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Sample records for waste disposal system

  1. The legal system of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauk, W.

    1983-01-01

    This doctoral thesis presents solutions to some of the legal problems encountered in the interpretation of the various laws and regulations governing nuclear waste disposal, and reveals the legal system supporting the variety of individual regulations. Proposals are made relating to modifications of problematic or not well defined provisions, in order to contribute to improved juridical security, or inambiguity in terms of law. The author also discusses the question of the constitutionality of the laws for nuclear waste disposal. Apart from the responsibility of private enterprise to contribute to safe treatment or recycling, within the framework of the integrated waste management concept, and apart from the Government's responsibility for interim or final storage of radioactive waste, there is a third possibility included in the legal system for waste management, namely voluntary measures taken by private enterprise for radioactive waste disposal. The licence to be applied for in accordance with section 3, sub-section (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance is interpreted to pertain to all measures of radioactive waste disposal, thus including final storage of radioactive waste by private companies. Although the terminology and systematic concept of nuclear waste disposal are difficult to understand, there is a functionable system of legal provisions contained therein. This system fits into the overall concept of laws governing technical safety and safety engineering. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. System for disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.; Hansen, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    A system is disclosed for disposing of radioactive mixed liquid and particulate waste material from nuclear reactors by solidifying the liquid components into a free standing hardened mass with a syrup of partially polymerized particles of urea formaldehyde in water and a liquid curing agent

  3. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  4. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  5. System for disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.; Hansen, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for disposing of radioactive waste material from nuclear reactors by solidifying the liquid components to produce an encapsulated mass adapted for disposal by burial. The method contemplates mixing of radioactive waste materials, with or without contained solids, with a setting agent capable of solidifying the waste liquids into a free standing hardened mass, placing the resulting liquid mixture in a container with a proportionate amount of a curing agent to effect solidification under controlled conditions, and thereafter burying the container and contained solidified mixture. The setting agent is a water-extendable polymer consisting of a suspension of partially polymerized particles of urea formaldehyde in water, and the curing agent is sodium bisulfate. Methods are disclosed for dewatering slurry-like mixtures of liquid and particulate radioactive waste materials, such as spent ion exchange resin beads, and for effecting desired distribution of non-liquid radioactive materials in the central area of the container prior to solidification, so that the surrounding mass of lower specific radioactivity acts as a partial shield against higher radioactivity of the non-liquid radioactive materials. The methods also provide for addition of non-radioactive filler materials to dilute the mixture and lower the overall radioactivity of the hardened mixture to desired Lowest Specific Activity counts. An inhibiting agent is added to the liquid mixture to adjust the solidification time, and provision is made for adding additional amounts of setting agent and curing agent to take up any free water and further encapsulate the hardened material within the container. 30 claims

  6. System for disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gablin, K.A.; Hansen, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    A system is described for disposing of radioactive waste material from nuclear reactors by solidifying the liquid components to produce an encapsulated mass adapted for disposal by burial. The method contemplates mixing of radioactive waste materials, with or without contained solids, with a setting agent capable of solidifying the waste liquids into a free standing hardened mass, placing the resulting liquid mixture in a container with a proportionate amount of a curing agent to effect solidification under controlled conditions, and thereafter burying the container and contained solidified mixture. The setting agent is a water-extendable polymer consisting of a suspension of partially polymerized particles of urea formaldehyde in water, and the curing agent is sodium bisulfate. Methods are disclosed for dewatering slurry-like mixtures of liquid and particulate radioactive waste materials, such as spent ion exchange resin beads, and for effecting desired distribution of non-liquid radioactive materials in the central area of the container prior to solidification, so that the surrounding mass of lower specific radioactivity acts as a partial shield against higher radioactivity of the non-liquid radioactive materials. The methods also provide for addition of non-radioactive filler materials to dilute the mixture and lower the overall radioactivity of the hardened mixture to desired Lowest Specific Activity counts. An inhibiting agent is added to the liquid mixture to adjust the solidification time, and provision is made for adding additional amounts of setting agent and curing agent to take up any free water and further encapsulate the hardened material within the container

  7. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  8. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  9. Processing and waste disposal representative for fusion breeder blanket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Vogler, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the waste handling concepts applicable to fusion breeder systems. Its goal is to determine if breeder blanket waste can be disposed of in shallow land burial, the least restrictive method under US Nuclear Regulatory regulations. The radionuclides expected in the materials used in fusion reactor blankets are described, as are plans for reprocessing and disposal of the components of different breeder blankets. An estimate of the operating costs involved in waste disposal is made

  10. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  11. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  12. Engineering Systems for Waste Disposal to the Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Norman H.

    1981-01-01

    Successful waste-water and sludge disposal in -the ocean depends on designing an appropriate engineering system where the input is the waste and the output is the final water quality which is achieved in the vicinity of the disposal site. The principal variable components of this system are: source control (or pretreatment) of industrial wastes before discharge into municipal sewers; sewage treatment plants, including facilities for processing of sewage solids (sludge); outfall pipes and d...

  13. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission infrastructure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This system plan presents the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Infrastructure Program. This Infrastructure Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project's Retrieval and Disposal Mission

  14. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  15. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission waste feed delivery plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a plan presenting the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Program. This WFD Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project's Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission

  16. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  17. Progress on developing expert systems in waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A.L.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of artificial intelligence (AI) represents a challenging opportunity in expanding the potential benefits from computer technology in waste management and disposal. The potential of this concept lies in facilitating the development of intelligent computer systems to help analysts, decision makers, and operators in waste and technology problem solving similar to the way that machines support the laborer. Because the knowledge of multiple human experts is an essential input in the many aspects of waste management and disposal, there are numerous opportunities for the development of expert systems using software products from AI. This paper presents systems analysis as an attractive framework for the development of intelligent computer systems of significance to waste management and disposal, and it provides an overview of limited prototype systems and the commercially available software used during prototype development activities

  18. Modularized system for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; DiSibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    A modularized system for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste is presented that attempts to overcome the past problems with shallow land burial and gain public acceptance. All waste received at the disposal site is packaged into reinforced concrete modules which are filled with grout, covered and sealed. The hexagonal shape modules are placed in a closely packed array in a disposal unit. The structural stability provided by the modules allow a protective cover constructed of natural materials to be installed, and the disposal units are decommissioned as they are filled. The modules are designed to be recoverable in the event remedial action is necessary. The cost of disposal with a facility of this type is comparable to current prices of shallow land burial facilities. The system is intended to address the needs of generators, regulators, communities, elected officials, licensees and future generations

  19. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  20. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  1. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary 239Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford Site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for 239 Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000 year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/y to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for 239 Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 2 figures, 5 tables

  2. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  3. Cover and liner system designs for mixed-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, A.

    1994-01-01

    Land disposal of mixed waste is subject to a variety of regulations and requirements. Landfills will continue to be a part of waste management plans at virtually all facilities. New landfills are planned to serve the ongoing needs of the national laboratories and US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and environmental restoration wastes will ultimately need to be disposed in these landfills. This paper reviews the basic objectives of mixed-waste disposal and summarizes key constraints facing planners and designers of these facilities. Possible objectives of cover systems include infiltration reduction; maximization of evapotranspiration; use of capillary barriers or low-permeability layers (or combinations of all these); lateral drainage transmission; plant, animal, and/or human intrusion control; vapor/gas control; and wind and water erosion control. Liner system objectives will be presented, and will be compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency-US Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance for mixed-waste landfills. The measures to accomplish each objective will be reviewed. Then, the design of several existing or planned mixed-waste facilities (DOE and commercial) will be reviewed to illustrate the application of the various functional objectives. Key issues will include design life and performance period as compared/contrasted to postclosure care periods, the use (or avoidance) of geosynthetics or clays, intermediate or interim cover systems, and soil erosion protection in contrast to vegetative enhancement. Possible monitoring approaches to cover systems and landfill installations will be summarized as well

  4. Processing and waste disposal needs for fusion breeder blankets system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Vogler, S.

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the waste disposal and recycling requirements for two types of fusion breeder blanket (solid and liquid). The goal was to determine if breeder blanket waste can be disposed of in shallow land burial, the least restrictive method under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. Described in this paper are the radionuclides expected in fusion blanket materials, plans for reprocessing and disposal of blanket components, and estimates for the operating costs involved in waste disposal. (orig.)

  5. Internal monitoring system for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanke, J.A.; McConnell, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with Bechtel National, Inc. as the project management contractor, is responsible for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) interim waste containment facility in Lewiston, New York. The NFSS contains approximately 190,000 m 3 of low-level radioactive waste resulting from the remediation of approximately 600 hectares of the U.S. Army's former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works. The remedial action for the site and vicinity properties was performed as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program and Surplus Facilities Management Program. The NFSS adapted off-the-shelf instrumentation to show that the design features are functioning, and develops confidence that long-term stability, without constant surveillance, is feasible

  6. Postclosure assessment as a design tool for waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Hajas, W.C.; LeNeveu, D.M.; Melnyk, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    AECL Research and Ontario Hydro share the responsibility to evaluate the feasibility and safety of the concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept involves deep underground disposal in crystalline rock on the Canadian Shield. AECL Research is currently preparing an Environmental Impact Statement for review by a federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel. In this paper, we present an example of how simulations performed for the postclosure assessment could influence the design and layout of the engineered system with respect to the structural features of its host rock formation. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  7. Protective barrier systems for final disposal of Hanford Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Hartley, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A protecting barrier system is being developed for potential application in the final disposal of defense wastes at the Hanford Site. The functional requirements for the protective barrier are control of water infiltration, wind erosion, and plant and animal intrusion into the waste zone. The barrier must also be able to function without maintenance for the required time period (up to 10,000 yr). This paper summarizes the progress made and future plans in this effort to design and test protective barriers at the Hanford Site

  8. Gas generation and migration analysis for TRU waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kenichi; Noda, Masaru; Yamamoto, Mikihiko; Mihara, Morihiro

    2005-09-01

    In TRU waste disposal system, significant quantities of gases may be generated due to metal corrosion, radiolysis effect and microorganism activities. It is therefore recommended that the potential impact of gas generation and migration on TRU waste repository should be evaluated. In this study, gas generation rates were calculated in the repository and gas migration analysis in the disposal system were carried out using two phase flow model with results of gas generation rates. First, the time dependencies of gas generation rate in each TRU waste repositories were evaluated based on amounts of metal, organic matter and radioactivity. Next, the accumulation pressure of gases and expelled pore water volume nuclides in the repository were calculated by TOUGH2 code. After that, the results showed that the increase of gas pressure was the range of 1.3 to 1.4 MPa. In the repository with and without buffer, the rate of expelled pore water was 0.006 - 0.009 m 3 /y and 0.018 - 0.24m 3 /y, respectively. In addition, the radioactive gas migration through the repository and geosphere are evaluated. And re-saturation analysis is also performed to evaluate the initial condition of the system. (author)

  9. Waste inventory record keeping systems (WIRKS) for the management and disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This report is intended to serve Member States planning to develop or implement radioactive waste disposal programmes and to discuss possible ways for compiling and managing information about the inventories in their radioactive waste repositories, which includes low and intermediate level waste (short lived and long lived) and high level radioactive waste. This report identifies generic information that may be recorded in a Waste Inventory Record Keeping System (WIRKS), as identified by consultants and based on their collective expertise in radioactive waste management. The report provides examples of WIRKS implementation in some countries

  10. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Value systems and opinions on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, R.; Moser, C.; Kruetli, P.; Stauffacher, M.

    2011-06-01

    This report by the Institute for Environmental Decisions at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, takes a look at factors concerning acceptance, values, chances and risks involved in the realisation of depositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. The aims of a study made on the subject are discussed. The study was organised in five steps: The first step involved a literature study covering value systems, value-connected concepts for geological deep repositories and their evaluation. In the second step, a screening in connection with the values involved and their influence on the formation of opinion is examined. The random sampling of public opinion involved in this step is described and discussed. A third step involved the evaluation of interviews made on the subject of radioactive waste disposal. The fourth step was to correlate the results and make conclusions on the methodology being used in connection with the disposal of radioactive wastes. Three appendices to the report present further details on the work done

  12. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  13. Risk communication system for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hirosi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding and acceptance of the task of implementing high level radioactive waste disposal, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. First, text mining method was introduced to identify the core public interest, examining public comments on the technical report of high level radioactive waste disposal. Then we designed the dialog-mode contents based on the theory of norm activation by Schwartz. Finally, the discussion board was mounted on the web site. By constructing such web communication system which includes knowledge base contents, introspective contents, and interactive discussion board, we conducted the experiment for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The participants of the experiment increased their interest in the topics with which they were not familiar and actively posted their opinions on the BBS. The dialog-mode contents were significantly more effective than the knowledge-based contents in promoting introspection that brought people into a greater awareness of problems such as social dilemma. (author)

  14. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal.... The following will be forwarded to the Administrator, Attention: Water and Waste Disposal Division...

  15. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  16. Legal system of nuclear waste disposal. Das System der atomaren Entsorgungsregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauk, W

    1983-01-01

    This doctoral thesis presents solutions to some of the legal problems encountered in the interpretation of the various laws and regulations governing nuclear waste disposal, and reveals the legal system supporting the variety of individual regulations. Proposals are made relating to modifications of problematic or not well defined provisions, in order to contribute to improved juridical security, or inambiguity in terms of law. The author also discusses the question of the constitutionality of the laws for nuclear waste disposal. Apart from the responsibility of private enterprise to contribute to safe treatment or recycling, within the framework of the integrated waste management concept, and apart from the Government's responsibility for interim or final storage of radioactive waste, there is a third possibility included in the legal system for waste management, namely voluntary measures taken by private enterprise for radioactive waste disposal. The licence to be applied for in accordance with section 3, sub-section (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance is interpreted to pertain to all measures of radioactive waste disposal, thus including final storage of radioactive waste by private companies. Although the terminology and systematic concept of nuclear waste disposal are difficult to understand, there is a functionable system of legal provisions contained therein. This system fits into the overall concept of laws governing technical safety and safety engineering.

  17. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  18. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  19. Quality management system for the disposal of low and medium levels radioactive wastes - RBMN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Antonio Mario P.; Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Fraga, Rosane Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the standards applied in quality and safety management systems for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste. The comparison will be a contribution to development, maintenance and improvement the safety and quality system of a disposal of low and medium radioactive waste (RBMN) coordinated by CDTN - Brazilian Development Center for Nuclear Technology). (author)

  20. Quality management system for the disposal of low and medium levels radioactive wastes - RBMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Antonio Mario P.; Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Fraga, Rosane Rodrigues, E-mail: ampa@cdtn.br, E-mail: hauczmj@cdtn.br, E-mail: rosaner@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This article compares the standards applied in quality and safety management systems for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste. The comparison will be a contribution to development, maintenance and improvement the safety and quality system of a disposal of low and medium radioactive waste (RBMN) coordinated by CDTN - Brazilian Development Center for Nuclear Technology). (author)

  1. Yugoslav central disposal system or rad waste materials: necessity and justification of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peric, A.; Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    Decision on searching for the location and the choice of appropriate type of system for final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste materials should be made urgently in Yugoslavia. capacities for further storing of such waste materials on the site of the Vinca Institute will be full in the next few years, following the trend of present rad waste generation and delivery. Selection of the location and type of the disposal system in Yugoslavia is of crucial importance from the point of view of conservation of environment quality level and enabling permanent control of disposed immobilized rad waste materials and its impact on the environment. (author)

  2. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  3. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An operator...

  5. Cosmic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y; Morisawa, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-03-01

    The technical and economical possibility and safety of the disposal of highly radioactive waste into cosmos are reviewed. The disposal of highly radioactive waste is serious problem to be solved in the near future, because it is produced in large amounts by the reprocessing of spent fuel. The promising methods proposed are (i) underground disposal, (ii) ocean disposal, (iii) cosmic disposal and (iv) extinguishing disposal. The final disposal method is not yet decided internationally. The radioactive waste contains very long life nuclides, for example transuranic elements and actinide elements. The author thinks the most perfect and safe disposal method for these very long life nuclides is the disposal into cosmos. The space vehicle carrying radioactive waste will be launched safely into outer space with recent space technology. The selection of orbit for vehicles (earth satellite or orbit around planets) or escape from solar system, selection of launching rocket type pretreatment of waste, launching weight, and the cost of cosmic disposal were investigated roughly and quantitatively. Safety problem of cosmic disposal should be examined from the reliable safety study data in the future.

  6. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  7. Development and use of a remote waste handling system for disposal of greater confinement wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and development of a remotely controlled waste handling system (RWHS) for use in radioactive waste disposal operations. A RWHS was developed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nevada Test Site for use in the Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT). The RWHS consists of a remote control console and the following remotely operated features: a crane, a grapple/manipulator module which is suspended by the crane hoist hook, and closed-circuit television cameras. The RWHS was used to safely place high-specific-activity radioactive waste in greater confinement disposal. Between December 15, 1983, and February 23, 1984, five encapsulated sources were open-air transferred from shielded shipping casks and placed 30 m down a 3-m-dia augered shaft using the RWHS. These sources contained approximately 460 kCi of 90 Sr, 21 kCi of 137 Cs, and 390 Ci of 60 Co. Each source was transferred safely and efficiently and operational personnel did not receive any recordable doses. 3 references, 5 figures

  8. Perspectives on integrating the US radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culler, F.L.; Croff, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    The waste management systems being developed and deployed by the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is large, complex, decentralized, and long term. As a result, a systems integration approach has been implemented by OCRWM. The fundamentals of systems integration and its application are examined in the context of the OCRWM program. This application is commendable, and some additional systems integration features are suggested to enhance its benefits. 6 refs., 1 fig

  9. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  10. Interfaces between transport and geological disposal systems for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document is an IAEA publication which identifies and discusses the interfaces and the interface requirements between high level waste, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the high level waste disposal facility. The development of this document was prompted in part by the initiatives in various Member States to select, characterize and design the facilities for potential high level waste geological repositories. These initiatives have progressed to the point where an international document would be useful in calling attention to the need for establishing, in a systematic way, interfaces and interface requirements between the transport systems to be used and the waste disposal packages and geological repository. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor's Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission

  12. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  13. Vehicle Radiation Monitoring Systems for Medical Waste Disposal - 12102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashov, Vladislav S.; Steranka, Steve A. [RadComm Systems Corp., 2931 Portland Dr., Oakville, ON L6H 5S4 (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals often declare their waste as being 'non-radioactive'; however this material often has excessive levels of radiation caused either by an accident or lack of control. To ensure the best possible protection against the accidental receipt of radioactive materials and as a safety precaution for their employees, waste-handling companies have installed large-scale radiation portal monitors at their weigh scales or entry gates of the incinerator plant, waste transfer station, and/or landfill. Large-volume plastic scintillator-based systems can be used to monitor radiation levels at entry points to companies handling medical waste. The recent and intensive field tests together with the thousands of accumulated hours of actual real-life vehicle scanning have proven that the plastic scintillation based system is an appropriate radiation control instrument for waste management companies. The Real-Time background compensation algorithm is flexible with automatic adjustable coefficients that will response to rapidly changing environmental and weather conditions maintaining the preset alarm threshold levels. The Dose Rate correction algorithms further enhance the system's ability to meet the stringent requirements of the waste industries need for Dose Rate measurements. (authors)

  14. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  15. Disposal containers for radioactive waste materials and separation systems for radioactive waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. The separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. The inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and the discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by a second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes a coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. The centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized. (author)

  16. Allowable residual contamination levels: transuranic advanced disposal systems for defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of advanced disposal systems for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes is being conducted using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. For defense TRU wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, various advanced disposal techniques are being studied to determine their potential for application. This paper presents a discussion of the results of the first stage of the TRU advanced disposal systems project

  17. A digital control and monitoring system for PWR waste-disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Toshiharu; Fuchigami, Kazuyuki; Shimozato, Masao; Takazawa, Kazuo

    1982-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has developed a digital control and monitoring system for PWR waste-disposal systems. This novel system has improved operability due to its automated operations and control, and integrated supervisory functions. The system includes other features to improve operability: sequence control by a control computer, direct-digital process control, integrated supervision of operation states by a supervisory computer and a high-speed dataway, and CRT interfacing between the computer and dataway. (author)

  18. The management system for the disposal of radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on developing and implementing management systems for all phases of facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste and related activities. It covers the management systems for managing the different stages of waste disposal facilities, such as siting, design and construction, operation (i.e. the activities, which can extend over several decades, involving receipt of the waste product in its final packaging (if it is to be disposed of in packaged form), waste emplacement in the waste disposal facility, backfilling and sealing, and any subsequent period prior to closure), closure and the period of institutional control (i.e. either active control - monitoring, surveillance and remediation; or passive control - restricted land use). The management systems apply to various types of disposal facility for different categories of radioactive waste, such as: near surface (for low level waste), geological (for low, intermediate and/or high level waste), boreholes (for sealed sources), surface impoundment (for mining and milling waste) and landfill (for very low level waste). It also covers management systems for related processes and activities, such as extended monitoring and surveillance during the period of active institutional control in the post-closure phase, safety and performance assessments and development of the safety case for the waste disposal facility and regulatory authorization (e.g. licensing). This Safety Guide is intended to be used by organizations that are directly involved in, or that regulate, the facilities and activities described in paras 1.15 and 1.16, and by the suppliers of nuclear safety related products that are required to meet some or all of the requirements established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3 'The Management System for Facilities and Activities'. It will also be useful to legislators and to members of the public and other parties interested in the nuclear

  19. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy's evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors

  20. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  3. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Michihiro; Tsuruta, Takashi; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    Sewage works facilities consist of various assets groups. And there are many kinds of financial resources. In order to optimize the maintenance plan, and to secure the stability and sustainability of sewage works management, it is necessary to carry out financial simulation based on the life-cycle cost analysis. Furthermore, it is important to develop management accounting system that is interlinked with the financial accounting system, because many sewage administration bodies have their financial accounting systems as public enterprises. In this paper, a management accounting system, which is designed to provide basic information for asset management of sewage works facilities, is presented. Also the applicability of the management accounting system presented in this paper is examined through financial simulations.

  4. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: comments on the postclosure assessment of a reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Goodwin, B.W.

    1996-07-01

    Canada, like other countries, is developing technology for disposal of its nuclear fuel waste , based on the concept of geological disposal in stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The choice of methods, materials, and designs for a disposal system will ultimately be made on the basis of safety, taking into account the characteristics of the specific site on which the facility is to be developed, costs and practicality. As part of its work in developing the technology for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste, AECL analyzed the performance of a hypothetical disposal facility that incorporates specific design choices for the engineered barriers and that assumes a specific geological setting. This system, comprising the disposal facility and the geological setting, and the results of the performance analysis, is described in an Environmental Impact Statement that AECL submitted in 1994 and in a Primary Reference for the EIS 'The Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste: Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System.' The performance analysis was not intended to be a general proof of the safety of disposal, but rather it presents a safety analysis of one specific system to illustrate the postclosure assessment methodology and to demonstrate that safety could be achieved for the system in question. Although the design of the disposal facility analyzed and the geological setting have specific features, the results obtained from the safety analysis can, however, be used to provide considerable insight into the performance of the various components that comprise the multibarrier geological disposal system. Moreover, the results can show how changes in the performance of specific components can affect the overall performance of the system. This report discusses these aspects of the postclosure analysis. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  6. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  7. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.; Gnirk, P.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the form and final disposal of nuclear wastes; the natural rock and groundwater; the disturbed rock and the groundwater; long-term behavior of the rock and the groundwater; nuclear waste leakage into the groundwater; what does it all mean. (U.K.)

  8. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  9. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  10. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper

  11. Effect of the waste exclusion distance on the postclosure performance of a reference disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Hajas, W.C.; Melnyk, T.W.; Kitson, C.I.

    1995-07-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves the isolation of the waste in corrosion-resistant containers placed in a sealed vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 metres in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The technical feasibility of this concept, and its impact on the environment and human health, are summarized in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIS is supported by nine primary references, one of which describes the postclosure assessment of the concept. The postclosure assessment is concerned with the long-term performance and behaviour of the disposal system, starting from the time the disposal facility is closed and extending far into the future. The discussions presented in the EIS and the postclosure assessment are based on a case study of a hypothetical disposal system with specific design features and host rock characteristics. The design features are founded on a conceptual engineering study and the rock characteristics are derived from geological studies of a field research area. In the case study, the long-term performance of the hypothetical disposal system was strongly dependent on a design parameter called the waste exclusion distance. This distance is defined as the minimum length of low-permeability sparsely fractured rock between the waste-emplacement part of the hypothetical vault and a nearby conductive fracture zone in the host rock. In this report, we examine trends in estimates of radiological impact as a function of the waste exclusion distance. (author). 18 refs., 14 figs

  12. Classification and disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical development in the U.S. of definitions and requirements for permanent disposal of different classes of radioactive waste. We first consider the descriptions of different waste classes that were developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations. These descriptions usually were not based on requirements for permanent disposal but, rather, on the source of the waste and requirements for safe handling and storage. We then discuss existing laws and regulations for disposal of different waste classes. Current definitions of waste classes are largely qualitative, and thus somewhat ambiguous, and are based primarily on the source of the waste rather than the properties of its radioactive constituents. Furthermore, even though permanent disposal is clearly recognized as the ultimate goal of radioactive water management, current laws and regulations do not associated the definitions of different waste classes with requirement for particular disposal systems. Thus, requirements for waste disposal essentially are unaffected by ambiguities in the present waste classification system

  13. Characteristics study of bentonite as candidate of buffer materials for radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro; Arimuladi, S.P.; Sastrowardoyo, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    Literature studies on bentonite characteristic of, as candidate for radioactive waste disposal system, have been conducted. Several information have been obtained from references, which would be contributed on performance assessment of engineered barrier. The functions bentonite includes the buffering of chemical and physical behavior, i.e. swelling property, self sealing, hydraulic conductivities and gas permeability. This paper also presented long-term stability of bentonite in natural condition related to the illitisazation, which could change its buffering capacities. These information, showed that bentonite was satisfied to be used for candidate of buffer materials in radioactive waste disposal system. (author)

  14. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hun; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    In the study, GSIS os developed for the maximizing effectiveness of the database system. For this purpose, the spatial relation of data from various fields that are constructed in the database which was developed for the site selection and management of repository for radioactive waste disposal. By constructing the integration system that can link attribute and spatial data, it is possible to evaluate the safety of repository effectively and economically. The suitability of integrating database and GSIS is examined by constructing the database in the test district where the site characteristics are similar to that of repository for radioactive waste disposal.

  15. Modelling sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for radioactive waste disposal. Project BIOCLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texier, D.; Degnan, P.; Loutre, M.F.; Lemaitre, G.; Paillard, D.; Thorne, M.

    2000-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project (Modelling Sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for Radioactive Waste Disposal) is part of the EURATOM fifth European framework programme. The project was launched in October 2000 for a three-year period. It is coordinated by ANDRA, the French national radioactive waste management agency. The project brings together a number of European radioactive waste management organisations that have national responsibilities for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes, and several highly experienced climate research teams. Waste management organisations involved are: NIREX (UK), GRS (Germany), ENRESA (Spain), NRI (Czech Republic) and ANDRA (France). Climate research teams involved are: LSCE (CEA/CNRS, France), CIEMAT (Spain), UPMETSIMM (Spain), UCL/ASTR (Belgium) and CRU (UEA, UK). The Environmental Agency for England and Wales provides a regulatory perspective. The consulting company Enviros Consulting (UK) assists ANDRA by contributing to both the administrative and scientific aspects of the project. This paper describes the project and progress to date. (authors)

  16. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  17. Performance objectives of the tank waste remediation system low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Before low-level waste may be disposed of, a performance assessment must be written and then approved by the U.S. Department of Energy. The performance assessment is to determine whether open-quotes reasonable assuranceclose quotes exists that the performance objectives of the disposal facility will be met. The DOE requirements for waste disposal require: the protection of public health and safety; and the protection of the environment. Although quantitative limits are sometimes stated (for example, the all exposure pathways exposure limit is 25 mrem/year), usually the requirements are stated in a general nature. Quantitative limits were established by: investigating all potentially applicable regulations as well as interpretations of the Peer Review Panel which DOE has established to review performance assessments, interacting with program management to establish their needs, and interacting with the public (i.e., the Hanford Advisory Board members; as well as affected Indian tribes) to understand the values of residents in the Pacific Northwest

  18. A review on colloidal systems in general and in respect of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, Ulla

    1987-04-01

    Recently the possible importance of colloids in connection with nuclear waste disposal, especially in radionuclide migration has been emphasized. Several studies have been or are going to be initiated to investigate the occurrence of natural groundwater colloids and their properties as well as formation and properties of radiocolloids, especially pseudoradiocolloids. If colloids are found to be important, they also have to considered in the safety assessments of nuclear waste disposal. In order to do so, additional theory and equations have to be added to present codes and models. This study is a literature survey consisting first a general approach on colloidal systems and their properties. Then a review on natural groundwater colloids (clays and organs) is given following descriptions of several methods to study colloids. Lastly the role of colloids in nuclear waste disposal is discussed including especially some information about possible actinide colloids and some current research going on in this field. 96 refs

  19. Development of geological disposal system for spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jong Won

    2013-01-01

    Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel) for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR SPENT FUELS AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEUI-JOO CHOI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  1. Systems costs for disposal of Savannah River high-level waste sludge and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.; Goodlett, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    A systems cost model has been developed to support disposal of defense high-level waste sludge and salt generated at the Savannah River Plant. Waste processing activities covered by the model include decontamination of the salt by a precipitation process in the waste storage tanks, incorporation of the sludge and radionuclides removed from the salt into glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and, after interim storage, final disposal of the DWPF glass waste canisters in a federal geologic repository. Total costs for processing of waste generated to the year 2000 are estimated to be about $2.9 billion (1984 dollars); incremental unit costs for DWPF and repository disposal activities range from $120,000 to $170,000 per canister depending on DWPF processing schedules. In a representative evaluation of process alternatives, the model is used to demonstrate cost effectiveness of adjustments in the frit content of the waste glass to reduce impacts of wastes generated by the salt decontamination operations. 13 references, 8 tables

  2. The UK system for regulating the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.

    1997-01-01

    The general system is described for regulation of disposal of solid, long-lived radioactive wastes. The relevant Government policy is outlined, and the framework of legislation and arrangements for implementation, the associated guidance produced by regulatory bodies and the approach to assessment by regulators of a safety case for radioactive waste disposal are reported. Also, for the purposes of discussion in the Workshop, some of the practical issues are considered which are still in development in the UK in regard to regulatory methodology. (author)

  3. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Save Our Earth series has been designed to appeal to the inquiring minds of ''planet-friendly'' young readers. There is now a greater awareness of environmental issues and an increasing concern for a world no longer able to tolerate the onslaught of pollution, the depletion of natural resources and the effects of toxic chemicals. Each book approaches a specific topic in a way that is exciting and thought-provoking, presenting the facts in a style that is concise and appropriate. The series aims to demonstrate how various environmental subjects relate to our lives, and encourages the reader to accept not only responsibility for the planet, but also for its rescue and restoration. This volume, on nuclear waste disposal, explains how nuclear energy is harnessed in a nuclear reactor, what radioactive waste is, what radioactivity is and its effects, and the problems and possible solutions of disposing of nuclear waste. An awareness of the dangers of nuclear waste is sought. (author)

  4. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  5. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  6. Specified radioactive waste final disposal act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masaya

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)

  7. The role of cement to be expected in radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya; Ohe, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    Based on the present states of cement in radioactive waste disposal system, its roles and functions to be further expected were discussed diming at safety evaluation of wastes. In the present waste disposal system, cement has two important roles as the structural materials for the system and as the barrier materials for protecting from various radiations. In order to enhance the durability of those materials, it is needed to improve them in respects of acid resistance and repression of the reactions with radioactive wastes. Generally development of cracks in concrete structures is inevitable and the repairs become necessary in old structures. Therefore, it is desirable that cement for a disposal system has self-diagnostic and self-repairing abilities to keep the efficiency for a long period. The compressive strength of ordinary high-strength concrete is around 50-60 Nmm -2 . However, it is needed to further increase the strength to decrease the amount of hardening materials and the width of concrete vessel for wastes. In addition, it is desirable to develop new techniques to recycle concrete wastes involving radioactive materials at ultra-low levels. (M.N.)

