WorldWideScience

Sample records for wasp trypoxylo ntrypargilum

  1. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves we...

  2. WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b and WASP-142b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, C.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wagg, T.; West, R. G.

    2017-03-01

    We describe seven exoplanets transiting stars of brightness V = 10.1-12.4. WASP-130b is a 'warm Jupiter' having an orbital period of 11.6 d around a metal-rich G6 star. Its mass and radius (1.23 ± 0.04 MJup and 0.89 ± 0.03 RJup) support the trend that warm Jupiters have smaller radii than hot Jupiters. WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 MJup and 1.22 RJup). Its large scaleheight and bright (V = 10.1) host star make it a good target for atmospheric characterization. WASP-132b (0.41 MJup and 0.87 RJup) is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, having a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. WASP-139b is a 'super-Neptune' akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b, being the lowest mass planet yet found by WASP (0.12 MJup and 0.80 RJup). The metal-rich K0 host star appears to be anomalously dense, akin to HAT-P-11. WASP-140b is a 2.4-MJup planet in an eccentric (e = 0.047 ± 0.004) 2.2-d orbit. The planet's radius is large (1.4 RJup), but uncertain owing to the grazing transit (b = 0.93). The 10.4-d rotation period of the K0 host star suggests a young age, and the time-scale for tidal circularization is likely to be the lowest of all known eccentric hot Jupiters. WASP-141b (2.7 MJup, 1.2 RJup and P = 3.3 d) and WASP-142b (0.84 MJup, 1.53 RJup and P = 2.1 d) are typical hot Jupiters orbiting metal-rich F stars. We show that the period distribution within the hot-Jupiter bulge does not depend on the metallicity of the host star.

  3. WASP-120 b, WASP-122 b, AND WASP-123 b: Three Newly Discovered Planets from the WASP-South Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of three planets transiting moderately bright stars (V ≈ 11). WASP-120 b is a massive (4.85 M Jup) planet in a 3.6-day orbit that we find likely to be eccentric (e={0.059}-0.018+0.025) around an F5 star. WASP-122 b is a hot Jupiter (1.28 M Jup, 1.74 R Jup) in a 1.7-day orbit about a G4 star. Our predicted transit depth variation caused by the atmosphere of WASP-122 b suggests it is well suited to characterization. WASP-123 b is a hot Jupiter (0.90 M Jup, 1.32 R Jup) in a 3.0-day orbit around an old (˜7 Gyr) G5 star.

  4. WASp identity theft by a bacterial effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty-Clarke, Karen; Goode, Bruce L

    2008-09-01

    EspF(U), a protein secreted by pathogenic enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), activates N-WASp/WASp to induce actin pedestal formation in host cells. Two recent papers in Nature show that EspF(U) exploits a WASp activation strategy so extreme that it may effectively sequester WASp, blinding it to both autoinhibition and cellular regulation.

  5. WAsP engineering 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Jørgensen, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulencein complex terrain. At the web page http......://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complexterrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison...... with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, ispointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological "reanalysis" data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate...

  6. Five transiting hot Jupiters discovered using WASP-South, Euler, and TRAPPIST: WASP-119 b, WASP-124 b, WASP-126 b, WASP-129 b, and WASP-133 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wagg, T.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have used photometry from the WASP-South instrument to identify 5 stars showing planet-like transits in their light curves. The planetary nature of the companions to these stars has been confirmed using photometry from the EulerCam instrument on the Swiss Euler 1.2-m telescope and the TRAPPIST telescope, and spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. The planets discovered are hot Jupiter systems with orbital periods in the range 2.17 to 5.75 days, masses from 0.3 MJup to 1.2 MJup and with radii from 1 RJup to 1.5 RJup. These planets orbit bright stars (V = 11-13) with spectral types in the range F9 to G4. WASP-126 is the brightest planetary system in this sample and hosts a low-mass planet with a large radius (0.3 MJup,0.95 RJup), making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. The high density of WASP-129 A suggests that it is a helium-rich star similar to HAT-P-11 A. WASP-133 A has an enhanced surface lithium abundance compared to other old G-type stars, particularly other planet host stars. These planetary systems are good targets for follow-up observations with ground-based and space-based facilities to study their atmospheric and dynamical properties. Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A55

