underestimated. For (ii), with the notable exception of Europe, many countries seem to be lacking or are slow in initiating, drafting and adopting WEEE regulations. Handling of WEEE in developing countries is typified by high rate of repair and reuse within a largely informal recycling sector. In both developed and developing nations, the landfilling of WEEE is still a concern. It has been established that stockpiling of unwanted electrical and electronic products is common in both the USA and less developed economies. The paper also identifies and discusses four common priority areas for WEEE across the globe, namely: (i) resource depletion; (ii) ethical concerns; (iii) health and environmental issues; and (iv) WEEE takeback strategies. Further, the paper discusses the future perspectives on WEEE generation, treatment, prevention and regulation. Four key conclusions are drawn from this review: global amounts of WEEE will continue unabated for some time due to emergence of new technologies and affordable electronics; informal recycling in developing nations has the potential of making a valuable contribution if their operations can be changed with strict safety standards as a priority; the pace of initiating and enacting WEEE

  10. Scanning electron microscopic analyses of Ferrocyanide tank wastes for the Ferrocyanide safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, W.S.

    1995-09-01

    This is Fiscal Year 1995 Annual Report on the progress of activities relating to the application of scanning electron microscopy in addressing the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks. The status of the FY 1995 activities directed towards establishing facilities capable of providing SEM based micro-characterization of ferrocyanide tank wastes is described. A summary of key events in the SEM task over FY 1995 and target activities in FY 1996 are presented. A brief overview of the potential applications of computer controlled SEM analytical data in light of analyses of ferrocyanide simulants performed by an independent contractor is also presented

  11. EWWW!: Electronic Resources in the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ogier, Andrea; Brown, Ladd; Bailey, Annette; Stovall, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Initiating necessary change in a modern library environment is quite a difficult task when faced with constantly-evolving technology, limited resources, and low budgets. This paper discusses Virginia Tech’s approach to successful e-resource management when faced with a multitude of challenges. The long-term goal is the development of a proactive information delivery eco-system that will allow staff to anticipate the information and data needs of a single user or user population based on previ...

  12. Method selection for sustainability assessments: The case of recovery of resources from waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, M C; Waaijers-van der Loop, S L; Heijungs, R; Broeren, M L M; Peeters, R; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, A; Shen, L; Heugens, E H W; Posthuma, L

    2017-07-15

    Sustainability assessments provide scientific support in decision procedures towards sustainable solutions. However, in order to contribute in identifying and choosing sustainable solutions, the sustainability assessment has to fit the decision context. Two complicating factors exist. First, different stakeholders tend to have different views on what a sustainability assessment should encompass. Second, a plethora of sustainability assessment methods exist, due to the multi-dimensional characteristic of the concept. Different methods provide other representations of sustainability. Based on a literature review, we present a protocol to facilitate method selection together with stakeholders. The protocol guides the exploration of i) the decision context, ii) the different views of stakeholders and iii) the selection of pertinent assessment methods. In addition, we present an online tool for method selection. This tool identifies assessment methods that meet the specifications obtained with the protocol, and currently contains characteristics of 30 sustainability assessment methods. The utility of the protocol and the tool are tested in a case study on the recovery of resources from domestic waste water. In several iterations, a combination of methods was selected, followed by execution of the selected sustainability assessment methods. The assessment results can be used in the first phase of the decision procedure that leads to a strategic choice for sustainable resource recovery from waste water in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Muddasar, E-mail: muddasar77@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar (Pakistan); Miles, Nicholas J.; Hall, Philip [Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► This work focuses on demonstrating a new scaled up technology to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. ► PCBs comminuted to <1 mm in size resulted in metallic grade concentration of 95% in some of the recovered products. ► Good separation was observed at 40 mm particle bed height due to the formation of well-structured global convection currents. ► The work reported here contributes to the development of a new approach to dry, fine particle separation. - Abstract: The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1 mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products.

  14. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  15. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  16. WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Loredana NICOLESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become one of the most significant waste streams due to the increasing amounts and environmental impact. It is very important to know how to manage the WEEE quantities, what laws are in force in this field and what policies are available to apply. This paper presents the e-waste legislation and management system from some of the European countries, as examples. The hierarchy of the management systems is presented according to the framework Directive and legislative approaches. There are also shown the "take-back" policy, the "polluter pays" principle and the "extended producer responsibility" principle. The goal of this research is to highlight the WEEE framework legislation in Europe and to present the EU policies for the WEEE management system.

  17. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in air and dust from electronic waste storage facilities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Harrad, Stuart; Ali, Nadeem; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    This study reports concentrations of brominated flame retardants in dust samples (n=25) and in indoor (n=5) and outdoor air (n=10) (using PUF disk passive air samplers) from 5 electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) storage facilities in Thailand. Concentrations of Sigma(10)PBDEs (BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153 and 154) in outdoor air in the vicinity of e-waste storage facilities ranged from 8 to 150 pg m(-3). Indoor air concentrations ranged from 46 to 350 pg m(-3), with highest concentrations found in a personal computer and printer waste storage room at an e-waste storage facility. These are lower than reported previously for electronic waste treatment facilities in China, Sweden, and the US. Concentrations of Sigma(21)PBDEs (Sigma(10)PBDEs+BDEs 181, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, 203, 206, 207, 208 and 209), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), decabromobiphenyl (BB-209) in dust were 320-290,000, 43-8700 and <20-2300 ng g(-1) respectively, with the highest concentrations of Sigma(21)PBDEs, BDE-209 and DBDPE in a room used to house discarded TVs, stereos and radios. PBDE concentrations in dust were slightly higher but within the range of those detected in workshop floor dust from an e-waste recycling centre in China. The highest concentration of BB-209 was detected in a room storing discarded personal computers and printers. Consistent with recent reports of elevated ratios of BDE-208:BDE-209 and BDE-183:BDE-209 in household electronics from South China, percentage ratios of BDE-208:BDE-209 (0.64-2.9%) and of BDE-208:BDE-183 (2.8-933%) in dust samples exceeded substantially those present in commercial deca-BDE and octa-BDE formulations. This suggests direct migration of BDE-208 and other nonabrominated BDEs from e-waste to the environment. Under realistic high-end scenarios of occupational exposure to BDE-99, workers in the facilities were exposed above a recently-published Health Based Limit Value for this congener. Reassuringly, estimated exposures to BDE

  18. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  19. In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Electronic Waste Leachate and Contaminated Well Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka M. Gbadebo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental, plant and animal exposure to hazardous substances from electronic wastes (e-wastes in Nigeria is increasing. In this study, the potential cytogenotoxicity of e-wastes leachate and contaminated well water samples obtained from Alaba International Electronic Market in Lagos, Nigeria, using induction of chromosome and root growth anomalies in Allium cepa, and micronucleus (MN in peripheral erythrocytes of Clarias gariepinus, was evaluated. The possible cause of DNA damage via the assessments of liver malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD as indicators of oxidative stress in mice was also investigated. There was significant (p < 0.05 inhibition of root growth and mitosis in A. cepa. Cytological aberrations such as spindle disturbance, C-mitosis and binucleated cells, and morphological alterations like tumor and twisting roots were also induced. There was concentration-dependent, significant (p < 0.05 induction of micronucleated erythrocytes and nuclear abnormalities such as blebbed nuclei and binucleated erythrocytes in C. gariepinus. A significant increase (p < 0.001 in CAT, GSH and MDA with concomitant decrease in SOD concentrations were observed in the treated mice. Pb, As, Cu, Cr, and Cd analyzed in the tested samples contributed significantly to these observations. This shows that the well water samples and leachate contained substances capable of inducing somatic mutation and oxidative stress in living cells; and this is of health importance in countries with risk of e-wastes exposure.

  20. Bioleaching of electronic waste using bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Enrique E; Mendes, Maria A; Nascimento, Claudio A O; Espinosa, Denise C R; Oliveira, Renato; Oliveira, Guilherme; Custodio, Marcio R

    2017-05-05

    The bacteria isolated from Hymeniacidon heliophila sponge cells showed bioleaching activity. The most active strain, Hyhel-1, identified as Bacillus sp., was selected for bioleaching tests under two different temperatures, 30°C and 40°C, showing rod-shaped cells and filamentous growth, respectively. At 30°C, the bacteria secreted substances which linked to the leached copper, and at 40°C metallic nanoparticles were produced inside the cells. In addition, infrared analysis detected COOH groups and linear peptides in the tested bacteria at both temperatures. The Hyhel-1 strain in presence of electronic waste (e-waste) induced the formation of crust, which could be observed due to bacteria growing on the e-waste fragment. SEM-EDS measurements showed that the bacterial net surface was composed mostly of iron (16.1% w/w), while a higher concentration of copper was observed in the supernatant (1.7% w/w) and in the precipitated (49.8% w/w). The substances linked to copper in the supernatant were sequenced by MALDI-TOF-ms/ms and identified as macrocyclic surfactin-like peptides, similar to the basic sequence of Iturin, a lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis. Finally, the results showed that Hyhel-1 is a bioleaching bacteria and cooper nanoparticles producer and that this bacteria could be used as a copper recovery tool from electronic waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Challenges associated with cataloguing of electronic resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to identify challenges associated with the cataloguing of e resources in some selected university libraries in south –south Nigeria. The descriptive survey design involving the use of questionnaire as the research instrument was adopted. The population comprised of cataloguers in five selected ...

  2. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    document delivery since 2000. License to access these resources has been country-wide for most databases. PERI project also includes a training component on ... Sciences (MUHAS). The final sample comprised 222 members of teaching and research staff, selected using purposive and convenience techniques. Findings ...

  3. Assessment of cadmium exposure for neonates in Guiyu, an electronic waste pollution site of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Huo, Xia; Liu, Junxiao; Peng, Lin; Li, Weiqiu; Xu, Xijin

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the levels of placental cadmium (PCd) and cord blood cadmium (CBCd) and the resulting expression of placental metallothionein (MT) in neonates and to investigate cadmium (Cd) exposure levels in neonates and mothers who live in Guiyu, China, an electronic waste (e-waste) pollution site. Among the 423 mothers included in the study from 2004/2005 to 2007, 289 lived in Guiyu (exposed group) and 134 lived in Chaonan, located 10 km away from Guiyu (controls) and had never been exposed to e-waste pollution. CBCd and PCd levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Placental MT was examined by immunohistochemistry. Information on maternal and neonatal characteristics and exposure conditions was obtained from hospital records and by personal interviews. For the 3 years, the median CBCd was higher for Guiyu neonates than for controls (3.61 vs. 1.25 μg/L), with 25.61% of Guiyu subjects exhibiting a median CBCd that exceeded the safety limit defined by the World Health Organization (5 μg/L), as compared with 14.18% of control neonates (p e-waste recycling pollutants. Staining for MT was positive and dense for 67.00% (67/100) of Guiyu neonates as compared with 32.69% (17/52) of controls (p e-waste recycling pollutants increased Cd exposure in neonates, which was accompanied by increased placental MT expression.

  4. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Closed circuit recovery of copper, lead and iron from electronic waste with citrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2017-02-01

    An integral closed circuit hydrometallurgical process is presented for base metal recovery from electronic waste. The leaching medium consists of a sodium citrate solution, from which base metals are retrieved by direct electrowinning, and the barren solution is recycled back to the leaching stage. This leaching-electrowinning cycle was repeated four times. The redox properties of the fresh citrate solution, as well as the leach liquors, were characterized by cyclic voltammetry to determine adequate conditions for metal reduction, as well as to limit citrate degradation. The leaching efficiency of electronic waste, employing the same solution after four complete cycles was 71, 83 and 94% for copper, iron and lead, respectively, compared to the original leach with fresh citrate solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOUR TO THE COLLECTION OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LOREDANA NICOLESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of household behaviour to the collection of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania based on an econometric multifactorial linear regression model. In the model, the amount of WEEE* collected in the counties rep resents the endogenous variable, and factors such as regional gross domestic product, the number of employees, monthly average net nominal earnings, unemployed persons, retirees, existing housing, education and other non - quantifiable factors with regional influence are influence factors or explanatory (exogenous variables. The period considered for the study is 2010 - 2012, and statistics are taken and processed at county level. The study is necessary to identify the extent to which those factors influence t he collection of WEEE from private households. The results of this study may lead to an improvement of the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania, being useful for policy makers and stakeholders involved in the system.

  7. Environmentally Benign, Rapid, and Selective Extraction of Gold from Ores and Waste Electronic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chunlin; Sun, Huaming; Liu, Wen-Jing; Guan, Binbin; Deng, Xudong; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of gold from ores and electronic waste is an important topic worldwide, as this precious metal has immense value in a variety of fields. However, serious environmental pollution and high energy consumption due to the use of toxic oxidation reagents and harsh reaction conditions is a well-known problem in the gold industry. Herein, we report a new chemical method based on the combined use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and pyridine (Py), which has a greatly decreased environmental impact and reagent cost, as well as mild reaction requirements. This method can directly leach Au0 from gold ore and electronic waste to form AuIII in water. The process is achieved in a yield of approximately 90 % at room temperature and a nearly neutral pH. The minimum dose of NBS/Py is as low as 10 mm, which exhibits low toxicity towards mammalian cells and animals as well as aquatic creatures. The high leaching selectivity of Au over other metals during gold leaching is demonstrated, showing that this method has great potential for practical industrial application towards the sustainable refining of gold from ores and electronic waste. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Waste materials - catalytic opportunities: an overview of the application of large scale waste materials as resources for catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Batra, V.S.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Pulford, I.D. [TERI University, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy & Environment

    2011-01-15

    In this overview, we present examples of the use of high volume waste materials in catalysis or for catalyst synthesis. Waste materials derived from both industrial and biological sources have attracted interest and this is briefly summarized. The materials described include red mud, aluminium dross, fly ash, blast furnace slag, rice husk and various kinds of shell.

  9. MODELING OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING RESOURCES: THE INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Results on modeling of quality management system of electronic information resources on the basis of the analysis of its elements functioning with use of the integrated and differentiated approaches are presented. Application of such model is illustrated on an example of calculation and optimization of parameters of a quality management system at the organization of the co-ordinated work of services of monitoring, an estimation of quality and support of electronic learning resources.

  10. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  11. E-waste : Collect more, treat better; Tracking take-back system performance for eco-efficient electronics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation establishes a methodology for evaluating the performance of take-back and treatment systems for end-oflife electronics (e-waste). First, a comprehensive classification is developed to fully understand the complex characteristics of e-waste. A multivariate model is then created to

  12. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  13. Parametric Analysis of Leachate and Water Resources around Municipal Solid Waste Landfill area in Solan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is defined as the liquid that drains from the landfill. The paper presents the physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal testing results carried out for leachate, surface and sub-surface water samples collected from municipal solid waste landfill and different water sources in Solan to find out the effect of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Physico-chemical parameters analysed were, pH, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS, sulphate, turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC while biological parameters tested were Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Most Probable Number (MPN test and ammonical nitrogen. Testing for heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Fe were carried out and have been reported. The results reveal that the leachate from the unlined landfill may have a significant impact on the groundwater resource (often used as drinking source particularly because of the toxic nature of the leachate coupled with the soil characteristics which is permeable in nature.

  14. Engineers' Responsibilities for Global Electronic Waste: Exploring Engineering Student Writing Through a Care Ethics Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ryan C; Wilson, Denise

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an empirically informed perspective on the notion of responsibility using an ethical framework that has received little attention in the engineering-related literature to date: ethics of care. In this work, we ground conceptual explorations of engineering responsibility in empirical findings from engineering student's writing on the human health and environmental impacts of "backyard" electronic waste recycling/disposal. Our findings, from a purposefully diverse sample of engineering students in an introductory electrical engineering course, indicate that most of these engineers of tomorrow associated engineers with responsibility for the electronic waste (e-waste) problem in some way. However, a number of responses suggested attempts to deflect responsibility away from engineers towards, for example, the government or the companies for whom engineers work. Still other students associated both engineers and non-engineers with responsibility, demonstrating the distributed/collective nature of responsibility that will be required to achieve a solution to the global problem of excessive e-waste. Building upon one element of a framework for care ethics adopted from the wider literature, these empirical findings are used to facilitate a preliminary, conceptual exploration of care-ethical responsibility within the context of engineering and e-waste recycling/disposal. The objective of this exploration is to provide a first step toward understanding how care-ethical responsibility applies to engineering. We also hope to seed dialogue within the engineering community about its ethical responsibilities on the issue. We conclude the paper with a discussion of its implications for engineering education and engineering ethics that suggests changes for educational policy and the practice of engineering.

  15. Towards an Assessment Methodology to Support Decision Making for Sustainable Electronic Waste Management Systems: Automatic Sorting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Barletta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of structured methodologies to support stakeholders in accessing the sustainability aspects for e-waste management. Moreover, the increasing volume of electronic waste (e-waste and the availability of automated e-waste treatment solutions demand frequent reconfigurations of facilities for efficient e-waste management. To fill this gap and guide such ongoing developments, this paper proposes a novel methodological framework to enable the assessing, visualizing and comparing of sustainability impacts (economic, environmental and social resulting from changes applied to a facility for e-waste treatment. The methodology encompasses several methods, such as discrete event simulation, life cycle assessment and stakeholder mapping. A newly-developed demonstrator for sorting e-waste is presented to illustrate the application of the framework. Not only did the methodology generate useful information for decision making, but it has also helped identify requirements for further assessing the broader impacts on the social landscape in which e-waste management systems operate. These results differ from those of previous studies, which have lacked a holistic approach to addressing sustainability. Such an approach is important to truly measure the efficacy of sustainable e-waste management. Potential future applications of the framework are envisioned in production systems handling other waste streams, besides electronics.

  16. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  17. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  18. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  19. Problems and future of electronic textbooks and electronic educational resources in technical college

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the problems and prospects of introduction of electronic textbooks in the educational space of technical colleges. Practical recommendations for the maintenance, monitoring, organization and development of electronic textbooks projects.