  8. Radioactive waste disposal system for Cuba. Safety assessment for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Mirta Torrez, B.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is performed within the frame of evaluating the radiological impact of the post-closure stage of the facility for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in Cuba, including a description of the waste disposal systems defined in the country, and taking account of significant elements of their long term safety. The Methodology for Safety Assessment includes: the definition of possible scenarios for evaluation, the identification of principal present uncertainties, the model simulating the release of the radionuclides of the facility, their transport through the geosphere, and their final access to man, evaluating ultimately the radiological impact of the disposal system considering the dose for a critical group. The results obtained allow to demonstrate the radiological safety of the nominative barrier in the design of the system for the particular conditions of Cuba. (author)

  9. System for the hydrogeologic analysis of uranium mill waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osiensky, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the uranium mill wastes generated before 1977 are stored in unlined tailings ponds. Seepage from some of these ponds has been of sufficient severity that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has required the installation of withdrawal wells to remove the contaminated groundwater. Uranium mill waste disposal facilities typically are located in complex hydrogeologic environments. This research was initiated in 1980 to analyze hydrogeologic data collected at seven disposal sites in the US that have experienced problems with groundwater contamination. The characteristics of seepage migration are site specific and are controlled by the hydrogeologic environment in the vicinity of each tailings pond. Careful monitoring of most seepage plumes was not initiated until approximately 1977. These efforts were accelerated as a consequence of the uranium Mill Tailings Act of 1979. Some of the data collected at uranium mill waste disposal sites in the past are incomplete and some were collected by methods that are outdated. Data frequently were collected in sequences which disrupted the continuity of the hydrogeologic analysis and decreased the effectiveness of the data collection programs. Evaluation of data collection programs for seven uranium mill waste disposal sites in the US has led to the development and presentation herein of a system for the hydrogeologic analysis of disposal sites

  10. Economic and ecological optimal strategies of management of the system of regional solid waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoylik Marina S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article develops an economic and ecological model of optimal management of the system of solid waste disposal at the regional level, identifies its target functions and forms optimisation scenarios of management of this sphere with theoretically optimal parameters’ values. Based on the model of management of the sphere of solid waste disposal the article forms an algorithm of identification of optimal managerial strategies and mechanisms of their realisation, which allows solution of the set tasks of optimisation of development of the sphere of solid waste disposal at a given set of values and parameters of the state of the system for a specific type of life cycle of solid waste and different subjects of this sphere. The developed model has a number of feasible solutions and, consequently, offers selection of the best of them with consideration of target functions. The article conducts a SWOT analysis of the current state of solid waste disposal in the Poltava region and identifies a necessity of development of a relevant strategy on the basis of the developed economic and ecological model with consideration of optimisation of mutually opposite criteria: ecological risk for the population from the sphere of solid waste disposal and total expenditures for this sphere functioning. The article conducts modelling of this situation by basic (current situation and alternative scenarios and finds out that, at this stage, it is most expedient to build in the region four sorting lines and five regional solid waste grounds, while expenditures on this sphere are UAH 62.0 million per year, income from secondary raw material sales – UAH 71.2 per year and reduction of the ecological risk – UAH 13 million per year.

  11. Modeling of a sedimentary rock alternative for the siting of the radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2007-01-01

    Here are described the main concepts, the approximations, and all those simulation aspects that characterize the modeling performed using the unsaturated saturated approach for porous media. The objective of this work is to obtain a generic description of a sedimentary rock soil as an alternative site for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal system. (author) [es

  12. Systems Engineering Plan and project record Configuration Management Plan for the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, W.E.; Oakley, L.B.

    1993-04-01

    This document summarizes the systems engineering assessment that was performed for the Mixed Waste Disposal Initiative (MWDI) Project to determine what types of documentation are required for the success of the project. The report also identifies the documents that will make up the MWDI Project Record and describes the Configuration Management Plan describes the responsibilities and process for making changes to project documentation

  13. Optimal routes scheduling for municipal waste disposal garbage trucks using evolutionary algorithm and artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna MRÓWCZYŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of an evolutionary algorithm and an artificial immune systems to solve a problem of scheduling an optimal route for waste disposal garbage trucks in its daily operation. Problem of an optimisation is formulated and solved using both methods. The results are presented for an area in one of the Polish cities.

  14. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  15. Environmental safety of the disposal system for radioactive substance-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the full-scale enforcement of 'The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution' in 2012, the collective efforts of entire Japan for dealing with radioactive pollutants began. The most important item for dealing with radioactive pollution is to control radioactive substances that polluted the global environment and establish a contaminated waste treatment system for risk reduction. On the incineration system and landfill disposal system of radioactive waste, this paper arranges the scientific information up to now, and discusses the safety of the treatment / disposal systems of contaminated waste. As for 'The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution,' this paper discusses the points of the Act and basic policy, roadmap for the installation of interim storage facilities, and enforcement regulations (Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment). About the safety of waste treatment system, it discusses the safety level of technical standards at waste treatment facilities, safety of incineration facilities, and safety of landfill disposal sites. (O.A.)

  16. Conceptual design of the Virtual Engineering System for High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Virtual Engineering System for the High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal (hereafter the VE) adopts such computer science technologies as advanced numerical simulation technology with special emphasis upon computer graphics, massive parallel computing, high speed networking, knowledge engineering, database technology to virtually construct the natural and the part of social environment of disposal site in syberspace to realize the disposal OS as its final target. The principle of tile VE is to provide for a firm business standpoint after The 2000 Report by JNC and supply decision support system which promotes various evaluations needed to be done from the year of 2000 to the licensing application for disposal to the government. The VE conceptual design was performed in the year of 1998. The functions of the VE are derived from the analysis of work scope of implementing organization in each step of geological waste disposal: the VE functions need the safety performance assessment, individual process analysis, facility designing, cost evaluation, site surveillance, research and development, public acceptance. Then the above functions are materialized by integrating such individual system as geology database, groundwater database, safety performance assessment system, coupled phenomena analysis system, decision support system, cost evaluation system, and public acceptance system. The integration method of the systems was studied. The concept of the integration of simulators has also been studied from the view point of CAPASA program. Parallel computing, networking, and computer graphic for high speed massive scientific calculation were studied in detail as the element technology to achieve the VE. Based on studies stated above, the concept of the waste disposal project and subjects that arise from 1999 to licensing application are decided. (author)

  17. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  18. Methodology for the technical evaluation of disposal systems for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.; Raymond, J.R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology that will be used for the evaluation of alternative disposal concepts for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The primary focus will be on the technical evaluation of various disposal concepts leading toward the identification of technically feasible disposal systems

  19. Safety and performance assessment of geologic disposal systems for nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, E.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis presents a methodology for the safety and performance assesment of final disposal of nuclear wastes into crystalline bedrock. The applicability of radiation protection objectives is discussed, as well as the goals of the assessment in the various repository system development phases. Due consideration is given to the description of the pertinent analysis methods and to the comprehensive model system. The methodology has been applied to assess the acceptability of the basic disposal concepts and to study the possibilities for the optimization of protection. Furthermore, performance of different components in the multiple barrier disposal systems is estimated. The waste types dealt with are low- and intermediate-level waste as well as high-level spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear power plant. In addition, an option of high-level vitrified waste from reprocessing of spent fuel is taken into account. On the basis of the various analyses carried out it can be concluded that the disposal of different nuclear wastes in the Finnish bedrock in properly designed repositories meets the radiation protection objectives with good confidence. In addition, the studies indicate that the safety margins are considerable. This is due to the fact that the overall performance of the multiple barrier disposal systems analysed is not sensitive to possible unfavourable changes in barrier properties. From the optimization of protection point of view it can be concluded that there is no need to develop more effective repository designs than those analysed in this thesis. In fact, the results indicate that the most sophisticated designs have already gone beyond an optimal level of safety

  20. Risk management and organizational systems for high-level radioactive waste disposal: Issues and priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel, J.; Cook, B.; Kasperson, R.; Brown, H.; Guble, R.; Himmelberger, J.; Tuller, S.

    1988-09-01

    The discussion to follow explores the nature of the high-level radioactive waste disposal tasks and their implications for the design and organizational structure of effective risk management systems. We organize this discussion in a set of interrelated tasks that draw upon both relevant theory and accumulated experience. Specifically these tasks are to assess the management implications of the high levels of technical and social uncertainty that characterize the technology and mission; to identify the elements of organizational theory that bear upon risk management system design; to explore these theoretical issues in the context of two hypothetical risk scenarios associated with radioactive waste disposal; to consider the appropriate role of engineered and geological barriers; to examine briefly issues implicit in DOE's past waste management performance, with special attention to the Hanford facility; and to suggest findings and recommendations that require further attention. 74 refs

  1. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: postclosure assessment of a reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; McConnell, D.B.; Andres, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is based on a vault located deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We document in this report a method to assess the long-term impacts of a disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste. The assessment integrates relevant information from engineering design studies, site investigations, laboratory studies, expert judgment and detailed mathematical analyses to evaluate system performance in terms of safety criteria, guidelines and standards. The method includes the use of quantitative tools such as the Systems Variability Analysis computer Code (SYVAC) to deal with parameter uncertainty and the use of reasoned arguments based on well-established scientific principles. We also document the utility of the method by describing its application to a hypothetical implementation of the concept called the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system generally conforms to the overall characteristics of the concept, except we have made some specific site and design choices so that the assessment would be more realistic. To make the reference system more representative of a real system, we have used the geological observations of the AECL's Whiteshell Research Area located near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, to define the characteristics of the geosphere and the groundwater flow system. This research area has been subject to more than a decade of geological and hydrological studies. The analysis of the reference disposal system provides estimates of radiological and chemical toxicity impacts on members of a critical group and estimates of possible impacts on the environment. The latter impacts include estimates of radiation dose to nonhuman organisms. Other quantitative analyses examine the use of derived constraints to improve the margin of safety, the effectiveness of engineered and natural barriers, and the sensitivity of the results to influential features, events, and processes of the reference disposal

  2. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission phase 1 financial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Phase 1 Financial Analysis is to provide a quantitative and qualitative cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-1946, Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (Swita et al. 1998). The Updated Baseline (Section 3.0) is compared to the current TWRS Project Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) for fiscal year (FY) 1998 and target budgets for FY 1999 through FY 2011 (Section 4.1). The analysis then evaluates the executability of HNF-1946 (Sections 4.2 through 4.5) and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation (Sections 4.6, 4.7, and 5.0). A sound systems engineering approach was applied to understand and analyze the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal mission. Program and Level 1 Logics were decomposed to Level 8 of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) where logic was detailed, scope was defined, detail durations and estimates prepared, and resource loaded schedules developed. Technical Basis Review (TBR) packages were prepared which include this information and, in addition, defined the enabling assumptions for each task, and the risks associated with performance. This process is discussed in Section 2.1. Detailed reviews at the subactivity within the Level 1 Logic TBR levels were conducted to provide the recommended solution to the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal Mission. Independent cost analysis and risk assessments were performed by members of the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Business Management and Chief Financial Officer organization along with specialists in risk analysis from TRW, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems. The process evaluated technical, schedule, and cost risk by category (program specific fixed and variable, integrated program, and programmatic) based on risk certainly from high probability well defined to very low probability that is not bounded or priceable as discussed in Section 2.2. The results have been

  3. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  4. The Management System for the Development of Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Currently, many Member States are safely operating near surface disposal facilities and some are in the initial or advanced stages of planning geological repositories. As for other nuclear facilities and their operational phase, all activities associated with the disposal of radioactive waste need to be carefully planned and systematic actions undertaken in order to maintain adequate confidence that disposal systems will meet performance as well as prescribed safety requirements and objectives. The effective development and application of a management system (integrating requirements for safety, protection of health and the environment, security, quality and economics into one coherent system) which addresses every stage of repository development is essential. It provides assurance that the objectives for repository performance and safety, as well as environmental and quality criteria, will be met. For near surface repositories, a management system also provides the opportunity to re-evaluate existing disposal systems with respect to new safety, environmental or societal requirements which could arise during the operational period of a facility. The topic of waste management and disposal continues to generate public interest and scrutiny. Implementation of a formal management system provides documentation, transparency and accountability for the various activities and processes associated with radioactive waste disposal. This information can contribute to building public confidence and acceptance of disposal facilities. The objective of this report is to provide Member States with practical guidance and relevant information on management system principles and expectations for management systems that can serve as a basis for developing and implementing a management system for three important stages; the design, construction/upgrading and operation of disposal facilities. To facilitate the understanding of management system implementation at the different stages of a

  5. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  6. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  7. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  8. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, T A [JK Research Associates, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1990-07-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site.

  9. Waste management, final waste disposal, fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    Out of the legal poblems that are currently at issue, individual questions from four areas are dealt with: privatization of ultimate waste disposal; distribution of responsibilities for tasks in the field of waste disposal; harmonization and systematization of regulations; waste disposal - principles for making provisions for waste disposal - proof of having made provisions for waste disposal; financing and fees. A distinction has to be made between that which is legally and in particular constitutionally imperative or, as the case may be, permissible, and issues where there is room for political decision-making. Ultimately, the deliberations on the amendment are completely confined to the sphere of politics. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Ham, Sang Won; Moon, Sang Kee [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In this study, contents and survey and supervision items in each part are selected to avoid overlap between different parts referring national lows, criterion, and guidance related to atomic energy. The items consist of climatology, hydrology, geology, seismology, engineering geology, geochemistry, and civil and social parts. Based on these items, general study and systematic control related to the stability of disposal sites os established and as specific region required with the properties that is similar to properties of radioactive waste disposal sites, Ulsan region equipped with LPG underground storage facility was selected and its datum were surveyed and inputted. So propriety of established database system was proved.

  11. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Ham, Sang Won; Moon, Sang Kee

    1998-03-01

    In this study, contents and survey and supervision items in each part are selected to avoid overlap between different parts referring national lows, criterion, and guidance related to atomic energy. The items consist of climatology, hydrology, geology, seismology, engineering geology, geochemistry, and civil and social parts. Based on these items, general study and systematic control related to the stability of disposal sites os established and as specific region required with the properties that is similar to properties of radioactive waste disposal sites, Ulsan region equipped with LPG underground storage facility was selected and its datum were surveyed and inputted. So propriety of established database system was proved

  12. ICRP guidance on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued recommendations for a system of radiological protection in 1991 as the 1990 Recommendations. Guidance on the application of these recommendations in the general area of waste disposal was issued in 1997 as Publication 77 and guidance specific to disposal of solid long-lived radioactive waste was issued as Publication 81. This paper summarises ICRP guidance in radiological protection requirements for waste disposal concentrating on the ones of relevance to the geological disposal of solid radioactive waste. Suggestions are made for areas where further work is required to apply the ICRP guidance. (author)

  13. Safe disposal of cytotoxic waste: an evaluation of an air-tight system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Gemma; Wadey, Charlotte

    2017-09-07

    A 3-month evaluation was undertaken at the Kent Oncology Centre's chemotherapy day unit (CDU) to trial an air-tight sealing disposal system for cytotoxic waste management. Research has identified the potential risk to staff who handle waste products that are hazardous to health. Staff safety was a driving force behind a trial of a new way of working. This article provides an overview of the evaluation of the Pactosafe system in one clinical area, examining reviews by oncology healthcare workers, the practicalities in the clinical setting, training, cost effectiveness and the environmental benefits.

  14. Recycling And Disposal Of Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ui So

    1987-01-15

    This book introduces sewage disposal sludge including properties of sludge and production amount, stabilization of sludge by anaerobic digestion stabilization of sludge by aerobic digestion, stabilization of sludge by chemical method, and dewatering, water process sludge, human waste and waste fluid of septic tank such as disposal of waste fluid and injection into the land, urban waste like definition of urban waste, collection of urban waste, recycling, properties and generation amount, and disposal method and possibility of injection of industrial waste into the ground.

  15. Overview of nuclear waste disposal in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Priest, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    One option receiving consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the space disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is assessing the space disposal option in support of DOE studies on alternatives for nuclear waste management. The space disposal option is viewed as a complement, since total disposal of fuel rods from commercial power plants is not considered to be economically practical with Space Shuttle technology. The space disposal of certain high-level wastes may, however, provide reduced calculated and perceived risks. The space disposal option in conjunction with terrestrial disposal may offer a more flexible and lower risk overall waste management system. For the space disposal option to be viable, it must be demonstrated that the overall long-term risks associated with this activity, as a complement to the mined geologic repository, would be significantly less than the long-term risk associated with disposing of all the high-level waste. The long-term risk benefit must be achieved within an acceptable short-term and overall program cost. This paper briefly describes space disposal alternatives, the space disposal destination, possible waste mixes and forms, systems and typical operations, and the energy and cost analysis

  16. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors' operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors' facilities

  17. Conceptual design of the virtual engineering system for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The role of Virtual Engineering System for High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal (hereafter the VES) is to accumulate and unify the results of research and development which JNC had been carried out for the completion of the second progress report on a computer system. The purpose and functions of VES with considering the long-term plan for geological disposal in Japan was studied. The analysis between geological environment assessment, safety performance assessment, and engineering technology had not been integrated mutually in the conventional study. The iterative analysis performed by VES makes it possible to analyze natural barrier and engineering barrier more quantitatively for obtaining safety margin and rationalization of the design of a waste repository. We have examined the system functions to achieve the above purpose of VES. Next, conceptual design for codes, databases, and utilities that consist of VES were performed by examining their purpose and functions. The conceptual design of geological environment assessment system, safety performance assessment system, waste repository element database, economical assessment system, investigation support system, quality assurance system, and visualization system are preformed. The whole system configuration, examination of suitable configuration of hardware and software, examination of system implementation, the confirmation of parallel calculation technology, the conceptual design of platform, the development of demonstration program of platform are performed. Based upon studies stated above, the VES development plan including prototype development during the period of selection of the site candidate was studied. The concept of VES was build based on the examination stated above. (author)

  18. Geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Safe, permanent disposal of radioactive wastes requires isolation of a number of elements including Se, Tc, I, Sr, Cs, Pd, u, Np, Pu and Cm from the environment for a long period of time. The aquatic chemistry of these elements ranges from simple anionic (I - ,IO 3 - ) and cationic (Cs + ,Sr ++ ) forms to multivalent hydrolyzed complexes which can be anionic or cationic (Pu(OH) 2 + ,Pu(OH) 3 + , PuO 2 (CO 3 )(OH) - ,PuO 2 Cl - ,etc.) depending on the chemical environment. The parameters which can affect repository safety are rate of access and composition of grounwater, stability of the waste container, stability of the waste form, rock-water-waste interactons, and dilution and dispersion as the waste moves away from the repository site. Our overall research program on radioactive waste disposal includes corrosion studies of containment systems hydrothermal stability of various waste forms, and geochemical behaviour of various nuclides including solubilities, redox equilibria, hydrolysis, colloid fomation and transport ion exchange equilibria and adsorption on mineral surfaces and irreversible precipitation reactions. This paper discusses the geochemistry of I, Se, Tc, Cs, Sr and the actinide elements and potential mechanisms by which the mobility could be retarded if necessary

  19. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  20. Waste disposal experts meet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-01-15

    Problems connected with the disposal into the sea of radioactive wastes from peaceful uses of atomic energy are being examined by a panel of experts, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. These experts from eight different countries held a first meeting at IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 4-9 December 1958, under the chairmanship of Dr. Harry Brynielsson, Director General of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company. The countries represented are: Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. The group will meet again in 1959. (author)

  1. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  2. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected

  3. Research on information security system of waste terminal disposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Ziying; Guo, Jing; Guo, Yajuan; Huang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Informatization has penetrated the whole process of production and operation of electric power enterprises. It not only improves the level of lean management and quality service, but also faces severe security risks. The internal network terminal is the outermost layer and the most vulnerable node of the inner network boundary. It has the characteristics of wide distribution, long depth and large quantity. The user and operation and maintenance personnel technical level and security awareness is uneven, which led to the internal network terminal is the weakest link in information security. Through the implementation of security of management, technology and physics, we should establish an internal network terminal security protection system, so as to fully protect the internal network terminal information security.

  4. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled

  5. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.

    1975-10-01

    After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr

  6. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  7. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  8. Tank-connected food waste disposer systems--current status and potential improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, A; Davidsson, A; Tsai, J; Persson, E; Bissmont, M; la Cour Jansen, J

    2013-01-01

    An unconventional system for separate collection of food waste was investigated through evaluation of three full-scale systems in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Ground food waste is led to a separate settling tank where food waste sludge is collected regularly with a tank-vehicle. These tank-connected systems can be seen as a promising method for separate collection of food waste from both households and restaurants. Ground food waste collected from these systems is rich in fat and has a high methane potential when compared to food waste collected in conventional bag systems. The content of heavy metals is low. The concentrations of N-tot and P-tot in sludge collected from sedimentation tanks were on average 46.2 and 3.9 g/kg TS, equalling an estimated 0.48 and 0.05 kg N-tot and P-tot respectively per year and household connected to the food waste disposer system. Detergents in low concentrations can result in increased degradation rates and biogas production, while higher concentrations can result in temporary inhibition of methane production. Concentrations of COD and fat in effluent from full-scale tanks reached an average of 1068 mg/l and 149 mg/l respectively over the five month long evaluation period. Hydrolysis of the ground material is initiated between sludge collection occasions (30 days). Older food waste sludge increases the degradation rate and the risks of fugitive emissions of methane from tanks between collection occasions. Increased particle size decreases hydrolysis rate and could thus decrease losses of carbon and nutrients in the sewerage system, but further studies in full-scale systems are needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)

  10. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  11. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  12. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  13. The system for centralized inventory keeping and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the former German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beise, E.; Mielke, H.G.; Mueller, W.; Oppermann, U.

    1991-01-01

    The report explains the concept adopted by the former GDR. The system based at Morsleben, for centralized inventory keeping and management of radioactive waste is explained, refewing to the amounts of waste accrued, storage and transport of waste drums, classification and preparation of waste forms, and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the Morsleben repository. The report includes information on the management of special waste and spent fuel elements which cannot be stored at the Morsleben site. Most of the radioactive waste produced in the former GDR has been stored since 1979 at the Morsleben site. The waste came from the nuclear power plants (Greifswald, Rheinsberg), and from installations and institutes applying or producing radionuclides - so-called APR waste - (e.g. from the institutes at Rossendorf and Berlin-Buch, and from about 1300 other waste producers). The waste was accepted as or processed to solid waste forms, liquid waste, sealed radiation sources, and special waste; the ultimate storage techniques applied are packing of drums, backfilling, solidification of liquid waste and disposal in boreholes. Up to the end of the year 1989, the Morsleben repository received about 14000 m 3 of radioactive waste (about 40% solid waste, and about 60% liquid waste). (orig.) [de

  14. Waste-Mixes Study for space disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R.F.; Blair, H.T.; McKee, R.W.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Wastes Mixes Study is a component of Cy-1981 and 1982 research activities to determine if space disposal could be a feasible complement to geologic disposal for certain high-level (HLW) and transuranic wastes (TRU). The objectives of the study are: to determine if removal of radionuclides from HLW and TRU significantly reduces the long-term radiological risks of geologic disposal; to determine if chemical partitioning of the waste for space disposal is technically feasible; to identify acceptable waste forms for space disposal; and to compare improvements in geologic disposal system performance to impacts of additional treatment, storage, and transportation necessary for space disposal. To compare radiological effects, five system alternatives are defined: Reference case - All HLW and TRU to a repository. Alternative A - Iodine to space, the balance to a repository. Alternative B - Technetium to space, the balance to a repository. Alternative C - 95% of cesium and strontium to a repository; the balance of HLW aged first, then to space; plutonium separated from TRU for recycle; the balance of the TRU to a repository. Alternative D - HLW aged first, then to space, plutonium separated from TRU for recycle; the balance of the TRU to a repository. The conclusions of this study are: the incentive for space disposal is that it offers a perception of reduced risks rather than significant reduction. Suitable waste forms for space disposal are cermet for HLW, metallic technetium, and lead iodide. Space disposal of HLW appears to offer insignificant safety enhancements when compared to geologic disposal; the disposal of iodine and technetium wastes in space does not offer risk advantages. Increases in short-term doses for the alternatives are minimal; however, incremental costs of treating, storing and transporting wastes for space disposal are substantial

  15. Early-1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S G [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P N [Tech Reps Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-07-15

    This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance-assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal (Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes). As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance and qualitative judgments. Compliance appears uncertain only in the event of human intrusion into the repository after decommissioning. Issues affecting compliance following intrusion include properties of the plugs used to seal the intruding borehole, permeability and porosity of the waste, and possible pressurization of the repository by gas generated from the organic decomposition and corrosion of the waste and containers. Research is in progress to determine the probability of intrusion and to quantify parameter uncertainties needed to include these factors in simulations of repository performance. The Department of Energy (DOE) is following two strategies to assure compliance. First, passive marker systems will be designed and implemented to reduce the likelihood of intrusion and increase the likelihood that intruders will properly reseal the repository. Second, modifications to the form of the waste and the design of the repository to achieve acceptable performance if the intruding borehole is not adequately sealed will be designed. Goals include reductions in gas generation and waste permeability and porosity. Numerous modifications are technically possible. Work in progress will evaluate proposed modifications and recommend the most promising for further testing. The DOE is confident that compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 191 can be established using a combination of the two strategies

  16. Early-1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Swift, P.N.

    1991-07-01

    This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance-assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal (Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes). As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance and qualitative judgments. Compliance appears uncertain only in the event of human intrusion into the repository after decommissioning. Issues affecting compliance following intrusion include properties of the plugs used to seal the intruding borehole, permeability and porosity of the waste, and possible pressurization of the repository by gas generated from the organic decomposition and corrosion of the waste and containers. Research is in progress to determine the probability of intrusion and to quantify parameter uncertainties needed to include these factors in simulations of repository performance. The Department of Energy (DOE) is following two strategies to assure compliance. First, passive marker systems will be designed and implemented to reduce the likelihood of intrusion and increase the likelihood that intruders will properly reseal the repository. Second, modifications to the form of the waste and the design of the repository to achieve acceptable performance if the intruding borehole is not adequately sealed will be designed. Goals include reductions in gas generation and waste permeability and porosity. Numerous modifications are technically possible. Work in progress will evaluate proposed modifications and recommend the most promising for further testing. The DOE is confident that compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 191 can be established using a combination of the two strategies

  17. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  18. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  19. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed guidance and requirements to deliverables crosswalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Before RL can authorize proceeding with Phase 1B, the PHMC team must demonstrate its readiness to retrieve and deliver the waste to the private contractors and to receive and dispose of the products and byproducts returned from the treatment. The PHMC team has organized their plans for providing these vitrification-support services into the Retrieval and Disposal Mission within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) defense high-level waste disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  1. Validation of the Performance of High-level Waste Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Park, J. H.; Lee, J. O. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The experimental researches to validate the integrity and safety of high-level waste disposal system were carried out. The studies on the construction of KURT, and the site rock characteristics were conducted. Thermal-hydro-mechanical behavior of engineered barrier system was investigated using the engineering-scale test facility. The migration and retardation of radionuclide through the rock fracture under anaerobic and reducing condition were studied. The distribution coefficients of radionuclides onto granite, the rock matrix diffusion coefficients, and the gap and grain boundary inventories of spent fuel were measured.