  7. WASP-113b and WASP-114b, two inflated hot Jupiters with contrasting densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D. J. A.; Hébrard, G.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Anderson, D. R.; Boumis, P.; Delrez, L.; Hay, K. L.; Lam, K. W. F.; Llama, J.; Lendl, M.; McCormac, J.; Skiff, B.; Smalley, B.; Turner, O.; Vanhuysse, M.; Armstrong, D. J.; Boisse, I.; Bouchy, F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Liakos, A.; Meaburn, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Pepe, F.; Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Spake, J.; Ségransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Udry, S.; Walker, S. R.; Watson, C. A.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present the discovery and characterisation of the exoplanets WASP-113b and WASP-114b by the WASP surveys, SOPHIE and CORALIE. Methods: The planetary nature of the systems was established by performing follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations. The follow-up data were combined with the WASP-photometry and analysed with an MCMC code to obtain system parameters. Results: The host stars WASP-113 and WASP-114 are very similar. They are both early G-type stars with an effective temperature of ~5900 K, [Fe/H] ~ 0.12, and log g~ 4.1 dex. However, WASP-113 is older than WASP-114. Although the planetary companions have similar radii, WASP-114b is almost four times heavier than WASP-113b. WASP-113b has a mass of 0.48 MJup and an orbital period of ~4.5 days; WASP-114b has a mass of 1.77 MJup and an orbital period of ~1.5 days. Both planets have inflated radii, in particular WASP-113 with a radius anomaly of ℜ = 0.35. The high scale height of WASP-113b (~950 km) makes it a good target for follow-up atmospheric observations.

  8. Modifications to the current WAsP engine for Online WAsP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Troen, Ib; Bechmann, Andreas

    This report documents the work performed in work package 3 of the Online WAsP EUDP project (Online WAsP for Small Wind Turbines). Specifically it is deliverable D3.1 "Report on modifications required to update current WAsP calculation engine".......This report documents the work performed in work package 3 of the Online WAsP EUDP project (Online WAsP for Small Wind Turbines). Specifically it is deliverable D3.1 "Report on modifications required to update current WAsP calculation engine"....

  9. WAsP engineering 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Ott, S.; Hoffmann Joergensen, B.; Frank, H.P.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulence in complex terrain. At the web page http://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complex terrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, is pointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological 'reanalysis' data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate the extreme wind climate around Denmark. Among various alternative physical parameters in the database, such as surface winds, wind at various pressure levels or geostrophic winds at various heights, the surface geostrophic wind seems to give the most realistic results. Because of spatial filtering and intermittent temporal sampling the 50 year winds are underestimated by approximately 12%. Whether the method applies to larger areas of the world remains to be seen. The 50 year winds in Denmark is estimated from data using the flow model inWAsP Engineering and the values are approximately 1 m/s larger than previous analysis (Kristensen et al. 2000). A tool is developed to estimate crudely an extreme wind climate from a WAsP lib file. (au)

  10. Seven transiting hot-Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-47b, WASP-55b, WASP-61b, WASP-62b, WASP-63b, WASP-66b & WASP-67b

    OpenAIRE

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present seven new transiting hot Jupiters from the WASP-South survey. The planets are all typical hot Jupiters orbiting stars from F4 to K0 with magnitudes of V = 10.3 to 12.5. The orbital periods are all in the range 3.9--4.6 d, the planetary masses range from 0.4--2.3 Mjup and the radii from 1.1--1.4 Mjup. In line with known hot Jupiters, the planetary densities range from Jupiter-like to inflated (rho = 0.13--1.07 rho_jup). We use the increasing numbers of known hot Jupiters to investig...

  11. Identification of bradykinins in solitary wasp venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Katsuhiro; Palma, Mario Sergio; Hitara, Izaura Yoshico; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Yasuhara, Tadashi

    2002-03-01

    Bradykinins were identified in three solitary wasp venoms. Purification and characterization of the venom extract of the scoliid wasp Megacampsomeris prismatica led to the identification of bradykinin and threonine(6)-bradykinin as the major peptide components. The survey of a number of extracts from solitary wasp venom by MALDI-TOF MS revealed that the venoms of two other scoliid wasps, Campsomeriella annulata annulata and Carinoscolia melanosoma fascinata, also contained Thr(6)-BK as one of the major components. Thus, this study showed the presence of bradykinins in some of the solitary wasp venoms. Moreover, it indicated that these peptides play a major role in their paralyzing action for prey capture because these bradykinins have been shown to block the synaptic transmission of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the insect central nervous system.

  12. New exoplanets from the SuperWASP-North survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the WASP search for transiting exoplanets, focusing on recent planet discoveries from SuperWASP-North and the joint equatorial region (-20≤Dec≤+20 observed by both WASP telescopes. We report the results of monitoring of WASP planets, and discuss how these contribute to our understanding of planet properties and their diversity.