  20. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  1. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N.; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage. PMID:26797626

  2. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  3. Chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage in human populations exposed to the processing of electronics waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Cao, Jia; Li, Ke Qiu; Miao, Xu Hong; Li, Guang; Fan, Fei Yue; Zhao, Yong Cheng

    2009-05-01

    It has been known that the pollutants of electronic wastes (E-wastes) can lead to severe pollution to the environment. It has been reported that about 50% to 80% of E-wastes from developed countries are exported to Asia and Africa. It has become a major global environmental problem to deal with 'E-wastes'. E-waste recycling has remained primitive in Jinghai, China. This not only produces enormous environmental pollution but also can bring about toxic or genotoxic effects on the human body, threatening the health of both current residents and future generations living in the local environment. The concentration of lead in the blood of children in the E-waste polluted area in China is higher than that of the control area. But little is known about the cytogenetic effect to human beings caused by the pollution of E-wastes. In the present study, experiments have been performed to investigate the genetics of permanent residents of three villages with numerous E-waste disposal sites and to analyze the harmful effects of exposure to E-wastes. In total, 171 villagers (exposed group) were randomly selected from permanent residents of three villages located in Jinghai County of Tianjin, China, where there has been massive disposal of E-wastes. Thirty villagers were selected from the neighboring towns without E-waste disposal sites to serve as controls. Chromosomal aberrations and cytokinesis blocking micronucleus were performed to detect the cytogenetic effect, dic + r (dicentric and ring chromosome), monomer, fragments (acentric fragments, minute chromosomes, and acentric rings), translocation, satellite, quadriradial, total aberrations, and micronuclear rate were scored for each subject. DNA damage was detected using comet assay; the DNA percentage in the comet tail (TDNA%), tail moment (TM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) were recorded to describe DNA damage to lymphocytes. The total chromosome aberration rates (5.50%) and micronuclear rates (16.99%) of the exposure group

  4. Cultural Resource Protection Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Brenda Ringe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gilbert, Hollie Kae [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This plan addresses cultural resource protection procedures to be implemented during construction of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The plan proposes pre-construction review of proposed ground disturbing activities to confirm avoidance of cultural resources. Depending on the final project footprint, cultural resource protection strategies might also include additional survey, protective fencing, cultural resource mapping and relocation of surface artifacts, collection of surface artifacts for permanent curation, confirmation of undisturbed historic canal segments outside the area of potential effects for construction, and/or archaeological test excavations to assess potential subsurface cultural deposits at known cultural resource locations. Additionally, all initial ground disturbing activities will be monitored for subsurface cultural resource finds, cultural resource sensitivity training will be conducted for all construction field personnel, and a stop work procedure will be implemented to guide assessment and protection of any unanticipated discoveries after initial monitoring of ground disturbance.

  5. Environmental Policy Coordination in ASEAN: The Case of Waste From Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ibitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among numerous environmental challenges in the ASEAN region, the rapid growth of volumes of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste has increasingly drawn international attention. Economies face huge demands for electrical and electronic products, while governments are confronted with difficulties dealing with mounting volumes of e-waste. Furthermore, lucrative transnational shipment of discarded electric and electronic devices calls for a regional response to the issue. While ASEAN has failed to come up with a common policy response, certain member states have pushed ahead with their own legislation in an attempt to address this urgent issue. This study sets out to identify the determining factors which have disabled ASEAN in terms of agreeing on a common policy response in the case of dealing with e-waste. Based on the assumption that states act according to expected gains, the study applies a game theoretical approach to analyse the developments. ----- Die Bewältigung der rasant anwachsenden Menge an Elektroschrott zählt zu den großen umweltpolitischen Herausforderungen der ASEAN-Staaten. Während sich die Volkswirtschaften einer immer größer werdenden Nachfrage nach elektrischen und elektronischen Geräten gegenübergestellt sehen, vermögen es die meisten Länder nicht adäquate Entsorgungswege für Altgeräte aufzubauen. Zusätzlich zur inländischen Produktion gilt es auch mit oftmals als Gebrauchtprodukt getarntem, importiertem Elektroschrott umzugehen. Eine dringend notwendige regionale Koordinierung wurde von ASEAN noch nicht in Angriff genommen. Diese Studie geht der Frage nach, warum auf Ebene von ASEAN keine Lösungsansätze zu dieser Problematik zu erwarten sind. Zur Analyse der Entwicklungen bedient sich die Arbeit eines spieltheoretischen Ansatzes.

  6. Electronic information resource use: implications for teaching and library staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ottewill

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Within institutions of higher education, teaching staff and library-based information specialists have tended to occupy separate worlds. Although there has been some contact, in the main this has been partial and intermittent. For first-year students, one consequence of this state of affairs has been the absence of a systematic and co-ordinated strategy for enabling them to acquire, practise and develop information-gathering skills. Teaching staff have seen their role in this respect mainly in terms of issuing students with reading lists containing a mix of books and journal articles, and underlying this approach is the expectation that information specialists will be on hand to provide whatever additional help is needed to access these resources, for example through the provision of introductory talks and one-to-one support sessions. Relatively few teaching staff have incorporated library exercises into their teaching and assessment, or adopted a more creative approach to information gathering by students, such as helping them use bibliographic and other aids to prepare personalized reading lists. Consequently, when students have been required to do this at later stages of their studies, especially in the context of preparing a dissertation, they have not been adequately prepared, and often find it extremely difficult to access and evaluate information resources effectively.

  7. Framework for estimating potential wastes and secondary resources accumulated within an economy--a case study of construction minerals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Seiji; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2009-11-01

    Material stocks in economic society are considered to represent a reserve for wastes and secondary resources. From the viewpoints of proper disposal and reutilization of stocked materials, accurate estimation of the amount of materials that will emerge as wastes or secondary resources in the future is important. We defined materials that have a high probability of emerging as wastes or secondary resources as "potential wastes and secondary resources" and estimated that amount for construction minerals in Japan as a case study. The following conclusions were drawn. (1) We classified materials that are input into economic society into four categories: potential wastes and secondary resources, potential dissipated materials, dissipatively used materials, and permanent structures. By clarifying the latter three non-potential wastes and secondary resources, we performed a more accurate assessment of the wastes and secondary resources that will emerge in the future. (2) The share of potential wastes and secondary resources was estimated to be about 30% of all construction minerals that have been input into and accumulated in Japanese economic society. (3) Information related to potential dissipated materials and dissipatively used materials will provide fundamental knowledge to support analyses of the environmental impacts and resource losses which these materials might generate.

  8. Electronic Information Resources in Undergraduate Education: An Exploratory Study of Opportunities for Student Learning and Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Liz

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative interview-based study examines lecturer perspectives on the roles of electronic information resources in undergraduate education. Highlights include electronic academic libraries; changes toward more constructivist approaches to learning; information quality on the Web; plagiarism; information use; information literacy; and…

  9. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  10. Laboratory simulations of the mixed solvent extraction recovery of dominate polymers in electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Bo; Lv, Xu-Dong; Yang, Wan-Dong; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2017-11-01

    The recovery of four dominant plastics from electronic waste (e-waste) using mixed solvent extraction was studied. The target plastics included polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN). The extraction procedure for multi-polymers at room temperature yielded PC, PS, ABS, and SAN in acceptable recovery rates (64%, 86%, 127%, and 143%, respectively, where recovery rate is defined as the mass ratio of the recovered plastic to the added standard polymer). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the recovered plastics' purity using a similarity analysis. The similarities ranged from 0.98 to 0.99. Another similar process, which was denoted as an alternative method for plastic recovery, was examined as well. Nonetheless, the FTIR results showed degradation may occur over time. Additionally, the recovery cost estimation model of our method was established. The recovery cost estimation indicated that a certain range of proportion of plastics in e-waste, especially with a higher proportion of PC and PS, can achieve a lower cost than virgin polymer product. It also reduced 99.6%, 30.7% and 75.8% of energy consumptions and CO2 emissions during the recovery of PC, PS and ABS, and reduced the amount of plastic waste disposal via landfill or incineration and associated environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increase male genital diseases morbidity linked to informal electronic waste recycling in Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Li, Yan; Zhuang, Bingrong; Huo, Xia

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, occupational and environmental exposure to toxic pollutants has increasingly contributed to declining sperm quality and increasing morbidity of human male genital diseases. This study explored the effects of electronic waste (e-waste) environmental pollutions on male genital health in Guiyu, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in the world. We collected outpatient case information from 2001 to 2009 in Guiyu and a control hospital and performed statistical analysis on male genital diseases morbidity (MGDM). The MGDM in Guiyu and the control hospital per thousand from 2004 to 2009 were 1.410/0.403 (2004), 0.539/0.385 (2005), 0.248/0.284 (2006), 0.485/0.195 (2007), 1.107/0.272 (2008), and 0.741/0.586 (2009) while the average total MGDM from 2004 to 2009 were 0.753 and 0.355 per thousand, respectively. Percentage of occurrence of epididymitis, impotence and prospermia, redundant prepuce, gonorrhea, urethritis, sexual function dysfunction, azoospermia, asthenospermia, and unknown etiology male sterility were higher in Guiyu (P e-waste environmental pollution in Guiyu, especially for diseases that could be influenced by environmental factors, and it may influence local population diathesis.

  12. Export of toxic chemicals - A review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk; Wu, S.C.; Deng, W.J.; Yu, X.Z. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Luo, Q. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Dioxin Laboratory, and Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Leung, A.O.W. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, C.S.C. [Department of Earth Sciences, Hong Kong University, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Luksemburg, W.J.; Wong, A.S. [Vista Analytical Laboratory, Inc., 1104 Windfield Way, El Dorado Hills, CA (United States)

    2007-09-15

    This paper reviews the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants such as flame retardants (PBDEs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals/metalloid concentrations of different environmental media at Guiyu, a traditional rice-growing village located in southeastern Guangdong Province (PR China), which has turned into an intensive electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site. Incomplete combustion of e-waste in open air and dumping of processed materials are the major sources of various toxic chemicals. By comparing with existing data available in other areas and also guidelines adopted in different countries, it is obvious that the environment is highly contaminated by these toxic chemicals derived from the recycling processes. For example, the monthly concentration of the sum of 22 PBDE congeners contained in PM{sub 2.5} (16.8 ng m{sup -3}) of air samples at Guiyu was 100 times higher than published data. In order to safeguard the environment and human health, detailed investigations are urgently needed, especially on tracking the exposure pathways of different toxic chemicals which may affect the workers and local residents especially mothers, infants and children. - Uncontrolled e-waste recycling is ruining the environment.

  13. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    -case scenario, only 47% of the total materials in RVCs are ultimately recycled. While this low material recovery is mainly due to the lower plastic recycling rate, other market realities and the complex material flows in the recycling chain also contribute to it. The study provides a robust methodological...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...... approach for assessing the EoL performance based on the knowledge of a product and its complex recycling chain. The lessons learned can be used to support both the design and EoL processing of products with similar features, which carry a high potential for resource recovery, especially at the initial...

  14. Electronic Waste in Bangladesh: Evaluating the Situation, Legislation and Policy and Way Forward With Strategy and Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Mahbub; Bahauddin Khalid Md.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazar...

  15. Electronic waste recovery in Finland: Consumers' perceptions towards recycling and re-use of mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylä-Mella, Jenni; Keiski, Riitta L; Pongrácz, Eva

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' awareness and perceptions towards mobile phone recycling and re-use. The results are based on a survey conducted in the city of Oulu, Finland, and analysed in the theoretical framework based on the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and value-belief-norm (VBN). The findings indicate that consumers' awareness of the importance and existence of waste recovery system is high; however, awareness has not translated to recycling behaviour. The survey reveals that 55% of respondents have two or more unused mobile phones at homes. The more phones stored at homes, the more often reasons 'I don't know where to return' and/or 'have not got to do it yet' were mentioned. This indicates that proximity and the convenience of current waste management system are inadequate in promoting the return of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). To facilitate re-use, and the highest level of recovery, consumers will need to be committed to return end-of-use electronics to WEEE collection centres without delays. Further, the supply and demand of refurbished mobile phones do not meet at this moment in Finland due to consumer's storing habits versus expectations of recent features under guarantee and unrealistic low prizes. The study also points out that, in order to change current storing habits of consumers, there is an explicit need for more information and awareness on mobile phone collection in Finland, especially on regarding retailers' take-back. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recovery of gold from hydrometallurgical leaching solution of electronic waste via spontaneous reduction by polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhao Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is primarily designed to develop an environmentally-benign approach for the recovery of precious metals, especially gold, from the ever increasingly-discarded electronic wastes (e-waste. By coupling the metal reduction process with an increase in the intrinsic oxidation state of the aniline polymers, and the subsequent re-protonation and reduction of the intrinsically oxidized polymer to the protonated emeraldine (EM salt, polyaniline (PANi films and polyaniline coated cotton fibers are able to recover metallic gold from acid/halide leaching solutions of electronic wastes spontaneously and sustainably. The current technique, which does not require the use of extensive extracting reagents or external energy input, can recover as much as 90% of gold from the leaching acidic solutions. The regeneration of polyaniline after gold recovery, as confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, promises the continuous operation using the current approach. The as-recovered elemental gold can be further concentrated and purified by incineration in air.

  17. Electronic textbooks as a professional resource after dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael L; Strother, Elizabeth A; Brunet, Darlene P; Gallo, John R

    2012-05-01

    In two previous studies of dental students' attitudes about the VitalSource Bookshelf, a digital library of dental textbooks, students expressed negative opinions about owning and reading electronic textbooks. With the assumption that dentists would find the digital textbooks useful for patient care, the authors surveyed recent graduates to determine if their attitude toward the VitalSource Bookshelf had changed. A brief survey was sent to 119 alumni from the classes of 2009 and 2010 of one U.S. dental school. Forty-seven (39.5 percent) completed the questionnaire. Eighteen respondents (48.3 percent) reported using the e-textbooks often or sometimes. The twenty-nine dentists who said they have not used the collection since graduation reported preferring print books or other online sources or having technical problems when downloading the books to a new computer. Only five respondents selected the VitalSource Bookshelf as a preferred source of professional information. Most of the respondents reported preferring to consult colleagues (37.8 percent), the Internet (20 percent), or hardcopy books (17.8 percent) for information. When asked in an open-ended question to state their opinion of the Bookshelf, nineteen (42.2 percent) responded positively, but almost one-third of these only liked the search feature. Six respondents reported that they never use the program. Twenty-two said they have had technical problems with the Bookshelf, including fifteen who have not been able to install it on a new computer. Many of them said they have not followed up with either the dental school or VitalSource support services to overcome this problem. Our study suggests that dentists, similar to dental students, dislike reading electronic textbooks, even with the advantage of searching a topic across more than sixty dental titles.

  18. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.K.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Y.B. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400 ± 254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931 ± 772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7 ± 26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94 ± 0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88–98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites. - Highlights: ► Food basket analysis was conducted in 2 major e-waste processing sites in China. ► Different food items were contaminated by PBDE contained in e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents had an potential unsafe level of PBDE dietary exposure.

  19. Urban Biomining: Biological Extraction of Metals and Materials from Electronics Waste Using a Synthetic Biology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina-Navarrete, J.; Rothschild, L.

    2016-12-01

    End-of-life electronics waste (e-waste) containing toxic and valuable materials is a rapidly progressing human health and environmental issue. Using synthetic biology tools, we have developed a recycling method for e-waste. Our innovation is to use a recombinant version of a naturally-occurring silica-degrading enzyme to depolymerize the silica in metal- and glass- containing e-waste components, and subsequently, to use engineered bacterial surfaces to bind and separate metals from a solution. The bacteria with bound metals can then be used as "bio-ink" to print new circuits using a novel plasma jet electronics printing technology. Here, we present the results from our initial studies that focus on the specificity of metal-binding motifs for a cognate metal. The candidate motifs that show high affinity and specificity will be engineered into bacterial surfaces for downstream applications in biologically-mediated metal recycling. Since the chemistry and role of Cu in metalloproteins is relatively well-characterized, we are using Cu as a proxy to elucidate metal and biological ligand interactions with various metals in e-waste. We assess the binding parameters of 3 representative classes of Cu-binding motifs using isothermal titration calorimetry; 1) natural motifs found in metalloproteins, 2) consensus motifs, and 3) rationally designed peptides that are predicted, in silico, to bind Cu. Our results indicate that naturally-occurring motifs have relative high affinity and specificity for Cu (association constant for Cu Ka 104 M-1, Zn Ka 103 M-1) when competing ions are present in the aqueous milieu. However, motifs developed through rational design by applying quantum mechanical methods that take into account complexation energies of the elemental binding partners and molecular geometry of the cognate metal, not only show high affinity for the cognate metal (Cu Ka 106 M-1), but they show specificity and discrimination against other metal ions that would be

  20. Waste and resources management. Ordinance on Environmentally Compatible Storage of Waste from Human Settlements and on Biological Waste Treatment Facilities (Landfill Ordinance - AbfAblV) - one year on; Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. 1 Jahr Abfallablagerungsverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Bergs, C.G.; Kosak, G.; Wallmann, R.; Bidlingmaier, W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    As early as the beginning of 2005 there were signs of trouble ahead resulting from the new Landfill Ordinance - it was only the extent of the trouble that was somewhat underestimated. Suddenly and unexpected to everyone, the industrial wastes that were supposed to have been avoided or reutilised were there again. These ''returned wastes'', in most cases arisings that were not taken into account during plant design, are currently causing serious capacity problems both in waste incineration and in mechanical biological waste treatment plants. In not a few cases the originally planned supply rates are being exceeded by up to 35%, with dramatic consequences. Another source of problems is the lack of utilisation capacities for high-caloric waste fractions, especially for those from mechanical biological waste treatment. The underlying causes are manifold, ranging from market misjudgment, insufficient fuel processing capacities to supposed or factual quality problems with the generated secondary fuel. The only remedial option available at present - at least from the legal viewpoint - is interim storage. The changed framework conditions for biowaste and green waste utilisation brought about by the Renewable Energy Law offers new interesting perspectives. Numerous unresolved questions and quite as many solution proposals provide reason enough for making residual waste treatment and biowaste utilisation one of the focal topics of the congress. Many EU countries, but also developing and threshold countries, are on the verge of making decisions on waste utilisation and treatment. The experiences, positive and negative, that have been gained to date in Germany with the full-area implementation of residual waste treatment can serve these countries as a valuable guide. Another focal topic of the congress is climate and resource protection.

  1. Potential reuse of small household waste electrical and electronic equipment: Methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a general methodology for assessing and estimating the potential reuse of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE), focusing on devices classified as domestic appliances. Specific tests for visual inspection, function and safety have been defined for ten different types of household appliances (vacuum cleaner, iron, microwave, toaster, sandwich maker, hand blender, juicer, boiler, heater and hair dryer). After applying the tests, reuse protocols have been defined in the form of easy-to-apply checklists for each of the ten types of appliance evaluated. This methodology could be useful for reuse enterprises, since there is a lack of specific protocols, adapted to each type of appliance, to test its potential of reuse. After applying the methodology, electrical and electronic appliances (used or waste) can be segregated into three categories: the appliance works properly and can be classified as direct reuse (items can be used by a second consumer without prior repair operations), the appliance requires a later evaluation of its potential refurbishment and repair (restoration of products to working order, although with possible loss of quality) or the appliance needs to be finally discarded from the reuse process and goes directly to a recycling process. Results after applying the methodology to a sample of 87.7kg (96 units) show that 30.2% of the appliances have no potential for reuse and should be diverted for recycling, while 67.7% require a subsequent evaluation of their potential refurbishment and repair, and only 2.1% of them could be directly reused with minor cleaning operations. This study represents a first approach to the "preparation for reuse" strategy that the European Directive related to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment encourages to be applied. However, more research needs to be done as an extension of this study, mainly related to the identification of the feasibility of repair or refurbishment operations

  2. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  3. A Two-Stage Waste Gasification Reactor for Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build, and test a two-stage waste processing reactor for space applications. Our proposed technology converts waste from space missions into...