  2. The disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The first part shows different ways of 'producing' radioactive wastes, defines the wastes of small, medium and high activity and gives estimation on the quantity of the necessary capacities of waste disposal facilities. The modern radioactive waste disposal that is the integrated processing of the form of waste, the package, the technical facility and the embedding geological environment that guarantee the isolation together. Another factor is the lifetime of radioactive waste which means that any waste containing long lifetime waste in higher concentration than 400-4000 kBq/kg should be disposed geologically. Today the centre of debate disposal of radioactive waste is more social than technical. For this reason not only geological conditions and technical preparations, but social discussions and accepting communities are needed in selecting place of facilities. Now, the focus is on long term temporary disposal of high activity wastes, like burnt out heating elements. The final part of the paper summarizes the current Hungarian situation of disposal of radioactive wastes. (T-R.A.)

  3. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  4. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)

  5. Engineering geology of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    This volume covers a wide spectrum of activities in the field of waste disposal. These activities range from design of new landfills and containment properties of natural clays to investigation, hazard assessment and remediation of existing landfills. Consideration is given to design criteria for hard rock quarries when used for waste disposal. In addition, an entire section concerns the geotechnics of underground repositories. This covers such topics as deep drilling, in situ stress measurement, rock mass characterization, groundwater flows and barrier design. Engineering Geology of Waste Disposal examines, in detail, the active role of engineering geologists in the design of waste disposal facilities on UK and international projects. The book provides an authoritative mix of overviews and detailed case histories. The extensive spectrum of papers will be of practical value to those geologists, engineers and environmental scientists who are directly involved with waste disposal. (UK)

  6. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Overview of the US program for developing a waste disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive high-level waste (HLW) has been a matter of national concern ever since the first US civilian nuclear reactor began generating electricity in 1957. Based on current projections of commercial generating capacity, by the turn of the century, there will be >40,000 tonne of spent fuel in the Untied States. In addition to commercial spent fuel, defense HLW is generated in the United States and currently stored at three US Department of Energy (DOE) sites: The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 provided for financial incentives to host a repository or a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility; mandated the areas in which DOE's siting efforts should concentrate (Yucca Mountain, Nevada); required termination of site-specific activities at other sites; required a resisting process for an MRS facility, which DOE had proposed as an integral part of the waste disposal system; terminated all activities for identifying candidates for a second repository; established an 11-member Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; established a three-member MRS commission to be appointed by heads of the US Senate and House; directed the President to appoint a negotiator to seek a state or Indian tribe willing to host a repository or MRS facility at a suitable site and to negotiate terms and conditions under which the state or tribe would be willing to host such a facility; and amended, adjusted, or established other requirements contained in the 1982 law

  8. Preliminary conceptual design of a geological disposal system for high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A geological disposal system consists of disposal overpacks, a buffer, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel for high-level wastes from a pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is proposed. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. > Four kinds of deposition methods, two horizontal and two vertical, are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program. The spacing between the disposal modules is determined for the peak temperature in buffer not to exceed 100 deg. C. > The effect of the double-layered buffer is compared with the traditional single-layered buffer in terms of disposal density. Also, the effect of cooling time (aging) is illustrated. > All the thermal calculations are represented by comparing the disposal area of PWR spent fuels with the same cooling time. - Abstract: The inventories of spent fuels are linearly dependent on the production of electricity generated by nuclear energy. Pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is one of promising technologies which can reduce the volume of spent fuels remarkably. The properties of high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing are totally different from those of spent fuels. A geological disposal system is proposed for the high-level wastes from pyroprocessing of spent fuels. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. Around 665 kg of monazite ceramic wastes are expected from the pyroprocessing of 10 MtU of PWR spent fuels. Decay heat from monazite ceramic wastes is calculated using the ORIGEN-ARP program. Disposal modules consisting of storage cans, overpacks, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel are proposed. Four kinds of deposition methods are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program and geological data obtained from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel. Through the thermal analysis, the spacing between the disposal modules

  9. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  11. Waste disposal into the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlers, P.; Kunig, P.

    1987-01-01

    The waste disposal at sea is regulated for the most part by national administrative law, which mainly is based on international law rules supplemented by EC-law. The dumping of low-level radioactive waste into the sea is more and more called into question. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the subsoil of the sea does not correspond to the London Convention. (WG) [de

  12. Risk-based decision-making regarding mixed waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an efficient approach that has been developed for making rational and defensible decisions among a variety of options (e.g., remedial actions, engineered barriers designs/operational controls, inventory limitations, site investigations and research) for mixed-waste disposal systems, which consist of multiple interacting sites (active, inactive and/or future) with multiple pathways. Such decisions are based on maximizing the satisfaction of identified objectives (including the reliability vis a vis specified criteria), explicitly considering tradeoffs among objectives as well as uncertainties in the consequences of any option

  13. Application of geographical information system in disposal site selection for hazardous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeimahmoudi, Mehdi; Esmaeli, Abdolreza; Gharegozlu, Alireza; Shabanian, Hassan; Rokni, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a scientific method based on Geographical Information System (GIS) regarding all sustainable development measures to locate a proper landfill for disposal of hazardous wastes, especially industrial (radioactive) wastes. Seven effective factors for determining hazardous waste landfill were applied in Qom Province, central Iran. These criteria included water, slope, population centers, roads, fault, protected areas and geology. The Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP) model based on pair comparison was used. First, the weight of each factor was determined by experts; afterwards each layer of maps entered to ARC GIS and with special weight multiplied together, finally the best suitable site was introduced. The most suitable sites for burial were in northwest and west of Qom Province and eventually five zones were introduced as the sample sites. GIs and AHP model is introduced as the technical, useful and accelerator tool for disposal site selection. Furthermore it is determined that geological factor is the most effective layer for site selection. It is suggested that geological conditions should be considered primarily then other factors are taken into consideration.

  14. Disposal options for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)

  15. French surface disposal experience. The disposal of large waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, Michel; Lecoq, Pascal; Duret, Franck; Mandoki, Robert

    2006-01-01

    More than 90 percent of the volume of radioactive waste that are generated in France can be managed in surface disposal facilities. Two facilities are presently operated by ANDRA: the Centre de l'Aube disposal facility that is dedicated to low and intermediate short lived waste and the Morvilliers facility for very low level waste. The Centre de l'Aube facility was designed at the end of the years 1980 to replace the Centre de la Manche facility that ended operation in 1994. In order to achieve as low external exposure as possible for workers it was decided to use remote handling systems as much as possible. Therefore it was necessary to standardize the types of waste containers. But taking into account the fact that these waste were conditioned in existing facilities, it was not possible to change a major part of existing packages. As a consequence, 6 mobile roofs were constructed to handle 12 different types of waste packages in the disposal vaults. The scope of Centre de l'Aube was mainly to dispose operational waste. However some packages, as 5 or 10 m 3 metallic boxes, could be used for larger waste generated by decommissioning activities. The corresponding flow was supposed to be small. After the first years of operations, it appeared interesting to develop special procedures to dispose specific large waste in order to avoid external exposure costly cutting works in the generating facilities. A 40 m 3 box and a large remote handling device were disposed in vaults that were currently used for other types of packages. Such a technique could not be used for the disposal of vessel heads that were replaced in 55 pressurised water power reactors. The duration of disposal and conditioning operation was not compatible with the flow of standard packages that were delivered in the vaults. Therefore a specific type of vault was designed, including handling and conditioning equipment. The first pressure vessel head was delivered on the 29 of July 2004, 6 heads have been

  16. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. The review showed that since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farm structure and configurations and work scope and costs has been established itself as part of the culture within TWRS. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2OO2. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped out, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. TWRS personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled

  17. Preliminary plan for disposal-system characterization and long-term performance evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Hunter, R.L.

    1989-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is planning to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for evaluating the compliance of the WIPP with the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). This plan has been developed to present the issues that will be addressed before compliance can be evaluated. These issues examine the procedural nature of the Standard, and the technical requirements for further characterizing the behavior of the disposal system, including uncertainties, to support the compliance assessment. The plan briefly describes the activities that will be conducted prior to 1993 by Sandia to characterize the WIPP disposal system's behavior and predict its performance. 41 refs., 35 figs., 21 tabs

  18. On the importance of organic materials in environmental systems in relation with nuclear waste disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.; Moulin, C.

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of humic substances (humic and fulvic acids) in natural systems at different concentration ranges (from some ppm to several hundred ppm) according to the geological environment (crystalline, sedimentary,...) will strongly affect the speciation of radionuclides due to their strong complexing properties towards cations. In order to predict the fate of these radionuclides in conditions relevant to those occurring around nuclear waste disposals in geological formations, the knowledge of the characteristics of the humic materials (occurrence, properties) and their complexing properties towards radionuclides should be assess in order to be able to introduce them into geochemical codes. The methods of extraction, separation and characterisation of humic substances occurring in a granitic environment are presented with results concerning their proportion in the natural water and their main specificities (elementary analysis, size analysis, binding site content,...). The complexation of fluorescent actinide (Cm, U) and lanthanide (Dy) cations with humic substances is investigated through the use of Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Spectrofluorometry (TRLIS) under various experimental conditions (pH (4-7), ionic strength (0.001 M to 0.1 M), cation concentrations (from nM to μM)). Spectrophotometry has been used to study the complexation of a non-fluorescent cation (Np) with humic substances. The principle of these techniques (non-destructive) is based on the titration of the cation by the organic ligand (inducing either a change in the fluorescence signal or a shift in the absorbance spectrum) which allows interaction constant and complexing capacity determination. The results obtained for each cation representative of tri-, penta- and hexavalent actinides of interest for safety assessment of nuclear waste disposals are presented, compared and discussed. From the data here obtained, actinide speciation under conditions relevant to nuclear waste disposal in

  19. Influences of engineered barrier systems on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L. P.

    1987-09-15

    There are major differences between the current practices of shallow land burial and alternative concepts for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Additional protection provided with engineered barrier systems can overcome major concerns the public has with shallow land burial: subsidence; percolating ground waters; radionuclide migration; and the vulnerability of shallow trenches to intrusion. The presence of a variety of engineered barriers to restrict water movement, retain radionuclides and to prevent plant animal or human intrusion leads to significant changes to input data for performance assessment models. Several programs which are underway to more accurately predict the long-term performance of engineered barriers for low-level waste will be described.

  20. Influences of engineered barrier systems on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.

    1987-09-01

    There are major differences between the current practices of shallow land burial and alternative concepts for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Additional protection provided with engineered barrier systems can overcome major concerns the public has with shallow land burial: subsidence; percolating ground waters; radionuclide migration; and the vulnerability of shallow trenches to intrusion. The presence of a variety of engineered barriers to restrict water movement, retain radionuclides and to prevent plant animal or human intrusion leads to significant changes to input data for performance assessment models. Several programs which are underway to more accurately predict the long-term performance of engineered barriers for low-level waste will be described

  1. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment

  2. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  3. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Application of systems analysis to the disposal of high level waste in deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marsily, G.; Dorp, F. van

    1982-01-01

    Emplacement in deep ocean sediments is one of the disposal options being considered for solidified high level radioactive waste. Task groups set up within the framework of the NEA Seabed Working Group have been studying many aspects of this option since 1976. The methods of systems analysis have been applied to enable the various parts of the problem to be assessed within an integrated framework. This paper describes the progress made by the Systems Analysis Task Group towards the development of an overall system model. The Task Group began by separating the problem into elements and defining the interfaces between these elements. A simple overall system model was then developed and used in both a preliminary assessment and a sensitivity analysis to identify the most important parameters. These preliminary analyses used a very simple model of the overall system and therefore the results cannot be used to draw any conclusions as to the acceptability of the sub-seabed disposal option. However they served to show the utility of the systems analysis method. The work of the other task groups will focus on the important parameters so that improved results can be fed back into an improved system model. Subsequent iterations will eventually provide an input to an acceptability decision. (Auth.)

  5. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  6. Waste disposal developments within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has broad involvement in topics of radioactive waste generation, treatment, storage and disposal. The Company's site at Drigg has been used since 1959 for the disposal of low level waste and its facilities are now being upgraded and extended for that purpose. Since September 1987, BNFL on behalf of UK Nirex Limited has been managing an investigation of the Sellafield area to assess its suitability for deep underground emplacement of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. An approach will be described to establish a partnership with the local community to work towards a concept of monitored, underground emplacement appropriate for each waste category. (author)

  7. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  8. Application of a glass furnace system to low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.; Armstrong, K.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981 Mound began a study to determine the feasibility of using an electrically heated glass furnace for the treatment of low-level radioactive wastes generated at commercial nuclear power facilities. Experiments were designed to determine: Whether the technology offered solutions to industry waste disposal problems, and if so; whether is could meet what were thought to be critical requirements for radioactive thermal waste processing. These requirements include: high quality combustion of organic constituents, capture and immobilization of radioactivity, integrity of final waste form, and cost effectiveness. To address these questions a variety of wastes typical of the types generated by nuclear power facilities, including not only standard trash but also wastes of high aqueous and/or inorganic content, were spiked with waste radioisotopes predominant in plant wastes and processed in the glass furnace. The results of this study indicate that the unit is capable of fully meeting the addressed needs of the nuclear industry for power plant waste processing

  9. Radioactive waste disposal in W.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste in Western Australia arises primarily from medical diagnosis and treatment and from scientific research mainly with a medical orientation. Waste is classified before disposal depending on its level and type of radioactivity and then disposed of either to municipal land fill sites, to the sewerage system or by incineration. The amounts of radioactive materials which may be disposed of to the sewers and air are set by the Radiation Safety Act (1975) Regulations, and the land fill operations are controlled to ensure isolation of the material. Other waste such as unwanted sources used in industrial applications are stored for future disposal. Discussions are being held between officers of the State and Australian Governments aimed at providing suitable disposal methods for sources of this kind

  10. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The space option for disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geological repositories is studied. A brief overview of the study background, scope, objective, guidelines and assumptions, and contents is presented. The determination of the effects of variations in the waste mix on the space systems concept to allow determination of the space systems effect on total system risk benefits when used as a complement to the DOE reference mined geological repository is studied. The waste payload system, launch site, launch system, and orbit transfer system are all addressed. Rescue mission requirements are studied. The characteristics of waste forms suitable for space disposal are identified. Trajectories and performance requirements are discussed.

  11. Co-disposal of mixed waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; Crane, P.J.; England, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Stewart, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal

  12. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA... pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water... to assist areas designated as colonias that lack access to water or waste disposal systems and/or...

  13. Waste disposal into the ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawson, C A

    1955-07-01

    The establishment of an atomic energy project is soon followed by the production of a variety of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of safely, quickly and cheaply. Experience has shown that much more thought has been devoted to the design of plant and laboratories than to the apparently dull problem of what to do with the wastes, but the nature of the wastes which will arise from nuclear power production calls for a change in this situation. We shall not be concerned here with power pile wastes, but disposal problems which have occurred in operation of experimental reactors have been serious enough to show that waste disposal should be considered during the early planning stages. (author)

  14. Stability of disposal rooms during waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandshaug, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical and horizontal emplacement during the period of waste retrieval. It is assumed that waste retrieval starts 50 years after the initial emplacement of the waste, and that access to and retrieval of the waste containers take place through the disposal rooms. It is further assumed that the disposal rooms are not back-filled. Convective cooling of the disposal rooms in preparation for waste retrieval is included in the analysis. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Thermal results are presented which illustrate the heat transfer response of the rock adjacent to the disposal rooms. Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for the period of time investigated. Under the assumption that the host rock can be classified as ''fair to good'' using the Geomechanics Classification System (Bieniawski, 1974), only light ground support would appear to be necessary for the disposal rooms to remain stable. 23 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  16. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book gives descriptions of waste water disposal, design and management, which includes design of waterworks and sewerage facility such as preparatory work and building plan, used waste water disposal facilities, waste water disposal plant and industrial waste water disposal facilities, water use of waste water disposal plant and design of pump and pump facilities such as type and characteristic, selection and plan, screening and grit.

  18. Decision Support System For Management Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal At The Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, G.; Yucel, V.; Desotell, L.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term safety of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive disposal facilities is assessed by conducting a performance assessment -- a systematic analysis that compares estimated risks to the public and the environment with performance objectives contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Before site operations, facilities design features such as final inventory, waste form characteristics, and closure cover design may be uncertain. Site operators need a modeling tool that can be used throughout the operational life of the disposal site to guide decisions regarding the acceptance of problematic waste streams, new disposal cell design, environmental monitoring program design, and final site closure. In response to these needs the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has developed a decision support system for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site in Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site. The core of the system is a probabilistic inventory and performance assessment model implemented in the GoldSim R simulation platform. The modeling platform supports multiple graphic capabilities that allow clear documentation of the model data sources, conceptual model, mathematical implementation, and results. The combined models have the capability to estimate disposal site inventory, contaminant concentrations in environmental media, and radiological doses to members of the public engaged in various activities at multiple locations. The model allows rapid assessment and documentation of the consequences of waste management decisions using the most current site characterization information, radionuclide inventory, and conceptual model. The model is routinely used to provide annual updates of site performance, evaluate the consequences of disposal of new waste streams, develop waste concentration limits, optimize the design of new disposal cells, and assess the adequacy of environmental

  19. TMI abnormal wastes disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary storage casks; (2) underground storage in vaults; and (3) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  20. Final disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroebel, R [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Projekt Wiederaufarbeitung und Abfallbehandlung; Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. zur Behandlung Radioaktiver Abfaelle

    1978-08-01

    This paper discusses the final disposal possibilities for radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany and the related questions of waste conditioning, storage methods and safety. The programs in progress in neighbouring CEC countries and in the USA are also mentioned briefly. The autors conclude that the existing final disposal possibilities are sufficiently well known and safe, but that they could be improved still further by future development work. The residual hazard potential of radioactive wastes from fuel reprocessing after about 1000 years of storage is lower that of known inorganic core deposits.

  1. Validation of a numerical release model (REPCOM) for the Finnish reactor waste disposal systems: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykyri, Mikko

    1987-05-01

    The aim of the work is to model experimentally the inner structures and materials of two reactor waste repositories and to use the results for the validation work of a numerical near field release model, REPCOM. The experimental modelling of the multibarrier systems is conducted on a laboratory scale by using the same principal materials as are employed in the Finnish reactor waste disposal concepts. The migration of radionuclides is studied in two or more consecutive material layers. The laboratory arrangements include the following test materials: bituminized resin, cemented resin, concrete, crushed rock, and water. The materials correspond to the local materials in the planned disposal systems. Cs-137, Co-60, Sr-85, and Sr-90 are used as tracers, with which the resin, water, and crushed rock are labeled depending on the specimen type. The basic specimen geometries are cylindrical and cubic. In the cylindrical geometry the test materials were placed into PVC-tubes. The corresponding numerical model is one-dimensional. In the cubic geometry the materials were placed inside each other. The boundaries form cubes, and the numerical model is three-dimensional. Altogether 12 test system types were produced. The gamma active nuclides in the cylindrical samples were measured nondestructively with a scanner in order to determine the activity profiles in the specimens. The gamma active nuclides in the cubic samples and the beta emeitting Sr-90 in separate samples will be measured after splitting the samples. One to five activity profiles were determined for each cylindrical gamma-active sample. There are already clear diffusion profiles to be had for strontium in crushed rock, and for cesium in crushed rock and in concrete. Cobalt indicated no diffusion. No activity profiles were measured for the cubic samples or for the beta active, Sr-90-doped samples

  2. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  3. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  4. System engineering workstations - critical tool in addressing waste storage, transportation, or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to create, evaluate, operate, and manage waste storage, transportation, and disposal systems (WSTDSs) is greatly enhanced when automated tools are available to support the generation of the voluminous mass of documents and data associated with the system engineering of the program. A system engineering workstation is an optimized set of hardware and software that provides such automated tools to those performing system engineering functions. This paper explores the functions that need to be performed by a WSTDS system engineering workstation. While the latter stages of a major WSTDS may require a mainframe computer and specialized software systems, most of the required system engineering functions can be supported by a system engineering workstation consisting of a personnel computer and commercial software. These findings suggest system engineering workstations for WSTDS applications will cost less than $5000 per unit, and the payback on the investment can be realized in a few months. In most cases the major cost element is not the capital costs of hardware or software, but the cost to train or retrain the system engineers in the use of the workstation and to ensure that the system engineering functions are properly conducted

  5. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1976-01-01

    The article cites and summarizes the papers on the topics: economic and ecological importance of waste management, reprocessing of nuclear fuel and recycling of uranium and plutonium, waste management and final storage, transports and organizational aspects of waste management, presented at this symposium. (HR/AK) [de

  6. Waste management system functional requirements for Interim Waste Management Facilities (IWMFs) and technology demonstrations, LLWDDD [Low-Level Disposal Development and Demonstration] Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to build upon the preceding decisions and body of information to prepare draft system functional requirements for each classification of waste disposal currently proposed for Low-Level Waste Disposal Development Demonstration (LLWDDD) projects. Functional requirements identify specific information and data needs necessary to satisfy engineering design criteria/objectives for Interim Waste Management Facilities. This draft will suppor the alternatives evaluation process and will continue to evolve as strategy is implemented, regulatory limits are established, technical and economic uncertainties are resolved, and waste management plans are being implemented. This document will become the planning basis for the new generation of solid LLW management facilities on new sites on the Reservation. Eighteen (18) general system requirements are identified which are applicable to all four Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal classifications. Each classification of LLW disposal is individually addressed with respect ot waste characteristics, site considerations, facility operations, facility closure/post-closure, intruder barriers, institutional control, and performance monitoring requirements. Three initial LLW disposal sites have been proposed as locations on the ORR for the first demonstrations

  7. Process and research method of radionuclide migration in high level radioactive waste geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Zhang Zhanshi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides released from waste can migrate from the repository to the rock and soil outside. On the other hand, nuclides also are retarded by the backfill material. Radionuclide migration is the main geochemical process of the waste disposal. This paper introduces various methods for radionuclide migration research, and give a brief analysis of the geochemical process of radionuclide migration. Finally, two of the most important processes of the radionuclide migration have been instanced. (authors)

  8. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes - the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, I.

    1985-01-01

    The paper defends the case for marine disposal of radioactive wastes. The amount of packaged waste disposed; the site for marine disposal; the method of disposal; the radioactivity arising from the disposal; and safety factors; are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Safety assessment of complex engineered and natural systems: radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.; Atkins, J.; Balady, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of deep, geologic disposal of nuclear waste requires the probabilistic safety assessment of a complex system from the coupling of various processes and sub-systems, parameter and model uncertainties, spatial and temporal variabilities, and the multiplicity of designs and scenarios. Both the engineered and natural system are included in the evaluation. Each system has aspects with considerable uncertainty both in important parameters and in overall conceptual models. The study represented herein provides a probabilistic safety assessment of a potential respository system for multiple engineered barrier system (EBS) design and conceptual model configurations (CRWMS M and O, 1996a) and considers the effects of uncertainty on the overall results. The assessment is based on data and process models available at the time of the study and doesnt necessarily represent the current safety evaluation. In fact, the percolation flux through the repository system is now expected to be higher than the estimate used for this study. The potential effects of higher percolation fluxes are currently under study. The safety of the system was assessed for both 10,000 and 1,000,000 years. Use of alternative conceptual models also produced major improvement in safety. For example, use of a more realistic engineered system release model produced improvement of over an order of magnitude in safety. Alternative measurement locations for the safety assessment produced substantial increases in safety, through the results are based on uncertain dilution factors in the transporting groundwater. (Author)

  10. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in granite formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kote, F.; Peres, J.M.; Olivier, M.; Lewi, J.; Assouline, M.; Mejon-Goula, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive wastes, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in granite was carried out. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Auriat and two alternative sites, Barfleur and a site in the U.K. The report describes the methodology adopted (a deterministic and a stochastic approach) with the corresponding data base and the models used. A parametric study of sub-systems (near field, far field and biosphere) was carried out by CEA-ANDRA using AQUARIUS, DIMITRIO and BIOS. A global evaluation of the performances was carried out by CEA-IPSN using MELODIE code. The results of deterministic calculations showed for Auriat a maximum dose equivalent evaluated at 6.10 -3 m Sv/a arising 3 millions years after disposal. Results of human intrusion scenario analyses, uncertainty analyses and global sensitivity analyses are presented. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  11. Host Rock Classification (HRC) system for nuclear waste disposal in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagros, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new rock mass classification scheme, the Host Rock Classification system (HRC-system) has been developed for evaluating the suitability of volumes of rock mass for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in Precambrian crystalline bedrock. To support the development of the system, the requirements of host rock to be used for disposal have been studied in detail and the significance of the various rock mass properties have been examined. The HRC-system considers both the long-term safety of the repository and the constructability in the rock mass. The system is specific to the KBS-3V disposal concept and can be used only at sites that have been evaluated to be suitable at the site scale. By using the HRC-system, it is possible to identify potentially suitable volumes within the site at several different scales (repository, tunnel and canister scales). The selection of the classification parameters to be included in the HRC-system is based on an extensive study on the rock mass properties and their various influences on the long-term safety, the constructability and the layout and location of the repository. The parameters proposed for the classification at the repository scale include fracture zones, strength/stress ratio, hydraulic conductivity and the Groundwater Chemistry Index. The parameters proposed for the classification at the tunnel scale include hydraulic conductivity, Q' and fracture zones and the parameters proposed for the classification at the canister scale include hydraulic conductivity, Q', fracture zones, fracture width (aperture + filling) and fracture trace length. The parameter values will be used to determine the suitability classes for the volumes of rock to be classified. The HRC-system includes four suitability classes at the repository and tunnel scales and three suitability classes at the canister scale and the classification process is linked to several important decisions regarding the location and acceptability of many components of

  12. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, J.

    1976-01-01

    Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de

  13. Defense waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Dukes, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. The disposal process includes emplacing the saltstone in engineered trenches above the water table but below grade at SRP. Design of the waste form and disposal system limits the concentration of salts and radionuclides in the groundwater so that EPA drinking water standards will not be exceeded at the perimeter of the disposal site. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  14. Technical evaluation of a tank-connected food waste disposer system for biogas production and nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Å; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Magnusson, N; Bissmont, M

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a tank-connected food waste disposer system with the objective to optimise biogas production and nutrient recovery from food waste in Malmö was evaluated. The project investigated the source-separation ratio of food waste through waste composition analyses, determined the potential biogas production in ground food waste, analysed the organic matter content and the limiting components in ground food waste and analysed outlet samples to calculate food waste losses from the separation tank. It can be concluded that the tank-connected food waste disposer system in Malmö can be used for energy recovery and optimisation of biogas production. The organic content of the collected waste is very high and contains a lot of energy rich fat and protein, and the methane potential is high. The results showed that approximately 38% of the food waste dry matter is collected in the tank. The remaining food waste is either found in residual waste (34% of the dry matter) or passes the tank and goes through the outlet to the sewer (28%). The relatively high dry matter content in the collected fraction (3-5% DM) indicates that the separation tank can thicken the waste substantially. The potential for nutrient recovery is rather limited considering the tank content. Only small fractions of the phosphorus (15%) and nitrogen (21%) are recyclable by the collected waste in the tank. The quality of the outlet indicates a satisfactory separation of particulate organic matter and fat. The organic content and nutrients, which are in dissolved form, cannot be retained in the tank and are rather led to the sewage via the outlet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation on proper materials of a liner system for trench type disposal facilities of radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Arikawa, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-08-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency will settle on near surface disposal facilities with and without engineered barriers for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. Both of them are so called 'concrete pit type' and 'trench type', respectively. The technical standard of constructing and operating a disposal facility based on 'Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors' have been regulated partly by referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. This means that the concrete pit type and the trench type disposal facility resemble an isolated type for specified industrial wastes and a non leachate controlled type final disposal site for stable industrial wastes, respectively. On the other, We plan to design a disposal facility with a liner system corresponding to a leachate controlled type final disposal site on a crucial assumption that radioactive wastes other than stable industrial wastes to be disposed into the trench type disposal facility is generated. By current nuclear related regulations in Japan, There are no technical standard of constructing the disposal facility with the liner system referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. We investigate the function of the liner system in order to design a proper liner system for the trench type disposal facility. In this report, We investigated liner materials currently in use by actual leachate controlled type final disposal sites in Japan. Thereby important items such as tensile strength, durability from a view point of selecting proper liner materials were studied. The items were classified into three categories according to importance. We ranked proper liner materials for the trench type disposal facility by evaluating the important items per material. As a result, high density polyethylene(HDPE) of high elasticity type polymetric sheet was selected

  16. Waste disposal options report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste

  17. Solid waste disposal into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, W.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction to disposal of radioactive waste; handling of solid nuclear waste; technology of final disposal, with specific reference to salt domes; conditioning of radioactive waste; safety barriers for radioactive waste; practice of final disposal in other countries. (U.K.)

  18. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  19. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, R.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH) [de

  20. Disposal of Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, R.A.; Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.