  13. The Role of WASp in Podosome Formation and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevrey, Jean-Claude; Dovas, Athanassios; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    -derived cells defective in WASp, a haematopoietic cell-specific activator of the Arp2/3 complex, show reduced number of podosomes and impaired chemotaxis. Despite the strong evidence linking WASp to podosomes, how their formation and dynamics are regulated by WASp remains unknown. A FRET-based WASp biosensor...... in decreased podosome formation and matrix degradation that could be rescued by re-expression of WT WASp. To assess the signal pathways required for WASp activation during podosome formation the ability of mutated versions of WASp to rescue WASp deficiency was also determined. Similar to re...... that continuous WASp activity is required for podosome maintenance and indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation is dispensable for the function of WASp in podosomes but Cdc42 is an important regulatory element....

  14. WAsP engineering DK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Astrup, P.; Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hauge Madsen, P.; Heathfield, D.

    2000-05-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 1.0 DK - Vindforhold for vindmoelledesign. WAsP Engineering is a series of experimental and theoretical activities concerning properties of the winds in moderately complex terrain with relevance for loads on wind turbines and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. The basic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load calculations. The most important change is the inclusion of a complex model for the roughness length on water bodies. This is particularly important for the estimation of extreme winds in the vicinity of sea shores. A second addition is the calculation of spatial derivatives of the mean flow to be used for the modeling of turbulence. The turbulence structure on hills is modeled by perturbing the flat, homogeneous terrain turbulence using Rapid Distortion Theory. A simple model for the adjustment of turbulence to roughness changes is also applied. Second order turbulence statistics such as turbulence intensities, spectra and cross-spectra can be estimated at user-chosen positions in the terrain. A program for simulation of turbulence with the calculated statistics has been developed. However, it has not yet been integrated into the windows interface. Climatological series of wind speed have been analyzed to establish the extreme wind climate over Denmark. The extreme wind climate contains directional information and is used for estimating the extreme winds at an arbitrary position in complex terrain. A net of high precision pressure sensors covering Denmark has been established in order to obtain a climatology of the geostrophic wind. A tentative conclusion from only one year of data is that, statistically , the geostrophic wind decreases when going from west toward east

  15. WAsP engineering DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Astrup, Poul; Kristensen, Leif

    2000-01-01

    calculations. The most important change is the inclusion of a complex model for the roughness length on water bodies. This is particularly important forthe estimation of extreme winds in the vicinity of sea shores. A second addition is the calculation of spatial derivatives of the mean flow to be used...... and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. Thebasic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load...

  16. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sinukoff, Evan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  17. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12b, WASP-17b, and WASP-19b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 microns most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis. Key words: planetary systems - techniques: photometric - techniques: spectroscopic

  18. Climate Change Impact on Neotropical Social Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M.; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997–2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals. PMID:22073236

  19. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2017-09-01

    SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  20. Rhabdomyolysis due to Multiple Wasp Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp sting is a relatively common arthropod assault, but is sometimes fatal because of anaphylaxis. Rhabdomyolysis is a serious condition, with destruction of striated muscles, and can be induced by various causes such as drugs, heart attacks, CRASH syndrome, and viper bites. Mass envenomation by multiple wasp stings can also cause rhabdomyolysis followed by acute renal failure, although it is extremely rare. We herein report a case who had an anaphylaxis-like reaction and rhabdomyolysis due to multiple wasp stings.

  1. Evolutionary Ecology: Wasp Mother's Little Helpers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2005-01-01

    The medical application of antibiotics dramatically reduced human infant mortality in the previous century. A new study indicates that ground nesting wasps exploit Streptomyces strains that they rear in their antennae for the same purpose.......The medical application of antibiotics dramatically reduced human infant mortality in the previous century. A new study indicates that ground nesting wasps exploit Streptomyces strains that they rear in their antennae for the same purpose....

  2. Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those with Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167081.html Shortage of Bee, Wasp Venom Stings Those With Allergies Facing expected season-long ... News) -- A shortage of honeybee, wasp and hornet venom extract has allergists concerned. The extract treats people ...

  3. Wasp-inspired needle insertion with low net push force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprang, T.; Breedveld, P.; Dodou, D.; Lepora, N.F.; Mura, A.; Mangan, M.; Verschure, P.F.M.J.; Desmulliez, M.; Prescott, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a four-part needle prototype inspired by the ovipositor of parasitic wasps. In the wasp ovipositor, three longitudinal segments called valves move reciprocally to gain depth in the substrate. It has been suggested that serrations located along the wasp

  4. Peculiar architectures for the WASP-53 and WASP-81 planet-hosting systems★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Lendl, Monika; Anderson, David R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Delrez, Laetitia; Doyle, Amanda; Gillon, Michaël; Hellier, Coel; Jehin, Emmanuël; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Queloz, Didier; Pollacco, Don; Southworth, John; Tregloan-Reed, Jeremy; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard

    2017-05-01

    We report the detection of two new systems containing transiting planets. Both were identified by WASP as worthy transiting planet candidates. Radial velocity observations quickly verified that the photometric signals were indeed produced by two transiting hot Jupiters. Our observations also show the presence of additional Doppler signals. In addition to short-period hot Jupiters, we find that the WASP-53 and WASP-81 systems also host brown dwarfs, on fairly eccentric orbits with semimajor axes of a few astronomical units. WASP-53c is over 16 MJupsin Ic and WASP-81c is 57 MJupsin Ic. The presence of these tight, massive companions restricts theories of how the inner planets were assembled. We propose two alternative interpretations: the formation of the hot Jupiters within the snow line or the late dynamical arrival of the brown dwarfs after disc dispersal. We also attempted to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for both hot Jupiters. In the case of WASP-81b, we fail to detect a signal. For WASP-53b, we find that the planet is aligned with respect to the stellar spin axis. In addition we explore the prospect of transit-timing variations, and of using Gaia's astrometry to measure the true masses of both brown dwarfs and also their relative inclination with respect to the inner transiting hot Jupiters.

  5. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  6. Precise Masses in the WASP-47 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Mortier, Annelies; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; López-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Bouchy, François; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cosentino, Rosario; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Dumusque, Xavier; Fiorenzano, Aldo; Harutyunyan, Avet; Johnson, John Asher; Lorenzi, Vania; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Pedani, Marco; Pepe, Francesco; Piotto, Giampaolo; Phillips, David; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    We present precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47, a star known to host a hot Jupiter, a distant Jovian companion, and, uniquely, two additional transiting planets in short-period orbits: a super-Earth in a ≈19 hr orbit, and a Neptune in a ≈9 day orbit. We analyze our observations from the HARPS-N spectrograph along with previously published data to measure the most precise planet masses yet for this system. When combined with new stellar parameters and reanalyzed transit photometry, our mass measurements place strong constraints on the compositions of the two small planets. We find that, unlike most other ultra-short-period planets, the inner planet, WASP-47 e, has a mass (6.83 ± 0.66 {M}\\oplus ) and a radius (1.810 ± 0.027 {R}\\oplus ) that are inconsistent with an Earth-like composition. Instead, WASP-47 e likely has a volatile-rich envelope surrounding an Earth-like core and mantle. We also perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the orbital inclination of WASP-47 c, the outer Jovian planet. This planet likely orbits close to the plane of the inner three planets, suggesting a quiet dynamical history for the system. Our dynamical constraints also imply that WASP-47 c is much more likely to transit than a geometric calculation would suggest. We calculate a transit probability for WASP-47 c of about 10%, more than an order of magnitude larger than the geometric transit probability of 0.6%.

  7. Tidal Dissipation in WASP-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Essick, Reed

    2017-11-01

    WASP-12 is a hot Jupiter system with an orbital period of P = 1.1 days, making it one of the shortest-period giant planets known. Recent transit timing observations by Maciejewski et al. and Patra et al. found a decreasing period with P/| \\dot{P}| = 3.2 Myr. This has been interpreted as evidence of either orbital decay due to tidal dissipation or a long-term oscillation of the apparent period due to apsidal precession. Here, we consider the possibility that it is orbital decay. We show that the parameters of the host star are consistent with either a M * ≃ 1.3 M ⊙ main sequence star or a M * ≃ 1.2 M ⊙ subgiant. We find that if the star is on the main sequence, the tidal dissipation is too inefficient to explain the observed \\dot{P}. However, if it is a subgiant, the tidal dissipation is significantly enhanced due to nonlinear wave-breaking of the dynamical tide near the star’s center. The subgiant models have a tidal quality factor Q{{\\prime} }* ≃ 2× {10}5 and an orbital decay rate that agrees well with the observed \\dot{P}. It would also explain why the planet survived for ≃3 Gyr while the star was on the main sequence and yet is now inspiraling on a 3 Myr timescale. Although this suggests that we are witnessing the last ∼0.1% of the planet’s life, the probability of such a detection is a few percent given the observed sample of ≃30 hot Jupiters in P 1.2 M ⊙ hosts.

  8. Getting Started with WAsP 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Heathfield, D.N.; Myllerup, Lisbeth

    . The analysis part consists of a transformation of an observed wind climate (speed and direction distributions) to a wind atlas data set. The wind atlas data set can subsequently be applied for estimation of the wind climate and wind power potential, as well as for siting of specific wind turbines. The WAsP 9...