  4. Finding value in waste: Identifying opportunities for growth in a secondary resources economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Moving the South African waste sector away from landfilling provides recognised social, environmental and economic opportunities for the country. This paper presents some of the key findings emerging from research undertaken by the CSIR on the waste...

  5. 17. Dialogue on waste management MV. Current developments in waste and resources economics. Proceedings; 17. DIALOG Abfallwirtschaft MV. Aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)

    2016-08-01

    This proceedings of 17th DIALOG Waste Management Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania contains 13 lectures. The topics were: Phosphorus recycling of wastewater and sewage sludge (Robert Ristow); Current waste legislation developments (Wolfgang Siederer); Further development of the recycling industry (Andreas Bruckschen); Resource-efficient recycling business - a challenge for municipalities (Holger Thaerichen); Brick Recycling (Anette Mueller); Who has the buck? competence and responsibility in collection, transportation and recycling of waste electrical equipment (Hans-Bernhard Rhein); Recovery of biogenic waste - Development, status and prospects (Martin Kranert); Experience in the bio-waste collection in the district of Western Pomerania-Ruegen (Torsten Ewert); Biowaste concept of OVVD GmbH (Stephan Schuett); Quo vadis BAWA Schwerinum? Biowaste treatment facility Schwerin - first operation experience (Andreas Lange); Future marketing opportunities for compost (Anke Boisch); Status and prospects of waste and substance flow management (Michael Nelles); Development of separate collection of biowaste quantities in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. [German] Dieser Tagungsband von der 17. DIALOG Abfallwirtschaft Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Rostock enthaelt 13 Vortraege. Die Themen waren: Phosphor-Recycling aus Abwasser und Klaerschlamm (Robert Ristow); Aktuelle abfallrechtliche Entwicklungen (Wolfgang Siederer); Weiterentwicklung der Recyclingwirtschaft (Andreas Bruckschen); Ressourceneffiziente Wertstoffwirtschaft ? eine Herausforderung fuer die Kommunen (Holger Thaerichen); Ziegelrecycling (Anette Mueller et. al.); Wer hat den schwarzen Peter? Zustaendigkeiten und Verantwortlichkeiten bei Sammlung, Transport und Verwertung von Elektroaltgeraeten (Hans-Bernhard Rhein); Verwertung biogener Abfaelle - Entwicklung, Stand und Perspektiven (Martin Kranert); Erfahrungen bei der Bioabfallerfassung im Landkreis Vorpommern-Ruegen (Torsten Ewert); Bioabfallkonzept der OVVD GmbH (Stephan

  6. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF CAMEROON FORESTS RESOURCES: PROVIDING TIMBER WASTE TO THE POOR POPULATIONS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Benjamin Noumo Foko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is covered by about 20 million hectares of forests. Timber exploitation is the second source of external income after petroleum. Besides, Cameroon’s forest has several other functions. Yet the threat to the very existence and survival of this forest is rapidly increasing due to overexploitation by logging companies and for firewood. Despite its usefulness, a substantial volume of the wood felled by timber exploiters is abandoned as waste to rot. This waste can be used as firewood by households even for building and making of furniture by small-scale users like carpenters if they had access to it. This paper encourages the use of timber waste as an alternative to kerosene, which has become very expensive and unaffordable due to the general rise in the price of petroleum products in recent years. The overexploitation of forests can therefore be limited by putting the waste timber into use. It will go along to reduce freshly cut wood which is usually cut illegally and uncontrollably and which is a major source of depletion of forest resources. This project, once achieved will forever last because it will always generate revenue to the groups involve in the collection and the distribution of forest waste which will make money from sales even if they were to sell cheaper since the major cost is transportation and the waste wood is also cheap to obtain from the logging companies or even costless since they have less interest in it.

  7. PPLICATION OF COAL MINING WASTE IN THE PRODUCTION OF STRUCTURAL CERAMICS USING AN ECOLOGICALLY FRIENDLY AND RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that the use of spoil heaps (coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics is expedient. It shows the reduction of negative ecological effects during the life cycle when coal mining waste is used in the initial blend for the production of structural ceramics. It shows that the development of the recommendations for the use of coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics is an urgent issue as far as the use of coal mining waste in the production of structural ceramics can lead both to the achievement of resource saving and positive ecological effect and to the undesirable decrease of the basic physical and mechanical properties of the final products when the structure of the mix is inappropriate. In order to develop these recommendations the authors have examined the microstructure, mineral composition and physical and mechanical properties of structural ceramics produced with the use of coal mining waste, which effect the consumer properties of the target material. As a result of the research the authors have made the conclusions about the nature and degree of impact of coal mining waste quantity on the physical and mechanical properties of construction ceramics. The comparison of the data received during the measurement of the basic physical and mechanical properties of construction ceramics with the results of the research of microstructure, elemental and mineral composition of the samples has shown their correlation.

  8. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Insubria University of Varese, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy); Ragazzi, Marco [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Istrate, Irina Aura [Department of Energy Production and Use, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Rada, Elena Cristina [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review on data regarding WEEE management in Italy and in Romania. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems that countries that will enter in the EU will have to solve facing with the WEEE management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot experiences useful for the awareness campaign of the population. - Abstract: The paper presents some data regarding waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) management in one of the founding countries of the EU, Italy, and in a recent entry into the EU, Romania. The aim of this research was to analyze some problems that countries entering the EU will have to solve with respect to WEEE management. The experiences of Italy and Romania could provide an interesting reference point. The strengths and weaknesses that the two EU countries have encountered can be used in order to give a more rational plan for other countries. In Italy the increase of WEEE collection was achieved in parallel with the increase of the efficiency of selective Municipal Solid Waste collection. In Romania, pilot experiences were useful to increase the awareness of the population. The different interests of the two populations towards recyclable waste led to a different scenario: in Romania all types of WEEE have been collected since its entrance into the EU; in Italy the 'interest' in recycling is typically related to large household appliances, with a secondary role of lighting equipment.

  9. Export of toxic chemicals - a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M H; Wu, S C; Deng, W J; Yu, X Z; Luo, Q; Leung, A O W; Wong, C S C; Luksemburg, W J; Wong, A S

    2007-09-01

    This paper reviews the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants such as flame retardants (PBDEs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals/metalloid concentrations of different environmental media at Guiyu, a traditional rice-growing village located in southeastern Guangdong Province (PR China), which has turned into an intensive electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site. Incomplete combustion of e-waste in open air and dumping of processed materials are the major sources of various toxic chemicals. By comparing with existing data available in other areas and also guidelines adopted in different countries, it is obvious that the environment is highly contaminated by these toxic chemicals derived from the recycling processes. For example, the monthly concentration of the sum of 22 PBDE congeners contained in PM(2.5) (16.8ngm(-3)) of air samples at Guiyu was 100 times higher than published data. In order to safeguard the environment and human health, detailed investigations are urgently needed, especially on tracking the exposure pathways of different toxic chemicals which may affect the workers and local residents especially mothers, infants and children.

  10. Heavy metal contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Changjiang; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities at a regional center, Guiyu, Guangdong, China on heavy metal pollution in the surrounding waterway system. Surface water and sediment collected from the Lianjiang River and its tributaries were analyzed for concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As. Spatially, heavy metals in water and sediment samples decreased downstream of Lianjiang River from Guiyu to the estuary at Haimen Bay. Temporally, heavy metal concentrations in the surface water were high in the rainy season and low in the dry season. In particular, concentrations of Cu from surface water in the Guiyu area were 2.4 to 131 times the reference background concentration, followed in descending order by Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As. However, when compared with China's Environmental Quality Standard, Cd was considered the most harmful element, followed by Hg, Pb, and Cu. Concentrations of Cu in sediment samples in the Guiyu area were 3.2 to 429 times the reference background concentration, followed by Ni, Hg, Pb, Cd, and As. Our findings suggested that high concentrations of heavy metal observed in Guiyu, Lianjiang River and the Haimen Bay could be attributed to the direct effects of e-waste recycling in Guiyu.

  11. Characterisation and materials flow management for waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics from German dismantling centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Dagmar; Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Markowski, Jens; Wagenknecht, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment is a complex waste stream and treatment options that work for one waste category or product may not be appropriate for others. A comprehensive case study has been performed for plastic-rich fractions that are treated in German dismantling centres. Plastics from TVs, monitors and printers and small household appliances have been characterised extensively. Based on the characterisation results, state-of-the-art treatment technologies have been combined to design an optimised recycling and upgrade process for each input fraction. High-impact polystyrene from TV casings that complies with the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) was produced by applying continuous density separation with yields of about 60%. Valuable acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polycarbonate can be extracted from monitor and printer casings by near-infrared-based sorting. Polyolefins and/or a halogen-free fraction of mixed styrenics can be sorted out by density separation from monitors and printers and small household appliances. Emerging separation technologies are discussed to improve recycling results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Fully integrated modelling for sustainability assessment of resource recovery from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward-Hopkins, Joel; Busch, Jonathan; Purnell, Phil; Zwirner, Oliver; Velis, Costas A; Brown, Andrew; Hahladakis, John; Iacovidou, Eleni

    2018-01-15

    This paper presents an integrated modelling approach for value assessments, focusing on resource recovery from waste. The method tracks and forecasts a range of values across environmental, social, economic and technical domains by attaching these to material-flows, thus building upon and integrating unidimensional models such as material flow analysis (MFA) and lifecycle assessment (LCA). We argue that the usual classification of metrics into these separate domains is useful for interpreting the outputs of multidimensional assessments, but unnecessary for modelling. We thus suggest that multidimensional assessments can be better performed by integrating the calculation methods of unidimensional models rather than their outputs. To achieve this, we propose a new metric typology that forms the foundation of a multidimensional model. This enables dynamic simulations to be performed with material-flows (or values in any domain) driven by changes in value in other domains. We then apply the model in an illustrative case highlighting links between the UK coal-based electricity-production and concrete/cement industries, investigating potential impacts that may follow the increased use of low-carbon fuels (biomass and solid recovered fuels; SRF) in the former. We explore synergies and trade-offs in value across domains and regions, e.g. how changes in carbon emissions in one part of the system may affect mortality elsewhere. This highlights the advantages of recognising complex system dynamics and making high-level inferences of their effects, even when rigorous analysis is not possible. We also indicate how changes in social, environmental and economic 'values' can be understood as being driven by changes in the technical value of resources. Our work thus emphasises the advantages of building fully integrated models to inform conventional sustainability assessments, rather than applying hybrid approaches that integrate outputs from parallel models. The approach we

  13. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater screenings for resource recovery and waste reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wid, N.; Horan, N. J.

    2016-06-01

    Wastewater screenings are produced during the first stage of the wastewater treatment process and at present are disposed of to landfill. This material may not only cause operational failure to the treatment system, but also lead to environmental problems. In view of the high organic content of screenings, anaerobic digestion method may not only offer the potential for energy recovery, but also nutrient. In this study the, anaerobic batch digestion was performed at different dry solids concentrations of screenings to study the potential of biogas and phosphorus recovery. The tests demonstrated wastewater screenings were amenable to anaerobic digestion with methane yield was 355 m3/kg VS, which are comparable to the previous results. The digestate was high in P content and can be recovered up to 41%. This study also shows that anaerobic digestion was not only to turn this waste into useful resources, but also has a potential in reducing the organic content up to 31% for safe disposal. In this way the amount of wastewater screenings going to landfill is not only can be reduced, but also valuable products such as methane and phosphorus can also be recovered.

  14. Electronic Waste in Bangladesh: Evaluating the Situation, Legislation and Policy and Way Forward With Strategy and Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahbub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  15. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  16. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  17. Determination of heavy metals and halogens in plastics from electric and electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakakis, Emmanouil; Janz, Alexander; Bilitewski, Bernd; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-10-01

    The presence of hazardous substances and preparations in small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE) found in the residual household waste stream of the city of Dresden, Germany has been investigated. The content of sWEEE plastics in heavy metals and halogens is determined using handheld X-ray fluorescence analysis (HXRF), elemental analysis by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and ion exchange chromatography (IEC). Mean value of results for heavy metals in samples (n=51) by AAS are 17.4 mg/kg for Pb, 5.7 mg/kg for Cd, 8.4 mg/kg for Cr. The mass fraction of an additive as shown by HXRF (n=161) can vary over a wide range. Precise deductions as regards sWEEE plastics content in hazardous substances and preparations cannot be made. Additional research would be expedient regarding the influence of hazardous substances to recycling processes, in particular regarding the contamination of clean fractions in the exit streams of a WEEE treatment plant. Suitable standards for calibrating HXRF for use on EEE plastics or complex electr(on)ic components do not exist and should be developed.

  18. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Bromine in plastic consumer products - Evidence for the widespread recycling of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-12-01

    A range of plastic consumer products and components thereof have been analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in a low density mode for Br as a surrogate for brominated flame retardant (BFR) content. Bromine was detected in about 42% of 267 analyses performed on electronic (and electrical) samples and 18% of 789 analyses performed on non-electronic samples, with respective concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 171,000μgg-1 and 2.6 to 28,500μgg-1. Amongst the electronic items, the highest concentrations of Br were encountered in relatively small appliances, many of which predated 2005 (e.g. a fan heater, boiler thermostat and smoke detector, and various rechargers, light bulb collars and printed circuit boards), and usually in association with Sb, a component of antimony oxide flame retardant synergists, and Pb, a heavy metal additive and contaminant. Amongst the non-electronic samples, Br concentrations were highest in items of jewellery, a coffee stirrer, a child's puzzle, a picture frame, and various clothes hangers, Christmas decorations and thermos cup lids, and were often associated with the presence of Sb and Pb. These observations, coupled with the presence of Br at concentrations below those required for flame-retardancy in a wider range of electronic and non-electronic items, are consistent with the widespread recycling of electronic plastic waste. That most Br-contaminated items were black suggests the current and recent demand for black plastics in particular is met, at least partially, through this route. Given many Br-contaminated items would evade the attention of the end-user and recycler, their disposal by conventional municipal means affords a course of BFR entry into the environment and, for food-contact items, a means of exposure to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  1. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  2. Investigation of consumer behavior on discarding of their electrical/electronic waste: A case of Gaborone city

    OpenAIRE

    Paul T Mburu; Tshetlhane Tuduetso

    2013-01-01

    E-waste is growing at a precipitous rate in African cities in response economic growth and growth in city population which result to a steady rise in environmental degradation. The problem is compounded by the importation of second hand computer-wares and obsolete junk. The objective of this paper therefore was to investigate consumer behaviour on discarding their electrical/electronic waste. The study was based in Gaborone city. A questionnaire was administered to 200 different households ra...

  3. Investigation of possibility for stabilization and valorization of electric ARC furnace dust and glass from electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranitović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents investigation of possibility for electric arc furnace dust (EAFD and electronic waste (e-waste valorization trough stabilization process, in order to achieve concurrent management of these two serious ecological problems. EAFD is an ineviTab. waste material coming from the electric arc furnace steel production process, classified as a hazardous waste. Furthermore, it is well known that residual materials generated in the ewaste recycling process, like LCD (Liquid crystal displays waste glass, are not suiTab. for landfill or incineration. In this study, these two materials were used for investigation of possibility for their valorization in ceramic industry. Thus, an innovative synergy of waste streams from metallurgical and e-waste recycling industry is presented. Investigation included a complex characterization of raw materials and their mixtures, using chemical methods, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, as well as methods for determining the physical and mechanical properties. Based on these results, it was found that material suiTab. for use in ceramics industry as a partial substituent of quartzite and fluxing components can be produced. Besides solving the environmental problem related to EAFD and LCD disposal, by replacement of raw materials certain economic effects can be achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34033

  4. Awareness and use of electronic resources at a university campus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looks into the use of electronic resources by the faculty members of College of Technology Education, Kumasi of the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Sixty-two copies of a questionnaire were sent to the entire faculty and 31 were returned which gave a response rate of 50%. The responses showed very ...

  5. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens,

  6. Generation of domestic waste electrical and electronic equipment on Fernando de Noronha Island: qualitative and quantitative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Dhiego Raphael Rodrigues; de Oliveira, José Diego; Selva, Vanice Fragoso; Silva, Maisa Mendonça; Santos, Simone Machado

    2017-08-01

    The accelerated growth trajectory of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a matter of concern for governments worldwide. In developing countries, the problem is more complex because municipal waste management is still a challenge for municipalities. Fernando de Noronha Island, an environmentally protected area, has a transfer station for solid waste before it is sent to the final destination abroad, which is different waste management model to most urban areas. In order to check the specifics of management of WEEE, this study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the generation of this type of waste on the main island of Fernando de Noronha, taking into consideration aspects related to consumption habits and handling of waste. During the in situ research, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of 83 households. The results provide a picture of the generation of WEEE for a period of 1 year, when a production of 1.3 tons of WEEE was estimated. Relationships between education level and monthly income and between education level and number of plasma/LCD TVs and washing machines were confirmed. Another important result is that only two socioeconomic variables (monthly income and education level) are related to two recycling behavior variables. In addition, the population and government treat WEEE as ordinary waste, ignoring its contaminant potential. Despite the existence of relevant legislation concerning the treatment and disposal of WEEE, additional efforts will be required by the government in order to properly manage this type of waste on the island.

  7. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  8. Compilation the Optimal Strategies of Electrical and Electronic (WEEE Waste Management by Using SWOT, Effective Step in Protecting the Environment, Case Study: Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Dehghani Tafti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The most important environment issues that have been raised about the increase of industry electronics waste in last two decade. Development of countries, electronic services and the use of electrical appliances in life are to increase production of electronic waste. Electronic waste with compounds such as toxic heavy metals (cadmium and lead and precious and recyclable metals (gold and copper are in priority management. The aim of this study was to determine optimal strategies for the management of electronic waste using the SWOT model. Methods: SWOT is effective way to determine the direction and management of solid waste management system. This method based on the analysis of internal and external affecting management factors in terms of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. In this study, identification of the intended area and obtain basic information through a literature review and institutional visits and data collection was conducted through face to face with experts and field observations. In the form of a matrix analysis, internal and external factors that affecting on the condition of Yazd electrical and electronic waste management were analyzed by SWOT. Results and Conclusion: The study showed that the Yazd waste management system in using strengths to avoid threats and overcoming weaknesses and maximum use of opportunities to act weak. The precious metals can be considered as an important factor in waste management strategies. Lack of electrical and electronic waste production and quality knowledge can be considered as effective factors in the management of these wastes in Yazd.