    1986-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the disposal of Hanford Defense Waste is scheduled to be released near the end of March, 1986. This EIS will evaluate the impacts of alternatives for disposal of high-level, tank, and transuranic wastes which are now stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site or will be produced there in the future. In addition to releasing the EIS, the Department of Energy is conducting an extensive public participation process aimed at providing information to the public and receiving comments on the EIS

  1. Environmental impact assessment of the Swedish high-level radioactive waste disposal system - examples of likely considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sweden is investigating the feasibility of establishing a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system consisting of three components as follows: (1) Encapsulation facility, (2) system for transporting waste and (3) geologic repository. Swedish law requires that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) be written for any planned action expected to have a significant impact on the environment. Before embarking on construction and operation of a HLW disposal system, the Swedish government will evaluate the expected environmental impacts to assure that the Swedish people and environmental will not be unduly affected by the disposal system. The EIA process requires that reasonable alternatives to the proposed action, including the 'zero' or 'no action' alternative, be considered so that the final approved plan for disposal will have undergone scrutiny and comparison of alternatives to arrive at a plan which is the best achievable given reasonable physical and monetary constraints. This report has been prepared by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) for use by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The purpose of this report is to establish a document which outlines the types of information which would be in an EIA for a three part disposal system like that envisioned by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for the disposal of Sweden's HLW. Technical information that would normally be included in an EIA is outlined in this document. The SSI's primary interest is in radiological impacts. However, for the sake of completeness and also to evaluate all environmental impacts in a single document, non-radiological impacts are also included. Swedish authorities other than the SSI may have interest in the non-radiological parts of the document. 26 refs

  2. Nuclear Waste Disposal Program 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the many important steps in the management of radioactive waste that have already been implemented in Switzerland. The handling and packaging of waste, its characterisation and inventorying, as well as its interim storage and transport are examined. The many important steps in Swiss management of radioactive waste already implemented and wide experience gained in carrying out the associated activities are discussed. The legal framework and organisational measures that will allow the selection of repository sites are looked at. The various aspects examined include the origin, type and volume of radioactive wastes, along with concepts and designs for deep geological repositories and the types of waste to be stored therein. Also, an implementation plan for the deep geological repositories, the required capacities and the financing of waste management activities are discussed as is NAGRA’s information concept. Several diagrams and tables illustrate the program

  3. Chemistry of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    In extractive purification of the low-enriched uranium fuel element (UO 2 -particle fuel element with SiC coating) no problems arise in the PUREX-process which have not already been solved when reprocessing LWR-type reactor and breeder fuel elements. Concerning the HTR-type reactor fuel elements containing thorium, there are two process cycles behind the head end; the pure U-235 is reprocessed in the same manner as the low-enriched uranium fuel, and the thorium, which is the bigger fraction, is reprocessed together with U-233 in the same manner as the mixed oxides. Only the CO 2 -off gas system, which contains krypton and carbon 14, leads to difficulties in nuclear waste disposal. (DG) [de

  4. Disposal Site Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.A.; Jouse, C.A.; Esparza, V.

    1986-01-01

    An information management system for low-level waste shipped for disposal has been developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Disposal Site Information Management System (DSIMS) was developed to provide a user friendly computerized system, accessible through NRC on a nationwide network, for persons needing information to facilitate management decisions. This system has been developed on NOMAD VP/CSS, and the data obtained from the operators of commercial disposal sites are transferred to DSIMS semiannually. Capabilities are provided in DSIMS to allow the user to select and sort data for use in analysis and reporting low-level waste. The system also provides means for describing sources and quantities of low-level waste exceeding the limits of NRC 10 CFR Part 61 Class C. Information contained in DSIMS is intended to aid in future waste projections and economic analysis for new disposal sites

  5. DISPOSABLE CANISTER WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2001-07-30

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide the bases for defining the preclosure limits on radioactive material releases from radioactive waste forms to be received in disposable canisters at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, this calculation will provide the basis for criteria to be included in a forthcoming revision of the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) that limits releases in terms of non-isotope-specific canister release dose-equivalent source terms. These criteria will be developed for the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canister, the Multicanister Overpack (MCO), the naval spent fuel canister, the High-Level Waste (HLW) canister, the plutonium can-in-canister, and the large Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The shippers of such canisters will be required to demonstrate that they meet these criteria before the canisters are accepted at the MGR. The Quality Assurance program is applicable to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of DSNF and is performed using procedure AP-3.124, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to procedure QAP-2-0, Control of Activities, which has been superseded by AP-2.21Q, Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to the requirements of DOE/RW/0333P, Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 2000). This work is also prepared in accordance with the development plan titled Design Basis Event Analyses on DOE SNF and Plutonium Can-In-Canister Waste Forms (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This calculation contains no electronic data applicable to any electronic data management system.

  6. Implications of safety requirements for the treatment of THMC processes in geological disposal systems for radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bernier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mission of nuclear safety authorities in national radioactive waste disposal programmes is to ensure that people and the environment are protected against the hazards of ionising radiations emitted by the waste. It implies the establishment of safety requirements and the oversight of the activities of the waste management organisation in charge of implementing the programme. In Belgium, the safety requirements for geological disposal rest on the following principles: defence-in-depth, demonstrability and the radiation protection principles elaborated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP. Applying these principles requires notably an appropriate identification and characterisation of the processes upon which the safety functions fulfilled by the disposal system rely and of the processes that may affect the system performance. Therefore, research and development (R&D on safety-relevant thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC issues is important to build confidence in the safety assessment. This paper points out the key THMC processes that might influence radionuclide transport in a disposal system and its surrounding environment, considering the dynamic nature of these processes. Their nature and significance are expected to change according to prevailing internal and external conditions, which evolve from the repository construction phase to the whole heating–cooling cycle of decaying waste after closure. As these processes have a potential impact on safety, it is essential to identify and to understand them properly when developing a disposal concept to ensure compliance with relevant safety requirements. In particular, the investigation of THMC processes is needed to manage uncertainties. This includes the identification and characterisation of uncertainties as well as for the understanding of their safety-relevance. R&D may also be necessary to reduce uncertainties of which the magnitude does not allow

  7. Preliminary study on the three-dimensional geoscience information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peinan; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun; Wang Ju; Zhong Xia

    2010-01-01

    The 3D geosciences information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal is an important research direction in the current high-level radioactive waste disposal project and a platform of information integration and publishing can be used for the relevant research direction based on the provided data and models interface. Firstly, this paper introduces the basic features about the disposal project of HLW and the function and requirement of the system, which includes the input module, the database management module, the function module, the maintenance module and the output module. Then, the framework system of the high-level waste disposal project information system has been studied, and the overall system architecture has been proposed. Finally, based on the summary and analysis of the database management, the 3D modeling, spatial analysis, digital numerical integration and visualization of underground project, the implementations of key functional modules and the platform have been expounded completely, and the conclusion has been drawn that the component-based software development method should be utilized in system development. (authors)

  8. Preliminary Criticality Calculation on Conceptual Deep Borehole Disposal System for Trans-metal Waste during Operational Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Choi, Heui Joo; Cho, Dong Geun

    2013-01-01

    The primary function of any repository is to prevent spreading of dangerous materials into surrounding environment. In the case of high-level radioactive waste repository, radioactive material must be isolated and retarded during sufficient decay time to minimize radiation hazard to human and surrounding environment. Sub-criticality of disposal canister and whole disposal system is minimum requisite to prevent multiplication of radiation hazard. In this study, criticality of disposal canister and DBD system for trans-metal waste is calculated to check compliance of sub-criticality. Preliminary calculation on criticality of conceptual deep borehole disposal system and its canister for trans-metal waste during operational phase is conducted in this study. Calculated criticalities at every temperature are under sub-criticalities and criticalities of canister and DBD system considering temperature are expected to become 0.34932 and 0.37618 approximately. There are obvious limitations in this study. To obtain reliable data, exact elementary composition of each component, system component temperature must be specified and applied, and then proper cross section according to each component temperature must be adopted. However, many assumptions, for example simplified elementary concentration and isothermal component temperature, are adopted in this study. Improvement of these data must be conducted in the future work to progress reliability. And, post closure criticality analyses including geo, thermal, hydro, mechanical, chemical mechanism, especially fissile material re-deposition by precipitation and sorption, must be considered to ascertain criticality safety of DBD system as a future work

  9. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1994-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  11. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dody, A.; Klein, Ben; David, O.

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste imposes complicated constrains on the regulator to ensure the isolation of radioactive elements from the biosphere. The IAEA (1995) states that T he objective of radioactive waste management is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and the future without imposing undue burdens on future generation . The meaning of this statement is that the operator of the waste disposal facilities must prove to the regulator that in routine time and in different scenarios the dose rate to the public will not exceed 0.3 mSv/y in the present and in the future up to 10,000 years

  12. Disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Kuehn, K.

    1977-01-01

    Final storage of nuclear wastes in the salt mine at Asse is described. Until the end of 1976, all in all 73,000 containers with slightly radioactive wastes were deposited there within the framework of a test programme - the Asse pit is a pilot plant. Final storage of medium active waste was started in 1972. So far, about 1,150 barrels with medium active waste were deposited. Storage techniques applied, radiation exposure of the personnel and experience gained so far are reported on in this context. Final storage at Asse of highly active wastes developing decay heat is still in a preparatory stage, as here radiation as well as heat problems have to be mastered. Technical mining activities for the recoverable storage of highly-active, heat-developing wastes in the form of ceramic glasses are still in a planning phase, whereas advance work, e.g. cutting storage chambers out of seams 775 m thick have already begun. (HPH) [de

  13. Changing needs in a waste information management system: A disposer's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauver, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    An enhanced radioactive waste management information system (RWMIS) is currently under development to accommodate more specific reporting requirements. Radioactive waste management project (RWMP) has recently completed a draft revision of its Operational Radioactive Defense Waste Management Plan for the Nevada Test Site which identifies NTS waste acceptance criteria and revised data requirements for waste generators. Emphasis shifts to the characterization of individual waste packages. RWMP proposes that the waste generator number individual waste packages in a manner which identifies the generator, waste stream, container type, and method of treatment or stabilization. A listing of radionuclides and concentrations will be required, as well as physical and chemical data specific to each waste package. Analytical methods and techniques used for waste package characterization must be detailed by each generator in their quality assurance plan which is reviewed by DOE Nevada Operations Office

  14. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  15. Differing approaches to waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, G.

    1983-01-01

    The social, political, and economic problems of radioactive waste management, which are discussed at a scientific afternoon meeting held during the IAEA general conference on 12 October, with speakers from Argentina, West Germany, France, India, Japan, Sweden, Britain and the United States, are described. An OECD Nuclear Energy Agency report on the demonstration of long-term safety of deep underground disposal of high level radioactive waste is discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Land suitability for final waste disposal with emphasis on septic systems installation in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeani Moreira de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Environmental pollution is a problem that has been noted due to changes in the environment, affecting natural resources. Regarding the soil, it may offer great potential for waste disposal. Thus, this study aims to propose criteria for evaluating local suitability for waste disposal, according to soil and terrain attributes for southern Minas Gerais State, and to apply those criteria to define the most appropriate locations for installation of septic systems in a pilot watershed. Literature and the authors' experience were used to propose the more important criteria regarding the suitability of sites for waste disposal. The set of attributes taken into account was grouped into four suitability classes: Adequate, Regular, Restricted and Inadequate. The defined criteria and considered limiting were: soil depth, texture, textural gradient, structure, natural drainage, water infiltration, type of surface horizon, water table depth, depth of perched water table, distance from water bodies, relief, stoniness, rockiness and risk of flooding. From these, soil depth, natural drainage, water table depth, relief and distance from water bodies were adopted for the installation of septic systems. From the total area of the watershed, 5.29% fit in the Adequate suitability class. The Regular, Restricted, and Inadequate sites accounted for, respectively, 19.72%, 41.99% and 33% of the wathershed. Factors such as soil and terrain attributes provide a basis for defining more appropriate places for waste disposal. Future work should involve the refinement of these propositions, since there are rare studies in this research line in Brazil.

  17. System Dynamic Analysis of Impacts of Government Charges on Disposal of Construction and Demolition Waste: A Hong Kong Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Sheung Au

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of reducing the amount of construction and demolition (C&D waste disposed to landfills, many countries and municipalities have introduced increasingly stringent C&D waste disposal charges (CDWDC but the level of CDWDC is often determined without a clear understanding of its broad and complex impacts. Against this background, this paper aims to propose a system dynamics (SD model that can help predict CDWDC’s environmental implications as well as its financial implications. Specifically, the proposed model explains complex causal relationships between variables such as the level of CDWDC, the amount of C&D waste disposed to landfills, the government’s revenues from CDWDC as well as the costs of supplying and operating landfills over time. For a case study, the developed model is customized and calibrated with actual data from Hong Kong, where the remaining capacities of existing landfills are limited and the need for supplying more landfills is imminent. The simulation analysis with the model predicts that the current charging levels may not be high enough to effectively control the amount of C&D waste disposed to landfills or to compensate for the costs to the government of supplying additional landfills. The analysis also predicts how much illegal dumping may increase as the level of CDWDC increases. This case study illustrates that the proposed SD model can help policy makers to see the potential impacts of increased CDWDC on the amount of C&D waste disposed to landfills, government costs and the amount of illegal dumping of C&D waste; and can therefore help them to determine the most appropriate level of CDWDC.

  18. Minimizing generator liability while disposing hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, L.W.; Lahlou, M.; Pendurthi, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Potential liabilities associated with hazardous waste disposal are related to waste properties, disposal practices and the potential threat to people and the environment in case of a pollutant release. Based on various regulations, these liabilities are enforceable and longstanding. A methodology which can help hazardous waste generators select a commercial disposal facility with a relatively low risk of potential liability is described in this paper. The methodology has two parts. The first part has 8 categories encompassing 30 factors common to all facilities, and the second part includes one category dealing with 5 factors on specific wastes and treatment/disposal technologies. This two-part evaluation feature enables the user to adapt the methodology to any type of waste disposal. In determining the scores for the factors used in the evaluation. an unranked paired comparison technique with slight modifications was used to weight the relative importance of the individual factors. In the methodology it is possible for the user to redefine the factors and change the scoring system. To make the methodology more efficient, a user-friendly computer program has been developed; the computer program is written so that desired changes in the methodology can be readily implemented

  19. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 2. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Some of the conclusions reached as a result of this study are summarized. Waste form parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. The billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit the packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume. The effect of this packing inefficiency in reducing the net waste form per waste payload can be seen graphically. The cermet waste form mass per unit mass of waste payload is lower than that of the iodine waste form even though the cermet has a higher density (6.5 versus 5.5). This is because the lead iodide is cast achieving almost 100% efficiency in packing. This inefficiency in the packing of the cermet results in a 20% increase in number of flights which increases both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low flight rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A comprehensive trade study would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This study was not conducted as part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. Several candidates look attractive for both single- and dual-launch systems (see sec. 4.4), but due to the relatively small number of missions, a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs including DDT and E would be required to select the best system. The reference system described in sections 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development efforts for disposal of the reference cermet waste form

  20. Sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsaev, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of investigations of possibility of sub-seabed disposal of long-living intermediate-level radioactive wastes carried out by NIREX (UK) is described. Advantages and disadvantages of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes are considered; regions suitable for disposal, transport means for marine disposal are described. Three types of sub-seabed burials are characterized

  1. Inspection and verification of waste packages for near surface disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Extensive experience has been gained with various disposal options for low and intermediate level waste at or near surface disposal facilities. Near surface disposal is based on proven and well demonstrated technologies. To ensure the safety of near surface disposal facilities when available technologies are applied, it is necessary to control and assure the quality of the repository system's performance, which includes waste packages, engineered features and natural barriers, as well as siting, design, construction, operation, closure and institutional controls. Recognizing the importance of repository performance, the IAEA is producing a set of technical publications on quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) for waste disposal to provide Member States with technical guidance and current information. These publications cover issues on the application of QA/QC programmes to waste disposal, long term record management, and specific QA/QC aspects of waste packaging, repository design and R and D. Waste package QA/QC is especially important because the package is the primary barrier to radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Waste packaging also involves interface issues between the waste generator and the disposal facility operator. Waste should be packaged by generators to meet waste acceptance requirements set for a repository or disposal system. However, it is essential that the disposal facility operator ensure that waste packages conform with disposal facility acceptance requirements. Demonstration of conformance with disposal facility acceptance requirements can be achieved through the systematic inspection and verification of waste packages at both the waste generator's site and at the disposal facility, based on a waste package QA/QC programme established by the waste generator and approved by the disposal operator. However, strategies, approaches and the scope of inspection and verification will be somewhat different from country to country

  2. Hydrologic-geochemical modeling needs for nuclear waste disposal systems performance assessments from the NEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Credible scenarios for releases from high level nuclear waste repositories require radionuclides to be mobilized and transported by ground water. The capability to predict ground water flow velocities and directions as well as radionuclide concentrations in the flow system as a function of time are essential for assessing the performance of disposal systems. The first of these parameters can be estimated by hydrologic modeling while the concentrations can be predicted by geochemical modeling. The complementary use of empirical and phenomenological approaches to the geochemical modeling, when effectively coupled with hydrologic models can provide the tools needed for realistic performance assessment. An overview of the activities of the NEA in this area, with emphasis on the geochemical data bases (ISIRS for Ksub(d) data and the thermochemical data base critical review), rock/water interaction modeling (code development and short-courses), and hydrologic-geochemical code coupling (workshop and in-house activities) is presented in this paper from the perspective of probabilistic risk assessment needs. (author)

  3. Effluent treatment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great increase in the attention given to environmental matters by the public, media and Government. This has been reflected in the increased stature of environmental pressure groups and the introduction of new regulatory bodies and procedures. However, the satisfactory treatment and disposal of waste depends ultimately upon the development and employment of efficient low cost processes, and the enforcement of effective legislation. This Conference organised by the Yorkshire Branch of IChemE in association with the Institution's Environmental Protection Subject Group, will address the areas of waste monitoring, developments in pollution control processes and process economics and will look forward to future trends in waste disposal. It will also consider the impact of recent legislation upon the process industries. (author)

  4. Waste disposal technologies: designs and evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Many states and compacts are presently in the throes of considering what technology to select for their low level waste disposal site. Both the technical and economic aspects of disposal technology are important considerations in these decisions. It is also important that they be considered in the context of the entire system. In the case of a nuclear power plant, that system encompasses the various individual waste streams that contain radioactivity, the processing equipment which reduces the volume and/or alters the form in which the radioisotopes are contained, the packaging of the processed wastes in shipment, and finally its disposal. One further part of this is the monitoring that takes place in all stages of this operation. This paper discusses the results of some research that has been sponsored by EPRI with the principal contractor being Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation. Included is a description of the distinguishing features found in disposal technologies developed in a generic framework, designs for a selected set of these disposal technologies and the costs which have been derived from these designs. In addition, a description of the early efforts towards defining the performance of these various disposal technologies is described. 5 figures, 1 table

  5. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  6. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  7. Disposal of radioactive wastes. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skitt, J.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)

  8. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  9. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a... manager, or the draining or dumping of oil, acids, pesticide wastes, poisons, or any other types of...

  10. Radioactive wastes and their disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    1984-01-01

    The classification of radioactive wastes is given and the achievements evaluated in the disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. An experimental pilot unit was installed at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant for the bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. UJV has developed a mobile automated high-output unit for cementation. In 1985 the unit will be tested at the Jaslovske Bohunice and the Dukovany nuclear power plants. A prototype press for processing solid wastes was manufactured which is in operation at the Jaslovske Bohunice plant. A solidification process for atypical wastes from long-term storage of spent fuel elements has been developed to be used for the period of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (E.S.)

  11. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The following major conclusions resulted from this study: Parameters for the reference cermet waste form are available only by analogy. Detail design of the waste payload would require determination of actual waste form properties. Billet configuration constraints for the cermet waste form limit waste payload packing efficiency to slightly under 75% net volume, resulting in a 20% increase in the number of flights and subsequent increases in both cost and risk. Alternative systems for waste mixes requiring low launch rates (technetium-99, iodine-129) can make effective use of the existing 65K space transportation system in either single- or dual-launch scenarios. A trade study involving a comprehensive comparison of life cycle costs would be required to select the optimum orbit transfer system for low-launch-rate systems. This was not a part of the present effort due to selection of the cermet waste form as the reference for the study. The reference space system offers the best combination of cost, risk, and alignment with ongoing NASA technology development for disposal of the reference cermet waste form within specified system safety guidelines

  12. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment has many applications in the field of radioactive waste management, none more important than demonstrating the suitability of a particular repository system for waste disposal. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal is discussed with reference to assessments performed in civilian waste management programmes. The process is, however, relevant, and may be applied directly to the disposal of defence-related wastes. When used in an open and transparent manner, performance assessment is a powerful methodology not only for convincing the authorities of the safety of a disposal concept, but also for gaining the wider acceptance of the general public for repository siting. 26 refs

  13. Preliminary Investigations of Some Engineering Properties for the Use of Different Soils in Waste Disposal Cover System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    Near surface disposal facilities are designed to provide long term isolation for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from the human environment by means of multi-barriers system, which consists of a combination of natural and engineering barriers that act passively to isolate the waste. Adequate and reliable multi-layer engineered cover system is required by the long-term safety concept for waste disposal to control moisture and percolation, promote surface water runoff, minimize erosion, and prevent direct exposure to the waste. In this work, investigations of some engineering properties that are utilized in hydrological and geotechnical design of capillary barrier have been estimated for different local soil textures. Measurements of the physical properties of the studied soil textures have been conducted to determine their suitability for the utilization in engineered cover system for near surface disposal facility. The soil water characteristics have been estimated from the measured physical properties using Vereeckens pedotransfer functions. The critical pressure head for different combinations of soils have been evaluated and the thickness of the finer layer has been calculated. Also some mechanical properties, angle of internal friction and the cohesion, have been estimated using pedotransfer function. The pre-compression stresses have been evaluated and the slope stability of the designed barriers has been quantified by comparing the factor of safety for each studied case for different slope values

  14. Quantitative performance allocation of multi-barrier system for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joon-Hong; Ikeda, Takao; Ohe, Toshiaki

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment of each barrier consisting of geologic disposal system for high-level radioactive wastes is carried out quantitatively, and key radionuclides and parameters are pointed out. Chemical compositions and solubilities of radionuclides under repository conditions are determined by PHREEQE code staring from compositions of granitic groundwater observed in Japan. Glass dissolution analysis based on mass transfer theory and precipitation analysis have been done in order to determine the inner boundary condition for radionuclide diffusion through a bentonite-filled buffer region, where multi-member decay chain and isotopic sharing of solubility at the inner boundary are considered. Natural barrier is treated as homogeneous porous rock, or porous rock with infinite planar fractures. Performance of each barrier is evaluated in terms of non-dimensionalized hazard defined as the ratio of annual radioactivity release from each barrier to the annual limit on intake. At the outer edge of the engineered barriers, 239 Pu is the key unclide to the performance, whereas at the exit of the natural barrier, weakly-sorbing fission product nuclides such as 135 Cs, 129 I and 99 Tc dominate the hazard. (author) 50 refs

  15. Systems analysis approach to the disposal of high-level waste in deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de; Hill, M.D.; Murray, C.N.; Talbert, D.M.; Van Dorp, F.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Among the different options being studied for disposal of high-level solidified waste, increasing attention is being paid to that of emplacement of glasses incorporating the radioactivity in deep oceanic sediments. This option has the advantage that the areas of the oceans under investigation appear to be relatively unproductive biologically, are relatively free from cataclysmic events, and are areas in which the natural processes are slow. Thus the environment is stable and predictable so that a number of barriers to the release and dispersion of radioactivity can be defined. Task Groups set up in the framework of the International Seabed Working Group have been studying many aspects of this option since 1976. In order that the various parts of the problem can be assessed within an integrated framework, the methods of systems analysis have been applied. In this paper the Systems Analysis Task Group members report the development of an overall system model. This will be used in an iterative process in which a preliminary analysis, together with a sensitivity analysis, identifies the parameters and data of most importance. The work of the other task groups will then be focussed on these parameters and data requirements so that improved results can be fed back into an improved overall systems model. The major requirements for the development of a preliminary overall systems model are that the problem should be separated into identified elements and that the interfaces between the elements should be clearly defined. The model evolved is deterministic and defines the problem elements needed to estimate doses to man

  16. Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each month. This waste contains mineral acids, heavy metals, metal fluorides, and other materials. The waste must be contained in special drums that are closed to the atmosphere. The initial disposal method was to have the robot pour the waste into a collecting funnel, which contained a liquid-sensing valve to admit the waste into the drum. Spills were inevitable, splashing occurred, and the special valve often didn't work well. The device also occupied a large amount of premium bench space. Peristaltic pumps are made to handle hazardous liquids quickly and efficiently. A variable-speed pump, equipped with a quick-loading pump head, was mounted below the robot bench near the waste barrel. The pump inlet tube was mounted above the bench within easy reach of the robot, while the outlet tube was connected directly to the barrel. During operation, the robot brings the waste liquid up to the pump inlet tube and activates the pump. When the waste has been removed, the pump stops. The procedure is quick, simple, inexpensive, safe, and reliable

  17. Waste classification and methods applied to specific disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1979-01-01

    An adequate definition of the classes of radioactive wastes is necessary to regulating the disposal of radioactive wastes. A classification system is proposed in which wastes are classified according to characteristics relating to their disposal. Several specific sites are analyzed with the methodology in order to gain insights into the classification of radioactive wastes. Also presented is the analysis of ocean dumping as it applies to waste classification. 5 refs

  18. Handling and disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste has been separated by definition into six categories. These are: commercial spent fuel; high-level wastes; transuranium waste; low-level wastes; decommissioning and decontamination wastes; and mill tailings and mine wastes. Handling and disposing of these various types of radioactive wastes are discussed briefly

  19. High activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  20. Long term safety assessment of geological waste disposal systems: issues on release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geological insolation of high level nuclear waste is an attractive waste disposal concept. However, long term safety demonstration of this concept is a major challenge to the operators, regulators and the scientific community. Identification of the factors responsible for the release of radionuclides from geosphere to biosphere,is first step in this regard. Current understanding of the release scenarios indicates that faulting, ground after percolation, seismicity, volcanism and human intrusion are the dominating release factors for most of the candidate rock formations. The major source of uncertainties is the probability values of various release events due to random nature of catastrophic geological events and past poor historical records of the frequencies of such events. There is consensus among the experts that the waste release via human intrusion is the most unpredictable scenario at present state of the knowledge. (author)

  1. Side loading vault system and method for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meess, D.C.; Jones, B.J.; Mello, R.M.; Weiss, T.G. Jr.; Wright, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for the disposal of hazardous radioactive waste. It comprises: constructing a floor slab in the earth; constructing an elongated wall assembly over the floor slab having sidewalls and a front wall and a back wall at either end the side walls being longer than the front and back walls; providing an accessway in the front wall; constructing a ceiling slab over the wall assembly that is supported at least in part by the wall assembly to form a vault cell; inspecting the vault cell for structural defects, introducing hazardous radioactive waste through the accessway in the front wall and loading the cell with the waste from the back wall to the front wall in rows, each of which is substantially parallel to the back wall to minimize radiation exposure to workers loading the cell, and closing the accessway of the vault cell by constructing a removable wall structure within the accessway

  2. Disposal of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwar Raj

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal facility is a very important link in the nuclear fuel cycle chain. Being at the end of the back-end of the fuel cycle, it forms an interface between nuclear industry and the environment. Therefore, the effectiveness of the disposal facility for safe isolation of radioactive waste is vital. This is achieved by following a systematic approach to the disposal system as a whole. Conditioned waste, engineered barriers, back-fill and surrounding geosphere are main components of the disposal system. All of them play complementary role in isolating the radioactivity contained in the waste for extended period of time

  3. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Nuttall, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  4. Safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1994-11-01

    This report describes safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for HLW, using a GSRW code and an automated sensitivity analysis methodology based on the Differential Algebra. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. The results of sensitivity analyses indicate that parameters related to a homogeneous rock surrounding a disposal facility have higher sensitivities to the output analyzed here than those of a fractured zone and engineered barriers. The sensitivity analysis methodology provides technical information which might be bases for the optimization of design of the disposal facility. Safety analyses were performed on the reference disposal system which involve HLW in amounts corresponding to 16,000 MTU of spent fuels. The individual dose equivalent due to the exposure pathway ingesting drinking water was calculated using both the conservative and realistic values of geochemical parameters. In both cases, the committed dose equivalent evaluated here is the order of 10 -7 Sv, and thus geologic disposal of HLW may be feasible if the disposal conditions assumed here remain unchanged throughout the periods assessed here. (author)

  5. Probabilistic risk assessment for the Sandia National Laboratories Technical Area V Liquid Waste Disposal System surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, L.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment was completed for a former radioactive waste disposal site. The site, two unlined surface impoundment, was designed as part of the Liquid Waste Disposal System (LWDS) to receive radioactive effluent from nuclear reactors in Technical Area-V (TA-V) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). First, a statistical comparison of site sampling results to natural background, using EPA methods, and a spatial distribution analysis were performed. Risk assessment was conducted with SNL/NM's Probabilistic Risk Evaluation and Characterization Investigation System model. The risk assessment indicated that contamination from several constituents might have been high enough to require remediation. However, further analysis based on expected site closure activities and recent EPA guidance indicated that No Further Action was acceptable

  6. Method of disposing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kei.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To enable safety ocean disposal of radioactive wastes by decreasing the leaching rate of radioactive nucleides, improving the quick-curing nature and increasing the durability. Method : A mixture comprising 2 - 20 parts by weight of alkali metal hydroxide and 100 parts by weight of finely powdered aqueous slags from a blast furnace is added to radioactive wastes to solidify them. In the case of medium or low level radioactive wastes, the solidification agent is added by 200 parts by weight to 100 parts by weight of the wastes and, in the case of high level wastes, the solidification agent is added in such an amount that the wastes occupy about 20% by weight in the total of the wastes and the solidification agent. Sodium hydroxide used as the alkali metal hydroxide is partially replaced with sodium carbonate, a water-reducing agent such as lignin sulfonate is added to improve the fluidity and suppress the leaching rate and the wastes are solidified in a drum can. In this way, corrosions of the vessel can be suppressed by the alkaline nature and the compression strength, heat stability and the like of the product also become excellent. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  8. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  9. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  10. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  11. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites

  12. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for medium and alpha waste disposal in granitic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Brun-Yaba, C.; Cernes, A.