  9. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  10. Mutualism: wasp keeps watchdogs to protect young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2008-09-23

    The adaptive value of acarinaria - specialized structures in some wasps and bees that harbour symbiotic mites - has long been elusive. A new study has now shown that the mites are actually beneficial to their host by actively defending it against parasitoids.

  11. WAsP in the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Landberg, Lars; Jensen, Niels Otto

    2005-01-01

    This article compares mean wind estimates from a WAsP analysis for three forest sites and one site near a forest with measurements taken at the sites. By standard WAsP settings for forest, the mean wind speed at the sites was overestimated. Agreement between the estimates and the measurements...... improved significantly if displacement height and roughness length as calculated from the forest mast data were used or if a simple model estimate of roughness length and displacement height based on stand density (frontal area index) was used. The two estimates of displacement height and roughness length...... (mast data and simple model) did not agree well with each other. One reason for this may be that all evaluated sites are windy and that both d and z0 depend on the wind speed. All analysed forest sites are dense, in which case the influence from the roughness sublayer is limited and the effect on mean...

  12. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  13. Deletion of WASp and N-WASp in B cells cripples the germinal center response and results in production of IgM autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Carin I M; Torres, Magda-Liz; Petersen, Sven H; Baptista, Marisa A P; Keszei, Marton; Volpi, Stefano; Grasset, Emilie K; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Walter, Jolan E; Snapper, Scott B; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Westerberg, Lisa S

    2015-08-01

    Humoral immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) is associated with failure to respond to common pathogens and high frequency of autoimmunity. Here we addressed the question how deficiency in WASp and the homologous protein N-WASp skews the immune response towards autoreactivity. Mice devoid of WASp or both WASp and N-WASp in B cells formed germinal center to increased load of apoptotic cells as a source of autoantigens. However, the germinal centers showed abolished polarity and B cells retained longer and proliferated less in the germinal centers. While WASp-deficient mice had high titers of autoreactive IgG, B cells devoid of both WASp and N-WASp produced mainly IgM autoantibodies with broad reactivity to autoantigens. Moreover, B cells lacking both WASp and N-WASp induced somatic hypermutation at reduced frequency. Despite this, IgG1-expressing B cells devoid of WASp and N-WASp acquired a specific high affinity mutation, implying an increased BCR signaling threshold for selection in germinal centers. Our data provides evidence for that N-WASp expression alone drives WASp-deficient B cells towards autoimmunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High generalization in flower-visiting networks of social wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Marco A. R.; Santos, Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça; Mechi, Maria Rita; Hermes, Marcel G.

    2011-01-01

    Flower-visiting interactions, such as nectarivory and pollination, are considered to form networks with higher interaction specialization than other plant-animal facultative mutualisms. However, subsets within each network sometimes are different from the complete system. Social wasps are one subset within flower-visiting networks; they use nectar as a secondary food of adults. Some of the visited plants depend on wasps for pollination, and many are further benefited through predation of herbivores captured to feed wasp larvae. Therefore, mutual dependence is lower in the wasp subset compared to complete pollination networks, so we expected wasp-flower networks to exhibit more generalistic interactions. Quantitative datasets were built by recording wasp visits to flowers in six Brazilian localities in four ecoregions, and comparisons were made with complete pollination networks from the literature (with different taxa included). Nestedness (NODF = 0.39 ± 0.06) was similar in wasp-flower and complete pollination networks (NODF = 0.32 ± 0.18). Interaction specialization in wasp-flower networks was lower (median H2' = 0.31 ± 0.09) than in complete pollination networks (median H2' = 0.55 ± 0.17). Modularity in wasp-flower networks (M = 0.36 ± 0.05) was also lower than in complete pollination networks (M = 0.47 ± 0.09); there were on average 5 ± 1 modules on each network formed by species of different genera. In summary, our findings confirm that wasps that feed on nectar interact with similar subsets of plants; therefore, wasp-flower networks are more generalistic than other pollination networks. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that, despite some universal properties found in facultative mutualisms, parts of a system differ from the complete system. Furthermore, mutual dependence influences interaction specialization, and so it is an important structuring factor of mutualistic networks.

  15. Editorial: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2005-01-01

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts1, 2, 3. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to

  16. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    m

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Species richness of oak gall wasps was estimated for each region and also species diversity indices such as Simpson's index, Shannon's H', and Sorensen similarity quotient were calculated. In this survey, 40 oak gall wasps species were identified. Most galls were found on Quercus infectoria. All of the ...

  17. Species richness and true diversity of cynipid galling-wasps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this survey, the oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) were collected from oak forests of West-Azerbaijan Province in six sites, from April to October. Species richness, heterogeneity, evenness and true diversity were measured. Based on the result of this study, 37 of oak gall wasps species on oak trees ...