  9. Histopathological examination of the prepuce after circumcision: Is it a waste of resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Naji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this article is to evaluate the histopathological findings of foreskin after circumcision for medical indications and to find out if analyzing the biopsy is a waste of resources. Material and Methods: This retrospective analysis was carried out of the medical records and histopathological findings of 112 boys who underwent circumcision from June 2002 to June 2005. The study group consisted of 52 boys that were circumcised for medical indications, while the control group consisted of 60 boys who underwent circumcision for religious belief. Results: The mean (range age of children in the study group was six (2-12 years. 36 boys had phimosis, 15 had recurrent balanoposthitis and one had paraphimosis as an indication for circumcision. Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO was diagnosed in eight out of 52 biopsies (15%. In five of the eight BXO, the histopathological examination revealed focal lichenoid infiltrate which was considered as early form of BXO. There was no suspicion of BXO in the physical examination of those five patients. Chronic inflammation was reported in seven patients, while minor changes in the form of minimal inflammation and oedema were found in another 15 patients. The rest of the biopsies (22 patients showed normal preputial pathology. The histopathological examinations of the control group revealed chronic inflammation in three patients and acute inflammation with cellular oedema in another three patients. Conclusions: There is a place for routine biopsy after circumcision for medical indications. The clinical examination failed to suspect 5 of the 8 cases of BXO that were diagnosed by histopathology.

  10. A Guide to Conducting Student Food Waste Audits: A Resource for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is intended to help educate students about the amount of food they waste in their school cafeterias and to encourage them to reduce waste and eat more of the nutritious foods provided through USDA's school meals programs or brought from home.

  11. Municipal solid waste management for total resource recycling: a case study on Haulien County in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Min; Liu, Chien-Chung; Dai, Wen-Chien; Hu, Allen; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Chou, Chieh-Mei

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the enforcement performance of recent Haulien County, Taiwan municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling management programs. These programs include: Mandatory Refuse Sorting and Recycling, Diverse Bulk Waste Reuse, Pay-as-you-Discharge, Total Food Waste Recycling, Restricted Use on Plastic Shopping Bags & Plastic Tableware, Recycling Fund Management, and Ash Reuse. These programs provide incentives to reduce the MSW quantity growth rate. It was found that the recycled material fraction of MSW generated in 2001 was from 6.8%, but was 32.4% in 2010 and will increase stably by 2-5% yearly in the near future. Survey data for the last few years show that only 2.68% (based on total MSW generated) of food waste was collected in 2001. However, food waste was up to 9.7% in 2010 after the Total Food Waste Recycling program was implemented. The reutilization rate of bottom ash was 20% in 2005 and up to 65% in 2010 owing to Ash Reuse Program enforcement. A quantified index, the Total Recycle Index, was proposed to evaluate MSW management program performance. The demonstrated county will move toward a zero waste society in 2015 if the Total Recycle Index approaches 1.00. Exact management with available programs can lead to slow-growing waste volume and recovery of all MSW.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish and sediment from river polluted by electronic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Qian [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Cai Zongwei [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: zwcai@hkbu.edu.hk; Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk

    2007-09-20

    The present study investigated contamination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment and fish samples collected from rivers in Guiyu, China where electronic waste (e-waste) is recycled and disposed. PBDE congeners with mono-to hepta-brominated and deca-brominated substitutions were detected using {sup 13}C{sub 12} isotope dilution GC/MS/MS and GC/MS methods, respectively. The total PBDE concentrations ranged from 4434 to 16088 ng/g (dry weight) in Nanyang River bank sediment, from 55 to 445 ng/g in Nanyang River bottom sediment and 51.3 to 365 ng/g in Lianjiang River bottom sediment in Guiyu compared with those from 16.1 to 21.4 ng/g in wastewater discharged from a vehicle repairing workshop in Lo Uk Tsuen in Hong Kong. No PBDE congeners were detected in bottom sediment and fish from Mai Po Marshes in Hong Kong. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs in mixed muscles of tilapia (Oreochromis spp) from Lianjiang River were 115 ng/g wet weight (ww) and from wastewater in Hong Kong were 4.1 ng/g ww. Highest mean PBDE concentration was obtained in liver (2687 ng/g ww), followed by abdomen muscle (1088 ng/g ww) of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) collected from Nanyang River. A significant correlation of concentration of each PBDE congener between sediment and muscle from Guiyu was observed. The present results of total PBDEs in sediment and fish were 10 and 1000 times higher than other studies. Open burning and dumping of e-waste are the major causes of PBDE contamination.

  13. Influence of impurities on the performances of HIPS recycled from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Didier; Mantaux, Olivier; Ienny, Patrick; Léger, Romain; Dumon, Michel; Lopez-Cuesta, José-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In order to produce a high quality recycled material from real deposits of electric and electronic equipment, the rate of impurities in different blended grades of reclaimed materials has to be reduced. Setting up industrial recycling procedures requires to deal with the main types of polymers presents in WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment), particularly High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) as well as other styrenic polymers such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) but also polyolefin which are present into WEEE deposit as Polypropylene (PP). The production of a substantial quantity of recycled materials implies to improve and master the compatibility of different HIPS grades. The influence of polymeric impurities has to be studied since automatic sorting techniques are not able to remove completely these fractions. Investigation of the influence of minor ABS, PS and PP polymer fractions as impurities has been done on microstructure and mechanical properties of HIPS using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) in order to determine the maximum tolerated rate for each of them into HIPS after sorting and recycling operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceived Effect of Accessibility and Utilization of Electronic Resources on Productivity of Academic Staff in Selected Nigerian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okon E. Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Access to information is vital for efficient research at universities. Electronic resources provide new platforms for information to aid in conducting research at universities. This study explores the perceived effect of accessibility and utilization of electronic resources on research productivity at Nigerian universities. A quantitative research approach was adopted for the study with a survey as research method. Data were collected for the study with a self-reporting questionnaire. Regression analysis in the study revealed that accessibility and use of electronic resources had a significant perceived positive effect on research productivity at the surveyed Nigerian universities. However, there was no significant perceived effect of accessibility and use of electronic resources by discipline on research productivity in the survey. In terms of gender, it was found that there was no significant perceived effect of accessibility and use of electronic resources by gender on research productivity among respondents at the surveyed Nigerian universities. Based on these findings, it is recommended that effective development of digital libraries in Nigerian universities would ameliorate the problems of accessibility and utilization of electronic resources by academic staff in research. Furthermore, the Nigerian university libraries should develop an electronic collection development policy to enhance equitable access and use of electronic resources at Nigerian universities. Policy for sustainable digitization of relevant library materials should be evolved to support digital libraries effectively for efficient accessibility and utilization of electronic resources.

  15. GREEN ECONOMY AND THE REVERSE LOGISTICS OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Silva Marins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the way globally accepted for economic growth representation of evolution of a country related to the findings of non consideration of environmental assets and liabilities as a measure of occupancy in the economy of the countries, this study suggests a paradigm shift in the operation of the world economy with the implementation of the Green Economy concept seeking the achievement of environmental goals necessary to a level considered optimal in terms of pollution at lower cost to society. The focus of the study is given to the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, particularly in the reverse logistics of WEEE as a potential tool for economic growth maintenance condition with sustainability. A diagnosis on the use of reverse logistics of WEEE in the world is also presented based on research conducted in countries on five continents. At the end of the study it was concluded that the application of reverse logistics in the world is still incipient with no evidence of the use of economic instruments that give opportunity for growth and sustainability. Accordingly, it is emphasized that the management of WEEE practiced in most countries has shown motivation solely on financial profit based on the export / import of waste in a kind of ruse coated green taking into account the environmental and health risks of the population in developing countries or in development, which are the main final destination of WEEE.

  16. Separating and recycling metals from mixed metallic particles of crushed electronic wastes by vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    During the treatment of electronic wastes, a crushing process is usually used to strip metals from various base plates. Several methods have been applied to separate metals from nonmetals. However, mixed metallic particles obtained from these processes are still a mixture of various metals, including some toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. With emphasis on recovering copper and other precious metals, there have hitherto been no satisfactory methods to recover these toxic metals. In this paper, the criterion of separating metals from mixed metallic particles by vacuum metallurgy is built. The results show that the metals with high vapor pressure have been almost recovered completely, leading to a considerable reduction of environmental pollution. In addition, the purity of copper in mixed particles has been improved from about 80 wt % to over 98 wt %.

  17. SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REUSE OF ELECTRONIC WASTE ORIGINATED FROM PERSONAL COMPUTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Simonetto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT are part of the day to day activities of a large part of world population, however its use involves a growing generation of electronic waste (ewaste. Due to the increasing technological innovation, it occurs that in a short time, the products become obsolete and have their life cycle reduced. The article aims to present the development, verification and validation of models of computational simulation for assessment of environmental and financial impacts caused by the extension of the life cycle of personal computers (PC through their remanufacturing. For the system modeling the System Dynamics theory was used. Results generated by the simulation model, show that the remanufacturing is a viable alternative for the reutilization of discarded computers and that it is possible, in advance, to discuss, assess and decide necessary measures for a better financial and environmental performance in the acquisition and use of ICT.

  18. Separation and Recovery of Precious Metals from Leach Liquors of Spent Electronic Wastes by Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thi Hong; Wang, Lingyun; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Solvent extraction was employed to recover precious metals (Au (III), Pd (II) and Pt (IV)) from the leach solution of spent electronic wastes containing Cu (II), Cr (III) and Fe (III). First, pure Fe (III) and Au (III) were recovered by simultaneous extraction with Cyanex 923 followed by selective stripping with HCl and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Second, Pt (IV), Pd (II) and Cu (II) were extracted by Alamine 336 from the raffinate. After the removal of Cu (II) by stripping with weak HCl, Pd (II) and Pt (IV) were separately stripped by controlling the concentration of thiourea in the mixture with HCl. A process flow sheet for the separation of precious metals was proposed.

  19. Do-it-yourself biology and electronic waste hacking: A politics of demonstration in precarious times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana; Callén, Blanca

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of do it yourself, maker and hacker spaces in Europe. Through makers and do-it-yourself initiatives, 'hacking' is moving into the everyday life of citizens. This article explores the collective and political nature of those hacks by reporting on empirical work on electronic waste and do-it-yourself biology hacking. Using Dewey's experimental approach to politics, we analyse hacks as 'inquiry' to see how they serve to articulate public and political action. We argue that do-it-yourself and makers' hacks are technical and political demonstrations. What do-it-yourself and makers' hacks ultimately demonstrate is that things can be done otherwise and that 'you' can also do it. In this sense, they have a potential viral effect. The final part of the article explores some potential shortcomings of such politics of demonstration.

  20. Copper leaching from electronic waste for the improvement of gold recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2016-11-01

    Gold recovery from electronic waste material with high copper content was investigated at ambient conditions. A chemical preliminary treatment was found necessary to remove the large quantities of copper before the precious metal can be extracted. For this purpose inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) and two organic substances EDTA and citrate, were tested. The effect of auxiliary oxidants such as air, ozone and peroxide hydroxide was studied. In pretreatments with peroxide and HCl or citrate, copper extractions greater than 90% were achieved. In the second leaching stage for gold recovery, the solid residue of the copper extraction was contacted with thiourea solutions, resulting in greater than 90% gold removal after only one hour of reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recoveries of rare elements Ga, Ge, In and Sn from waste electric and electronic equipment through secondary copper smelting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarmaa, Katri; Yliaho, Simon; Taskinen, Pekka

    2018-01-01

    The recycling and recovery of valuable metals from waste materials is one of the key issues in maintaining the sustainability of base and rare metals. Especially WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment) can be considered as a high potential resource for a number of valuable and critical metals like gallium, germanium and indium. During the mechanical processing of WEEE, these metals are primary separated into the non-ferrous scrap fractions, including copper fraction. As a consequence, the behavior of these valuable metals and the possibility of their recycling in secondary copper smelting are of great interest. This study experimentally investigates the distribution behavior of indium, gallium, germanium and tin between metallic copper and lime-free / lime-containing alumina iron silicate slags (L Cu/s [Me] = [Me] Copper /(Me) Slag ), as well as between solid Al-Fe spinel and slags (L sp/s [Me] = {Me} spinel /(Me) slag ). Moreover, the copper-slag-spinel equilibrium systems are examined. The experiments were executed simulating high alumina-bearing copper scrap smelting in typical black copper smelting conditions of pO 2  = 10 -10 -10 -5 atm (1 atm = 1.01325 × 10 5  Pa) and T = 1300 °C. The experimental technique employed utilized a highly advanced equilibration-rapid quenching method followed by Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EPMA). The results show that tin and indium can be efficiently recovered into the copper phase in reducing process conditions (pO 2 below 10 -7  atm), whereas gallium dissolved preferentially into the solid spinel phase in all conditions examined. Gallium dissolution into slag and spinel was found to occur as GaO 1.5 , whereas indium in spinel was determined to be as InO 1.5 . In addition, germanium was seen to distribute preferentially into the copper phase with L Cu/s [Ge] = 2-4, although its concentrations in all phases present were relatively low. Thus, the main route for germanium can be considered to

  2. One project`s waste is another project`s resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, J.

    1997-02-01

    The author describes the efforts being made toward pollution prevention within the DOE complex, as a way to reduce overall project costs, in addition to decreasing the amount of waste to be handled. Pollution prevention is a concept which is trying to be ingrained into project planning. Part of the program involves the concept that ultimately the responsibility for waste comes back to the generator. Parts of the program involve efforts to reuse materials and equipment on new projects, to recycle wastes to generate offsetting revenue, and to increase awareness, accountability and incentives so as to stimulate action on this plan. Summaries of examples are presented in tables.

  3. Recovery of gallium and arsenic from gallium arsenide waste in the electronics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ting [Doctoral Program, Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), Douliou, Yunlin (China); Tsai, Lung-Chang; Shu, Chi-Min [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, NYUST, Douliou, Yunlin (China); Tsai, Fang-Chang [Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan (China)

    2012-05-15

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) has both high saturated electron velocity and high electron mobility, making it useful as a semiconductor material in a variety of applications, including light-emitting diodes (LEDs), integrated circuits (ICs), and microwave appliances. A side effect of the use of gallium (Ga) is the production of a relatively large amount of hazardous waste. This study aimed at the recovery of Ga and arsenic (As) from GaAs waste using hydrometallurgical methods involving leaching and coagulation and a dry annealing process that involves annealing, vacuum separation, and sublimation by heating. Our research has shown that GaAs can be leached using nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) to obtain 100% Ga and As with a leaching solution at pH 0.1, with subsequent adjustment of the leaching solution to pH 3 with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Another method used a leaching solution at pH 2, then adjusting to pH 11 using NaOH. Ferric hydroxide (FeO(OH)) was added at 90 C after NaOH was added to the leaching solution. At pH 2 and 11, 55.5 and 21.9% of the As could be removed from the hazardous waste, respectively. The Ga could also be precipitated. When GaAs powder was heated to 1000 C over 3 h, 100% As removal was achieved, and 92.6% of the Ga was removed by formation of 99.9% gallium trioxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Arsenic was vaporized when the temperature was elevated to 1000 C, allowing arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to condense with 99.2% purity. The Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder produced was then dissolved and electrolyzed, allowing for 95.9% recovery of Ga with a purity of 99.9%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Zhang

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  5. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both pyrolysis and oxidation steps have been considered as the key solid waste processing step for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Pyrolysis is...

  6. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-07

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency.

  7. Waste cooking oil as an energy resource: review of Chinese policies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huiming; Wang, Qunwei; Mortimer, Simon R.

    2012-01-01

    Converting waste cooking oil into biofuel represents a three-win solution, dealing simultaneously with food security, pollution, and energy security. In this paper, we encode the policy documents of waste cooking oil refining biofuel in China based on content analysis, and explore the related policies from the two dimensions as basic policy tools and enterprises supply chain. Research indicates the weak institution coordination of policy issuing entities. Also, the findings show that tools of...

  8. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, Daniel, E-mail: d.savi@umweltchemie.ch [Dipl. Environmental Sci. ETH, büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Kasser, Ueli [Lic. Phil. Nat. (Chemist), büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Ott, Thomas [Dipl. Phys. ETH, Institute of Applied Simulation, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  9. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Report: recycling of flame-retarded plastics from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Leitner, Thomas; Spruzina, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Shredder residues produced in plants processing waste electric and electronic equipment are excluded from material recycling due to a variety of polymeric materials and the presence of brominated flame retardants (BFR), which might contain banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers or toxic polybrominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F). Herein we present a technological approach to transfer a significant portion of the shredder residue into recycled polymers. The technological approach consists of a density-based enrichment of styrenics, which are subjected to a solvolysis process (CreaSolv process) in a second stage. This stage allows the elimination of non-target polymers and extraction of BFR and PBDD/F. Pilot processing of 11.5 and 50 kg shredder residues indicated a material yield of about 50% in the density stage and 70-80% in the CreaSolv process, and an effective removal of BFR additives. The recycled products were proved to comply with threshold values defined by the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and the German Chemikalienverbotsverordnung. Mechanical material properties exhibited high tensile and flexural modules as well as slight impact strength, which qualify the products for applications in new electronic equipment.

  11. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  12. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-01-01

    This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions t...

  13. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  14. Vultures of the Seas: Hyperacidic Stomachs in Wandering Albatrosses as an Adaptation to Dispersed Food Resources, including Fishery Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémillet, David; Prudor, Aurélien; le Maho, Yvon; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475–4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13), markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses. PMID:22701581

  15. Vultures of the seas: hyperacidic stomachs in wandering albatrosses as an adaptation to dispersed food resources, including fishery wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grémillet

    Full Text Available Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475-4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13, markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses.

  16. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Water resource governance systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rascher, J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available CSIR research in Water Resource Governance Systems focuses on areas of policy, governance, water resource planning and management and social-ecological systems. The objective is to ensure the equitable, efficient and sustainable deployment of water...