    1990-01-01

    PACOMA (Performance Assessment of Confinement for Medium and Alpha Waste) is a coordinated project of the Commission of the European Communities with the participation of the Member States. This project is intended to evaluate the suitability of clay, granite and salt formations to dispose of conditioned alpha and medium-level radioactive waste. In this report, CEA-IPSN presents the database and the results of evaluating the radiological consequences associated to the disposal of alpha-bearing waste in a deep granite formation. Two repository concepts and three sites have been examined (Auriat, a hypothetical site in the UK and Barfleur) which are identical to those considered in the PAGIS project. The methodology adopted for the PAGIS project has been used for carrying out the deterministic calculations of radiological consequences in the case of normal evolution scenarios and in altered evolutions, as well as for sensitivity analysis of results to the calculation parameters and for uncertainty studies. The calculation of individual doses in the case of normal evolutions show, after a first peak due to I-129, Se-79 and Tc-99 some hundred of thousands years, a maximum, which is reached only after several million of years. In all cases, these maxima are largely lower (by a factor of 1000 at least), than the limit recommended by the IRCP

  13. Impacts of gold mine waste disposal on deepwater fish in a pristine tropical marine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, D.T.; Milton, D.A.; Fry, G.C.; Dennis, D.M.; Heales, D.S.; Venables, W.N.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the impacts of mine waste disposal, including deep-sea tailings, on tropical marine environments and this study presents the first account of this impact on deepwater fish communities. The Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea has deposited both excavated overburden and processed tailings slurry into the coastal environment since 1997. The abundances of fish species and trace metal concentrations in their tissues were compared between sites adjacent to and away from the mine. In this study (1999-2002), 975 fish of 98 species were caught. Significantly fewer fish were caught close to the mine than in neighbouring regions; the highest numbers were in regions distant from the mine. The catch rates of nine of the 17 most abundant species were lowest, and in three species were highest, close to the mine. There appears to be limited contamination in fish tissues caused by trace metals disposed as mine waste. Although arsenic (several species) and mercury (one species) were found in concentrations above Australian food standards. However, as in the baseline (pre-mine) sampling, it appears they are accumulating these metals mostly from naturally-occurring sources rather than the mine waste

  14. Potential for long-term isolation by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Swift, P.N. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must comply with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, which sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. The regulation, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (hereafter referred to as the Standard), was vacated in 1987 by a Federal Court of Appeals and is underground revision. By agreement with the Sate of New Mexico, the WIPP project is evaluating compliance with the Standard as promulgated, in 1985 until a new regulation is available. This report summarizes the early-1990 status of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) understanding of the Project's ability to achieve compliance. The report reviews the qualitative and quantitative requirements for compliance, and identifies unknowns complicating performance assessment. It discusses in relatively nontechnical terms the approaches to resolving those unknowns, and concludes that SNL has reasonable confidence that compliance is achievable with the Standard as first promulgated. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Radioecological activity limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmet, E. Osmanlioglu

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides. Near surface disposal term includes broad range of facilities from simple trenches to concrete vaults. Principally, disposal of radioactive waste requires the implementation of measures that will provide safety for human health and environment now and in the future. For this reason preliminary activity limits should be determined to avoid radioecological problems. Radioactive waste has to be safely disposed in a regulated manner, consistent with internationally agreed principles and standards and with national legislations to avoid serious radioecological problems. The purpose of this study, presents a safety assessment approach to derive operational and post-closure radioecological activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal system has three components; the waste, the facility (incl. engineered barriers) and the site (natural barriers). Form of the waste (unconditioned or conditioned) is effective at the beginning of the migration scenerio. Existence of the engineered barriers in the facility will provide long term isolation of the waste from environment. The site characteristics (geology, groundwater, seismicity, climate etc.) are important for the safety of the system. Occupational exposure of a worker shall be controlled so that the following dose limits are not exceeded: an effective dose of 20mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years; and an effective dose of 50mSv in any single year. The effective dose limit for members of the public recommended by ICRP and IAEA is 1 mSv/y for exposures from all man-made sources [1,2]. Dose constraints are typically a fraction of the dose limit and ICRP recommendations (0.3 mSv/y) could be applied [3,4]. Radioecological activity concentration limits of each radionuclide in the waste (Bq/kg) were calculated. As a result of this study radioecological activity

  16. Maintenance of records for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The safety of the radioactive waste disposal concepts does not rely on long term institutional arrangements. However, future generations may need information related to repositories and the wastes confined in them. The potentially needed information therefore has to be identified and collected. A suitable system for the preservation of that information needs to be created as a part of the disposal concept beginning with the planning phase. The IAEA has prepared this technical report to respond to the needs of Member States having repositories or involved in or considering the development of repositories. In many countries policies and systems for record keeping and maintenance of information related to disposal are the subjects of current interest. This report describes the requirements for presenting information about repositories for radioactive waste including long lived and transuranic waste and spent fuel if it is declared as a waste. The report discussed topics of identification, transfer and long term retention of high level information pertaining to the repository in a records management system (RMS) for retrieval if it becomes necessary in the future

  17. Commercial mixed waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    At the South Clive, Utah, site, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., (Envirocare), currently operates a commercial low-activity, low-level radioactive waste facility, a mixed waste RCRA Part B storage and disposal facility, and an 11e.(2) disposal facility. Envirocare is also in the process of constructing a Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. As the nation's first and only commercial treatment and disposal facility for such waste, the information presented in this segment will provide insight into their current and prospective operations

  18. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-01-01

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place

  19. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-07-01

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place.

  20. Plastic waste disposal apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kito, S

    1972-05-01

    A test plant plastic incinerator was constructed by the Takuma Boiler Manufacturing Co. for Sekisui Chemical Industries, and the use of a continuous feed spreader was found to be most effective for prevention of black smoke, and the use of a venturi scrubber proved to be effective for elimination of hydrogen chloride gas. The incinerator was designed for combustion of polyvinyl chloride exclusively, but it is also applicable for combustion of other plastics. When burning polyethylene, polypropylene, or polystyrene, (those plastics which do not produce toxic gases), the incinerator requires no scrubber for the combustion gas. The system may or may not have a pretreatment apparatus. For an incinerator with a pretreatment system, the flow chart comprises a pit, a supply crane, a vibration feeder, a metal eliminator, a rotation shredder, a continuous screw feeder with a quantitative supply hopper, a pretreatment chamber (300 C dry distillation), a quantitative supply hopper, and the incinerator. The incinerator is a flat non-grid type combustion chamber with an oil burner and many air nozzles. From the incinerator, ashes are sent by an ash conveyor to an ash bunker. The combustion gas goes to the boiler, and the water supplied the boiler water pump creates steam. The heat from the gas is sent back to the pretreatment system through a heat exchanger. The gas then goes to a venturi scrubber and goes out from a stack.

  1. Analysis of space systems study for the space disposal of nuclear waste study report. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Reasonable space systems concepts were systematically identified and defined and a total system was evaluated for the space disposal of nuclear wastes. Areas studied include space destinations, space transportation options, launch site options payload protection approaches, and payload rescue techniques. Systems level cost and performance trades defined four alternative space systems which deliver payloads to the selected 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit destination at least as economically as the reference system without requiring removal of the protective radiation shield container. No concepts significantly less costly than the reference concept were identified.

  2. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.; Dave, S.A.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  3. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  4. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal into the sub-seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.F.; Charles, D.; Delow, C.E.; McColl, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an assessment of the radiological impact of sub-seabed disposal of vitrified high level waste, carried out as part of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste. Where possible the data used in this study have been taken from those provided by the Nuclear Energy Agency Seabed Working Group. The waste was assumed to be placed into the sub-seabed sediments by means of the free fall penetrator technique. An alternative method, emplacement in a deep borehole, was also studied. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Great Meteor East, in the N.E. Atlantic, and two alternative sites: Southern Nares Abyssal Plain in the N.W. Atlantic and Cape Verde Rise in N.E. Atlantic. Models were used to describe the release of radionuclides from the waste, their migration through the sediments, their dispersion in the world oceans and the pathways to man. For the normal evolution scenario, best estimate peak individual dose rates for the penetrator option was evaluated at 2 x 10 -10 Sv y -1 arising 0.1 million years after emplacement. The collective dose commitment was 10,000 man Sv. The corresponding figures for the borehole option were 2 x 10 -14 Sv y -1 and 1 man Sv. The risks from seven altered evolution scenarios were also calculated and the risk was predicted to be always less than 10 -9 y -1 . Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were also performed and showed that the peak dose was most sensitive to variations in Kd values, pore water velocity, pore water diffusivity and burial depth. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  5. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  6. Ocean disposal of heat generating waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat generating waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the engineering and operational aspects of the Penetrator Option for ocean disposal to enable technical comparisons with other options to be made. In the Penetrator Option concept, waste would be loaded into carefully designed containers which would be launched at a suitable deep ocean site where they would fall freely through the water and would embed themselves completely within the seabed sediments. Radiological protection would be provided by a multi-barrier system including the vitrified waste form, the penetrator containment, the covering sediment and the ocean. Calculations and demonstration have shown that penetrators could easily achieve embedment depths in excess of 30m and preliminary radiological assessments indicate that 30m of intact sediment would be an effective barrier for radionuclide isolation. The study concludes that a 75mm thickness of low carbon steel appears to be sufficient to provide a containment life of 500 to 1000 years during which time the waste heat output would have decayed to an insignificant level. Disposal costs have been assessed. (author)

  7. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  8. The prospective usage of the multi-purpose canister and impacts on the waste management and disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, N.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) is designed to be loaded with spent fuel and sealed at reactors and then serve the functions of transport, storage and disposal without reopening. It can be either self-shielded or unshielded, thus requiring compatible overpacks for transport, storage and disposal. The MPC is not a new concept but it may now be viable because of the particular characteristics at Yucca Mountain: larger MPCs are possible because of ramp access to the repository horizon, and the less difficult temperature limits because of in-drift emplacement, rather than borehole emplacement. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of adopting the MPC as the principal technology to be employed in the US program. Use of the MPC permits integration of the utility and DOE portions of the system as well as among the elements within the DOE portion. Paradoxically, the principal disadvantage of the MPC is a direct consequence of its merit as an integrating technology. Full integration includes disposability without reopening, and requires that disposability design decisions be made and implemented well in advance of when waste package licensing uncertainties are resolved. There is, therefore, a risk that MPCs loaded prior to waste package licensing will have to be opened. This risk is discussed in terms of probability and consequences and various alternatives for mitigating this risk are discussed

  9. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  10. Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble wastes (primarily NaNO 3 , NaNO 2 , and NaOH) stored in the waste tanks will be decontaminated by ion exchange and solidified in concrete. The resulting salt-concrete mixture, saltcrete, will be placed in a landfill on the plantsite such that all applicable federal and state disposal criteria are met. Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrate salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill will meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system

  11. Mechanisms and interaction phenomena influencing releases in low- and medium-level waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.; Nilsson, K.

    1990-11-01

    The report covers work done 1986-1990 at Risoe National Laboratory as part of the third EC Research Programme on Radioactive Waste Management. Waste product characterization: Leaching and volume stability of cemented ion-exchange resins. Wet/dry cycling was found to be an important degradation mechanism. Hygroscopic properties of cemented and bituminized radioactive waste. Water uptake from the air can be an important release mechanism when waste containing soluble salts are disposed of by shallow land burial. Water uptake and swelling of bituminized waste including studies on water migration in bitumen membranes and measurements of swelling pressures. Ageing of bituminized products was demonstrated to result in increasing stiffness of the materials. Nickel ferrocyanide in precipitation sludge was found to be unstable in contact with concrete. Barrier material properties: The influence of the pore structure in concrete on the hydraulic or diffusive transport of water and ions through concrete barriers was investigated. The main parameter is the water/cement ratio. A theoretical interpretation is given. Healing of cracks in concrete barriers by precipitation of calcium carbonate was demonstrated experimentally and described by a simplified model. Transport of components between two thin plates of cement paste with different composition stored together in water was found to take place at a low rate. The structure of degraded cement paste was studied using SANS (small angle neutron scattering). Interaction phenomena: - Integral experiments with migration of radioisotopes from cemented waste through barriers made from kaolin, chalk or concrete were made under different external conditions. The results can be used for model validation and some preliminary work was done. (author) 16 tabs., 51 ills., 25 refs

  12. Waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Rob P.; Stockman, Christine T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes modeling of waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments (PAs) conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, the waste degradation module, or succinctly called the source-term, evolved from initial assumptions in 1984 to results based on process modeling in 2008. In early PAs, waste degradation had significant influence on calculated behavior but as the robustness of the waste container was increased and modeling of the container degradation improved, waste degradation had much less influence in later PAs. The variation of dissolved concentrations of radionuclides progressed from simple probability distributions in early PAs to functions dependent upon water chemistry in later PAs. Also, transport modeling of radionuclides in the waste, container, and invert were added in 1995; and, colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides was added in 1998. - Highlights: • Progression of modeling of waste degradation in performance assessments is discussed for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. • Progression of evaluating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides in the source-term is discussed. • Radionuclide transport modeling in the waste, container, and invert in 1995 and thereafter is discussed. • Colloid-facilitated transport in the waste, container, and invert in 1998 and thereafter is discussed

  13. Radioactive waste disposal and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties presented by the current atomic energy law for the nuclear waste disposal in Switzerland are shown. It is emphasised how important scientific information is in the political solutions for nuclear disposal

  14. Nuclear waste disposal: technology and environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, F.K.; Aikin, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; the nature and origin of wastes (fuel cycles; character of wastes; mining and milling operations; middle stages; irradiated fuel; reprocessing (waste generation); reactor wastes); disposal techniques and disposal of reprocessing wastes; siting of repositories; potential environmental impacts (impacts after emplacement in a rock repository; catastrophic effects; dispersion processes (by migrating ground water); thermal effects; future security; environmental survey, monitoring and modelling); conclusion. (U.K.)

  15. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m 3 . The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year)

  16. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  17. Regulatory criteria for final disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraitis, E.; Ciallella, N.; Siraky, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the legislative and regulatory framework in which the final disposal of radioactive wastes is carried out in Argentina. It also presents the criteria developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) to assess the long-term safety of final disposal systems for high level radioactive wastes. (author)

  18. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  19. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed guidance and requirements to deliverables crosswalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    In September 1996, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) initiated the first of a two-phase program to remediate waste storage in tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Initiating the first phase, RL signed contracts with two private companies who agreed to receive and vitrify a portion of the tank waste in a demonstration and to return the vitrified product and by-products to the Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) team for disposition. The first phase of the overall remediation effort is a demonstration of treatment concepts, and the second phase includes treatment of the remaining tank wastes. The demonstration phase, Phase 1 of the project, is further subdivided into two parts, A and B. During Phase 1A, the vitrification contractors are to establish the technical, operational, regulatory, business, and financial elements required to provide treatment services on a fixed unit price basis. Phase 1A deliverables will be evaluated by RL to determine whether it is in the best interest of the government to have one or more vitrification contractors proceed with Phase 1B, in which 6% to 13% of the tank waste would be treated in the demonstration. In addition, before RL can authorize proceeding with Phase 1B, the PHMC team must demonstrate its readiness to retrieve and deliver the waste to the private contractor(s) and to receive and dispose of the products and by-products returned from the treatment. The PHMC team has organized their plans for providing these vitrification-support services into the Retrieval and Disposal Mission within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. Three RL core teams were established to assist in evaluating the PHMC team's readiness specifically in regard to three task areas: Waste feed delivery; Infrastructure and by-products delivery; and Immobilized products. The core teams each developed a set of criteria and plans to be used in evaluating the PHMC team's readiness to proceed (RTP)

  20. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and TRU wastes. Program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria are found in this document. At the present time final criteria have not been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The criteria in these documents have been developed on the basis of DOE's judgment of what is required to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. It is expected that these criteria will be consistent with regulatory standards. The criteria will be re-evaluated on a periodic basis to ensure that they remain consistent with national waste management policy and regulatory requirements. A re-evaluation will be made when final criteria are promulgated by the NRC and EPA. A background section that briefly describes the mined geologic disposal system and explains the hierarchy and application of the NWTS criteria is included in Section 2.0. Secton 3.0 presents the program objectives, Section 4.0 functional requirements, Secton 5.0 the system performance criteria, and Section 6.0 quality assurance and standards. A draft of this document was issued for public comment in April 1981. Appendix A contains the DOE responses to the comments received. Appendix B is a glossary

  1. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  2. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  3. Shallow land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities

  4. Verification and validation for waste disposal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    A set of evaluation criteria has been developed to assess the suitability of current verification and validation techniques for waste disposal methods. A survey of current practices and techniques was undertaken and evaluated using these criteria with the items most relevant to waste disposal models being identified. Recommendations regarding the most suitable verification and validation practices for nuclear waste disposal modelling software have been made

  5. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste

  6. JNC thermodynamic database for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Mikazu; Azuma, Jiro; Shibata, Masahiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This report is a summary of status, frozen datasets, and future tasks of the JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB) for assessing performance of high-level radioactive waste in geological environments. The JNC-TDB development was carried out after the first progress report on geological disposal research in Japan (H-3). In the development, thermodynamic data (equilibrium constants at 25degC, I=0) for important radioactive elements were selected/determined based on original experimental data using different models (e.g., SIT, Pitzer). As a result, the reliability and traceability of the data for most of the important elements were improved over those of the PNC-TDB used in H-3 report. For detailed information of data analysis and selections for each element, see the JNC technical reports listed in this document. (author)

  7. Interfaces between transport and geologic disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel: A new international guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Baekelandt, L.; Hoorelbeke, J.M.; Han, K.W.; Pollog, T.; Blackman, D.; Villagran, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Document (TECDOC) has been developed and will be published by the IAEA. The TECDOC addresses the interfaces between the transport and geologic disposal systems for, high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The document is intended to define and assist in discussing, at both the domestic and the international level, regulatory, technical, administrative, and institutional interfaces associated with HLW and SNF transport and disposal systems; it identifies and discusses the interfaces and interface requirements between the HLW and SNF, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the HLW/SNF disposal facility. It provides definitions and explanations of terms; discusses systems, interfaces and interface requirements; addresses alternative strategies (single-purpose packages and multipurpose packages) and how interfaces are affected by the strategies; and provides a tabular summary of the requirements

  8. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book deals with waste water disposal, design and management, which includes biofilm process, double living things treatment and microscopic organism's immobilized processing. It gives descriptions of biofilm process like construction, definition and characteristic of construction of biofilm process, system construction of biofilm process, principle of biofilm process, application of biofilm process, the basic treatment of double living thing and characteristic of immobilized processing of microscopic organism.

  9. Low-level waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    A design has been proposed for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that should provide the desired isolation under all foreseeable conditions. Although slightly more costly than current practices; this design provides additional reliability. This reliability is desirable to contribute to the closure of the fuel cycle and to demonstrate the responsible management of the uranium cycle by reestablishing confidence in the system

  10. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Bonne, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, performance assessment studies have been undertaken on the geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste in clay layers at a reference site at Mol (B) and a variant site at Harwell (UK). The calculations performed for the reference site shown that most radionuclides decay to negligible levels within the first meters of the clay barrier. The maximum dose rates arising from the geological disposal of HLW, as evaluated by the deterministic approach are about 10 -11 Sv/y for river pathways. If the sinking of a water well into the 150 m deep aquifer layer in the vicinity of the repository is considered together with a climatic change, the maximum calculated dose rate rises to a value of 3.10 -7 Sv/y. The calculated maxima arise between 1 million and 15 million years after disposal. The maximum dose rates evaluated by stochastic calculations are about one order of magnitude higher due to the considerable uncertainties in the model parameters. In the case of the Boom clay the estimated consequences of a fault scenario are of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained for the normal evolution scenario. The maximum risk is estimated from stochastic calculations to be about 4.10 -8 per year. For the variant site the case of the normal evolution scenario has been evaluated. The maximum dose rates calculated deterministically are about 1.10 -6 Sv/y for river pathways and 6.10 -5 Sv/y for a water well pathways; these doses would occur after about 1 million years. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  11. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  12. Calculations of the radiological impact of disposal of unit activity of selected radionuclides for use in waste management system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the work described is to provide estimates of the radiological impact following disposal of unit activity via each of several options, including shallow burial, engineered trench disposal, disposal in a geologic repository and disposal on the deep ocean bed. Results are presented for a range of important representative radionuclides. No single option is clearly the best from the radiological point of view. However, in conjunction with waste inventory data the results may be used to provide a preliminary view of the relative radiological merits of the various disposal options. (author)

  13. Storage and Disposal of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Monitoring and Protection Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    This paper deals with solutions for the problem of final disposal of solid radioactive waste. I. It is first essential to organize a proper system of temporary storage. II. Final Storage In order to organize final storage, it is necessary to fix, according to the activity and form of the waste, the site and the modes of transport to be used within and outside the nuclear centre. The choice of solutions follows from the foregoing essentials. The paper then considers, in turn, final storage, on the ground, in the sub-soil and in the sea. Economic considerations are an important factor in determining the choice of solution. (author)

  14. Deep injection disposal of liquid radioactive waste in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Ballou, L.; Rybal'chenko, A.I.; Pimenov, M.K.; Kostin, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    Originally published in Russian, Deep Injection Disposal is the most comprehensive account available in the West of the Soviet and Russian practice of disposing of radioactive wastes into deep geological formations. It tells the story of the first 40 years of work in the former Soviet Union to devise, test, and execute a program to dispose by deep injection millions of cubic meters of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear materials processing. The book explains decisions involving safety aspects, research results, and practical experience gained during the creation and operation of disposal systems. Deep Injection Disposal will be useful for studying other problems worldwide involving the economic use of space beneath the earth's surface. The material in the book is presented with an eye toward other possible applications. Because liquid radioactive wastes are so toxic and the decisions made are so vital, information in this book will be of great interest to those involved in the disposal of nonradioactive waste

  15. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  16. Recent activity on disposal of uranium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Noboru

    1999-01-01

    The concept on the disposal of uranium waste has not been discussed in the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, but the research and development of it are carried out in the company and agency which are related to uranium waste. In this paper, the present condition and problems on disposal of uranium waste were shown in aspect of the nuclear fuel manufacturing companies' activity. As main contents, the past circumstances on the disposal of uranium waste, the past activity of nuclear fuel manufacturing companies, outline and properties of uranium waste were shown, and ideas of nuclear fuel manufacturing companies on the disposal of uranium waste were reported with disposal idea in the long-term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy. (author)

  17. Safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanaletchumy Karuppiah; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzuki Nik Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin

    2008-08-01

    Safety assessments are used to evaluate the performance of a radioactive waste disposal facility and its impact on human health and the environment. This paper presents the overall information and methodology to carry out the safety assessment for a long term performance of a disposal system. A case study was also conducted to gain hands-on experience in the development and justification of scenarios, the formulation and implementation of models and the analysis of results. AMBER code using compartmental modeling approach was used to represent the migration and fate of contaminants in this training. This safety assessment is purely illustrative and it serves as a starting point for each development stage of a disposal facility. This assessment ultimately becomes more detail and specific as the facility evolves. (Author)

  18. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references

  19. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronen, V.R.

    1998-06-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a primary mission of environmental cleanup and restoration. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is an integral part of the DOE environmental restoration effort at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to establish the ERDF waste acceptance criteria for disposal of materials resulting from Hanford Site cleanup activities. Definition of and compliance with the requirements of this document will enable implementation of appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment, ensure the integrity of the ERDF liner system, facilitate efficient use of the available space in the ERDF, and comply with applicable environmental regulations and DOE orders. To serve this purpose, the document defines responsibilities, identifies the waste acceptance process, and provides the primary acceptance criteria and regulatory citations to guide ERDF users. The information contained in this document is not intended to repeat or summarize the contents of all applicable regulations

  20. Low-level radioactive waste disposal at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1987-03-01

    Waste management in humid environments poses a continuing challenge because of the potential contamination of groundwater in the long term. Short-term needs for waste disposal, regulatory uncertainty, and unique site and waste characteristics have led to the development of a site-specific waste classification and management system proposed for the Oak Ridge Reservation. The overlying principle of protection of public health and safety is used to define waste classes compatible with generated waste types, disposal sites and technologies, and treatment technologies. 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Near-field performance assessment for a low-activity waste glass disposal system: laboratory testing to modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Bacon, D.H.; Icenhower, J.P.; Mann, F.M.; Puigh, R.J.; Schaef, H.T.; Mattigod, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Reactive chemical transport simulations of glass corrosion and radionuclide release from a low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system were conducted out to times in excess of 20 000 yr with the subsurface transport over reactive multiphases (STORM) code. Time and spatial dependence of glass corrosion rate, secondary phase formation, pH, and radionuclide concentration were evaluated. The results show low release rates overall for the LAW glasses such that performance objectives for the site will be met by a factor of 20 or more. Parameterization of the computer model was accomplished by combining direct laboratory measurements, literature data (principally thermodynamic data), and parameter estimation methods

  2. Review of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poch, L.A.; Wolsko, T.D.

    1979-10-01

    Regardless of future nuclear policy, a nuclear waste disposal problem does exist and must be dealt with. Even a moratorium on new nuclear plants leaves us with the wastes already in existence and wastes yet to be generated by reactors in operation. Thus, technologies to effectively dispose of our current waste problem must be researched and identified and, then, disposal facilities built. The magnitude of the waste disposal problem is a function of future nuclear policy. There are some waste disposal technologies that are suitable for both forms of HLW (spent fuel and reprocessing wastes), whereas others can be used with only reprocessed wastes. Therefore, the sooner a decision on the future of nuclear power is made the more accurately the magnitude of the waste problem will be known, thereby identifying those technologies that deserve more attention and funding. It is shown that there are risks associated with every disposal technology. One technology may afford a higher isolation potential at the expense of increased transportation risks in comparison to a second technology. Establishing the types of risks we are willing to live with must be resolved before any waste disposal technology can be instituted for widespread commercial use

  3. Software verification, model validation, and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations. A paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work reviewed the current concept of nuclear waste disposal in stable, terrestrial geologic media with a system of natural and man-made multi-barriers. Various aspects of this concept and supporting research were examined with the emphasis on the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Several of the crucial issues and challenges facing the current concept were discussed. These include: The difficulties inherent in a concept that centres around lithologic studies; the unsatisfactory state of software quality assurance in the present computer simulation programs; and the lack of a standardized, comprehensive, and systematic procedure to carry out a rigorous process of model validation and assessment of simulation studies. An outline of such an approach was presented and some of the principles, tools and techniques for software verification were introduced and described. A case study involving an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment computer program is presented. A new paradigm to nuclear waste disposal was advocated to address the challenges facing the existing concept. The RRC (Regional Recharge Concept) was introduced and its many advantages were described and shown through a modelling exercise. (orig./HP)

  4. Software verification, model validation and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations : a paradigm shift

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work (1) reviews the current concept ad~ internationally on the disposal of highlevel nuclear wastes; (2) discusses some of the major challenges facing this disposal technology; (3) presents an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment work as a case study; and (4) introduces a new paradigm within which to site an underground. disposal facility that offers many significant advantages over the existing concept.

    Chapter 1 explains the setup of the work and forms th...

  5. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k eff for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes

  6. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  7. Software verification, model validation and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations : a paradigm shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work (1) reviews the current concept ad~ internationally on the disposal of highlevel nuclear wastes; (2) discusses some of the major challenges facing this disposal technology; (3) presents an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment work as a case study; and (4) introduces a

  8. The politics of nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarricone, P.

    1994-01-01

    After 72 days of public hearings and testimony from more than 100 witnesses, the first commission of its kind in the US found that politics--not science and engineering--led to the selection of Martinsville, Ill. as the host site for a nuclear-waste-disposal facility. This article examines how the plan to dispose of nuclear waste in Martinsville ultimately unraveled

  9. Safety assessment for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Izabel, C.

    1989-11-01

    Whatever their type may be, radioactive waste disposals obey to the following principle: to isolate radioactive substances as long as their potential nocivity is significant. The isolation is obtained by confining barriers. The present paper recalls the role and the limits of the different barriers, for each type of disposal. It presents and comments site selection criteria and waste packages requirements [fr

  10. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.

    1987-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  11. Evaluation of waste disposal by shale fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.

    1976-02-01

    The shale fracturing process is evaluated as a means for permanent disposal of radioactive intermediate level liquid waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The estimated capital operating and development costs of a proposed disposal facility are compared with equivalent estimated costs for alternative methods of waste fixation

  12. Disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the deep sea ocean disposal for high-activity nuclear wastes. The following topics are covered: effect of ionizing radiation on marine ecosystems; pathways by which radionuclides are transferred to man from the marine environment; information about releases of radioactivity to the sea; radiological protection; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes and information needs. (U.K.)

  13. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  14. Derivation of activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    Radioactive waste must be managed safely, consistent with internationally agreed safety standards. The disposal method chosen for the waste should be commensurate with the hazard and longevity of the waste. Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides and low concentrations of long lived radionuclides. The term 'near surface disposal' encompasses a wide range of design options, including disposal in engineered structures at or just below ground level, disposal in simple earthen trenches a few metres deep, disposal in engineered concrete vaults, and disposal in rock caverns several tens of metres below the surface. The use of a near surface disposal option requires design and operational measures to provide for the protection of human health and the environment, both during operation of the disposal facility and following its closure. To ensure the safety of both workers and the public (both in the short term and the long term), the operator is required to design a comprehensive waste management system for the safe operation and closure of a near surface disposal facility. Part of such a system is to establish criteria for accepting waste for disposal at the facility. The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures and in addition, to prevent or limit hazards, which could arise from non-radiological causes. Waste acceptance criteria include limits on radionuclide content concentration in waste materials, and radionuclide amounts in packages and in the repository as a whole. They also include limits on quantity of free liquids, requirements for exclusion of chelating agents and pyrophoric materials, and specifications of the characteristics of the waste containers. Largely as a result of problems encountered at some disposal facilities operated in the past, in 1985 the IAEA published guidance on generic acceptance

  15. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  16. Packages for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. de.