  18. [Dorsal medulla oblongata stroke after a wasp sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurin, G; Canneva-Bourel, M L; Delafosse, J-M; Poirier, J; Merienne, M

    2006-03-01

    Although wasp stings can cause local reactions such as pain, flare, edema, swelling and severe reactions, including anaphylaxis; neurological vascular complications are rare. We report a case of a 36-year-old male who developed focal neurological symptoms after a wasp sting. The brain MRI showed an infarct in the left dorsal medulla. The blood test has showed an elevated level of venom-specific IgE antibodies and the skin test with wasp venom was highly positive. Improvement occurred rapidly after treatment with methylprednisone. The postulated mechanisms include vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation secondary to an injection of distinct allergens contained in wasp venom. It would thus be important to ask patients about any recent wasp sting, in order to provide appropriate treatment.

  19. WASP and electricity capacity expansion planning for emerging countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J

    1980-11-01

    The WIEN Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is typical of electrical generation capacity expansion planning models in general use today. It was developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hence the name WIEN. It is available without charge to member states. Assistance in its use is available from IAEA staff and in addition it is well documented. The user of WASP should be aware of its uses and limitations especially, though not exclusively, in its application to emerging countries. This paper presents an overview of capacity expansion planning and its place in the economic planning process with reference to the emerging countries; describes in a general way the use of WASP; cautions care in the interpretation of WASP results; and suggests the way in which WASP can be used to assess innovative electric generating technologies.

  20. ABSORBING GAS AROUND THE WASP-12 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Floeer, L. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Ayres, T. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Haswell, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bohlender, D. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Kochukhov, O., E-mail: lfossati@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: lfloeer@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: Thomas.Ayres@colorado.edu, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: david.bohlender@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: oleg.kochukhov@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index ( log R{sup '}{sub HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets.

  1. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M. [CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Martínez, C. [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  2. Candidate genes for individual recognition in Polistes fuscatus paper wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, A J; Tibbetts, E A; Toth, A L

    2016-02-01

    Few animals are known to individually recognize conspecifics, i.e. learn and recall unique individuals during subsequent encounters, and nearly all are social vertebrates. Remarkably, the social paper wasp Polistes fuscatus has recently been discovered to possess this ability, which is useful for remembering identities during competitive social interactions. We analyzed brain gene expression in staged encounters between pairs of individuals to explore potential mechanisms underlying wasps' ability to recall familiar individuals using real-time qRT-PCR. We identified four candidate genes (IP3K, IP3R, Nckx30C and Su(var)2-10) that were down-regulated in the presence of familiar individuals compared to single wasps and pairs of wasps meeting for the first time. These candidate genes are related to calcium signaling, therefore, we treated wasps with lithium chloride, a pharmacological agent that inhibits calcium signaling in neurons. This treatment decreased aggression in paper wasps, but did not affect expression of genes related to calcium signaling. The results suggest calcium signaling differences may be related to individual memory recall in wasps, and we present four promising candidate genes for future study. These data suggest genes associated with dominance behavior may be co-opted for individual recognition, but further work is needed to establish a causal association with the behavior.

  3. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Ronquist

    Full Text Available Gall wasps (Cynipidae represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini, which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2 markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will

  4. Hubble/WFC3 Spectroscopy of the Transiting Exoplanets WASP-19b and WASP-17b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, A.; Haynes, K.; Sinukoff, E.; Deming, D.; Wlikins, A.; Madhusudhan, N.; Agol, E.; Burrows, A.; Charbonneau, D.; Gilliland, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of transiting exoplanets that target extremes in parameter space offer the best chance to disentangle the structure and composition of the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. WASP-19b is one of the hottest exoplanets discovered to date, while WASP-17b has a much lower equilibrium temperature but has one of the largest atmospheric radii of known transiting planets. We discuss results from HST/WFC3 grism 1.1-1.7 micron spectroscopy of these planets during transit. We compare our integrated-light transit depths to previous IR transit photometry, and derive the 1.4-micron water absorption spectrum. We discuss implications for the atmospheric composition and structure of these hot Jupiters, and outline future observations that will further expand on these results.