  17. Electron Beam-Induced Immobilization of Laccase on Porous Supports for Waste Water Treatment Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The versatile oxidase enzyme laccase was immobilized on porous supports such as polymer membranes and cryogels with a view of using such biocatalysts in bioreactors aiming at the degradation of environmental pollutants in wastewater. Besides a large surface area for supporting the biocatalyst, the aforementioned porous systems also offer the possibility for simultaneous filtration applications in wastewater treatment. Herein a “green” water-based, initiator-free, and straightforward route to highly reactive membrane and cryogel-based bioreactors is presented, where laccase was immobilized onto the porous polymer supports using a water-based electron beam-initiated grafting reaction. In a second approach, the laccase redox mediators 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and syringaldehyde were cross-linked instead of the enzyme via electron irradiation in a frozen aqueous poly(acrylate mixture in a one pot set-up, yielding a mechanical stable macroporous cryogel with interconnected pores ranging from 10 to 50 µm in size. The membranes as well as the cryogels were characterized regarding their morphology, chemical composition, and catalytic activity. The reactivity towards waste- water pollutants was demonstrated by the degradation of the model compound bisphenol A (BPA. Both membrane- and cryogel-immobilized laccase remained highly active after electron beam irradiation. Apparent specific BPA removal rates were higher for cryogel- than for membrane-immobilized and free laccase, whereas membrane-immobilized laccase was more stable with respect to maintenance of enzymatic activity and prevention of enzyme leakage from the carrier than cryogel-immobilized laccase. Cryogel-immobilized redox mediators remained functional in accelerating the laccase-catalyzed BPA degradation, and especially ABTS was found to act more efficiently in immobilized than in freely dissolved state.

  18. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Streier, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    During FY-96, a performance test was carried out with funding from the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the noninvasive elemental assay capabilities of commercial companies for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals present in 8-gal drums containing surrogate waste. Commercial companies were required to be experienced in the use of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) techniques and to have a prototype assay system with which to conduct the test assays. Potential participants were identified through responses to a call for proposals advertised in the Commerce Business Daily and through personal contacts. Six companies were originally identified. Two of these six were willing and able to participate in the performance test, as described in the test plan, with some subsidizing from the DOE MWFA. The tests were conducted with surrogate sludge waste because (1) a large volume of this type of waste awaits final disposition and (2) sludge tends to be somewhat homogeneous. The surrogate concentrations of the above RCRA metals ranged from {approximately} 300 ppm to {approximately} 20,000 ppm. The lower limit was chosen as an estimate of the expected sensitivity of detection required by noninvasive, pretreatment elemental assay systems to be of value for operational and compliance purposes and to still be achievable with state-of-the-art methods of analysis. The upper limit of {approximately} 20,000 ppm was chosen because it is the opinion of the author that assay above this concentration level is within current state-of-the-art methods for most RCRA constituents. This report is organized into three parts: Part 1, Test Plan to Evaluate the Technical Status of Noninvasive Elemental Assay Techniques for Hazardous Waste; Part 2, Participants` Results; and Part 3, Evaluation of and Comments on Participants` Results.

  19. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. Methods A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (Cdeg), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall Cdeg. We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall Cdeg. Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Conclusions Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and Cdeg, indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied. PMID:26987962

  1. Opening a Can of wERMS: Texas A&M University's Experiences in Implementing Two Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Price, Apryl; Smith, Jane; Barrett, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, Texas A&M University (TAMU) has searched for a way to administer its electronic subscriptions as well as the electronic subscriptions shared among the TAMU System. In this article, we address our attempts to implement an effective electronic resource management system (ERMS), both for subscriptions on the main campus…

  2. Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabi, Okunola A. [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Biosciences and Biotechnology Department, Babcock University, Ilisan-remo, Ogun State (Nigeria); Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Bakare, Adekunle A. [Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2012-04-15

    In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p < 0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that Nigeria environment is highly contaminated by electronic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contamination level by heavy metals and organics in soils and plants in Nigeria as a result of the electronic waste is as high as the environment in China, even though China is the recipient of about 70% of the world's e-waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that e-waste leachate is genotoxic and mutagenic.

  3. Health Risks Awareness of Electronic Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Nigeria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohajinwa, Chimere M; Van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2017-01-01

    Insight into the health risk awareness levels of e-waste workers is important as it may offer opportunities for better e-waste recycling management strategies to reduce the health effects of informal e-waste recycling. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated

  4. Prevalence and injury patterns among electronic waste workers in the informal sector in Nigeria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohajinwa, Chimere May; van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G; Olumide, Adesola O; Osibanjo, Oladele; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2017-01-01

    Despite the large volume of e-waste recycled informally, the prevalence of work-related injuries among e-waste workers is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with occupational injuries among e-waste workers in the informal sector in Nigeria.

  5. Pollution control and resource reuse for alkaline hydrometallurgy of amphoteric metal hazardous wastes

    CERN Document Server

    Youcai, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of alkaline hydrometallurgy of amphoteric metal hazardous wastes. Topics focus on leaching of zinc and lead hazardous wastes, purification of leach solution of zinc and lead, electrowinning of zinc and lead from purified alkaline solutions, chemical reactions taking place in the production flowsheets, thermodynamic and spent electrolyte regeneration, alkaline hydrometallurgy of low-grade smithsonite ores, recovery of molybdenum and tungsten using ion flotation and solvent extraction processes and their application in chemical synthesis of Nb and Ta inorganic compounds, and industrial scale production of 1500-2000 t/a zinc powder using alkaline leaching–electrowinning processes. Processes described are cost-effective, generate lesser secondary pollutants, and have been applied widely in China. Readers that will find the book appealing include solid waste engineers, environmental managers, technicians, recycling coordinators, government officials, undergraduates ...

  6. Organic textile waste as a resource for sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Bo G

    2017-03-01

    New vegetation in barren areas offers possibilities for sequestering carbon in the soil. Arid and semi-arid areas (ASAs) are candidates for new vegetation. The possibility of agriculture in ASAs is reviewed, revealing the potential for cultivation by covering the surface with a layer of organic fibres. This layer collects more water from humidity in the air than does the uncovered mineral surface, and creates a humid environment that promotes microbial life. One possibility is to use large amounts of organic fibres for soil enhancement in ASAs. In the context of the European Commission Waste Framework Directive, the possibility of using textile waste from Sweden is explored. The costs for using Swedish textile waste are high, but possible gains are the sale of agricultural products and increased land prices as well as environmental mitigation. The findings suggest that field research on such agriculture in ASAs should start as soon as possible.

  7. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  8. Web Application for Annual Reporting of Waste Collection and Managment of Electrical and Electronic Equipments(RAEE)

    OpenAIRE

    Semira Catapang, Jazzey

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto trata de gestionar un tipo de residuos llamado RAEE (Residuos de Aparatos Eléctricos y Electrónicos). El objetivo principal de este proyecto es dar solución a la nueva legislación de la UE sobre la trazabilidad de la recogida y documentación de los RAEE a través de una aplicación web. This project is about a type of waste called RAEE(Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste). The main objective of this project is to give solution to the new EU legislation on traceability and...

  9. Unlocking the resource potential of organic waste: a South African perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available from cattle and dairy cows. • Rich in a wide variety of nutrients necessary for optimal bacterial growth. The methane yield of livestock waste on its own is low due to the low solids and high fibre content, of which the latter is highly resistant... waste (cow, pig and chicken manure) is an applied technology with proven excellent degrad- Table 1: Typical composition of biogas from OFMSW (Cecchi et al. 2003). Components Symbol Concentration (vol. %) Methane CH4 55–60 (50–75) Carbon dioxide CO2...

  10. Theoretical Aspects of the Use of Electronic Educational Resources in Professional Activity of Future Teachers of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Smyrnova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to determine the requirements for ESM, to study theoretical aspects of electronic educational resources in the professional activity of future teachers. The results created by the introduction of our course “Methodology development and use of electronic educational resources” for future teachers of technology ITOS in the process of professional specialty “Technology” in the educational process of higher educational institutions of Ukraine. The article states the rapid development of computer hardware and computer software, IT technologies have an opportunity to significantly develop the field of electronic educational resources. This is due to the emergence of global networks where information technologies have become the second paradigm, which is based on the current understanding of electronic educational resources. We determined that the dynamism inherent in information technology, enabling expectations of new approaches that will change the meaning of electronic educational resources.

  11. Postgraduate medical students' acceptance and understanding of scientific information databases and electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Mohammad; Khajouei, Reza; Rakhshani, Safiyeh

    2016-03-01

    The significance and validity of web-based scientific databases are increasing dramatically in the scientific community. Moreover, a great number of students use these resources without having sufficient and accurate knowledge and understanding. In order for students to use these databases and electronic resources optimally, identifying the factors that affect the understanding and acceptance of these resources seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine postgraduate medical students' acceptance and understanding of these resources. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 postgraduate medical students from Kerman University of Medical Science (KMU) in 2013. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using SPSS. In order to design the model (i.e., the interaction between study variables and to determine the relationships between them in an integrated pattern), LISREL version 8.7 and a structural equation model were used. Descriptive statistics and t-tests also were used in data analysis. The results showed that the average components of the perception of usefulness, perception of ease of use, attitude towards use, decision to use, using to perform duties, and using to increase knowledge were 4.31, 4.14, 4.24, 16.27, 20.85, and 16.13 respectively. Accordingly, the average of all these indicators was significantly higher than the assumed amount (p < 0.01). Moreover, the results obtained from factor analysis and the structural equation model indicated that the model of the present study fit the data perfectly. Based on the findings of this study, the more these databases are considered useful and easy to use, the more they are used. Therefore, designers of databases and electronic resources can design systems that are both useful and easy to learn by considering the components of the research model.

  12. Solid Waste Management in North Carolina: A Curriculum Resource Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watauga County Board of Education, Boone, NC.

    Renewal is the focus of this curriculum designed for students in kindergarten through Grade 8. The purpose of this guide is to educate students and teachers about the problems faced in managing the amount of solid waste generated by society. Each grade level curriculum is organized into activities that support exploration of the nature of solid…

  13. Metallurgical use of glass fractions from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghel, Sina; Samuelsson, Caisa

    2010-01-01

    Within the European Union, it is estimated that between 8 and 9 million tons of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) arises annually, of which television sets and computers account for an important part. Traditionally, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) have been used for TVs and computer monitors, but are rapidly being replaced by flat-screen technology. Only part of the discarded CRT glass is being recycled. Primary smelters use large amounts of silica flux to form iron-silicate slag, and can, in most cases, tolerate lead input. Use of discarded CRT glass in copper smelting is a potential alternative for utilization of the glass. The mineralogical composition of a slag sampled during ordinary slag praxis has been compared with that of a mixture of slag and CRT glass when re-melted and slowly cooled. Slag (iron-silicate slag) from Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden, was used for the experiments. Slag and glass have been mixed in various proportions: pure slag, pure glass, 90% slag-10% glass and 65% slag-35% glass, and heated in an inert atmosphere up to 1400 degrees C in a Netzsch Thermal Analysis (TA) instrument. The re-melted material has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine changes in mineralogical composition after mixing with glass. The results show that the main mineralogical component of the slag is fayalite; the CRT glass is amorphous. The main crystalline phases of the slag do not change with addition of glass. An amorphous phase appears when the addition of glass is increased, which gives the sample a different structure.

  14. RoHS regulated substances in mixed plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Schluep, Mathias; Müller, Esther; Gloor, Rolf

    2012-01-17

    The disposal and recovery of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are of considerable importance, both from an environmental and an economic perspective. This paper presents the results of a study investigating current concentrations of hazardous substances in mixed plastics from WEEE and their implications for an environmentally sound recovery. The study included 53 sampling campaigns for mixed plastics from WEEE. The samples were analyzed with regard to heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead) and flame retardants (PentaBDE, OctaBDE, DecaBDE, DecaBB) regulated in the RoHS Directive. Besides these substances, other brominated flame retardants known to occur in electronics (HBCD, TBBPA) as well as the total bromine and phosphorus contents were considered. Results show that no mixed plastics fraction from WEEE is completely free from substances regulated in the RoHS Directive. The lowest number and average concentrations were found in flat screen monitors. The highest concentrations were found in mixed plastics from CRT monitors and TVs. Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of heavy metals originate from the treatment of small household appliances (cadmium), ICT equipment (lead), and consumer equipment (lead). Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of brominated flame retardants mainly originate from the treatment of small household appliances for high temperature applications (DecaBDE), CRT monitors (OctaBDE and DecaBDE) and consumer equipment (DecaBDE), in particular CRT TVs (DecaBDE). To avoid a dissipation of hazardous substances into plastics and the environment, it is recommended that mixed plastics from WEEE are subject to a strict quality management.

  15. RSW-MCFP: A Resource-Oriented Solid Waste Management System for a Mixed Rural-Urban Area through Monte Carlo Simulation-Based Fuzzy Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of global population and economy continually increases the waste volumes and consequently creates challenges to handle and dispose solid wastes. It becomes more challenging in mixed rural-urban areas (i.e., areas of mixed land use for rural and urban purposes where both agricultural waste (e.g., manure and municipal solid waste are generated. The efficiency and confidence of decisions in current management practices significantly rely on the accurate information and subjective judgments, which are usually compromised by uncertainties. This study proposed a resource-oriented solid waste management system for mixed rural-urban areas. The system is featured by a novel Monte Carlo simulation-based fuzzy programming approach. The developed system was tested by a real-world case with consideration of various resource-oriented treatment technologies and the associated uncertainties. The modeling results indicated that the community-based bio-coal and household-based CH4 facilities were necessary and would become predominant in the waste management system. The 95% confidence intervals of waste loadings to the CH4 and bio-coal facilities were 387, 450 and 178, 215 tonne/day (mixed flow, respectively. In general, the developed system has high capability in supporting solid waste management for mixed rural-urban areas in a cost-efficient and sustainable manner under uncertainty.

  16. Consumer behaviour and environmental education in the field of waste electrical and electronic toys: A Spanish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Belis, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Bovea, M.D., E-mail: bovea@uji.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Simó, A. [Department of Mathematics, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, E12071 Castellón (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Consumption/disposal habits of waste electrical and electronic toys. • Environmental education as a key factor to improve WEEE management. • Three environmental education actions to increase the collection of waste toys. - Abstract: This paper reports on a project focused on obtaining the current consumption and disposal habits of electrical and electronic toys from a survey aimed at parents of children of nine pre- and primary schools. In addition, it is also focused on identifying the most effective way of transmitting environmental information to parents and children to promote the collection of electrical and electronic toys at their end-of-life. The study was implemented in a Spanish municipality. With regard to the consumption habits, aspects related to the amount of toys that children receive annually and percentage of those which are electrical and electronic toys have been obtained and classified according to the family size. Results from Chi-squared analysis and Ordinal Logistic Regression show that there is a statistically significance relationship among these variables. Regarding disposal habits, aspects related to the reasons and way for discarding electrical and electronic toys, time that toys are kept at home or the willingness to rent or buy second hand e-toys have been obtained. What really attracts attention is that, apart from consumers who donate the toy to family or social associations, 67.1% of consumers discard them along with other waste fractions in domestic bins, whereas only 32.9% do so at recycling points, as Directive 2012/19/EU requires. To increase this percentage, three environmental education actions (distinguishing from each other by the way used to transmit the environmental information: paper, audiovisual or personal communication) have been designed, applied and evaluated their efficiency according to the amount of waste toys collected.

  17. Decomposition of BFRs and emission of dioxins from co-incineration of MSW and electrical and electronic plastics waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgnes, D.; Rikheim, B. [Kjelforeningen Norsk Energi, Oslo (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    The most common use for BFRs is in building materials, textiles and electronic supplies, e.g. TVs, PCs and photocopiers. In incineration plants with good combustion BFRs will decompose and form other brominated compounds, mainly hydrogen bromide (HBr). In addition, other brominated compounds will also be formed, such as dioxins where chlorine is fully or partly substituted by bromine (brominated and brominated/chlorinated dioxins). The Norwegian Ministry of the Environment presented in the autumn of 2002 a working plan for reducing the emissions and discharges of BFRs. One action is to investigate the emissions from incineration of waste containing BFRs. The objective of the project reported in this short paper was to investigate the emissions of dioxincompounds that may occur from incineration of plastic waste containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) together with waste from households and the commercial sector. The decomposition of BFRs should also be investigated.

  18. Removal of brominated flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cong-Cong [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail: fszhang@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A process for brominated flame retardants (BFRs) removal in plastic was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plastic became bromine-free with the structure maintained after this treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BFRs transferred into alcohol solvent were easily debrominated by metallic copper. - Abstract: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E and E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain bromine-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90 Degree-Sign C, 2 h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and bromine in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.

  19. Development of new materials from waste electrical and electronic equipment: Characterization and catalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J P; Freitas, P E; Almeida, L D; Rosmaninho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represent an important environmental problem, since its composition includes heavy metals and organic compounds used as flame-retardants. Thermal treatments have been considered efficient processes on removal of these compounds, producing carbonaceous structures, which, together with the ceramic components of the WEEE (i.e. silica and alumina), works as support material for the metals. This mixture, associated with the metals present in WEEE, represents promising systems with potential for catalytic application. In this work, WEEE was thermally modified to generate materials that were extensively characterized. Raman spectrum for WEEE after thermal treatment showed two carbon associated bands. SEM images showed a metal nanoparticles distribution over a polymeric and ceramic support. After characterization, WEEE materials were applied in ethanol steam reforming reaction. The system obtained at higher temperature (800°C) exhibited the best activity, since it leads to high conversions (85%), hydrogen yield (30%) and H 2 /CO ratio (3,6) at 750°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery of gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Andrea; López, Maria Esperanza; Serna, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology to recover gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8). Gold was recovered as a fine coating using substrate oxidation without shredding or grinding process. The WEEE sample was characterized giving values of Au: 1.05g/kg, Fe: 86.00g/kg, Ni: 73.64g/kg, Cu: 26.65g/kg. The effect of (NH4)2S2O8 concentration (0.22-1.10M), oxygen (0.0-1.4L/min) and L/S ratio (10-30mL/g) on the main responses (substrate oxidation and Au recovery) was investigated implementing response surface methodology with numerical optimization. A quadratic model was developed and quantities greater than 98% of Au were recovered. The findings presented suggest that, optimized quantities of ammonium persulfate in aqueous highly oxygenated media could be used to extract superficial gold from WEEE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Daniel; Kasser, Ueli; Ott, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CO2Mineralization and Utilization using Steel Slag for Establishing a Waste-to-Resource Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chung, Tai-Chun; Ho, Chang-Ching; Hou, Chin-Jen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2017-12-08

    Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO 2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability. Here we deploy an integrated approach to mineralizing flue gas CO 2 using electric arc furnace slag while utilizing the reacted product as supplementary cementitious materials to establish a waste-to-resource supply chain toward a circular economy. We found that the flue gas CO 2 was rapidly mineralized into calcite precipitates using electric arc furnace slag. The carbonated slag can be successfully utilized as green construction materials in blended cement mortar. By this modulus, the global CO 2 reduction potential using iron and steel slags was estimated to be ~138 million tons per year.