    1983-01-01

    The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The packages of preliminary design was analysed, by computer, under several conditions arising out of its nature, as well as their conditions descent, dumping and durability in the deep of sea. The designed pressure equalization mechanic and the effect compacting on the package, by prototypes and specific tests, were studied. These prototypes were also submitted to the transport tests of the 'Regulament for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'. Based on results of the testes and the re-evaluation of the preliminary design, final indications and specifications for excuting the package design, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site using GoldSim Integrated Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, G.; Singh, A.; Tauxe, J.; Perona, R.; Dornsife, W.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has approved licenses for four landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site located in Andrews County, West Texas. The site includes a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. An updated performance assessment is necessary prior to acceptance of waste at the landfills. The updated performance assessment a) provides for more realistic and flexible dose modeling capabilities, b) addresses all plausible release and accident scenarios as they relate to the performance objectives, c) includes impact of climate and hydrologic scenarios that may impact long-term performance of the landfill, d) addresses impact of cover naturalization and degradation on the landfill, and e) incorporates uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for critical parameters. For the updated performance assessment, WCS has developed an integrated systems level performance assessment model using the GoldSim platform. GoldSim serves as a model for integrating all of the major components of a performance assessment, which include the radionuclide source term, facility design, environmental transport pathways, exposure scenarios, and radiological doses. Unlike many computer models that are based on first principles, GoldSim is a systems level model that can be used to integrate and abstract more complex sub-models into one system. This can then be used to assess the results into a unified model of the disposal system and environment. In this particular application, the GoldSim model consists of a) hydrogeologic model that simulates flow and transport through the Dockum geologic unit that underlies all of the waste facilities, b) waste cells that represent the containment unit and simulate degradation of waste forms, radionuclide leaching, and partitioning into the liquid and vapor phase within the waste unit, c) a cover system model that simulates upward diffusive transport from the underground repository to the atmosphere. In

  18. The role of cement to be expected in radioactive waste disposal system. 2. From the standpoint of materials design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya; Ohe, Toshiaki

    2000-01-01

    Cement materials are used at various fields because of their mechanical properties, and then a large construction without using the cement materials is impossible to suppose. For disposal of radioactive wastes, it is expected to use the cement materials for a main constitution material of artificial barrier materials such as construction materials for a disposal facility, wastes container, solidification materials for wastes, and so forth, and in fact, they are used for cement solidified matters, concrete pit as a landfill apparatus, and so forth at the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Storage Center situated in Rokkasho-mura, Aomori prefecture. For their disposal, as cement materials are expected for their property on transfer control of radioactive nuclides such as water stoppage, pH buffering of circumferential groundwater, and transfer retarding, except their mechanical properties, it must be quantitatively investigated how they change with time and if their change forms any problem on safety, because a time to consider their soundness on mechanics or nuclide conservation becomes long term such as for more than hundreds years. Under consideration on disposal and technical trends of radioactive wastes in- and out of-Japan described in previous report, after showing on direction of investigation required to make the cement materials function as an artificial material in disposal of radioactive wastes and on technical trends to it, here was summarized on positioning of studies on cement in the disposal business. (G.K.)

  19. Swiss guideline: Protection objectives for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurkinden, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Swiss guideline R-21 establishing the protection objectives for the disposal of radioactive waste has been reviewed and amended in order to adapt it to improvements made in the field of radioactive waste disposal. In an introductory part, the new guideline states the overall objective of radioactive waste disposal and the associated principles which have to be observed. The guideline then establishes the safety requirements applied to a geological disposal facility. These safety requirements are formulated as protection goals for the whole disposal system and not as specific criteria applying to the system components. The guideline gives finally a series of explanatory comments and indications concerning the conduct of the safety assessment for a disposal facility

  20. Landfill disposal of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivities of very low level wastes are very low. VLLW can be disposed by simple and economic burial process. This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide. The disposal of VLLW in China is also briefly discussed and suggested here. (author)

  1. General criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.; Musgrave, B.C.; Watkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are being developed for conversion of radioactive wastes to solids and their placement into repositories. Criteria for such disposal are needed to assure protection of the biosphere. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle should be applicable at all times during the disposal period. Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three classes, depending on the activity. Three approaches were developed for judging the adequacy of disposal concepts: acceptable risk, ore body comparison, and three-stage ore body comparison

  2. Improvement on control of waste disposal system at Genkai Nuclear Power Station No.1 and No.2 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Akria

    1989-01-01

    At Genkai Nuclear Power Station, the operational and control systems of the boric acid evaporator, waste liquid evaporator and gaseous waste disposal system were converted from general purpose analong systems to computer instrumentation and control systems in order to improve their operability and controllability. The equipments were operated by batch processing system, so plant operators were required to operate them manually. By introducing the computer instrumentation and control systems, the automatic operation of the equipments has become possible. Furthermore, it has become possible to monitor the relevant parameters intensively with a CRT in the operating room, and it contributes to the improvement of reliability and labor saving. The operation of No.1 plant was begun in October, 1975, and No.2 plant in March, 1981. Both are the PWR plants of 625 MVA capacity. The outline of the power station facilities, the background of the reconstruction, the problems and the plan of reconstruction for the boric acid recovery facility, waste liquid evaporator and gas compressor, the peculiarity of the reconstruction works, and the effect of introducing the new systems are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. The chemistry of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiles, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    About one-fifth of the world's supply of energy is derived from nuclear fission. While this important source of power avoids the environmental and resource problems of most other fuels, and although nuclear accident statistics are much less alarming, no other peacetime technology has evoked such public disquiet and impassioned feeling. Central to dealing with these fears is the management and disposal of radioactive waste. An expert Canadian panel in 1977 recommended permanent disposal of wastes in deep geological formations, providing a basis for subsequent policies and research. In 1988, the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO) appointed a panel to assess the proposed disposal concepts and to recommend government policy. The panel in turn appointed a Scientific Review Group to examine the underlying science. Behind all these issues lay one central question: How well is the chemistry understood? This became the principal concern of Professor Donald Wiles, the senior nuclear chemist of the Scientific Review Group. In this book, Dr. Wiles carefully describes the nature of radioactivity and of nuclear power and discusses in detail the management of radioactive waste by the multi-barrier system, but also takes an unusual approach to assessing the risks. Using knowledge of the chemical properties of the various radionuclides in spent fuel, this book follows each of the important radionuclides as it travels through the many barriers placed in its path. It turns out that only two radionuclides are able to reach the biosphere, and they arrive at the earth's surface only after many thousands of years. A careful analysis of the critical points of the disposal plan emphasizes site rejection criteria and other stages at which particular care must be taken, demonstrating how dangers can be anticipated and putting to rest the fear of nuclear fuel waste and its geological burial

  4. Submergible barge retrievable storage and permanent disposal system for radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Fred L.; Cawley, William E.

    1981-01-01

    A submergible barge and process for submerging and storing radioactive waste material along a seabed. A submergible barge receives individual packages of radwaste within segregated cells. The cells are formed integrally within the barge, preferably surrounded by reinforced concrete. The cells are individually sealed by a concrete decking and by concrete hatch covers. Seawater may be vented into the cells for cooling, through an integral vent arrangement. The vent ducts may be attached to pumps when the barge is bouyant. The ducts are also arranged to promote passive ventilation of the cells when the barge is submerged. Packages of the radwaste are loaded into individual cells within the barge. The cells are then sealed and the barge is towed to the designated disposal-storage site. There, the individual cells are flooded and the barge will begin descent controlled by a powered submarine control device to the seabed storage site. The submerged barge will rest on the seabed permanently or until recovered by a submarine control device.

  5. From fundamentals to waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, O.

    1991-01-01

    Today the particle accelerator is widely used in nearly every field of physics and is also essential to study structures in chemistry and biology or to perform sensitive trace element analysis. Its application range is being extended considerably by the capability to generate synchrotron radiation. Progress in nuclear and particle physics that originated from studies with accelerators is now playing a determining role in astrophysics and cosmology. Important industrial applications include ion implantation in the semiconductor industry and the modification of surface properties of materials. Microlithography using synchrotron radiation is used to produce high-density integrated electronic circuits. Radiation is being used in a variety of processes to preserve food, sterilise toxic waste or polymerise plastics. Activation methods using neutrons from compact accelerators can be applied in geophysics and are also being developed to detect explosives. It is probably in medicine that accelerators have found their widest field of application: isotope production for diagnostic/treatment purposes or for radiation therapy. Accelerators may also play a key role in power engineering. Studies of inertial confinement fusion by heavy ions are actively under way in several countries. Accelerators are essential for providing the additional heating needed for plasma ignition in a tokamak. Research is also being carried out on the use of accelerators to incinerate long-life nuclear waste which could perhaps lead to an acceptable long-term disposal solution. (author)

  6. Transport and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1999-01-01

    The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for

  7. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, A.T.

    1978-03-01

    Solutions to waste management problems are available. After radium is removed, tailings from uranium ores can be disposed of safely in well-designed retention areas. Work is being done on the processing of non-fuel reactor wastes through incineration, reverse osmosis, and evaporation. Spent fuels have been stored safely for years in pools; dry storage in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  8. Impacts of transportation on a test and evaluation facility for nuclear waste disposal: a systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, R.V.; Peterson, R.W.; Joy, D.S.; Gibson, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    An essential element of the Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF) is a waste packaging facility capable of producing a small number Test and Evaluation Facility of packages consisting of several different waste forms. The study envisions three scenarios for such a packaging facility: (1) modify an existing hot cell facility such as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (EMAD) facility at the Nevada Test Site so that it can serve as a packaging facility for the TEF. This scenario is referred to as the EMAD Option. (2) Build a new generic packaging facility (GPF) at the site of the TEF. In other words, colocate the GPF and the TEF. This scenario is referred to as the GPF Option, and (3) utilize the EMAD facility in conjunction with a colocated GPF (of minimal size and scope) at the TEF. This scenario is referred to as the Split Option. The results of the system study clearly bring out the fact that transportation has a significant impact on the selection and siting of the waste packaging facility. Preliminary conclusions, subject to the assumptions of the study, include the following: (1) regardless of the waste form, the GPF option is preferable to the other two in minimizing both transportation costs and logistical problems, (2) for any given scenario and choice of waste forms, there exists a candidate TEF location for which the transportation costs are at a minimum compared to the other locations, (3) in spite of the increased transportation costs and logistical complexity, the study shows that the overall system costs favor modification of an existing hot cell facility for the particular case considered

  9. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de

  10. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  11. Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to all types of radioactive waste disposal facility. It is linked to the fundamental safety principles for each disposal option and establishes a set of strategic requirements that must be in place before facilities are developed. Consideration is also given to the safety of existing facilities developed prior to the establishment of present day standards. The requirements will be complemented by Safety Guides that will provide guidance on good practice for meeting the requirements for different types of waste disposal facility. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Safety requirements for planning for the disposal of radioactive waste; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of a disposal facility; 5. Assurance of safety; 6. Existing disposal facilities; Appendices.

  12. On the necessity for evaluation of the limits of radioactive waste disposal into water systems of international importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedeonov, L.I.; Blinov, V.A.; Gustova, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Lazarev, L.N.; Vakulovskij, S.M.; Chumichev, V.B.; Rakov, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the IAEA criteria for determination of the concept of high-level radioactive waste, the disposal of which into the oceans is forbidden according to the London Convention of 1972. It is proposed that this concept be revised every five years, using the experience which may be acquired from the present practice of disposal in the Atlantic. Data on the assessment of global fallout quantities introduced into the Atlantic and on the dilution of contamination in its waters are given. The problem is discussed of the principles of international collaboration in accepting limiting rates of disposal into water systems of international importance. It is shown that in the Irish Sea and the North Sea sources of radioactive contamination have arisen which are dangerous for the Baltic. Co-operative research of the Baltic within the CEC framework is reported. A review and evaluation of radiation conditions and their trends in the Baltic Sea is given. The problem of mutual co-operation in limiting radioactive pollution of the Danube between countries in the Danube Catchment Area is discussed. A review and a forecast of trends of radiation conditions in the Danube area are given. (author)

  13. Nuclear waste disposal technology for Pacific Basin countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A. Jr.; Brothers, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Safe long-term disposal of nuclear wastes is technically feasible. Further technological development offers the promise of reduced costs through elimination of unnecessary conservatism and redundance in waste disposal systems. The principal deterrents to waste disposal are social and political. The issues of nuclear waste storage and disposal are being confronted by many nuclear power countries including some of the Pacific Basin nuclear countries. Both mined geologic and subseabed disposal schemes are being developed actively. The countries of the Pacific Basin, because of their geographic proximity, could benefit by jointly planning their waste disposal activities. A single repository, of a design currently being considered, could hold all the estimated reprocessing waste from all the Pacific Basin countries past the year 2010. As a start, multinational review of alterntive disposal schemes would be beneficial. This review should include the subseabed disposal of radwastes. A multinational review of radwaste packaging is also suggested. Packages destined for a common repository, even though they may come from several countries, should be standardized to maximize repository efficiency and minimize operator exposure. Since package designs may be developed before finalization of a repository scheme and design, the packages should not have characteristics that would preclude or adversely affect operation of desirable repository options. The sociopolitical problems of waste disposal are a major deterrent to a multinational approach to waste disposal. The elected representatives of a given political entity have generally been reluctant to accept the waste from another political entity. Initial studies would, nevertheless, be beneficial either to a common solution to the problem, or to aid in separate solutions

  14. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  15. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within one...

  19. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CRF Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  20. A preliminary study on the regional fracture systems for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kown; Park, Byoung Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is essential to characterize the fracture system in rock mass which has a potential pathways of nuclide. Currently, none of research results are in classification and detailed properties for the fracture system in Korea. This study aims to classify and describe the regional fracture system in lithological and geotectonical point of view using literature review, shaded relief map, and aeromagnetic survey data. This report contains the following: - Theoretical review of the fracture development mechanism. - Overall fault and fracture map. - Geological description on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zone) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical province. 122 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  1. Design basis for the safe disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Kaluzny, Y.

    1990-01-01

    All radioactive waste disposal sites, regardless of disposal concept, are designed to isolate the radioactive substances contained in such waste for a period at least equal to the time it may remain potentially harmful. Isolation is achieved through the use of containment barriers. This paper summarises the function and limits of different types of barrier used in various disposal systems. For each type of barrier, the paper describes and comments on the site selection criteria and waste packaging requirements applicable in various countries. 13 refs., 1 fig [fr

  2. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilization of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. These processes are considered separately in detail, reviewing first the mechanisms involved and the most important unknown then the types of natural analogue which could most usefully provide supporting evidence for the effects of the process. Conclusions are drawn, for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A summary is provided of the conclusions for each process, and the most important topics for further studies are listed. Specific examples of these requisite analogues are given. The report emphasises throughout the importance of linking analogues to well defined processes, concluding that analogues of complete disposal systems do not exist. The results are seen to be widely applicable. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Author)

  3. Aspects on the acceptance of waste for disposal in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torstenfelt, Boerje

    2006-01-01

    When licensing a final repository for radioactive waste certain assumptions have to be made concerning the waste. These assumptions cover radionuclide inventory and nonradiological materials and its physical and chemical impact on the waste, the repository and on the environment. Development of new waste treatment systems and waste packages at the waste producer site aim at finding solutions and products that can be stored, transported and disposed of safely and are economically sound. This paper discusses some aspects concerning development of new or modified waste products. It highlights the importance of analysing the whole sequence in treatment, handling and disposing the waste. The process should be to find an optimal solution for the whole system, considering the fact that what is best in one step it not necessary best for the whole system, including the post closure issues. (author)

  4. Evolution of repository and waste package designs for Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Rob P.; Voegele, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the evolution of the engineered barrier design for the proposed Yucca Mountain disposal system. Initially, the underground facility used a fairly standard panel and drift layout excavated mostly by drilling and blasting. By 1993, the layout of the underground facility was changed to accommodate construction by a tunnel boring machine. Placement of the repository in unsaturated zone permitted an extended period without backfilling; placement of the waste package in an open drift permitted use of much larger, and thus hotter packages. Hence in 1994, the underground facility design switched from floor emplacement of waste in small, single walled stainless steel or nickel alloy containers to in-drift emplacement of waste in large, double-walled containers. By 2000, the outer layer was a high nickel alloy for corrosion resistance and the inner layer was stainless steel for structural strength. Use of large packages facilitated receipt and disposal of high volumes of spent nuclear fuel. In addition, in-drift package placement saved excavation costs. Options considered for in-drift emplacement included different heat loads and use of backfill. To avoid dripping on the package during the thermal period and the possibility of localized corrosion, titanium drip shields were added for the disposal drifts by 2000. In addition, a handling canister, sealed at the reactor to eliminate further handling of bare fuel assemblies, was evaluated and eventually adopted in 2006. Finally, staged development of the underground layout was adopted to more readily adjust to changes in waste forms and Congressional funding. - Highlights: • Progression of events associated with repository design to accommodate tunnel boring machine and in-drift waste package emplacement are discussed. • Change in container design from small, single-layered stainless steel vessel to large, two-layered nickel alloy vessel is discussed. • The addition of drip shield to limit the

  5. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs

  6. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  7. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  8. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobera, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant remote-handled transuranic waste disposal strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste disposal strategy described in this report identifies the process for ensuring that cost-effective initial disposal of RH-TRU waste will begin in Fiscal Year 2002. The strategy also provides a long-term approach for ensuring the efficient and sustained disposal of RH-TRU waste during the operating life of WIPP. Because Oak Ridge National Laboratory stores about 85 percent of the current inventory, the strategy is to assess the effectiveness of modifying their facilities to package waste, rather than constructing new facilities. In addition, the strategy involves identification of ways to prepare waste at other sites to supplement waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. DOE will also evaluate alternative packagings, modes of transportation, and waste emplacement configurations, and will select preferred alternatives to ensure initial disposal as scheduled. The long-term strategy provides a systemwide planning approach that will allow sustained disposal of RH-TRU waste during the operating life of WIPP. The DOE's approach is to consider the three relevant systems -- the waste management system at the generator/storage sites, the transportation system, and the WIPP disposal system -- and to evaluate the system components individually and in aggregate against criteria for improving system performance. To ensure full implementation, in Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997 DOE will: (1) decide whether existing facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory or new facilities to package and certify waste are necessary; (2) select the optimal packaging and mode of transportation for initial disposal; and (3) select an optimal disposal configuration to ensure that the allowable limits of RH-TRU waste can be disposed. These decisions will be used to identify funding requirements for the three relevant systems and schedules for implementation to ensure that the goal of initial disposal is met

  10. Program for responsible and safe disposal of spent fuel elements and radioactive wastes (National disposal program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The contribution covers the following topics: fundamentals of the disposal policy; amount of radioactive wastes and prognosis; disposal of radioactive wastes - spent fuel elements and wastes from waste processing, radioactive wastes with low heat production; legal framework of the nuclear waste disposal in Germany; public participation, cost and financing.

  11. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies. (UK)

  12. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L E.J. [UKAEA, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1979-04-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies.

  13. Estimating waste disposal quantities from raw waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Urland, C.S.; Hitz, C.G.; GPU Nuclear Corp., Middletown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Estimating the disposal quantity of waste resulting from stabilization of radioactive sludge is complex because of the many factors relating to sample analysis results, radioactive decay, allowable disposal concentrations, and options for disposal containers. To facilitate this estimation, a microcomputer spread sheet template was created. The spread sheet has saved considerable engineering hours. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Normal and Abnormal Scenario Modeling with GoldSim for Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) template program, by which an assessment of safety and performance for the radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases could be assessed has been carried out by utilizing a commercial development tool program, GoldSim. Scenarios associated with the various FEPs and involved in the performance of the proposed repository in view of nuclide transport and transfer both in the geosphere and biosphere has been also carried out. Selected normal and abnormal scenarios that could alter groundwater flow scheme and then nuclide transport are modeled with the template program. To this end in-depth system models for the normal and abnormal well and earthquake scenarios that are conceptually and rather practically described and then ready for implementing into a GoldSim TSPA template program are introduced with conceptual schemes for each repository system. Illustrative evaluations with data currently available are also shown

  15. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., laboratory culture of micro-organisms and plant pathogens, and introduced avian products must be removed from... dispose of waste by open burning prior to March 1, 1994, allowance shall be made for the wind direction...

  16. Geotechnical engineering of ocean waste disposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demars, K. R; Chaney, Ronald C; Demars, Kenneth R

    1990-01-01

    Contents: 15 peer-reviewed papers on geotechnical test methods and procedures used for site evaluation, design, construction, and monitoring of both contaminated areas and waste disposal facilities in the marine environment...

  17. Electromagnetic problems in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock during various phases of radioactive waste disposal investigations and construction, and also discusses the methods of the electromagnetic safeguards monitoring

  18. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilisation of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. Existing studies are assessed and possibilities considered for additional analogues. Conclusions are drawn for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Auth.)

  19. Waste Disposal: Long-term Performance Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marivoet, J

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on long-term performance studies are: (1) to develop a methodology and associated tools for assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal of all types of radioactive waste in clay formations and of the shallow-land burial of low-level waste; (2) to assess the performance and to identify the most influential elements of integrated repository systems for the disposal of radioactive waste; (3) to collect geological, piezometric and hydraulic data required for studying the hydrogeological system in north-eastern Belgium; (4) to develop a regional aquifer model for north-easter Belgium and to apply it in the performance assessments for the Mol site; (5) to test, verify and improve computer codes used in the performance assessment calculations of waste disposal concepts and contaminated sites (the computer codes simulate water flow and transport of radionuclides in engineered barriers, aquifers and contaminated sites). The scientific programme and achievements in 1999 are described.

  20. Technical Assessment Of Selection Of A Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hun

    1992-04-01

    This book gives overall descriptions of technical assessment of selection of a waste disposal site, which deals with standard of selection on incinerator of city waste, the method over assessment of selection of incinerator in city waste, prerequisite of technical assessment for selection of incinerator, waste incinerator and related equipment such as form, structure, quality of material, ventilation device, plumbing system and electrical installation, and total plan like plan of construction and a measure taken against environmental pollution.

  1. Hanford's Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, is located in the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds and is designated as Trench 31 in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground. Trench 31 is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill and will receive wastes generated from both remediation and waste management activities. On December 30, 1994, Westinghouse Hanford Company declared readiness to operate Trench 31, which is the Hanford Site's (and the Department of Energy complex's) first facility for disposal of low-level radioactive mixed wastes

  2. Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; England, J.L.; Kirdendall, J.R.; Raney, E.A.; Stewart, W.E.; Dagan, E.B.; Holt, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under development as well as undergoing standardized testing protocols to prequalify treated waste materials. Polymer and hydraulic cement solidification agents are currently used for geotechnical demonstration activities

  3. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 5: disposal of waste milk to sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.; Woodman, R.; Nisbet, A.; Mansfield, P.

    2001-11-01

    In emergency exercises, discharge to sea is often put forward as a disposal option for waste milk, the intention being to use the outfalls for coolant water or liquid effluent at nuclear installations. However, so far the legislative constraints and the practical and scientific limitations of this option have not been fully considered. This report sets out the current legal position and evaluates the practicability of transporting milk from an affected farm to a suitable coastal facility for disposal. The effect of discharging milk into coastal water bodies has also been considered, bearing in mind that after a serious accident disposals could continue for several weeks

  4. Radioactive waste products - suitability for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.; Odoj, R.; Warnecke, E.

    1985-06-01

    48 papers were read at the conference. Separate records are available for all of them. The main problem in radioactive waste disposal was the long-term sealing to prevent pollution of the biosphere. Problems of conditioning, acceptance, and safety measures were discussed. Final disposal models and repositories were presented. (PW) [de

  5. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T H [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  6. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  7. Disposal of radioactive waste in the Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An operation to dispose of low-level radioactive waste in the North Atlantic deeps is undertaken each year. This leaflet seeks to answer questions which are sometimes asked about the operation. It deals with origin, composition, quantity, reason for sea- rather than land-disposal, packaging, transport (rail, road), route of transport, safety precautions, radiation protection, personnel, contamination, site of dump, international regulations, neutral observers, safety standards of containers and control of level of radioactivity of wastes. (U.K.)

  8. Radioactive waste disposal: an international law perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1989-01-01

    The question of radioactive waste disposal is the most intractable technical and political problem facing nuclear industry. Environmentalists world-wide demand a nuclear waste policy that must be ecologically acceptable internationally. Radioactive wastes and oil pollution were the first two types of marine pollution to receive international attention and various marine pollution controls were established. Ocean disposal was co-ordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency and the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development in 1967. The first treaty was the 1958 Convention on the High Seas (High Seas Convention). In response to its call for national co-operation the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established its Brynielson panel. The IAEA first issued guidelines on sea dumping in 1961. The London Dumping Convention, written in 1972, is the only global agreement concerned solely with the disposal of wastes in the marine environment by dumping. None of the global agreements make specific reference to sea-bed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Negotiations began at the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) for the codification of a comprehensive treaty concerned with the protection, conservation, sustainable use and development of the marine environment. Burial in deep geological formations is a method of HLW disposal which decreases the chances of accidental intrusion by mankind and has little likelihood of malicious intrusion. National waste management programmes of different countries differ but there is agreement on the acceptable technical solutions to issues of waste management. The final disposition of HLW - storage or disposal - has not been decisively determined, but there is growing consensus that geological land-based disposal is the most viable alternative. Expanded international technical co-operation could well reduce the time needed to develop effective waste disposal mechanisms

  9. Geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication is concerned with providing protection to people and the environment from the hazards associated with waste management activities related to disposal, i.e. hazards that could arise during the operating period and following closure. It sets out the protection objectives and criteria for geological disposal and establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of this disposal option, consistent with the established principles of safety for radioactive waste management. It is intended for use by those involved in radioactive waste management and in making decisions in relation to the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities, especially those concerned with the related regulatory aspects. This publication contains 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. The safety requirements for geological disposal; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities; Appendix: Assurance of compliance with the safety objective and criteria; Annex I: Geological disposal and the principles of radioactive waste management; Annex II: Principles of radioactive waste management

  10. Modeling for Colloid and Chelator Facilitated Nuclide Transport in Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program template, by which assessment of safety and performance for a radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases can be made has been developed. Colloid and chelator facilitated transport that is believed to result for faster nuclide transport in various mediabothinthegeosphereandbiospherehas been evaluated deterministically and probabilistically to demonstrate the capability of the template developed through this study. To this end colloid and chelator facilitated nuclide transport has been modeled rather strainghtforwardly with assumed data through this study by utilizing some powerful function offered by GoldSim. An evaluation in view of apparent influence of colloid and chelator on the nuclide transport in the various media in and around a repository system with data assumed are illustrated

  11. Double-layered buffer to enhance the thermal performance in a high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Choi, Jongwon

    2008-01-01

    A thermal performance is one of the most important factors in the design of a geological disposal system for high-level radioactive wastes. According to the conceptual design of the Korean Reference disposal System, the maximum temperature of its buffer with a domestic Ca-bentonite is close to the thermal criterion, 100 deg. C. In order to improve the thermal conductivity of its buffer, several kinds of additives are compared. Among the additives, graphite shows the best result in that the thermal conductivity of the bentonite block is more than 2.0 W/m deg. C. We introduced the concept of a double-layered buffer instead of a traditional bentonite block in order to use the applied additive more effectively. The thermal analysis, based upon the three-dimensional finite element method, shows that a double-layered buffer could reduce the maximum temperature on a canister's surface by 7 deg. C under identical conditions when compared with a single-layered buffer. An analytical solution was derived to efficiently analyze the effects of a double-layered buffer. The illustrative cases show that the temperature differences due to a double-layered buffer depend on the thickness of the buffer

  12. Geologic factors in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1978-07-01

    The study of geosciences and their relation to nuclear waste disposal and management entails analyzing the hydrology, chemistry, and geometry of the nuclear waste migration process. Hydrologic effects are determined by analyzing the porosity and permeability (natural and induced) of rock as well as pressures and gradients, dispersion, and aquifer length of the system. Chemistry parameters include radionuclide retardation factors and waste dissolution rate. Geometric parameters (i.e., parameters with dimension) evaluated include repository layer thickness, fracture zone area, tunnel length, and aquifer length. The above parameters act as natural barriers or controls to nuclear waste migration, and are evaluated in three potential geologic media: salt, shale, and crystalline rock deposits. Parametric values are assigned that correspond to many existing situations. These values, in addition to other important inputs, are lumped as a hydrology input into a computer simulation program used to model and calculate nuclear waste migration from the repository to the biosphere, and potential individual and population dose and radiation effects. These results are preliminary and show trends only; they do not represent an actual risk analysis

  13. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.4 Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984. (a) No person may operate...

  14. The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996

  15. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  16. Bibliography on ocean waste disposal. second edition. Final report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, H.G.; Kaplanek, D.W.

    1976-09-01

    This research bibliography is restricted to documents relevant to the field of ocean waste disposal. It is primarily limited to recent publications in the categories of: ocean waste disposal; criteria; coastal zone management; monitoring; pollution control; dredge spoil; dredge spoin disposal; industrial waste disposal; radioactive waste; oil spills; bioassay; fisheries resources; ocean incineration; water chemistry; and, Water pollution

  17. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  18. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program

  19. The disposal of radioactive solvent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, B.; Baker, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    As the use of radioisotope techniques increases, laboratories are faced with the problem of disposing of considerable quantities of organic solvent and aqueous liquid wastes. Incineration or collection by a waste contractor both raise problems. Since most of the radiochemicals are preferentially water soluble, an apparatus for washing the radiochemicals out into water and discharging into the normal drainage system in a high diluted form is described. Despite the disadvantages (low efficiency, high water usuage, loss of solvent in presence of surface active agents, precipitation of phosphors from dioxan based liquids) it is felt that the method has some merit if a suitably improved apparatus can be designed at reasonable cost. (U.K.)