  5. Wasp Work: An Anytime Study of Summer Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses use of a hornet or wasp nest as an inexpensive science investigation on thermoregulation. The investigation can be done during the winter months and adapted to various levels. Sample results and background material are included. (JM)

  6. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  7. From dense hot Jupiter to low-density Neptune: The discovery of WASP-127b, WASP-136b, and WASP-138b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. W. F.; Faedi, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hébrard, G.; Lendl, M.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Turner, O. D.; Hay, K. L.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Boumis, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hellier, C.; Henning, T.; Jehin, E.; King, G.; Kirk, J.; Louden, T.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J. J.; Osborn, H. P.; Palle, E.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2017-03-01

    We report three newly discovered exoplanets from the SuperWASP survey. WASP-127b is a heavily inflated super-Neptune of mass 0.18±0.02 MJ and radius 1.37±0.04 RJ. This is one of the least massive planets discovered by the WASP project. It orbits a bright host star (Vmag = 10.16) of spectral type G5 with a period of 4.17 days. WASP-127b is a low-density planet that has an extended atmosphere with a scale height of 2500 ± 400 km, making it an ideal candidate for transmission spectroscopy. WASP-136b and WASP-138b are both hot Jupiters with mass and radii of 1.51 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.38 ± 0.16 RJ, and 1.22 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.09 ± 0.05 RJ, respectively. WASP-136b is in a 5.22-day orbit around an F9 subgiant star with a mass of 1.41 ± 0.07 M⊙ and a radius of 2.21 ± 0.22 R⊙. The discovery of WASP-136b could help constrain the characteristics of the giant planet population around evolved stars. WASP-138b orbits an F7 star with a period of 3.63 days. Its radius agrees with theoretical values from standard models, suggesting the presence of a heavy element core with a mass of 10 M⊕. The discovery of these new planets helps in exploring the diverse compositional range of short-period planets, and will aid our understanding of the physical characteristics of both gas giants and low-density planets. Radial velocity and photometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A3

  8. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  9. Data Requirements for WAsP, CFD & WRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas

    Flow model uncertainty is often caused by the models inability to correctly describe the wind flow. However, another important and often overlooked source of error is the topographical input data used for the flow modelling; these must be sufficiently detailed and accurate to obtain accurate resu...... results. This report reviews the equirements of WAsP, WAsP CFD and WRF on the topographical input data to obtain accurate results....

  10. Follow-up Observations of WASP-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutra, Taylor; Boley, Aaron; Hughes, Anna; Hickson, Paul

    2017-06-01

    This ongoing work aims to provide follow-up observations of known transiting extrasolar planets using the 35-cm robotic telescope at The University of British Columbia's Southern Observatory (USO), located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The observations are part of a long-term effort to search for changes in transit signatures, such as transit timing variations (TTVs) and transit duration variations (TDVs), which could indicate, for example, the presence of additional planets. To help characterize the USO for transit searches, we acquired I-band observations of WASP-36 spanning from 17 January 2017 to 27 February 2017. Three complete transits and one partial transit are included in the data. We present the analysis of these new observations and discuss potential future targets.

  11. Larval RNAi in Nasonia (parasitoid wasp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werren, John H; Loehlin, David W; Giebel, Jonathan D

    2009-10-01

    Nasonia is a complex of four closely related species of wasps with several features that make it an excellent system for a variety of genetic studies. These include a short generation time, ease of rearing, interfertile species, visible and molecular markers, and a sequenced genome. Furthermore, its parasitoid lifestyle allows investigations of questions relating to parasitoid/host dynamics, host preference, and specialist versus generalist biology. It also can serve as a behavior model for studies of courtship, male aggression and territoriality, female dispersal, and sex ratio control. This protocol describes a method to use RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down genes in Nasonia larvae. Unlike in Drosophila, RNAi in Nasonia is systemic. In the example presented here, adult red-eye-color phenotypes are produced by injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against the eye color gene cinnabar into last-instar Nasonia larvae.

  12. Natural Thermoelectric Heat Pump in Social Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S.; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J.

    2003-05-01

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 °C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 °C.

  13. Natural thermoelectric heat pump in social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S; Pertsis, Vitaly; Rave, Eran; Goren, Alon; Bergman, David J

    2003-05-30

    Photographs of wasps or hornets, taken with different temperature sensitive infrared cameras, reveal body temperatures that are sometimes significantly lower than the ambient temperature. This suggests that the hornets possess an intrinsic biological heat pump mechanism which can be used to achieve such cooling. Evidence is presented to substantiate this novel suggestion and to argue that the heat pump is most likely implemented by exploiting a thermoelectric effect in the hornet cuticle. Such a natural heat pump can conceivably also serve to cool the active hornet, engaged in daytime activities outside the nest at ambient temperatures exceeding 40 degrees C, to a body temperature that is low enough to allow its survival in extreme thermal conditions. It might also function as a means of raising the body temperature up to a level that enables the hornet to remain active even when the ambient temperature is as low as 10 degrees C.