  3. Making the Water–Soil–Waste Nexus Work: Framing the Boundaries of Resource Flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avellán, T; Roidt, M.; Emmer, Adam; von Koerber, J.; Schneider, P.; Raber, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 1881. ISSN 2071-1050 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : integrated water resources management * integrated natural resources management * water –energy–food nexus * boundary Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.789, year: 2016

  4. Integrating electronic information resources for NHS Glasgow staff at the point of need: a model of interlibrary collaboration and resource sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S; Wales, A

    2001-12-01

    The Glasgow NHS Libraries Consortium has harnessed the political imperative of collaboration and the capability of electronic information resources to address inequalities in access to the knowledge base across NHS Glasgow. They have negotiated consortium arrangements to an extensive range of electronic databases and journals which no single Glasgow NHS library could afford independently. A Project Officer was appointed to undertake the administration, technical work and promotion required to build a Web-based electronic library to deliver resources to all NHS Glasgow staff on an equitable basis. Close partnership with online content providers enabled the Project Officer to find solutions to problems caused by authentication systems and license restrictions. These efforts have culminated in the production of a fully integrated virtual library--the NHS Glasgow e-Library--delivering 11 major electronic databases, 440 full-text electronic journals, 48 electronic textbooks and over 5000 journal contents pages. The NHS Glasgow e-Library is without precedent within the NHS in terms of its wealth of resources, and it provides a model for Scotland-wide access to the knowledge base. The sustainability and transferability of the resource is dependent on a number of key areas-maintenance, user training, evaluation, IT infrastructure and ongoing collaboration and unification. Ongoing research will monitor how far the NHS Glasgow e-Library has strengthened the connection between research evidence and clinical practice.

  5. Comparing Electronic Human Resource Management Systems Efficiency In Production Organization amp Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the organizations used information technology in performing human resource department affairs and this is called as electronic human resource management EHRM. In fact as the competitive complexity increases the need for implementing EHRM in production and service businesses increases too. This paper is written in order to specify the importance of implementing EHRM in production and service organizations and also to evaluate efficiency rate and the importance degree in these two ones. In this paper first the topics literature and the most important aspects of implementing these systems will be reviewed and after categorizing these views the hierarchal model will be proposed by applying AHP method. The result of analyzing this model by EXPERT CHOICE software shows that implementing EHRM in both kinds of organizations has the same importance however there is a large difference between them in implementing aspects.

  6. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  7. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  8. Microwave technology for waste management applications: Treatment of discarded electronic circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States); Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Significant quantities of hazardous wastes are generated from a multitude of processes and products in today`s society. This waste inventory is not only very large and diverse, but is also growing at an alarming rate. In order to minimize the dangers presented by constituents in these wastes, microwave technologies are being investigated to render harmless the hazardous components and ultimately, to minimize their impact to individuals and the surrounding environment.

  9. Waste Conversion inton-Caprylate andn-Caproate: Resource Recovery from Wine Lees Using Anaerobic Reactor Microbiomes and In-line Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucek, Leo A; Xu, Jiajie; Nguyen, Mytien; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-01-01

    To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs) (e.g., acetate [C2] and n-butyrate [C4]) into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs) (e.g., n-caprylate [C8] and n-caproate [C6]) with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate) is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed), and specificities (product vs. all products) were only achieved previously from an organic waste material when exogenous ethanol had been added. Here, we converted a real organic waste, which inherently contains ethanol, into MCCs with n-caprylate as the target product. We used wine lees, which consisted primarily of settled yeast cells and ethanol from wine fermentation, and produced MCCs with a reactor microbiome. We operated the bioreactor at a pH of 5.2 and with continuous in-line extraction and achieved a MCC productivity of 3.9 g COD/L-d at an organic loading rate of 5.8 g COD/L-d, resulting in a promising MCC yield of 67% and specificities of 36% for each n-caprylate and n-caproate (72% for both). Compared to all other studies that used complex organic substrates, we achieved the highest n-caprylate-to-ncaproate product ratio of 1.0 (COD basis), because we used increased broth-recycle rates through the forward membrane contactor, which improved in-line extraction rates. Increased recycle rates also allowed us to achieve the highest reported MCC production flux per membrane surface area thus far (20.1 g COD/m 2 -d). Through microbial community analyses, we determined that an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) for Bacteroides spp. was dominant and was positively correlated with increased MCC productivities. Our data also suggested that the microbiome may have been shaped for improved MCC production by the high broth-recycle rates. Comparable abiotic

  10. Waste conversion into n-caprylate and n-caproate: resource recovery from wine lees using anaerobic reactor microbiomes and in-line extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo A. Kucek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs (e.g., acetate C2 and n-butyrate C4 into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs (e.g., n-caprylate C8 and n-caproate C6 with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed, and specificities (product vs. all products were only achieved previously from an organic waste material when exogenous ethanol had been added. Here, we converted a real organic waste, which inherently comprised of ethanol, into MCCs with n-caprylate as the target product. We used wine lees, which consisted primarily of settled yeast cells and ethanol from wine fermentation, and produced MCCs with a reactor microbiome. We operated the bioreactor at a pH of 5.2 and with continuous in-line extraction and achieved a MCC productivity of 3.9 g COD/L-d at an organic loading rate of 5.8 g COD/L-d, resulting in a promising MCC yield of 67% and specificities of 36% for each n-caprylate and n-caproate (72% for both. Compared to all other studies that used complex organic substrates, we achieved the highest n-caprylate-to-n-caproate product ratio of 1.0 (COD basis, because we used increased broth-recycle rates through the forward membrane contactor, which improved in-line extraction rates. Increased recycle rates also allowed us to achieve the highest reported MCC production flux per membrane surface area thus far (20.1 g COD/m2-d. Through microbial community analyses, we determined that an operational taxonomic unit (OTU for Bacteroides spp. was dominant and was positively correlated with increased MCC productivities. Our data also suggested that the microbiome may have been shaped for improved MCC production by the high broth-recycle rates. Comparable abiotic

  11. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  12. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  13. Toxicity of electronic waste leachates to Daphnia magna: screening and toxicity identification evaluation of different products, components, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Halling, Maja; Dave, Göran

    2012-05-01

    Electronic waste has become one of the fastest growing waste problems in the world. It contains both toxic metals and toxic organics. The aim of this study was to (1) investigate to what extent toxicants can leach from different electronic products, components, and materials into water and (2) identify which group of toxicants (metals or hydrophobic organics) that is causing toxicity. Components from five discarded electronic products (cell phone, computer, phone modem, keyboard, and computer mouse) were leached in deionised water for 3 days at 23°C in concentrations of 25 g/l for metal components, 50 g/l for mixed-material components, and 100 g/l for plastic components. The water phase was tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Eighteen of 68 leachates showed toxicity (with immobility of D. magna ≥ 50% after 48 h) and came from metal or mixed-material components. The 8 most toxic leachates, with 48 h EC(50)s ranging from 0.4 to 20 g/l, came from 2 circuit sheets (key board), integrated drive electronics (IDE) cable clips (computer), metal studs (computer), a circuit board (computer mouse), a cord (phone modem), mixed parts (cell phone), and a circuit board (key board). All 5 electronic products were represented among them. Toxicity identification evaluations (with C18 and CM resins filtrations and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid addition) indicated that metals caused the toxicity in the majority of the most toxic leachates. Overall, this study has shown that electronic waste can leach toxic compounds also during short-term leaching with pure water.

  14. Pilot study on the internal exposure to heavy metals of informal-level electronic waste workers in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Feldt, Torsten; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd; Wilhelm, Michael; Fobil, Julius N

    2017-01-01

    Informal-level electronic waste (e-waste)-processing activities are performed at hotspots in developing countries such as India, China, and Ghana. These activities increase the ambient burden of heavy metals and contribute to the toxic exposure of the general population. However, few data exist on the internal exposure of populations involved in these informal activities and in close contact with fumes from the direct combustion of electronic waste products in these countries. Therefore, in a cross-sectional study design, we analyzed blood, urine, and hair samples from 75 e-waste workers residing in and/or working on a large e-waste recycling site in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and compared the results against those of 40 individuals living in a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to e-waste recycling activities. A comparative analysis using the Mann-Whitney U test showed significantly higher median concentrations of blood lead (88.5 vs. 41.0 μg/l, p e-waste workers than those of controls. There was no difference in blood cadmium concentrations between the groups (0.51 vs. 0.57 μg/l, p = 0.215) or in urine mercury levels (0.18 vs. 0.18 μg/g crea , p = 0.820). Hair mercury levels were higher in the controls than in the e-waste workers (0.43 vs. 0.72, p compared our data with those from European populations, specifically using the German reference values, and found that the internal concentrations of the participants exceeded the German reference values in 59.3 vs. 3.1% (e-waste workers vs. controls) for blood lead, 56.9 vs. 52.5% for urine nickel, 22.2 vs. 20.0% for urine chromium, and 17.8 vs. 62.2% for hair mercury. In particular, the high blood lead levels of up to several hundred micrograms per liter are a cause for concern because many of the workers in Agbogbloshie are children or adolescents who are in developmental stages and are at a particular risk for negative health effects. We conclude that exposure to some of the heavy metals tended to

  15. 'Away' is a place: The impact of electronic waste recycling on blood lead levels in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Ebenezer Forkuo; Adovor Tsikudo, Kwame A; Bowman, Jay A

    2017-12-01

    E-waste recycling remains a major source of livelihood for many urban poor in developing countries, but this economic activity is fraught with significant environmental health risk. Yet, human exposure to the toxic elements associated with e-waste activities remains understudied and not evidently understood. This study investigates the impact of informal e-waste processing on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of e-waste workers and non-e-waste workers (mainly females working in activities that serve the Agbogbloshie e-waste site), and relates their lead exposure to socio-demographic and occupational characteristics. A total of 128 blood samples were analysed for lead levels. Surprisingly, the mean BLL (3.54μg/dL) of non-e-waste workers was slightly higher than that of e-waste workers (3.49μg/dL), although higher BLLs ranges were found among e-waste workers (0.50-18.80μg/dL) than non-e-waste workers (0.30-8.20μg/dL). Workers who engaged in e-waste burning tended to have the highest BLLs. In general, the BLLs are within the ABLES/US CDC reference level of 5μg/dL, although 12.3% of the workers have elevated BLLs, i.e. BLL ≥5μg/dL. The study concludes that the impact of e-waste recycling is not limited to workers alone. Traders and residents within the Agbogbloshie enclave are equally at risk through a range of environmental vectors. This calls for increased public awareness about the effects of human exposure to lead and other toxic elements from e-waste recycling. A key contribution is that government and stakeholder projects for safe e-waste infrastructure should disaggregate the e-waste value chain, recognize differential risk and resist one-size-fits-all strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The possibilities to develop the logistics of electrical and electronic waste in the military defence system of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin V. Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The military defence system of the Republic of Serbia (the Ministry of Defence and the Serbian Army represents a complex organisational and technical-technological system. The nature of its operations imposes it to be equipped with a considerable amount of electrical and electronic equipment and devices. Such equipment and devices during operation, over time, lose their primary function, become useless and turn into electrical and electronic equipment waste; therefore, they must be handled properly. This article discusses the problems and possible directions of the logistics of development and implementation of electrical and electronic waste generated in the defence as the logistics of waste and reverse waste logistics, which is, in a narrower sense, a part of waste materials management. For the purpose of this paper, the logistics of electrical and electronic waste in the defence is regarded as the process of planning, implementation, control and realisation of flows, processes and activities of electrical and electronic waste materials from their place of origin to their place of disposal, through collecting and transportation to the final destination (places of  treatment, reuse, disposal and destruction in order to meet the requirements of all stakeholders at minimal cost. The legislation and European initiatives in the area of electrical and electronic waste In 2003, the European Union, stimulated by the rapid emergence and amount of e-waste, as well as its hazardous influence on the environment, adopted two directives: Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and the European Council on 27.01.2003 on the management of electrical and electronic waste (WEEE - Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment and Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of Europe 27.01.2003 on the restrictions on the use of hazardous substances in electronic and electrical equipment (RoHS - Restriction of the use of hazardous

  17. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally

  19. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  20. Electronic Waste is a Mess: Awareness and Proenvironmental Behavior among University Students in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edumadze, John K. E.; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Armah, Frederick A.; Luginaah, Isaac; Edumadze, Gladys E.

    2013-01-01

    E-waste contains hazardous chemicals and materials that threaten the environment and human health, when improperly disposed. This study examined levels of awareness of e-waste disposal among university students in Ghana, and their proenvironmental decision-making using two outcome variables: "knowledge on environmental impact and policy…

  1. Hi-Tech yet Highly Toxic: Electronic and E-Waste | Kimani | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dump toxic wastes in poor countries as a way of “assisting” them cope with economic problems. Garbage imperialism poses a real threat to world stability and health. Keywords: computers, technology, toxic wastes, conventions, environment. Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) 2009: pp.

  2. The management of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    TARTIU Valentina Elena

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, WEEE constitutes one of the fastest growing waste fractions generated, accounting for 8% of all municipal waste. This trend increases the environmental burdens consequently action on WEEE is an urgent need in nowadays. The paper outline the current status of the management of the WEEE across the European Union.

  3. Reducing clinical trial monitoring resource allocation and costs through remote access to electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Shannon C; Kirkman, Mitchell B; Dalton, Brad S; Zalcberg, John R

    2013-01-01

    With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials.

  4. Preparation of liquid chemical feedstocks by co-pyrolysis of electronic waste and biomass without formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEEs) and waste biomass to obtain pyrolysis-oil, a liquid fuel or chemical feedstock, was carried out in the present work. The pyrolysis-oil yield of co-pyrolysis reached 62.3% which was significantly higher than those of pyrolysis of WEEEs and biomass alone (i.e., 53.1% for WEEEs and 46.3% for biomass), suggesting that synergistic effects of the WEEEs and biomass happened during the co-pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis-oil mainly contained aromatic compounds, including many aromatic hydrocarbons. More than 90 wt.% of bromides were enriched in pyrolysis-oil and char, which is easily to be recovered by further treatments, and no polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were detected in all products which may be attributed to the blocking of PBDD/Fs generation under special reductive environment of pyrolysis. This work provided a green and environmentally friendly approach for the disposal of the WEEEs as well as resource recovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzemer, Michael J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  6. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  7. Polymers in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) contain PBDD/F in the ppb-range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlummer, M.; Brandl, F.; Maeurer, A.; Gruber, L.; Wolz, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV), Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) consists of metals (60%), polymers (20%) and residual materials as wood or glass (20%). Whereas state-of the art-technologies are able to recover most of the metals present, recovery rates for polymers and residuals are negligible low. Primarily, this is due to low disposal costs, which refers to landfill or incineration depending on geographic circumstances. The European WEEE directive, which assesses material recovery rates above 70%, and changes in the German disposal regulation, which will prohibit the landfill of organic materials starting 2005, currently alter the legislative conditions. This leads to an increased interest in polymer recovery strategies. Approaches discussed include polymer recycling and pyrolysis-based material recovery, both characterised by temperatures below 240 C or 600 C, respectively. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and/or diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in these waste streams complicate waste treatment techniques, since they are known to form brominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F) under thermal stress, either in polymer recyclates or in pyrolysis products. Additionally, polymer recycling is affected by European directive 2003/11/EC, restricting the distribution of products containing more than 0.1% of octa- or pentabrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. Aim of this study was to determine concentration levels of polybrominated compounds including PBDD/F and brominated flame retardants in polymers from WEEE. Both, mixed polymer waste and pre-sorted polymer fractions consisting mainly of monitors, TV-sets or telecommunication housings, were examined. Furthermore, the dependency of PBDD/F concentrations on waste source, pre-treatment and flame retardant system was investigated, implication on waste treatment alternatives are discussed.

  8. Economic analysis of electronic waste recycling: modeling the cost and revenue of a materials recovery facility in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hai-Yong; Schoenung, Julie M

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the various techniques used for treating electronic waste (e-waste) at material recovery facilities (MRFs) in the state of California and to investigate the costs and revenue drivers for these techniques. The economics of a representative e-waste MRF are evaluated by using technical cost modeling (TCM). MRFs are a critical element in the infrastructure being developed within the e-waste recycling industry. At an MRF, collected e-waste can become marketable output products including resalable systems/components and recyclable materials such as plastics, metals, and glass. TCM has two main constituents, inputs and outputs. Inputs are process-related and economic variables, which are directly specified in each model. Inputs can be divided into two parts: inputs for cost estimation and for revenue estimation. Outputs are the results of modeling and consist of costs and revenues, distributed by unit operation, cost element, and revenue source. The results of the present analysis indicate that the largest cost driver for the operation of the defined California e-waste MRF is the materials cost (37% of total cost), which includes the cost to outsource the recycling of the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) (dollar 0.33/kg); the second largest cost driver is labor cost (28% of total cost without accounting for overhead). The other cost drivers are transportation, building, and equipment costs. The most costly unit operation is cathode ray tube glass recycling, and the next are sorting, collecting, and dismantling. The largest revenue source is the fee charged to the customer; metal recovery is the second largest revenue source.

  9. Resource recovery potential from secondary components of segregated municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V; Vijayachamundeeswari, M

    2007-12-01

    Fermentable components of municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), leaf litter, paddy straw, cane bagasse, cane trash and paper are generated in large quantities at various pockets of the city. These form potential feedstocks for decentralized biogas plants to be operated in the vicinity. We characterized the fermentation potential of six of the above MSW fractions for their suitability to be converted to biogas and anaerobic compost using the solid-state stratified bed (SSB) process in a laboratory study. FVW and leaf litter (paper mulberry leaves) decomposed almost completely while paddy straw, sugarcane trash, sugarcane bagasse and photocopying paper decomposed to a lower extent. In the SSB process between 50-60% of the biological methane potential (BMP) could be realized. Observations revealed that the SSB process needs to be adapted differently for each of the feedstocks to obtain a higher gas recovery. Bagasse produced the largest fraction of anaerobic compost (fermentation residue) and has the potential for reuse in many ways.