  20. Status of defense radioactive waste disposal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs, U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. As a byproduct to their activities, nuclear production facilities have generated, and will continue to generate, certain radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed and disposed of in a safe and cost-effective manner. Compliance with all applicable Federal and State regulations is required. This paper describes the principal elements that comprise Defense Programs' approach to waste management and disposal. The status of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste disposal is set forth. Defense Programs' activities in connection with the environmental restoration of inactive facilities and with the safe transport of waste materials are summarized. Finally, the principal challenges to realizing the goals set for the defense waste program are discussed in terms of regulatory, public acceptance, technical, and budget issues

  1. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  2. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  3. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  4. Packaging radioactive wastes for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    The M ampersand O contractor for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing designs of waste packages that will contain the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from commercial and Navy reactor plants and various civilian and government research reactor plants, as well as high-level wastes vitrified in glass. The safe and cost effective disposal of the large and growing stockpile of nuclear waste is of national concern and has generated political and technical debate. This paper addresses the technical aspects of disposing of these wastes in large and robust waste packages. The paper discusses the evolution of waste package design and describes the current concepts. In addition, the engineering and regulatory issues that have governed the development are summarized and the expected performance in meeting the requirements are discussed

  5. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  7. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  8. Legislative and political aspects of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the Senate bill on waste disposal the definition for high-level waste was based on the source of the waste. High-level waste was defined as the liquids and solids resulting from reprocessing. The other terms defined in that bill that are crucial for any legislation dealing with high-level waste are storage and disposal. In the Senate bill, the definition of storage specifically mentioned transuranic (TRU) waste, but it did not include TRU waste in the definition of disposal. In the four House versions of the nuclear waste bill, the definition of high-level waste are addressed more carefully. This paper discusses the following four House committee's versions particularly pointing out how TRU waste is defined and handled: (1) Science Committee bill; (2) Interior Committee bill; (3) Commerce Committee bill; and (4) Armed Service Committee bill. The final language concerning TRU waste will depend on the next series of conference between these Committees. After resolving any differences, conferences will be held between the House and Senate. Here a concensus bill will be developed and it will go to the Rules Committee and then to the floor

  9. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  10. Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small (∼1 m 3 ) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ''secondary.'' The induced current in the ''secondary'' heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., ∼1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature

  11. Conditioning of Radioactive Wastes Prior to disposal; Segregation and Repackaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, Ki Hong; Hong, Dae Seok; Lee, Bum Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We stored several types of radioactive wastes at interim storage facility of KAERI ; the combustible wastes (cloths, decontamination paper and vinyls) from Hanaro multipurpose research reactor, nuclear fuel cycle facility, RI production facility and laboratories, and the non-combustible wastes (metals and glass) dismantled and discarded from the apparatus of laboratories which deteriorated, and also the miscellaneous wastes (spent air-filters). After a segregation of these wastes as the same type, they were treated by using a proper method in order to meet both the national regulation and the waste acceptance criteria of Kyung-ju disposal site. For a safe disposal of waste drums, the waste characterization system including a scaling factor which is hard to measure special radionuclides is established completely. All data of those repackaged drums were input into an ANSIM system so that we could manage them clearly and effectively such like an easy transparent traceability. Through a decontamination of empty drums generated in a repackaging process of the stored drums, these drums can be reused or compressed to reduce their volume reduction for disposal. As a result, the space to store radioactive waste drums are secured more than before, and also the interim storage facility are maintained in a good state. The combustible wastes, which stored at the interim storage facility of KAERI, are managed safely in compliance with the specifications of the national regulations and disposal site. Through the classification and repackage of them, the storage space of drums at RWTF was secured more than before, and the storage facility was kept in a good state, and also the disposal cost of all stored waste drums of KAERI will be reduced due to the reduction of waste volume. Base on the experiences, the non-combustible wastes will be treated soon.

  12. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  13. Solid waste disposal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a small and densely populated country, the disposal of solid waste requires strict precautions. Because the landscape is flat and the watertable just under groundlevel, landfilling and dumping must be avoided as much as possible. Incineration of municipal and industrial waste are

  14. Treatment and disposal of toxic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Train, D

    1983-03-01

    An unparallelled expansion of material benefits to life and commerce in the '50s and '60s caused wastes to increase in variety and complexity. Amongst these some materials were particularly hazardous, being flammable, corrosive, reactive or toxic. This article presents simple guidelines for use in complex waste disposal situations.

  15. Geomechanics of clays for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1989-01-01

    Clay formations have been studied for many years in the European Community as potential disposal media for radioactive waste. This document brings together results of on-going research about the geomechanical behaviour of natural clay bodies, at normal and elevated temperatures. The work is carried out within the third Community R and D programme on Management and storage of radioactive waste

  16. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  17. Safety in depth for nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, T [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences

    1980-11-27

    A nuclear waste disposal strategy is described in which the radionuclides are immobilised in widely-dispersed drill holes in an extremely stable and leach resistant titanate ceramic form (SYNROC) at depths of 1500 to 4000 metres. The advantages of this method over that of burying such wastes in large centralised mined repositories at 500 to 700 metres in suitable geological strata are examined.

  18. TECHNICAL NOTE LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL IN URBAN LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the ideal case the liquid waste can safely be disposed of in a properly designed and integrated network of pipes, which collect and transmit the liquid waste into a treatment plant. However, such a system is costly and needs a substantial amount of initial investment to start operating and subsequently to maintain.

  19. A disposal centre for immobilized nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This report describes a conceptual design of a disposal centre for immobilized nuclear waste. The surface facilities consist of plants for the preparation of steel cylinders containing nuclear waste immobilized in glass, shaft headframe buildings and all necessary support facilities. The underground disposal vault is located on one level at a depth of 1000 m. The waste cylinders are emplaced into boreholes in the tunnel floors. All surface and subsurface facilities are described, operations and schedules are summarized, and cost estimates and manpower requirements are given. (auth)

  20. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  1. Shallow land disposal, the french system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.; Marque, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1969, low and medium activity waste are disposed of in France at the Centre Manche. The management system set up covers the whole of the operations, from the sorting of the wastes and their conditioning to the final disposal. Safety standards and technical issues were found satisfactory by the National Safety Authority and they are the basis of the program for the realization of two new disposal sites which should take over from the Centre Manche loaded towards 1990. ANDRA, a National Agency, is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste, in France [fr

  2. Hazardous waste disposal sites: Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Arkansas, like virtually every other state, is faced with a deluge of hazardous waste. There is a critical need for increased hazardous waste disposal capacity to insure continued industrial development. Additionally, perpetual maintenance of closed hazardous waste disposal sites is essential for the protection of the environment and human health. Brief descriptions of legislative and regulatory action in six other states are provided in this report. A report prepared for the New York State Environmental Facilities Corp. outlines three broad approaches states may take in dealing with their hazardous waste disposal problems. These are described. State assistance in siting and post-closure maintenance, with private ownership of site and facility, appears to be the most advantageous option

  3. Disposal of toxic waste to Kualiti Alam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilfred Paulus; Nik Marzukee; Syed Abd Malik

    2005-01-01

    The mandate to manage radioactive waste in this country was given to the Radioactive Waste Management Centre, MINT as the only agency allowed to handle the waste. However, wastes which are produced at MINT also include the non-radioactive toxic waste. The service to dispose off this non-radioactive toxic waste has been given to Kualiti Alam, the only company licensed to carry out such activity. Up to now, MINT's Radioactive Waste Management Centre has delivered 3 consignments of such waste to the company. This paper will detail out several aspects of managing the waste from the aspects of contract, delivering procedure, legislation, cost and austerity steps which should be taken by MINT's staff. (Author)

  4. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluzny, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The public has demonstrated interest and even concern for radioactive waste. A fully demonstrated industrial solution already exists for 90% of the waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several solutions are currently under development for long-term management of long-lived waste. They could be implemented on an industrial scale within twenty years. The low volumes of this type of waste mean there is plenty of time to adopt a solution. (author). 5 photos

  5. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  6. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  7. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  8. Alternatives for definse waste-salt disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McDonell, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Alternatives for disposal of decontaminated high-level waste salt at Savannah River were reviewed to estimate costs and potential environmental impact for several processes. In this review, the reference process utilizing intermediate-depth burial of salt-concrete (saltcrete) monoliths was compared with alternatives including land application of the decontaminated salt as fertilizer for SRP pine stands, ocean disposal with and without containment, and terminal storage as saltcake in existing SRP waste tanks. Discounted total costs for the reference process and its modifications were in the same range as those for most of the alternative processes; uncontained ocean disposal with truck transport to Savannah River barges and storage as saltcake in SRP tanks had lower costs, but presented other difficulties. Environmental impacts could generally be maintained within acceptable limits for all processes except retention of saltcake in waste tanks, which could result in chemical contamination of surrounding areas on tank collapse. Land application would require additional salt decontamination to meet radioactive waste disposal standards, and ocean disposal without containment is not permitted in existing US practice. The reference process was judged to be the only salt disposal option studied which would meet all current requirements at an acceptable cost

  9. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  10. Microbes in deep geological systems and their possible influence on radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J M; McKinley, I G; Chapman, N A [Institute of Geological Sciences, Harwell (UK). Environmental Protection Unit

    1982-09-01

    Although the fact is often overlooked, proposed nuclear waste repositories in geological formations would exist in an environment quite capable of sustaining microbial life which could considerably affect containment of radionuclides. In this paper a brief review of biological tolerance of extreme environments is presented with particular reference to studies of the microbiology of deep geological formations. The possible influence of such organisms on the integrity of a waste repository and subsequent transport of radionuclides to the surface is discussed.

  11. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1998-01-07

    This memorandum provides a summary of PHMC [Project Hanford Management Contract] team work scope for the Phase 1 TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission, a declaration of readiness-to-proceed, a summary of the PHMC team readiness evaluation process, summary results of a structured independent appraisal and financial analysis including information associated with assumptions, risks, and recommendations and, a summary of program plans for the PHMC team`s component of the Phase 1 Mission.

  12. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    This memorandum provides a summary of PHMC [Project Hanford Management Contract] team work scope for the Phase 1 TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission, a declaration of readiness-to-proceed, a summary of the PHMC team readiness evaluation process, summary results of a structured independent appraisal and financial analysis including information associated with assumptions, risks, and recommendations and, a summary of program plans for the PHMC team's component of the Phase 1 Mission

  13. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.N.

    1998-01-01

    This memorandum provides a summary of PHMC (Project Hanford Management Contract) team work scope for the Phase 1 TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission, a declaration of readiness-to proceed, a summary of the PHMC readiness evaluation process, summary results of a structured independent appraisal and financial analysis including information associated with assumptions, risks, and recommendations and, a summary of program plans for the PHMC team's component of the Phase 1 Mission

  14. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 x 10 5 m 3 of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 x 10 18 Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 137 Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 x 10 4 m 3 of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 x 10 18 Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes

  15. Study on quality assurance for high-level radioactive waste disposal project (2). Quality assurance system for the site characterization phase in the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Susumu

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assist related organizations in the development of quality assurance systems for a high-level radioactive waste disposal system. This report presents detail information with which related organizations can begin the development of quality assurance systems at an initial phase of repository development for a high-level radioactive waste disposal program, including data qualification, model validation, systems and facilities for quality assurance (e.g., technical data management system, sample management facility, etc.), and QA program applicability (items and activities). These descriptions are based on information in QA program for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD), DOE/RW-0333P, quality implementing procedures, and reports implemented by the procedures. Additionally, this report includes some brief recommendations for developing of quality assurance systems, such as establishment of quality assurance requirements, measures for establishment of QA system. (author)

  16. Disposal of high level radioactive wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L.A.M.; Carvalho Bastos, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of high-activity radioactive wastes is the most serious problem for the nuclear industry. Among the solutions, the disposal of wastes in approriated geological formations is the most realistic and feasible. In this work the methods used for geological disposal, as well as, the criteria, programs and analysis for selecting a bite for waste disposal are presented [pt

  17. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  18. Treatment and disposal techniques of dangerous municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the qualitative and quantitative features of the different types of dangerous municipal solid wastes, according to Italian law. In the second part the impact on environment and man health is presented. This impact should be minimized by suitable controlled disposal techniques, which differ from other municipal waste treatments. Finally, the paper deals with the most appropriate systems for treatment and disposal of such kind of waste. Particularly, some research activities in the field of metal recovery from used batteries, sponsored by ENEA, and carrying out by private companies, are described. (author)

  19. Mechanisms and interaction phenomena influencing releases in a low- and medium-level waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.; Nilsson, K.

    1991-01-01

    The report covers work done 1986-1990 at Riso National Laboratory as part of the third EC Research Programme on Radioactive Waste Management. The report is divided into three parts: 1) Waste product characterization: - leaching and volume stability of cemented ion-exchange resins. - Hydroscopic properties of cemented and bituminized radioactive waste. - Water uptake and swelling of bituminized waste, water migration in bitumen membranes and measurements of swelling pressures. - Ageing of bituminized products. 2) Barrier material properties: - The influence of the pore structure in concrete on the hydraulic transport of water and ions through concrete barriers was investigated - Healing of cracks in concrete barriers by precipitation of calcium carbonate was demonstrated experimentally - Transport of components between two thin plates of cement paste with different composition stored together in water - The structure of degraded cement paste was studied using SANS (small angle neutron scattering). 3) Interaction phenomena: - Integral experiments with migration of radioisotopes from cemented waste through barriers made from kaolin, chalk or concrete were made under different external conditions. 51 figs., 15 tabs., 25 refs

  20. The handling and disposal of fusion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Hultgren, Aa.; Olsson, G.

    1985-02-01

    The radioactive wastes from fusion reactor operation will include spent components, wastes from repair operations, and decontamination waste. Various disposal routes may be considered depending on i.a. the contents of tritium and of long-lived nuclides, and on national regulations. The management philosophy and disposal technology developed in Sweden for light water reactor wastes has been studied at STUDSVIK during 1983--84 and found to be applicable also to fusion wastes, provided a detritiation stage is included. These studies will continue during 1985 and include experimental work on selected fusion activation nuclides. The work presented is associated to the CEC fusion research programme. Valuable discussions and contacts with people working in this programme at Saclay, Ispra and Garching are deeply appreciated. (author)

  1. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993

  2. Nuclear waste disposal: two social criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochlin, G.I.

    1977-01-01

    Two criteria--technical irreversibility and site multiplicity--have been suggested for use in establishing standards for the disposal of nuclear wastes. They have been constructed specifically to address the reduction of future risk in the face of inherent uncertainty concerning the social and political developments that might occur over the required periods of waste isolation, to provide for safe disposal without the requirement of a guaranteed future ability to recognize, detect, or repair errors and failures. Decisions as to how to apply or weigh these criteria in conjunction with other waste management goals must be made by societies and their governments. The purpose of this paper was not to preempt this process, but to construct a framework that facilitates consideration of the ethical and normative components of the problem of nuclear waste disposal. The minimum ethical obligation of a waste disposal plan is to examine most thoroughly the potential consequences of present actions, to acknowledge them openly, and to minimize the potential for irremediable harm. An ethically sound waste management policy must reflect not only our knowledge and skills, but our limitations as well

  3. The trends of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomi, Mitsuhiko

    1977-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes instead of their treatment has come to be important problem. The future development of nuclear fuel can not be expected unless the final disposal of nuclear fuel cycle is determined. Research and development have been made on the basis of the development project on the treatment of radioactive wastes published by Japan Atomic Energy Commission in 1976. The high level wastes produced by the reprocessing installations for used nuclear fuel are accompanied by strong radioactivity and heat generation. The most promising method for their disposal is to keep them in holes dug at the sea bottom after they are solidified. Middle or low level wastes are divided into two groups; one contains transuranium elements and the other does not. These wastes are preserved on the ground or in shallow strata, while the safe abandonment into the ground or the sea has been discussed about the latter. The co-operations among nations are necessary not only for peaceful utilization of atomic energy but also for radioactive waste disposal. (Kobatake, H.)

  4. Radioactive waste disposal process geological structure for the waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Jaouen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The process described here consists to carry out the two phases of storage operation (intermediate and definitive) of radioactive wastes (especially the vitrified ones) in a geological dispositif (horizontal shafts) at an adequate deepness but suitable for a natural convection ventilation with fresh air from the land surface and moved only with the calorific heat released by the burried radioactive wastes when the radioactive decay has reached the adequate level, the shafts are totally and definitely occluded [fr

  5. Ocean disposal of radioactive waste: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes resulting from human activities and although no high level radioactive waste (HLW) has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste (LLW) have been dumped at more than 50 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. So far, samples of sea water, sediments and deep sea organisms collected on the various sites have not shown any excess in the levels of radionuclides above those due to nuclear weapons fallout except on certain occasions where caesium and plutonium were detected at higher levels in samples taken close to packages at the dumping site. Since 1957, the date of its first meeting to design methodologies to assess the safety of ''radioactive waste disposal into the sea'', the IAEA has provided guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. Since the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (referred to as the London Dumping Convention) came into force in 1975, the dumping of waste has been regulated on a global scale. The London Dumping Convention entrusted IAEA with specific responsibilities for the definition of high level radioactive wastes unsuitable for dumping at sea, and for making recommendations to national authorities for issuing special permits for ocean dumping of low level radioactive wastes. This paper presents a status report of immersion operations of low-level radioactive waste and the current studies the IAEA is undertaking on behalf of the LDC

  6. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book is written about design and management of waste water disposal like settling, floating, aeration and filtration. It explains in detail solo settling, flocculant settling, zone settling, multi-level settling, floating like PPI oil separator, structure of skimming tank and design of skimming tank, water treatment and aeration, aeration device, deaeration like deaeration device for disposal processing of sewage, filtration such as structure and design of Micro-floc filtration, In-line filtration and design of slow sand filter bed.

  7. The management and disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.; Blair, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    After an introduction on how radioactivity and radiation can cause damage, the three main types of radioactive wastes (high level (HLW), intermediate level (ILW) and low level (LLW)) are defined and the quantities of each produced, and current disposal method mentioned. The Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) was set up in 1982 to make proposals for the packaging, transportation and disposal of ILW and, if approved, to manage their implementation. NIREX has also taken over some aspects of the LLW disposal programme, and keeps an inventory of the radioactive waste in the country. The NIREX proposals are considered. For ILW this is that ILW should be immersed in a matrix of concrete, then stored in a repository, the design of which is discussed. The transportation of the concrete blocks is also mentioned. Possible sites for a suitable repository are discussed. Efforts are being made to gain public acceptance of these sites. (U.K.)

  8. Roles of bentonite in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    Bentonite is used in radioactive waste disposal from the following points; (1) properties (2) now utilization fields (3) how to use in radioactive waste disposal (4) how much consumption and deposits as source at the present time. Bentonite is produced as alteration products from pyroclastic rocks such as volcanic ash and ryolite, and is clay composed mainly smectite (montmorillonite in general). Therefore, special properties of bentonite such as swelling potential, rheological property, bonding ability, cation exchange capacity and absorption come mainly from properties of montmorillonite. Bentonite has numerous uses such as iron ore pelleizing, civil engineering, green sand molding, cat litter, agricultural chemicals and drilling mud. Consumption of bentonite is about 600-700 x 10 3 tons in Japan and about 10 x 10 6 tons in the world. Roles of bentonite to be expected in radioactive waste disposal are hydraulic conductivity, swelling potential, absorption, mechanical strength, ion diffusion capacity and long-term durability. These properties come from montmorillonite. (author)

  9. Public values associated with nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, W.S.; Nealey, S.M.; Hebert, J.A.; Lindell, M.K.

    1976-06-01

    This report presents the major findings from a study designed to assess public attitudes and values associated with nuclear waste disposal. The first objective was to obtain from selected individuals and organizations value and attitude information which would be useful to decision-makers charged with deciding the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste materials. A second research objective was to obtain information that could be structured and quantified for integration with technical data in a computer-assisted decision model. The third general objective of this research was to test several attitude-value measurement procedures for their relevance and applicability to nuclear waste disposal. The results presented in this report are based on questionnaire responses from 465 study participants

  10. Toxic and hazardous waste disposal. Volume 4. New and promising ultimate disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojasek, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstrats were prepared for four of the eighteen chapters of this book which reviews several disposal options available to the generators of hazardous wastes. The chapters not abstracted deal with land disposal of hazardous wastes, the solidification/fixation processes, waste disposal by incineration and molten salt combustion and the use of stabilized industrial waste for land reclamation and land farming

  11. Land disposal restriction (LDR) waste management strategy at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.W.; Anderson, S.A.; Rising, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility which is a part of the nationwide DOE nuclear weapons production complex. Rocky Flats has accumulated (and will continue to generate) a substantial quantity of mixed waste subject to regulation under the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These waste streams include low level mixed waste and transuranic mixed waste which are LDR primarily due to solvent and heavy metal contamination. DOE and EPA have entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) which requires actions to be taken to ensure the accurate identification, safe storage and minimization of LDR mixed wastes prior to their ultimate treatment and/or disposal. As required by the FFCA, DOE has prepared a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plant (CTMP) which describes the strategy and commitments for bringing LDR wastes at RFP into compliance with applicable regulations. This strategy includes waste characterization and reclassification, utilization of existing commercial and DOE treatment capacity, as well as, the development and implementation of treatment systems (and other management systems) for the purpose of achieving LDR regulatory compliance and ultimate waste disposal. This paper will give an overview of this strategy including a description of the major waste streams being addressed, the regulatory drivers, and plans and status of ongoing treatment systems technology development and implementation efforts

  12. Alternative disposal options for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Three alternative concepts are proposed for the final disposal of stored and retrieved buried transuranic waste. These proposed options answer criticisms of the existing U.S. Department of Energy strategy of directly disposing of stored transuranic waste in deep, geological salt formations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The first option involves enhanced stabilization of stored waste by thermal treatment followed by convoy transportation and internment in the existing WIPP facility. This concept could also be extended to retrieved buried waste with proper permitting. The second option involves in-state, in situ internment using an encapsulating lens around the waste. This concept applies only to previously buried transuranic waste. The third option involves sending stored and retrieved waste to the Nevada Test Site and configuring the waste around a thermonuclear device from the U.S. or Russian arsenal in a specially designed underground chamber. The thermonuclear explosion would transmute plutonium and disassociate hazardous materials while entombing the waste in a national sacrifice area

  13. Liners and Leak Detection Systems for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Units - Federal Register Notice, January 29, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is amending its current regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) concerning liner and leachate collection and removal systems for hazardous waste surface impoundments, landfills, and waste piles.

  14. Regional waste treatment with monolith disposal for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative system is proposed for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. This system, called REgional Treatment with MOnolith Disposal (RETMOD), is based on integrating three commercial technologies: automated package warehousing, whole-barrel rotary kiln incineration, and cement-based grouts for radioactive waste disposal. In the simplified flowsheet, all the sludges, liquids, resins, and combustible wastes are transported to regional facilities where they are incinerated. The ash is then mixed with special cement-based grouts, and the resulting mixture is poured into trenches to form large waste-cement monoliths. Wastes that do not require treatment, such as damaged and discarded equipment, are prepositioned in the trenches with the waste-cement mixture poured on top. The RETMOD system may provide higher safety margins by conversion of wastes into a solidified low-leach form, creation of low-surface area waste-cement monoliths, and centralization of waste processing into a few specialized facilities. Institutional problems would be simplified by placing total responsibility for safe disposal on the disposal site operator. Lower costs may be realized through reduced handling costs, the economics of scale, simplified operations, and less restrictive waste packaging requirements

  15. Treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany and many other European countries, having very high population densities, must make the most efficient use of their soil, their ground and surface waters. In Germany, no method of waste disposal could be used which included direct storage or seepage into the upper strata of the soil or a discharge into rivers or lakes. It has been shown after more than 20 years experience of treatment of low and intermediate level liquid and solid wastes and disposal of solidified residues in a salt mine, that a number of techniques and procedures are available for manageing this kind of waste with a high degree of safety. A complete system of waste collection, treatment methods and controlled disposal of low and intermediate radioactive residues in accordance with legally established rules and regulations offers the best guarantee for environmental protection. (orig./RW)

  16. Disposal of mixed radioactive and chemical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment of waste by dilution was practiced as long as nature provided sufficient unpolluted air, water, and land. The necessity for treatment, including containment and disposal of wastes is, however, relatively new. Initially, waste products from manufacturing processes were looked upon as a potential resource. The industries of Western Europe, short of raw materials, tried to recover as many chemical compounds as possible from industrial waste. However, the availability of abundant and cheap petroleum during the fifties changes this practice, at least for a short period

  17. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The objective of this study was to predict tensile stress levels in thin-walled titanium alloy and thick-walled carbon steel containers designed for the ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive wastes. Results showed that tensile stresses would be produced in both designs by the expansion of the lead filter, for a temperature rise of 200 0 C. Tensile stress could be reduced if the waste heat output at disposal was reduced. Initial stresses for the titanium-alloy containers could be relieved by heat treatment. (UK)

  18. Roles and Importance of Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Roh, Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance and interest for the microbes has been increased because several important results for the effects of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal have been published continuously. In this study, research status and major results on the various roles and effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal have been investigated. We investigated and summarized the roles and major results of microbes in a multi-barrier system consisting of an engineered barrier and a natural barrier which is considered in radioactive waste disposal systems. For the engineered barrier, we discussed about the effects of microbes on the corrosion of a waste container and investigated the survival possibility and roles of microbes in a compacted bentonite buffer. For the natural barrier, the roles of microbes present in groundwaters and rocks were discussed and summarized with major results from natural analogue studies. Furthermore, we investigated and summarized the roles and various interactions processes of microbes and their effects on the radionuclide migration and retardation including recent research status. Therefore, it is expected that the effects and roles of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal can be rigorously evaluated if further researches are carried out for a long-term behavior of the disposal system in the deep geological environments and for the effects of microbes on the radionuclide migration through geological media.

  19. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchison, D.

    1984-01-01

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  20. Fee structures for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    Some compacts and states require that the fee system at their new low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility be based on the volume and radioactive hazard of the wastes. The fee structure discussed in this paper includes many potential fee elements that could be used to recover the costs of disposal and at the same time influence the volume and nature of waste that arrives at the disposal facility. It includes a base fee which accounts for some of the underlying administrative costs of disposal, and a broad range of charges related to certain parameters of the waste, such as volume, radioactivity, etc. It also includes credits, such as credits for waste with short-lived radionuclides or superior waste forms. The fee structure presented should contain elements of interest to all states and compacts. While no single disposal facility is likely to incorporate all of the elements discussed here in its fee structure, the paper presents a fairly exhaustive list of factors worth considering

  1. Method for disposing of hazardous wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl- 2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  2. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  3. Pathway analysis for alternate low-level waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.R.; Kozak, M.W.; McCord, J.T.; Olague, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a complete set of environmental pathways for disposal options and conditions that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) may analyze for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) license application. The regulations pertaining In the past, shallow-land burial has been used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. However, with the advent of the State Compact system of LLW disposal, many alternative technologies may be used. The alternative LLW disposal facilities include below- ground vault, tumulus, above-ground vault, shaft, and mine disposal This paper will form the foundation of an update of the previously developed Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/NRC LLW performance assessment methodology. Based on the pathway assessment for alternative disposal methods, a determination will be made about whether the current methodology can satisfactorily analyze the pathways and phenomena likely to be important for the full range of potential disposal options. We have attempted to be conservative in keeping pathways in the lists that may usually be of marginal importance. In this way we can build confidence that we have spanned the range of cases likely to be encountered at a real site. Results of the pathway assessment indicate that disposal methods can be categorized in groupings based on their depth of disposal. For the deep disposal options of shaft and mine disposal, the key pathways are identical. The shallow disposal options, such as tumulus, shallow-land, and below-ground vault disposal also may be grouped together from a pathway analysis perspective. Above-ground vault disposal cannot be grouped with any of the other disposal options. The pathway analysis shows a definite trend concerning depth of disposal. The above-ground option has the largest number of significant pathways. As the waste becomes more isolated, the number of significant pathways is reduced. Similar to shallow-land burial, it was found that for all

  4. The effect of food waste disposers on municipal waste and wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashlian, Natasha; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2005-02-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of introducing food waste disposers as a waste minimization option within urban waste management schemes, taking the Greater Beirut Area (GBA) as a case study. For this purpose, the operational and economic impacts of food disposers on the solid waste and wastewater streams are assessed. The integration of food waste disposers can reduce the total solid waste to be managed by 12 to 43% under market penetration ranging between 25 and 75%, respectively. While the increase in domestic water consumption (for food grinding) and corresponding increase in wastewater flow rates are relatively insignificant, wastewater loadings increased by 17 to 62% (BOD) and 1.9 to 7.1% (SS). The net economic benefit of introducing food disposers into the waste and wastewater management systems constitutes 7.2 to 44.0% of the existing solid waste management cost under the various scenarios examined. Concerns about increased sludge generation persist and its potential environmental and economic implications may differ with location and therefore area-specific characteristics must be taken into consideration when contemplating the adoption of a strategy to integrate food waste disposers in the waste-wastewater management system.

  5. Making waves with undersea (radioactive waste) disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Roger.

    1987-01-01

    Following the Government's decision to halt the search for land-based disposal sites for low-level radioactive wastes, the search for alternative means of disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes continues. Off-shore sites now seems to be the most likely. Two approaches are mentioned. The first is that proposed by Consolidated Environmental Technologies Ltd., to sink a shaft 15 metre in diameter under the seabed in an area of tectonic stability, possibly off Lincolnshire. The shaft could be 3000 metres deep. Waste packages and large decommissioning items would be lowered in from a giant barge. This would be expensive but environmentally more acceptable than the other approach. That is to tunnel out from the land and store the waste offshore, below the seabed. (U.K.)

  6. Radioactive wastes: sources, treatment, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    Sources, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes are analyzed in an attempt to place a consideration of the problem of permanent disposal at the level of established or easily attainable technology. In addition to citing the natural radioactivity present in the biosphere, the radioactive waste generated at each phase of the fuel cycle (mills, fabrication plants, reactors, reprocessing plants) is evaluated. The three treatment processes discussed are preliminary storage to permit decay of the short-lived radioisotopes, solidification of aqueous wastes, and partitioning the long-lived α emitters for separate and long-term storage. Dispersion of radioactive gases to the atmosphere is already being done, and storage in geologically stable structures such as salt mines is under active study. The transmutation of high-level wastes appears feasible in principle, but exceedingly difficult to develop

  7. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  9. The surface disposal concept for VLL waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Disposal facilities for very-low-level (VLL) waste have been designed to accommodate both residues originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and used components. Those residues have very low specific-activity levels that lie below a few hundreds of becquerels per gram (Bq/g). As for the average activity found in any disposal facility, it never exceeds more than a few tens of becquerels per gram. In that case, waste disposal involves no special processing or conditioning, except for handling requirements or volume-gain purposes. The main barrier against radionuclide dispersion is provided by the geological formation being used for waste disposal. Basic disposal concept The design and construction provisions allow for the optimal operation of the disposal facility without any risk of altering the required safety level. They also ensure a satisfactory containment level for several centuries at the end of the operating lifetime. Hence, the natural materials in their original context constitute a particular advantage for the safety demonstration over the long term. With due account of the nature of VLL waste, their containment envelope (drums, big bags, etc.) has no role in confining radioactivity, but rather in facilitating handling and disposal operations, while protecting operators. Approximately 30% of all waste received at the CSTFA undergo a specific treatment before disposal. Low-density residues (plastics, thermal-insulation materials, etc.) are first compacted by a baling press, then strapped and wrapped in clear plastic-sheet. Another bundle press is used to reduce the volume of scrap metal. Some waste, such as the polluted waters generated on site or the sludges sent by producers, are processed in the solidification and stabilisation unit. Disposal cells are excavated progressively, as needed, directly in the clay formation down to a depth of 8 m and are operated in sequence. Cell design has evolved to maximize the disposal volume, and now

  10. The surface disposal concept for VLL waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Disposal facilities for very-low-level (VLL) waste have been designed to accommodate both residues originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and used components. Those residues have very low specific-activity levels that lie below a few hundreds of becquerels per gram (Bq/g). As for the average activity found in any disposal facility, it never exceeds more than a few tens of becquerels per gram. In that case, waste disposal involves no special processing or conditioning, except for handling requirements or volume-gain purposes. The main barrier against radionuclide dispersion is provided by the geological formation being used for waste disposal. Basic disposal concept The design and construction provisions allow for the optimal operation of the disposal facility without any risk of altering the required safety level. They also ensure a satisfactory containment level for several centuries at the end of the operating lifetime. Hence, the natural materials in their original context constitute a particular advantage for the safety demonstration over the long term. With due account of the nature of VLL waste, their containment envelope (drums, big bags, etc.) has no role in confining radioactivity, but rather in facilitating handling and disposal operations, while protecting operators. Approximately 30% of all waste received at the CSTFA undergo a specific treatment before disposal. Low-density residues (plastics, thermal-insulation materials, etc.) are first compacted by a baling press, then strapped and wrapped in clear plastic-sheet. Another bundle press is used to reduce the volume of scrap metal. Some waste, such as the polluted waters generated on site or the sludges sent by producers, are processed in the solidification and stabilisation unit. Disposal cells are excavated progressively, as needed, directly in the clay formation down to a depth of 8 m and are operated in sequence. Cell design has evolved to maximize the disposal volume, and now

  11. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  12. System dynamics-based evaluation of interventions to promote appropriate waste disposal behaviors in low-income urban areas: A Baltimore case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaqing; Hobbs, Benjamin F; Lasater, Molly E; Parker, Cindy L; Winch, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Inappropriate waste disposal is a serious issue in many urban neighborhoods, exacerbating environmental, rodent, and public health problems. Governments all over the world have been developing interventions to reduce inappropriate waste disposal. A system dynamics model is proposed to quantify the impacts of interventions on residential waste related behavior. In contrast to other models of municipal solid waste management, the structure of our model is based on sociological and economic studies on how incentives and social norms interactively affect waste disposal behavior, and its parameterization is informed by field work. A case study of low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore, MD, USA is presented. The simulation results show the effects of individual interventions, and also identify positive interactions among some potential interventions, especially information and incentive-based policies, as well as their limitations. The model can help policy analysts identify the most promising intervention packages, and then field test those few, rather than having to pilot test all combinations. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate large uncertainties about behavioral responses to some interventions, showing where information from survey research and social experiments would improve policy making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.; Aschenbach, J.; Hirsekom, R.P.; Nies, A.; Stelte, N.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in rock salt formations has been carried out. The first volume of the study is split into four tasks. Task 1 recalls the main steps that have led to the selection of the reference and the variant site. Task 2 condenses all information available on the rock formations which are planned to host the repository, the overlying geosphere and the geohistoric development of the sites. Task 3 states the technical details of repository planning, while in Task 4 conceivable release scenarios are discussed. Volume II (Tasks 5 to 10) is concerned with the modelling procedures. In Task 5 data for the waste inventory are collected and the selection of relevant nuclides for transport calculations is discussed. Task 6 gives the near-field modelling, i.e. the models for corrosion of the waste canisters, the degradation of the waste matrix and the models used for the HLW boreholes. Task 7 deals with the modelling of the repository. Its division into sections is discussed and models for physical and chemical effects taken into account in each section are presented. In Task 8 the modelling of the overburden is given. In Task 9 additional models for the subrosion scenario and a human intrusion scenario are given. Task 10 is concerned with the biosphere modelling. In Volume III results of deterministic and probabilistic calculations are presented. Task 11 gives the results for deterministic calculations with best estimate values for the parameters involved in the models. Task 12 presents the result of the uncertainty analysis, and Task 13 those of local and global sensitivity analyses followed by concluding remarks. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the

  14. Household medical waste disposal policy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Berman, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar; Schwartzberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown. In Israel, there is no legislation regarding household medical waste collection and disposal. Furthermore, only less than 14 % of Israelis return unused medications to Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) pharmacies. In this study, we investigated world-wide approaches and programs for household medical waste collection and disposal. In many countries around the world there are programs for household medical waste collection. In many countries there is legislation to address the issue of household medical waste, and this waste is collected in hospitals, clinics, law enforcement agencies and pharmacies. Furthermore, in many countries, medication producers and pharmacies pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste, following the "polluter pays" principle. Several approaches and methods should be considered in Israel: (a) legislation and regulation to enable a variety of institutes to collect household medical waste (b) implementing the "polluter pays" principle and enforcing medical products manufactures to pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste. (c) Raising awareness of patients, pharmacists, and other medical health providers regarding the health and environmental risks in accumulation of drugs and throwing them to the garbage, sink or toilet. (d) Adding specific instructions regarding disposal of the drug, in the

  15. The politics of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1992-01-01

    Plans for radioactive waste disposal have been among the most controversial of all environmental policies, provoking vociferous public opposition in a number of countries. This book looks at the problem from an international perspective, and shows how proposed solutions have to be politically and environmentally, as well as technologically acceptable. In the book the technical and political agenda behind low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in the UK, Western Europe, Scandinavia and North America is examined. The technical issues and the industrial proposals and analyses and factors which have been crucial in affecting relative levels of public acceptability are set out. Why Britain has lagged behind countries such as Sweden and France in establishing Low Level Waste (LLW) and Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) sites, the strength of the 'not in my backyard' syndrome in Britain, and comparisons of Britain's decision-making process with the innovative and open pattern followed in the US and Canada are examined. An important insight into the problems facing Nirex, Britain's radioactive waste disposal company, which is seeking to establish an underground waste site at Sellafield in Cumbria is given. (author)

  16. Waste management and treatment or disguised disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.A.; Lauber, J.

    1992-01-01

    A number of political action groups, environmental groups, and waste management industries have purposely used medical waste data and municipal solid waste test results to mislead public officials and communities. Waste management schemes and waste treatment technologies must be measured and compared by the same test criteria. For example, anti-incineration groups often use the toxic dioxin/furan data and/or toxic metal arguments to oppose waste-to-energy incineration technologies. Comparable test data on waste management techniques such as waste composting, autoclaving, and landfilling are either nonexistent or often inappropriately applied. Integrated waste management systems require technologically accurate and complete data, environmentally-appropriate designed systems, and fiscal responsibility. The primary emphasis of waste management and treatment practices must be directed toward minimization, reuse, destruction, and detoxification of municipal solid wastes and medical wastes. The issues and alternatives will be examined

  17. Criteria for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes is storage without the intention of retrieval. But in such storage, it may be useful and in some cases necessary to have the possibility of retrieval at least for a certain period of time. In order to propose some criteria for HLW disposal, one has to examine how this basic concept is to be applied. HLW is waste separated as a raffinate in the first cycle of solvent extraction in reprocessing. Such waste contains the bulk of fission products which have long half lives, therefore the safety of a disposal site, at least after a certain period of time, must be intrinsic, i.e. not based on human intervention. There is a consensus that such a disposal is feasible in a suitable geological formation in which the integrity of the container will be reinforced by several additional barriers. Criteria for disposal can be proposed for all aspects of the question. The author discusses the aims of the safety analysis, particularly the length of time for this analysis, and the acceptable dose commitments resulting from the release of radionuclides, the number and role of each barrier, and a holistic analysis of safety external factors. (Auth.)

  18. ICRP policy for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Jean-Claude Nenot (IPSN, France) gave an overview of recommendations from ICRP during the past 25 years that are relevant to the safety of waste disposal. These recommendations were primarily concerned with public exposure, and suggested that the necessary system of protection should be controlled through the principles of constrained optimisation and prescriptive limits. The principles of justification, optimisation and dose and risk limitation were applicable to waste management. Justification should however be applied to the practice resulting in the generation of waste rather than to waste management per se. As regards optimisation, this should be interpreted in a subtler manner than the simple application of cost-benefit analysis, as an aggregation of very small doses over future world populations would be essentially meaningless. The primary criterion should therefore be the dose to an individual from a relevant critical group, and optimisation should also take account of social and economic factors. The application of dose limits had intrinsic difficulties because of multiple sources, through restrictions determined as a result of monitoring could be envisaged. The approach to dealing with potential future intrusion presented a particular difficulty (as compared to natural processes) because the probability of occurrence could not realistically be determined and therefore a risk-based approach was not recommended. Instead, prospective doses should be assessed against criteria for intervention situations, as proposed in ICRP 82, i.e. action (in terms of a preventative design change, for example) was unlikely to be justifiable at hypothetical and uncertain future dose levels below about 10 mSv/year

  19. Implementation and responsibility for waste disposal : AEC sets up frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission approved the report ''measures for treatment and disposal of radioactive waste'' made by its advisory committee; which clarifies where the legal responsibility lies in relation to the waste treatment and disposal. In principle, the waste producers, i.e. the electric power companies should be responsible for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive waste and the Government for regulation of the safety of waste management. Then, in connection with a LLW ultimate storage facility planned in Aomori Prefecture, the waste disposal company may be responsible for safety of the LLW management. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste is the responsibility of the Government, the waste producer being responsible for the cost. Contents are the following: organization and responsibility for treatment and disposal of radioactive waste; concept of disposal of TRU waste. (Mori, K.)

  20. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission - Phase 1: Financial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    In Section 1.0, an overview of the Financial Analysis was provided and summarized in Table 1 for both the Retrieval and Disposal program and the TWRS project life cycle. A table recaps the pre-Phase 1B analysis budget requirements as discussed in previous sections. Another table in this section shows a similar build-up of costs and the impact of proposed offsets and increases to the pre-Phase 1B analysis. The issues concerning the increased requirements in FY 1998/1999 and the recommended adjustments were discussed. The Phase 1B Program as recommended is achievable. Specific recommendations are as follows: (a) Adopt the revised project baseline as presented in the cited tables; (b) Incorporate the $248.5 million in allowances for risk into the baseline; (c) Develop detailed action plans to realize the costs reduction opportunities; (d) Incorporate site indirect and benefits reduction rates into baseline; (e) Delay non-critical path scope which can be moved beyond FY 1999, as indicated: and (f) Renegotiate the Tri-Party Agreement milestones associated with the current compliance unfunded list for FY 1998

  1. Biosphere models for deep waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyslaegers, G.

    2005-01-01

    The management of the radioactive waste requires the implementation of disposal systems that ensure an adequate degree of isolation of the radioactivity from man and the environment. Because there are still a lot of uncertainties and a lack of consensus with respect to the importance of the exposure pathways of man, a project BioMoSA (Biosphere Models for Safety Assessment) was elaborated in the Fifth Framework Programme of EURATOM). It aimed at improving the scientific basis for the application of biosphere models in the framework of long-term safety studies for radioactive waste disposal facilities. The section radiological evaluations of SCK-CEN took part in the BioMoSA project. n the BioMoSA project, the reference biosphere methodology developed in the IAEA programme BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment methods) is implemented). We used this methodology in order to increase the transparency of biosphere modelling; t evaluate the importance of the different radionuclides and pathways, and to enhance public confidence in the assessment of potential radiological dose to population groups far into the future. Five European locations, covering a wide range of environmental and agricultural conditions are described and characterised. Each participant developed a specific biosphere model for their site. In order to achieve a consistency in this model derivation, a staged approach has been followed. Successively the biosphere is described and conceptual, mathematical and numerical models are constructed. For each of the locations site-specific parameters are selected. In the project, we had the specific task to make a comparison between the model results generated by the different participants. Results from these studies are presented and discussed

  2. Evaluation of the waste profile from (medical) health services of Belo Horizonte concerned to the presence of radioactive wastes in the disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Adirson Monteiro de

    2005-01-01

    The medical procedures of diagnosis and treatment that use radiopharmaceuticals generate radioactive wastes that can, after reaching the release limit, follow the conventional ways of collection and disposal of the urban solid wastes. This research aims to detect radiometrically the presence of radioactive wastes in the health-care wastes at the final disposal. It is pointed out that the legal limit for the release of solid wastes established by Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is 7,5x10 4 Bq/kg (2 μCi/kg). Measurements in the material of the garbage trucks that make the special collect from Health Service installations are performed, at Belo Horizonte sanitary landfill, using a NaI scintillation counter. Values above the established limit were found in 60% of the cases. The spectral analysis of 6 samples showed the presence of 99m Tc in 5 of them and 131 I in one. These radionuclides are the most common radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine. In conclusion there are radioactive wastes released together with the health service wastes, due to the disregard of the decay time until the legal limit is achieved. (author)

  3. Influences of microbiology on nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunk, M.

    1991-05-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial activity on the disposal of nuclear waste. The areas chosen for study include nutrient availability (both organic and inorganic), the effect of increased pH and potential gas generation from the waste. Microbes from various soil habitats could grow on a variety of cellulose-based substrates including simulant waste. Increased pH did not appear to greatly effect the growth of these microbes. Gas generation by microbes growing on a simulant waste was determined over an extended period under a variety of nutritional conditions. The simulant waste was a good substrate for microbes and adding inorganic nutrients did not significantly affect the final yield of gas; extrapolated to about 14.6 3 gas per tonne of waste. The experiments have highlighted a number of areas for further research and they are currently being addressed. (author)

  4. Land disposal alternatives for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.; Lindeman, R.; Saulnier, G.; Adam, J.; Sutherland, A.; Gruhlke, J.; Hung, C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop data regarding the effectiveness and costs of the following options for disposing of specific low-level nuclear waste streams; sanitary landfill; improved shallow land burial; intermediate depth disposal; deep well injection; conventional shallow land burial; engineered surface storage; deep geological disposal; and hydrofracturing. This will be accomplished through the following steps: (1) characterize the properties of the commercial low-level wastes requiring disposal; (2) evaluate the various options for disposing of this waste, characterize selected representative waste disposal sites and design storage facilities suitable for use at those sites; (3) calculate the effects of various waste disposal options on population health risks; (4) estimate the costs of various waste disposal options for specific sites; and (5) perform trade-off analyses of the benefits of various waste disposal options against the costs of implementing these options. These steps are described. 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colasanti, R.; Coutts, D.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Rosevear, A.

    1990-03-01

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  6. Handbook of solid waste disposal: materials and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavoni, J L; Heer, Jr, J E; Hagerty, D J

    1975-01-01

    Traditional and innovative solid waste disposal techniques and new developments in materials and energy recovery systems are analyzed. Each method is evaluated in terms of system methodology, controlling process parameters, and process requirements, by-products, economics, and case histories. Medium and high temperature incineration; wet pulping; landfill with leachate recirculation; the Hercules, Inc., system; USBM front-end and back-end systems; pyrolysis; waste heat utilization, the Combustion Power Unit-400; use of refuse as a supplementary fuel; and methane production from anaerobic fermentation systems are considered, as well as sanitary landfilling, incineration, and composting. European solid waste management techniques are evaluated for their applicability to the US.

  7. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  8. Inventory of radioactive waste disposals at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The IAEA was requested by the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) to develop and maintain an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for having such an inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides from different sources entering the marine environment can be assessed and compared. To respond to the request of the London Convention, the IAEA has undertaken the development of the inventory to include: disposal at sea of radioactive wastes, and accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive materials. This report addresses disposal at sea of radioactive waste, a practice which continued from 1946 to 1993. It is a revision of IAEA-TECDOC-588, Inventory of Radioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment: Sea Disposal of Radioactive Waste, published in 1991. In addition to the data already published in IAEA-TECDOC-588, the present publication includes detailed official information on sea disposal operations carried out by the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation provided in 1993 as well as additional information provided by Sweden in 1992 and the United Kingdom in 1997 and 1998

  9. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes - the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents arguments against the marine disposal of radioactive wastes. Results of American studies of deep-water dump-sites, and strontium levels in fish, are cited as providing evidence of the detrimental effects of marine dumping. The London Dumping Convention and the British dumping programme, are briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, D

    2000-07-01

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation.

  11. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, D.

    2000-01-01

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation

  12. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories

  13. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  14. Radioactive waste disposal: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentsen, B.A.

    1974-01-01

    The world's industrial nations are embarking on a major build-up of nuclear electric power generating capacity. Enormous quantities of radioactive waste will be produced in fuel reprocessing operations which must be safeguarded from entering the biosphere for thousands of years. It is an unprecedented problem which has no universally agreed upon solution. (U.S.)

  15. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography

  16. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used

  17. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  18. DSEM, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site Economic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associates Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operation life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  19. Solving the geologic issues in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Technical problems with nuclear waste disposal are largely geological. If these are not solved, curtailment of nuclear power development may follow, resulting in loss of an important element in the national energy supply. Present knowledge and credible advances are capable of solving these problems provided a systems view is preserved and a national development plan is followed. This requires identification of the critical controllable elements and a systematic underground test program to prove those critical elements. Waste migration can be understood and controlled by considering the key elements in the system: the system geometry, the hydrology, and the waste-rock-water chemistry. The waste program should: (1) identify and attack the critical problems first; (2) provide tests and demonstration at real disposal sites; and (3) schedule elements with long lead-times for early start and timely completion

  20. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report is based on an emplacement techniques review prepared for the Department of the Environment in February 1983, which appeared as Chapter III of the Nuclear Energy Agency, Seabed Working Group's Status Report. The original document (DOE/RW/83.032) has been amended to take account of the results of field trials carried out in March 1983 and to better reflect current UK Government policy on ocean disposal of HGW. In particular Figure 7 has been redrawn using more realistic drag factors for the calculation of the terminal velocity in water. This report reviews the work conducted by the SWG member countries into the different techniques of emplacing heat generating radioactive waste into the deep ocean sediments. It covers the waste handling from the port facilities to final emplacement in the seabed and verification of the integrity of the canister isolation system. The two techniques which are currently being considered in detail are drilled emplacement and the free fall penetrator. The feasibility study work in progress for both techniques as well as the mathematical and physical modelling work for embedment depth and hole closure behind the penetrator are reviewed. (author)

  1. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  2. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the open-quotes Disposal Room Model,close quotes describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized

  3. Disposal of waste by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Weeren, H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid radioactive waste solutions at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been disposed of for nearly 20 years by preparing a slurry, injecting it into bedding plane fractures formed in low-permeability shale, and allowing the slurry to set into a solid. Three major considerations are required for this method: a rock formation that forms horizontal or bedding plane fractures and is highly impermeable, a plant facility that can develop sufficient hydraulic pressure to fracture the rock and to inject the slurry, and a slurry that can be pumped into the fracture and that will set, preferably, into a low-leaching solid. The requirements and desirable conditions of the formation, the process and facility as used for radioactive waste disposal, and the mix formulation and slurry properties that were required for injection and solidification are described. The intent of this paper is to stimulate interest in this technique for possible application to nonnuclear wastes

  4. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihone Kerolli-Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP, three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in Mitrovica Industrial Park, Kosovo. The combination of these methods can effectively identify the comprehensive and single pollution levels of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and As present in jarosite waste. Moreover, the great positive relevance between leaching behavior of heavy metals and F1 fraction was supported by principal component analysis (PCA. PERI results indicate that Cd showed a very high risk class to the environment. The ecological risk of heavy metals declines in the following order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>As.

  5. Disposal of liquid radioactive waste - discharge of radioactive waste waters from hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwieg, F.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given about legal prescriptions in the FRG concerning composition and amount of the liquid waste substances and waste water disposal by emitting into the sewerage, waste water decay systems and collecting and storage of patients excretions. The radiation exposure of the population due to drainage of radioactive waste water from hospitals lower by more than two orders than the mean exposure due to nuclear-medical use. (HP) [de

  6. Review of available options for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The scope of this report includes: descriptions of the options available; identification of important elements in the selection process; discussion and assessment of the relevance of the various elements for the different options; cost data indicating the relative financial importance of different parts of the systems and the general cost level of a disposal facility. An overview of the types of wastes included in low level waste categories and an approach to the LLW management system is presented. A generic description of the disposal options available and the main activities involved in implementing the different options are described. Detailed descriptions and cost information on low level waste disposal facility concepts in a number of Member States are given. Conclusions from the report are summarized. In addition, this report provides a commentary on various aspects of land disposal, based on experience gained by IAEA Member States. The document is intended to complement other related IAEA publications on LLW management and disposal. It also demonstrates that alternatives solutions for the final disposal of LLW are available and can be safely operated but the choice of an appropriate solution must be a matter for national strategy taking into account local conditions. 18 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  7. 餐厨废弃物收运处置管理体系探讨%Management System of Food Waste Collection, Transportation and Disposal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许崇路

    2014-01-01

    总结青岛市餐厨废弃物管理实际情况,分析了各地餐厨废弃物收运处置体系建设,简述了餐厨废弃物收运、处置及管理模式和各自的优缺点;剖析了现阶段餐厨废弃物管理中存在的问题及餐厨废弃物分类收集难的主要原因,进而探讨了餐厨废弃物规范管理的对策与建议。%Based on summarizing the practical situation of food waste management in Qingdao, the construction of food waste collection, transportation and disposal system was analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of food waste collection, transportation, disposal and management models were described briefly. The main problems of food waste management in the current stage and main reason for the difficulty in food waste sorting collection were analyzed. And the countermeasures and suggestions on the standardized management of food waste were discussed.

  8. Pilot tests on radioactive waste disposal in underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the pilot test carried out in the underground facilities in the Asse salt mine (Germany) and in the Boom clay beneath the nuclear site at Mol (Belgium). These tests include test disposal of simulated vitrified high-level waste (HAW project) and of intermediate level waste and spent HTR fuel elements in the Asse salt mine, as well as an active handling experiment with neutron sources, this last test with a view to direct disposal of spent fuel. Moreover, an in situ test on the performance of a long-term sealing system for galleries in rock salt is described. Regarding the tests in the Boom clay, a combined heating and radiation test, geomechanical and thermo-hydro mechanical tests are dealt with. Moreover, the design of a demonstration test for disposal of high-level waste in clay is presented. Finally the situation concerning site selection and characterization in France and the United Kingdom are described

  9. Managing previously disposed waste to today's standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in 1952 for controlled disposal of radioactive waste generated at the INEL. Between 1954 and 1970 waste characterized by long lived, alpha emitting radionuclides from the Rocky Flats Plant was also buried at this site. Migration of radionuclides and other hazardous substances from the buried Migration of radionuclides and other hazardous substances from the buried waste has recently been detected. A Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established to manage cleanup of the buried waste. This program has four objectives: (1) determine contaminant sources, (2) determine extent of contamination, (3) mitigate migration, and (4) recommend an alternative for long term management of the waste. Activities designed to meet these objectives have been under way since the inception of the program. The regulatory environment governing these activities is evolving. Pursuant to permitting activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into a Consent Order Compliance Agreement (COCA) for cleanup of past practice disposal units at the INEL. Subsequent to identification of the RWMC as a release site, cleanup activities proceeded under dual regulatory coverage of RCRA and the Atomic Energy Act. DOE, EPA, and the State of Idaho are negotiating a RCRA/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interagency Agreement (IAG) for management of waste disposal sites at the INEL as a result of the November 1989 listing of the INEL on the National Priority List (NPL). Decision making for selection of cleanup technology will be conducted under the CERCLA process supplemented as required to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 7 figs

  10. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2001-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  11. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued

  12. Household Solid Waste Disposal in Public Housing Estates in Awka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on household solid waste disposal in the public housing estates in Awka, Anambra State. The study identified solid waste disposal methods from the households in AHOCOL, Udoka, Iyiagu and Real Housing Estates with an intention to make proposals for better solid waste disposal.

  13. Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy controversy, now raging in several countries, is based on two main issues: the safety of nuclear plants and the possibility to dispose safely of the long-lived radioactive wastes. Consideration of the evolution of the hazard potential of waste in function of decay time leads to a somewhat conservative reference containment time in the order of one hundred thousand years. Several concepts have been proposed for the disposal of long-lived wastes. At the present time, emplacement into suitable geological formations under land areas can be considered the most promising disposal option. It is practically impossible to define detailed criteria to be followed in selecting suitable sites for disposal of long-lived wastes. Basically there is a single criterion, namely; that the geological environment must be able to contain the wastes for at least a hundred thousand years. However, due to the extreme variability of geological settings, it is conceivable that this basic capability could be provided by a great variety of different conditions. The predominant natural mechanism by which waste radionuclides could be moved from a sealed repository in a deep geological formation into the biosphere is leaching and transfer by ground water. Hence the greatest challenge is to give a satisfactory demonstration that isolation from ground water will persist over the required containment time. Since geological predictions are necessarily affected by fairly high levels of uncertainty, the only practical approach is not a straight-forward forecast of future geological events, but a careful assessment of the upper limits of geologic changes that could take place in the repository area over the next hundred thousand years. If waste containment were to survive these extreme geological changes the disposal site could be considered acceptable. If some release of activity were to take place in consequence of the hypothetical events the disposal solution might still be

  14. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  15. Management, treatment and final disposal of solid hazardous hospital wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebiani Serrano, T.

    2000-01-01

    Medical Waste is characterized by its high risk to human health and the environment. The main risk is biological, due to the large amount of biologically contaminated materials present in such waste. However, this does not mean that the chemical and radioactive wastes are less harmful just because they represent a smaller part of the total waste. Hazardous wastes from hospitals can be divided in 3 main categories: Solid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (S.H.H.W.), Liquid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (L.H.H.W.) and Gaseous Hazardous Hospital Wastes (G.H.H.W.) Most gaseous and liquid hazardous wastes are discharged to the environment without treatment. Since this inappropriate disposal practice, however, is not visible to society, there is no societal reaction to such problem. On the contrary, hazardous solid wastes (S.H.H.W.) are visible to society and create worries in the population. As a result, social and political pressures arise, asking for solutions to the disposal problems of such wastes. In response to such pressures and legislation approved by Costa Rica on waste handling and disposal, the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social developed a plan for the handling, treatment, and disposal of hazardous solid wastes at the hospitals and clinics of its system. The objective of the program is to reduce the risk to society of such wastes. In this thesis a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to determine the minimum cost at which it is possible to reach a maximum level of reduction in hazardous wastes, transferring to the environment the least possible volume of solid hazardous wastes, and therefore, reducing risk to a minimum. It was found that at the National Children's Hospital the internal handling of hazard solid wastes is conducted with a high level of effectiveness. However, once out of the hospital area, the handling is not effective, because hazardous and common wastes are all mixed together creating a larger amount of S.H.H.W. and reducing the final efficiency

  16. Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan; Ying Guangguo; Zhang Ruiquan; Zhou Lijun; Lai Huajie; Chen Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17β-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ► 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ► Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ► Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ► The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ► The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

  17. The mythology of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckhofer.

    1981-10-01

    This paper, while making a parallel between the mythology of the dangers of alcohol when the United States adopted a constitutional amendment prohibiting intoxicating liquor and public attitudes towards the dangers of nuclear waste burial, outlines the reason for these attitudes. Poor information of the public, from the start, on such dangers, the trauma of the atomic bomb and certain court decisions on nuclear activities which were in fact repealed by the Supreme Court. The paper also stresses the difficulty of dealing with this problem on a rational basis despite proven technical knowledge and successful experiments. (NEA) [fr

  18. Subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Anderson, D.R.; Heath, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fine-grained clay formations within stable (predictable) deep-sea regions away from lithospheric plate boundaries and productive surface waters have properties that might serve to permanently isolate radioactive waste. The most important characteristics of such clays are their vertical and lateral uniformity, low permeability, very high cation retention capacity, and potential for self-healing when disturbed. The most attractive abyssal clay formation (oxidized red clay) covers nearly 30 percent of the sea floor and hence 20 percent of the earth's surface

  19. Subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, C D; Anderson, D R; Health, G R

    1981-09-18

    Fine-grained clay formations within stable (predictable) deep-sea regions away from lithospheric plate boundaries and productive surface waters have properties that might serve to permanently isolate radioactive waste. The most important characteristics of such clays are their vertical and lateral unifomity, low permeability, very high cation retention capacity, and potential for self-healing when disturbed. The most attractive abyssal clay formation (oxidized red ciay)covers nearly 30 percent of the sea floor and hence 20 percent of the earth's surface.

  20. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Reference to 2140 publications related to radioactive waste, announced in Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) Volumes 28 (July Dec. 1973), 29 (Jan.--June 1974), and 30 (July--Dec. 1974), are presented. The references are arranged by the original NSA abstract number, which approximately places them in chronological order. Sequence numbers appear beside each reference and the NSA volume and abstract numbers appear at the end of the citations. Three indexes are provided: Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. This document supplements the preceding six in the TID3311 series. (U.S.)