  10. Kinetic comparison of two basic heterogenous catalysts obtained from sustainable resources for transesterification of waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Moradi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline earth metal oxides are appropriate catalysts for biodiesel production and among them, CaO and MgO are known for possessing the best efficiency. In this study, catalysts synthesized from economical and sustainable resources were used for biodiesel production. More specifically, waste mussel shells and demineralized (DM water treatment precipitates as calcium and magnesium carbonate sources, were converted into calcium and magnesium oxides at temperatures above 900 oC. Methanol and waste cooking oil were reacted in a 250 mL two-necked flask at 24:1 and 22.5:1 ratios in presence of 12 and 9.08 wt% of mussel shell-based and DM water treatment precipitates-based catalysts, respectively. The effects of temperature (328, 333, 338, 343 and 348 K and time (1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 h at a stirrer speed of 350 rpm on the conversion of the oil into biodiesel were investigated. The results obtained indicated a pseudo-first order kinetics for the transesterification reaction using both catalysts. The activation energies in the presence of the DM water treatment precipitates and mussel shell catalysts were measured at 77.09 and 79.83 kJ.mol-1, respectively. Accordingly, the DM water treatment precipitates catalyst resulted in a faster reaction due to its lower activation energy value. Moreover, the catalysts were reused five times and the results obtained showed that the methanol-driven extraction of CaO contained in the DM water treatment precipitates catalyst was lower than the waste mussel shell catalyst proving the higher stability of the new heterogeneous catalyst i.e. the calcinated DM water treatment precipitates.

  11. Electrical and electronic waste management in China: progress and the barriers to overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbing; Tanaka, Masaru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2006-02-01

    Serious adverse impacts on the environment and human health from e-waste recycling have occurred in the past and continue to occur in China today, due to a lack of national management strategies. China has made great efforts to face the challenges of the approaching peak increase in the domestic generation of e-waste and the illegal shipment of e-waste from other countries. This study examined recent progress and analysed the main problems associated with this issue in China. It was found that the material and the financial flows of e-waste in China had their own specific characteristics. Nearly 60% of the generated e-wastes were sold to private individual collectors and passed into informal recycling processes. More than 90% of Chinese citizens are reluctant to pay for the recycling of their e-waste. This is due to their traditional understanding that there remained value in these end-of-life products. Regulations concerning e-waste in China have been drafted but their deficiencies are obvious. The extended producer responsibilities (EPR) have been introduced but are not well defined. Eight formal facilities have been planned and are under construction or are in operation along the eastern coast of China but it will be difficult for them to compete with the informal processes for the reasons identified during the study.

  12. Health Risks Awareness of Electronic Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bodegom, Peter M.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2017-01-01

    Insight into the health risk awareness levels of e-waste workers is important as it may offer opportunities for better e-waste recycling management strategies to reduce the health effects of informal e-waste recycling. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices associated with occupational health risk awareness of e-waste workers compared with a control group (butchers) in the informal sector in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was used to assess health risk awareness of 279 e-waste workers (repairers and dismantlers) and 221 butchers from the informal sector in three locations in Nigeria in 2015. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic backgrounds, occupational history, knowledge, attitude, and work practices. The data was analysed using Analysis of Variance. The three job designations had significantly different knowledge, attitude, and practice mean scores (p = 0.000), with butchers consistently having the highest mean scores. Only 43% of e-waste workers could mention one or more Personal Protective Equipment needed for their job compared with 70% of the butchers. The health risk awareness level of the e-waste workers was significantly lower compared with their counterparts in the same informal sector. A positive correlation existed between the workers’ knowledge and their attitude and practice. Therefore, increasing the workers’ knowledge may decrease risky practices. PMID:28805712

  13. Metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers leaching from electronic waste in simulated landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiddee, Peeranart [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: • Simulated landfill columns provided realistic results than lab based column study. • Column leachates showed significant seasonal effect on toxic substances. • Toxic substances in the landfill leachates pose environmental and health hazards. • A better management of e-waste is urgently needed. -- Abstract: Landfills established prior to the recognition of potential impacts from the leaching of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds often lack appropriate barriers and pose significant risks of contamination of groundwater. In this study, bioavailable metal(oids) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from landfill columns that contained intact or broken e-waste were studied under conditions that simulate landfills in terms of waste components and methods of disposal of e-wastes, and with realistic rainfall. Fourteen elements and PBDEs were analysed in leachates over a period of 21 months. The results demonstrate that the average concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and V in leachates from the column that contained broken e-waste items were significantly higher than the column without e-waste. BDE-153 was the highest average PBDEs congener in all columns but the average of ∑PBDEs levels in columns that contained intact e-waste were (3.7 ng/l) and were not significantly higher than that in the leachates from the control column.

  14. The influence of resource strategies on childhood phthalate exposure--the role of REACH in a zero waste society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate how resource strategies, which intend to reduce waste and increase recycling, influence on human exposure to hazardous chemicals from material recycling. In order to examine the flows of hazardous chemicals in recycled material, a mass flow analysis of plastics and paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled. This corresponds to the finding that approximately 4% of DEHP and BBP and 18% of DBP annual demands in Europe as raw material re-enter the product cycle with recycled plastics and paper. To examine the potential contribution of the phthalate exposure through recycled plastics and paper, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed in recycled paper and plastics has been performed for 2-year-old children in Denmark. The result verifies that an increase in recycled paperboard and PET bottles in food packaging material causes a significant increase in childhood exposure to DBP corresponding to an additional exposure of 0.116-0.355 μg/kg bw/day; up to 18% of the total DBP exposure in Danish 2-year-olds. While most of the DEHP exposure can be explained, more than 50% of DBP and 70% of BBP exposure sources still remain to be identified. Finally, a conceptual framework for a circular economy based on sustainable and clean resource flows is proposed in order to increase material recycling without increasing adverse health effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China: policies and recommendations for sound management of plastics from electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Shi, Yajuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xu, Li; Li, Qiushuang; Liu, Shijie

    2013-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants (BFRs), are incorporated in plastics of most electronic equipment. Among BFR mixtures, deca-BDE is the most widely used commercial additive in the polymer industry and the use of deca-BDE is currently not subject to any restrictions in China. However, debate over environmental and health risks associated with deca-BDE still remains. Regulatory agencies in developed countries have adopted and/or established environmentally sound strategies for the management of potential threat posed by PBDEs to the environment and human health. No regulations or management policies for PBDEs currently exist in China at either central or provincial government levels. Large amounts of plastics containing PBDEs are still in use and must be disposed of after their lifetimes, creating outdoor reservoirs for the future dispersal of PBDEs into the environment. Concerted action is needed not only to regulate the production and use of PBDEs but also to find ways to effectively manage waste electrical and electronic products that contain PBDEs. This article is the first to investigate the policy issues and current problems related to the use of PBDEs in China. In addition, we estimate the mass flows of PBDEs contained in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in China. We suggest alternatives to PBDEs and sound management of plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that contain PBDEs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential demand for recoverable resources from Indonesian wastewater and solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Priyanka, A.; Dijk, Van K.C.; Ruijter, De F.J.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Projected population growth and urbanization will become a challenge for finite natural resources, their distribution and local availability. At the same time, 2.5 billion people do not have access to sanitation facilities. Indonesia is one of these rapidly growing countries with a poorly

  17. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil

    2014-01-01

    data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap...... initiatives for these elements....

  18. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Resource-directed management of water quality series

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The promulgation of the National Water Act, 1998 (NWA, Act No. 36 of 1998), various other acts, policies and White Papers gave a new direction to water resources management and specifically management of water quality in South Africa. In terms...

  19. Kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) reactions with H₂SO₄, HNO₃ and HCl: implication for hydrometallurgy of electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Li, Dan; Mao, Zhe; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an; Chen, Pei; Mei, Jun

    2014-04-15

    Hydrometallurgy is an acid leaching based process widely used for recovering precious metals from electronic wastes (e-wastes). The effects of acid leaching on the fate of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in typical hydrometallurgical processes remain largely unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the fate of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a commonly used BFR, in three acid leaching reagents (i.e. H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl) commonly used in hydrometallurgy. It was found that the reactions of TBBPA with concentrated H2SO4 followed a pseudo-zero-order rate and the reaction rates declined rapidly as the concentrations of H2SO4 decreased. In contrast, TBBPA could be easily transformed in less concentrated HNO3 solutions (hydrometallurgy of e-wastes should be carefully evaluated. Collectively, our findings of distinct fate of TBBPA in different acid leaching reagents provided fundamental information for design of hydrometallurgical treatment of e-wastes to minimize acid reactions with BFRs within plastics matrix and to maximize acid leaching efficiency for metals recycling processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  1. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  2. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND USAGE OF THE ELECTRONIC VIDEO RESOURCES FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav M. Hlynsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical foundation, the creation and implementation of the electronic educational video resources (EEVR in the example of the development and the usage of the collection of video tutorials in event-driven programming theme, which is studied in the framework of the subject "Informatics" by students of many specialties. It offers some development of the existing conceptual and categorical apparatus concerning EEVR development. It is alleged that the video tutorials allow you to automate the process of learning, redistribute instructional time for the benefit of students' independent work, to provide classroom release time for the teaching of the theoretical issues of the course that is aimed at improving the fundamental nature of training. Practical recommendations for the development of the effective EEVR, which may be useful for the authors of e-learning courses for students of different forms of training are proposed.

  4. [HYGIENIC REGULATION OF THE USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MODERN SCHOOL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  5. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitka Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980’s. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT.

  6. Analysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Aguirre, Miguel; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Canals, Antonio; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R

    2013-12-15

    This study shows the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) investigation. Several emission spectra were obtained for 7 different mobiles from 4 different manufacturers. Using the emission spectra of the black components it was possible to see some differences among the manufacturers and some emission lines from organic elements and molecules (N, O, CN and C2) led to the highest contribution for this differentiation. Some polymeric internal parts in contact with the inner pieces of the mobiles and covered with a special paint presented a strong emission signal for Cr. The white pieces presented mainly Al, Ba and Ti in their composition. Finally, this study developed a procedure for LIBS emission spectra using chemometric strategies and suitable information can be obtained for identification of manufacturer and counterfeit products. In addition, the results obtained can improve the classification for establishing recycling strategies of e-waste. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reclamation of gallium, indium and rare-earth elements from photovoltaics, lightning and electronic waste : Reclaim project and outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, M. van; Bisselink, R.; Ansems, T.; Kopacek, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modern technologies for green electronics like photovoltaic systems and solidstate lighting require increasing amounts of scarce metals. Global demand and price of these materials is expected to increase significantly the coming decades. If not controlled well some of these resources may be

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF USE, DEVELOPMENT AND DISPOSAL OF MINERAL WOOL IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES POLLUTION BY WASTE RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Nowak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the environmental aspects of the use, management and disposal of mineral wool. Fiber structure makes that wool products have many unique properties enabling them to be versatile. With all the advantages of mineral wool is one very significant drawback - does not decompose. From the point of view of slowing (retardation transformation of environmental resources, the introduction of mineral wool to crops under glass, in a very much reduced use of peatlands, which for reasons of natural resources are extremely important. On the other hand, problems of rational use of mineral wool already postconsumer caused among others formation of "wild dumps" and thus transforming the landscape, and, due to their characteristics (respirable fibers, the risk to health. Manufacture of asbestiform can cause ecological consequences within almost all elements of the environment. Therefore, the overall assessment of the impact in this case, mineral wool on the environment would need to be so. "Life cycle assessment" - called the method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessmentwhich is commonly called the "cradle to grave" - that is, from extraction of raw materials, through processing, exploitation, to the storage of waste. Therefore, the responsibility for the redevelopment of the post-production of mineral wool should lie with the producer of wool. These issues are the subject of discussion in this study.

  9. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  10. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  11. Evaluation of opportunities in large scale e-waste processing facility investement in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xun

    2010-01-01

    E-waste is the short term of waste electrical and electronic equipment. Driving by the forces of saving resources, management the danger of e-waste toxic components, e-waste business develops rapidly. China is the country who meets the most severe situation to deal with e-waste problem as it produces a massive volume of scraps every year and holds most illegal imported e-waste. Many investors intend to enter into Chinese e-waste processing business market. This thesis aims at providing s...

  12. Resource recovery from waste LCD panel by hydrothermal transformation of polarizer into organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Bai, Lan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen

    2015-12-15

    Based on the significant advantages of hydrothermal technology, it was applied to treat polarizer from the waste LCD panel with the aim of transforming it into organic acids (mainly acetic acid and lactic acid). Investigation was done to evaluate the effects of different factors on yields of organic acids, including the reaction temperature, reaction time and H2O2 supply, and the degradation process of polarizer was analyzed. Liquid samples were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, and solid-phase products were characterized by SEM and FTIR. Results showed that at the condition of temperature 300 °C and reaction time 5 min, the organic materials reached its highest conversion rate of 71.47% by adding 0.2 mL H2O2 and acetic acid was dominant in the products of organic acids with the yield of 6.78%. When not adding H2O2 to the system, the yields of lactic and acetic acid were respectively 4.24% and 3.80% at a nearly equal degree, they are suitable for esterification to form ethyl lactate instead of separating them for this case. In the hydrothermal process, polarizer was first decomposed to monosaccharides, alkane, etc., and then furfural and acids are produced with further decomposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Working conditions and environmental exposures among electronic waste workers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akormedi, Matthew; Asampong, Emmanuel; Fobil, Julius N

    2013-01-01

    To investigate and describe informal e-waste recycling and working conditions at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana. We conducted in-depth interviews which were qualitatively analysed from a grounded theory perspective. Workers obtained e-waste from the various residential areas in Accra, then dismantled and burned them in open air to recover copper, aluminum, steel, and other products for sale to customers on-site or at the nearby Agbogbloshie market. The processers worked under unhealthy conditions often surrounded by refuse and human excreta without any form of protective gear and were thus exposed to frequent burns, cuts, and inhalation of highly contaminated fumes. We observed no form of social security/support system for the workers, who formed informal associations to support one another in times of difficulty. e-waste recycling working conditions were very challenging and presented serious hazards to worker health and wellbeing. Formalizing the e-waste processing activities requires developing a framework of sustainable financial and social security for the e-waste workers, including adoption of low-cost, socially acceptable, easy-to-operate, and cleaner technologies that would safeguard the health of the workers and the general public.

  14. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010, and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer. Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill.

  15. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  16. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations. PMID:21572957

  17. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    , the effects on compressive strengths of mortars by substituting cement or sand by raw, washed and electrodialytically treated fly ash or bottom ash were investigated. Parts of the experimental fly ash had been pre-treated by either washing with distilled water or electro-dialytically treated to remove salts...... and by the latter method, also heavy metals. Mortar samples were cast where cement (5%–20%) or sand (5%–10%) was replaced with fly ash or bottom ash, together with references without replacements. The compressive strengths were measured after 7, 14, 28 and 42 days. Replacing cement by fly ash resulted in lower...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  18. Transmutation prospect of long-lived nuclear waste induced by high-charge electron beam from laser plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. L.; Xu, Z. Y.; Luo, W.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yan, X. Q.

    2017-09-01

    Photo-transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste induced by a high-charge relativistic electron beam (e-beam) from a laser plasma accelerator is demonstrated. A collimated relativistic e-beam with a high charge of approximately 100 nC is produced from high-intensity laser interaction with near-critical-density (NCD) plasma. Such e-beam impinges on a high-Z convertor and then radiates energetic bremsstrahlung photons with flux approaching 1011 per laser shot. Taking a long-lived radionuclide 126Sn as an example, the resulting transmutation reaction yield is the order of 109 per laser shot, which is two orders of magnitude higher than obtained from previous studies. It is found that at lower densities, a tightly focused laser irradiating relatively longer NCD plasmas can effectively enhance the transmutation efficiency. Furthermore, the photo-transmutation is generalized by considering mixed-nuclide waste samples, which suggests that the laser-accelerated high-charge e-beam could be an efficient tool to transmute long-lived nuclear waste.

  19. Innovating e-waste management: From macroscopic to microscopic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Yang, Congren; Chiang, Joseph F; Li, Jinhui

    2017-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) has become a global problem, due to its potential environmental pollution and human health risk, and its containing valuable resources (e.g., metals, plastics). Recycling for e-waste will be a necessity, not only to address the shortage of mineral resources for electronics industry, but also to decline environmental pollution and human health risk. To systematically solve the e-waste problem, more attention of e-waste management should transfer from macroscopic to microscopic scales. E-waste processing technology should be significantly improved to diminish and even avoid toxic substance entering into downstream of material. The regulation or policy related to new production of hazardous substances in recycled materials should also be carried out on the agenda. All the findings can hopefully improve WEEE legislation for regulated countries and non-regulated countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical Aspects of the Use of Electronic Educational Resources in Professional Activity of Future Teachers of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna Smyrnova

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we tried to determine the requirements for ESM, to study theoretical aspects of electronic educational resources in the professional activity of future teachers. The results created by the introduction of our course “Methodology development and use of electronic educational resources” for future teachers of technology ITOS in the process of professional specialty “Technology” in the educational process of higher educational institutions of Ukraine. The article states the rapid ...

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  2. Consumer behaviour and environmental education in the field of waste electrical and electronic toys: a Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belis, V; Bovea, M D; Simó, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on a project focused on obtaining the current consumption and disposal habits of electrical and electronic toys from a survey aimed at parents of children of nine pre- and primary schools. In addition, it is also focused on identifying the most effective way of transmitting environmental information to parents and children to promote the collection of electrical and electronic toys at their end-of-life. The study was implemented in a Spanish municipality. With regard to the consumption habits, aspects related to the amount of toys that children receive annually and percentage of those which are electrical and electronic toys have been obtained and classified according to the family size. Results from Chi-squared analysis and Ordinal Logistic Regression show that there is a statistically significance relationship among these variables. Regarding disposal habits, aspects related to the reasons and way for discarding electrical and electronic toys, time that toys are kept at home or the willingness to rent or buy second hand e-toys have been obtained. What really attracts attention is that, apart from consumers who donate the toy to family or social associations, 67.1% of consumers discard them along with other waste fractions in domestic bins, whereas only 32.9% do so at recycling points, as Directive 2012/19/EU requires. To increase this percentage, three environmental education actions (distinguishing from each other by the way used to transmit the environmental information: paper, audiovisual or personal communication) have been designed, applied and evaluated their efficiency according to the amount of waste toys collected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An in-depth literature review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment context: trends and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belis, V; Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is continuously increasing worldwide and, consequently, so is the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) it generates at its end-of-life. In parallel to this growth, legislation related to this issue has been passed in different countries with the aim of improving the management of WEEE. In order to raise awareness about the situation in which the generation, composition, management or final treatment of this kind of waste currently finds itself, an extensive number of articles have been published around the world. The aim of this paper is to define and analyse the main areas of research on WEEE by offering a broader analysis of the relevant literature in this field published between 1992 and August 2014. The literature researched comprises 307 articles, which are analysed according to the topic they focus on (WEEE management, WEEE generation, WEEE characterisation, social aspects of WEEE, re-use of EEE or economic aspects of WEEE). In addition, a deeper analysis is also presented, which takes into account the temporal evolution (globally and by topic), location of the study, categories and subcategories analysed, etc. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  5. Resource Management Plan for the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 15, Appendix P: waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, B.A.

    1984-07-01

    Since their inception, the DOE facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation have been the source of a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes which are characterized as nonhazardous, hazardous, and/or radioactive. The major airborne releases come from three primary sources: steam plant emissions, process discharge, and cooling towers. Liquid wastes are handled in various manners depending upon the particular waste, but in general, major corrosive waste streams are neutralized prior to discharge with the discharge routed to holding or settling ponds. The major solid wastes are derived from construction debris, sanitary operation, and radioactive processes, and the machining operations at Y-12. Nonradioactive hazardous wastes are disposed in solid waste storage areas, shipped to commercial disposal facilities, returned in sludge ponds, or sent to radioactive waste burial areas. The radioactive-hazardous wastes are treated in two manners: storage of the waste until acceptable disposal options are developed, or treatment of the waste to remove or destroy one of the components prior to disposal. 5 references, 4 figures, 13 tables.

  6. Capturing the Invisible Resource. Analysis of Waste Heat Potential in Chinese Industry and Policy Options for Waste Heat to Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the theoretical maximum potential and practical potential of waste heat in the cement, iron, and steel, and glass sectors in China, based on thermal energy modeling, expert interviews, and literature reviews.

  7. Suggestion on application of campus wastes as valuable resources, a campus mine (2) - Learning from waste management in University of Freiburg

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taiji Mishina; Aritaka Matsunami; Shizuaki Murata; Runako von Luebke

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce wastes generated by academic activities and to promote their reuse and recycle, based on the concept named campus mine, the management system in University of Freiburg was investigated...

  8. Undulative induction electron accelerator for the waste and natural water purification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kulish, Victor V; Gubanov, I V

    2001-01-01

    The project analysis of Undulative Induction Accelerator (EH - accelerator) for the waste and natural water purification systems is accomplished. It is shown that the use of the four-channel design of induction block and the standard set of auxiliary equipment (developed earlier for the Linear Induction Accelerators - LINACs) allow to construct commercially promising purification systems. A quality analysis of the accelerator is done and the optimal parameters are chosen taking into account the specific sphere of its usage.

  9. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  10. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  11. True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

  12. A novel approach for reducing toxic emissions during high temperature processing of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, R; Khanna, R; Dutta, R K; Cayumil, R; Ikram-Ul-Haq, M; Agarwala, V; Ellamparuthy, G; Jayasankar, K; Mukherjee, P S; Sahajwalla, V

    2017-06-01

    A novel approach is presented to capture some of the potentially toxic elements (PTEs), other particulates and emissions during the heat treatment of e-waste using alumina adsorbents. Waste PCBs from mobile phones were mechanically crushed to sizes less than 1mm; their thermal degradation was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analysis. Observed weight loss was attributed to the degradation of polymers and the vaporization of organic constituents and volatile metals. The sample assembly containing PCB powder and adsorbent was heat treated at 600°C for times ranging between 10 and 30min with air, nitrogen and argon as carrier gases. Weight gains up to ∼17% were recorded in the adsorbent thereby indicating the capture of significant amounts of particulates. The highest level of adsorption was observed in N 2 atmosphere for small particle sizes of alumina. SEM/EDS results on the adsorbent indicated the presence of Cu, Pb, Si, Mg and C. These studies were supplemented with ICP-OES analysis to determine the extent of various species captured as a function of operating parameters. This innovative, low-cost approach has the potential for utilization in the informal sector and/or developing countries, and could play a significant role in reducing toxic emissions from e-waste processing towards environmentally safe limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  14. Comparison of environmental effects and resource consumption for different wastewater and organic waste management systems in a new city area in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Daniel; Baky, Andras; Jeppsson, Ulf; Jönsson, Håkan; Kärrman, Erik

    2008-08-01

    An analysis of the environmental effects and resource consumption by four systems for management of wastewater and organic household waste in a new city area have been performed, as follows: (1) conventional system complemented with advanced sludge treatment for phosphorus recovery, (2) blackwater system with urine diversion and food waste disposers, (3) blackwater system with food waste disposers and reverse osmosis, and (4) local wastewater treatment plant with nutrient recovery by using reverse osmosis. Substance-flow analysis and energy/exergy calculations were performed by using the software tool URWARE/ORWARE. Emissions were calculated and classified based on the impact categories global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication, according to ISO 14042 (2000). The analysis also included nutrient recovery (i.e., the potential to use nutrients as a fertilizer). Depending on which aspects are prioritized, different systems can be considered to be the most advantageous.

  15. Fish waste as an alternative resource for gulls along the Patagonian coast: availability, use, and potential consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorio, Pablo; Caille, Guillermo

    2004-04-01

    We evaluated the volumes of waste from fish processing plants in Chubut Province, Argentina, and discuss its potential consequences for Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) population dynamics and coastal management. Mean volume of waste produced between 1989 and 2001 in three coastal cities was 49.8 {+-} 10.9 thousand tons y{sup -1}. The amount of waste varied between years and cities, being larger at Puerto Madryn and Comodoro Rivadavia than at Rawson (24.1, 19.3 and 6.4 thousand tons y{sup -1}, respectively). Waste was disposed at the three cities during all months of the sampled years. Large numbers of Kelp Gulls have been recorded taking advantage of fish waste disposed at these waste sites throughout the year. Considering its energetic content, waste generated at processing plants may support a population of between 101 000 and 209 000 Kelp Gulls. Fish waste could be contributing to their population expansion through increased survival and breeding success. Conflicts due to the use of waste and derived effects on other coastal species and human populations could be minimized by adequate fish waste management.

  16. From waste to resource: a systems-based approach to sustainable community development through equitable enterprise and agriculturally-derived polymeric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Elisa

    Rural communities in developing countries are most vulnerable to the plight of requiring repeated infusions of charitable aid over time. Micro-business opportunities that effectively break the cycle of poverty in resource-rich countries in the developing world are limited. However, a strong model for global commerce can break the cycle of donor-based economic supplements and limited local economic growth. Sustainable economic development can materialize when a robust framework combines engineering with the generous investment of profits back into the community. This research presents a novel, systems-based approach to sustainable community development in which a waste-to-resource methodology catalyzes the disruption of rural poverty. The framework developed in this thesis was applied to the rural communities of Cagmanaba and Badian, Philippines. An initial assessment of these communities showed that community members are extremely poor, but they possess an abundant natural resource: coconuts. The various parts of the coconut offer excellent potential value in global commerce. Today the sale of coconut water is on the rise, and coconut oil is an established $3 billion market annually that is also growing rapidly. Since these current industries harvest only two parts of the coconut (meat and water), the 50 billion coconuts that grow annually leave behind approximately 100 billion pounds of coconut shell and husk as agricultural waste. Coconuts thus provide an opportunity to create and test a waste-to-resource model. Intensive materials analysis, research, development, and optimization proved that coconut shell, currently burned as a fuel or discarded as agricultural waste, can be manufactured into high-grade coconut shell powder (CSP), which can be a viable filler in polymeric composites. This framework was modeled and tested as a case study in a manufacturing facility known as a Community Transformation Plant (CTP) in Cagmanaba, Philippines. The CTP enables local

  17. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  18. Novel open-source electronic medical records system for palliative care in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kamal G; Slough, Tara Lyn; Yeh, Ping Teresa; Gombwa, Suave; Kiromera, Athanase; Oden, Z Maria; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R

    2013-08-14

    The need for palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa is staggering: this region shoulders over 67% of the global burden of HIV/AIDS and cancer. However, provisions for these essential services remain limited and poorly integrated with national health systems in most nations. Moreover, the evidence base for palliative care in the region remains scarce. This study chronicles the development and evaluation of DataPall, an open-source electronic medical records system that can be used to track patients, manage data, and generate reports for palliative care providers in these settings.DataPall was developed using design criteria encompassing both functional and technical objectives articulated by hospital leaders and palliative care staff at a leading palliative care center in Malawi. The database can be used with computers that run Windows XP SP 2 or newer, and does not require an internet connection for use. Subsequent to its development and implementation in two hospitals, DataPall was tested among both trained and untrained hospital staff populations on the basis of its usability with comparison to existing paper records systems as well as on the speed at which users could perform basic database functions. Additionally, all participants evaluated this program on a standard system usability scale. In a study of health professionals in a Malawian hospital, DataPall enabled palliative care providers to find patients' appointments, on average, in less than half the time required to locate the same record in current paper records. Moreover, participants generated customizable reports documenting patient records and comprehensive reports on providers' activities with little training necessary. Participants affirmed this ease of use on the system usability scale. DataPall is a simple, effective electronic medical records system that can assist in developing an evidence base of clinical data for palliative care in low resource settings. The system is available at no cost, is

  19. Influence of wick properties in a vertical LHP on remove waste heat from electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitka, Martin; Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work is to develop porous wick of sintered nickel powder with different grain sizes. These porous wicks were used in LHP and there were performed a series of measurements to remove waste heat from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).

  20. Beta transmutations in apatites with ferric iron as an electron acceptor - implication for nuclear waste form development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ge; Zhang, Zelong; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-09-27

    Apatite-structured materials have been considered for the immobilization of a number of fission products from reprocessing nuclear fuel because of their chemical durability as well as compositional and structural flexibility. It is hypothesized that the effect of beta decay on the stability can be mitigated by introducing an appropriate electron acceptor at the neighboring sites in the structure. The decay series 137 Cs → 137 Ba and 90 Sr → 90 Y → 90 Zr were investigated using a spin-polarized DFT approach to test the hypothesis. Apatites with compositions of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 and Ca 4 Y 6 (SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 were selected as model systems for the incorporation of radionuclides Cs and Sr, respectively. Ferric iron was introduced in the structure as an electron acceptor. Electron density of states, crystal and defect structures, and energies before and after beta decay were calculated. The calculated electron density of states suggests that the extra electron is localized at the ferric iron, which changes its oxidation state and becomes ferrous iron. The crystal and defect structures were analyzed based on the volume, lattice parameters, radial distribution functions, metal cation to coordinating oxygen distances, and the metaprism twist angle of the apatite crystal structure. The results show that there are minor changes in the crystal and defect structures of CsFeCa 8 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 with Cs + and Fe 3+ substitutions undergoing the Cs → Ba transmutation, and of Ca 3 SrY 4 Fe 2 (SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 with Sr 2+ and Fe 3+ substitutions undergoing the Sr → Y → Zr transmutations. The last decay change, from Y 3+ → Zr 4+ , causes relatively larger changes in the local defect structure around Zr involving the coordination environment but the change is not significant to the crystal structure. The results on calculated cohesive energy suggest that the transmutations Cs + → Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ → Y 3+ → Zr 4+ in both apatite compositions are energetically favorable

  1. The effect of electron-ion coupling on radiation damage simulations of a pyrochlore waste form.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Ahmed E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Foiles, Stephen Martin; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2009-11-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of cascade damage in the gadolinium pyrochlore Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, comparing results obtained from traditional methodologies that ignore the effect of electron-ion interactions with a 'two-temperature model' in which the electronic subsystem is modeled using a diffusion equation to determine the electronic temperature. We find that the electron-ion interaction friction coefficient {gamma}{sub p} is a significant parameter in determining the behavior of the system following the formation of the primary knock-on atom (here, a U{sup 3+} ion). The mean final U{sup 3+} displacement and the number of defect atoms formed is shown to decrease uniformly with increasing {gamma}{sub p}; however, other properties, such as the final equilibrium temperature and the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function show a more complicated dependence on {gamma}{sub p}.

  2. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Nguyen B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  3. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Hu, Li-Fang [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  4. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  5. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  6. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-05-15

    Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36mm, with preferable conditions being 400rpm rotation speed, 5min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-10-15

    The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (TCd=69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling study of NOx removal in oil-fired waste off-gases under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolińska, Ewa; Sun, Yongxia; Chmielewski, A. G.; Nichipor, H.; Bulka, S.

    2015-08-01

    Computer simulations for high concentration of NOx removal from oil-fired waste off-gases under electron beam irradiation were carried out by using the Computer code "Kinetic" and GEAR method. 293 reactions involving 64 species were used for the modelling calculations. The composition of simulated oil-fired off-gas was the same as the experimental conditions. The calculations were made for following system: (75.78% N2+11.5% CO2+8.62% H2O+4.1% O2), NOx concentration varies from 200 ppm to 1500 ppm. Calculation results qualitatively agree with the experimental results. Furthermore the influence of temperature, SO2 concentration and ammonia addition is discussed.

  9. Supermarket food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Food waste occurs along the entire food supply chain and gives rise to great financial losses and waste of natural resources. The retail stage of the supply chain contributes significant masses of waste. Causes of this waste need to be identified before potential waste reduction measures can be designed, tested and evaluated. Therefore this thesis quantified retail food waste and evaluated selected prevention and valorisation measures, in order to determine how the carbon footprint of food ca...

  10. Recovery of silica from electronic waste for the synthesis of cubic MCM-48 and its application in preparing ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieves using a green approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Tzong-Horng

    2012-07-01

    The electronics industry is one of the world's fastest growing manufacturing industries. However, e-waste has become a serious pollution problem. This study reports the recovery of e-waste for preparing valuable MCM-48 and ordered mesoporous carbon for the first time. Specifically, this study adopts an alkali-extracted method to obtain sodium silicate precursors from electronic packaging resin ash. The influence of synthesis variables such as gelation pH, neutral/cationic surfactant ratio, hydrothermal treatment temperature, and calcination temperature on the mesophase of MCM-48 materials is investigated. Experimental results confirm that well-ordered cubic MCM-48 materials were synthesized in strongly acidic and strongly basic media. The resulting mesoporous silica had a high surface area of 1,317 m2/g, mean pore size of about 3.0 nm, and a high purity of 99.87 wt%. Ordered mesoporous carbon with high surface area (1,715 m2/g) and uniform pore size of CMK-1 type was successfully prepared by impregnating MCM-48 template using the resin waste. The carbon structure was sensitive to the sulfuric acid concentration and carbonization temperature. Converting e-waste into MCM-48 materials not only eliminates the disposal problem of e-waste, but also transforms industrial waste into a useful nanomaterial.

  11. Formation of PBDD/F from PBDE in electronic waste in recycling processes and under simulated extruding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennegg, Markus; Schluep, Mathias; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Lienemann, Peter; Haag, Regula; Gerecke, Andreas C

    2014-12-01

    The increasing volumes of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Europe and developing economies demand for efficient disposal solutions. However, WEEE also contains toxic compounds and, therefore, there is a need for recycling technologies for WEEE that creates revenue without causing environmental harm. Among other fast developing economies, South Africa is tempting to make use of recycled plastic. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are additives used to protect plastic materials in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) against ignition. Some BFRs are known persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and some BFRs can be transformed into highly toxic compounds such as polybrominated dibenzofurans and dioxins (PBDD/Fs). In this study, the contents of critical BFRs, i.e. polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and highly toxic PBDD/Fs were measured in WEEE material from Switzerland and South Africa. The formation of PBDD/Fs has been observed in two South African recycling processes and under controlled laboratory conditions. Total PBDE-contents in the South African and Swiss plastic waste varied between 1×10(3) and 7×10(6) μg kg(-1). A few WEEE plastic fractions exceeded the RoHS limit of 1×10(6) μg kg(-1) for PBDEs and thus they could not be used for recycling products without special treatment. The total content of ∑PBDFs was around 1×10(3) μg kg(-1). Such contents in materials do not pose a risk for consumer under normal conditions. Workers at recycling plants might be at risk. The measured formation rates of PBDFs were between 2×10(-5) and 2×10(-4)∑PBDE(-1) min(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Effective Knowledge Development in Secondary Schools Educational Level in Contemporary Information Age: Assessment of Availability of Electronic Information Resources in Nigerian School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Stephen Adeyemi; Ojo, Funmilayo Roseline; Ocheje, Charles Bala

    2015-01-01

    Relevant electronic information resources in contemporary information age are necessity to buttress teaching and learning for effective knowledge development in educational institutions. The purpose of the study is to know the state of availability of electronic information resources in government owned secondary school libraries in Ijumu Local…

  14. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium quarterly technical progress report, August 1--October 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes activities of the Center under the following topical sections: Electronic resource library; Environmental restoration and protection; Health and safety; Waste management; Communication program; Education program; Training; Analytical development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  15. Recovery of gold from electronic waste using chemical assisted microbial biosorption (hybrid) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel, Anvita; Pant, Deepak

    2017-09-02

    The aim of present study was to develop a modified method of gold recovery from e-waste. Selective biosorption of gold from contact point of printed circuit board was achieved by using the combination of ammonium thiosulfate (AT) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA).Improvement in biosorption was due to the π-π interaction and resultant change in amide absorption bond between AT and LA, as evidenced by infrared spectroscopy. Selection was justified by some basic postulates of ionic radii and confirmed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. This methodology provides a unique leaching-sorption method for gold recovery and 85% of gold was recovered (from AT leachant) by the proposed combination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Facile characterization of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) for mechanical recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, Rosa; Pozzi, Paolo; Zanasi, Tania

    2010-12-01

    In view of the environmental problem involved in the management of WEEE, and then in the recycling of post-consumer plastic of WEEE there is a pressing need for rapid measurement technologies for simple identification of the various commercial plastic materials and of the several contaminants, to improve the recycling of such wastes. This research is focused on the characterization and recycling of two types of plastics, namely plastic from personal computer (grey plastic) and plastic from television (black plastic). Various analytical techniques were used to monitor the compositions of WEEE. Initially, the chemical structure of each plastic material was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Polymeric contaminants of these plastics, in particular brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were detected in grey plastics only using different techniques. These techniques are useful for a rapid, correct and economics identification of a large volumes of WEEE plastics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring treatment costs of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment: A pre-research for Chinese policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Dong, Qingyin; Liu, Lili; Song, Qingbin

    2016-11-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4RMB/unit to 82.5RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives-such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits-and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with

  18. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  19. Transplanting EU waste law : The European waste electrical and electronic equipment directives as a source of inspiration to Brazilian law and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes Más, Heyd

    2016-01-01

    What are the legal instruments and policy choices producing improvements in e-waste management strategies worldwide? Could they be used from one legal system to another? The EU’s tradition of focusing on waste management and setting goals and responsibilities for all stakeholders involved in

  20. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.