  14. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian R; Borowiec, Marek L; Chiu, Joanna C; Lee, Ernest K; Atallah, Joel; Ward, Philip S

    2013-10-21

    Eusocial behavior has arisen in few animal groups, most notably in the aculeate Hymenoptera, a clade comprising ants, bees, and stinging wasps [1-4]. Phylogeny is crucial to understanding the evolution of the salient features of these insects, including eusociality [5]. Yet the phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of aculeate Hymenoptera remain contentious [6-12]. We address this problem here by generating and analyzing genomic data for a representative series of taxa. We obtain a single well-resolved and strongly supported tree, robust to multiple methods of phylogenetic inference. Apoidea (spheciform wasps and bees) and ants are sister groups, a novel finding that contradicts earlier views that ants are closer to ectoparasitoid wasps. Vespid wasps (paper wasps, yellow jackets, and relatives) are sister to all other aculeates except chrysidoids. Thus, all eusocial species of Hymenoptera are contained within two major groups, characterized by transport of larval provisions and nest construction, likely prerequisites for the evolution of eusociality. These two lineages are interpolated among three other clades of wasps whose species are predominantly ectoparasitoids on concealed hosts, the inferred ancestral condition for aculeates [2]. This phylogeny provides a new framework for exploring the evolution of nesting, feeding, and social behavior within the stinging Hymenoptera. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...

  16. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  17. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  18. WASP-47 and the Origin of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette; Latham, David W.; Adams, Fred; Bryan, Marta; Buchhave, Lars; Haywood, Raphaelle; Khain, Tali; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Mortier, Annelies; HARPS-N Consortium

    2018-01-01

    WASP-47 b is a transiting hot Jupiter in a system with two additional short-period transiting planets and a long-period outer Jovian companion. WASP-47 b is the only known hot Jupiter with such close-in companions and therefore may hold clues to the origins of hot Jupiter systems. We report on precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47 to measure planet masses and determine their orbits to high precision. Using these improved masses and orbital elements, we perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the inclination of the outer planet, which we find likely orbits near the same plane as the inner transiting system. A similar dynamical analysis for five other hot Jupiter systems with long-period companions around cool host stars (Teff Jupiters. These constraints disfavor hot Jupiter models involving strong dynamical interactions like Kozai-Lidov migration.

  19. Cross-reactivity between Anisakis spp. and wasp venom allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Monsalve, Rafael I; Galán, Agustin; Perez-Piñar, Teresa; Umpierrez, Ana; Lluch-Bernal, Magdalena; Polo, Francisco; Caballero, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Anisakiasis is caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods parasitized by live L3 larvae of nematode Anisakis spp. Larvae anchor to stomach mucosa releasing excretion/secretion products which contain the main allergens. It has been described that nematode larvae release venom allergen-like proteins among their excretion/secretion products. We investigated potential cross-reactivity between Anisakis and wasp venom allergens. Two groups of 25 patients each were studied: wasp venom- and Anisakis-allergic patients. Sera from patients were tested by ImmunoCAP, dot-blotting with recombinant Anisakis allergens and ADVIA-Centaur system with Hymenoptera allergens. Cross-reactivity was assessed by IgE immunoblotting inhibition assays. Role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) was studied by inhibition with bromelain and periodate treatment. A total of 40% of wasp venom-allergic patients had specific IgE to Anisakis simplex and 20% detected at least one of the Anisakis recombinant allergens tested. Likewise, 44% of Anisakis-allergic patients had specific IgE to Vespula spp. venom and 16% detected at least one of the Hymenoptera allergens tested. Wasp venom-allergic patients detected CCDs in Anisakis extract and peptide epitopes on Anisakis allergens rAni s 1 and rAni s 9, whereas Anisakis-allergic patients only detected CCDs on nVes v 1 allergen from Vespula spp. venom. The only Anisakis allergen inhibited by Vespula venom was rAni s 9. This is the first time that cross-sensitization between wasp venom and Anisakis is described. CCDs are involved in both cases; however, peptide epitopes are only recognized by wasp venom-allergic patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program: WAsP 11 Help Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a PC-program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind climates. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations...... of specific wind turbines and wind farms. The WAsP Help Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference. It further includes descriptions of the Observed Wind Climate Wizard, the WAsP Climate Analyst, the WAsP Map Editor tool, the WAsP Turbine Editor tool, the Air Density...

  1. A costly sting! Preputial gangrene following a wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath S Hanchanale

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile injuries due to bites and stings are under-reported. The extent of injury depends not only on the initial trauma but also on the secondary injuries due to toxins and bacterial infections transmitted by the bite. Wasp bites are on the increase worldwide as humans encroach on their habitat. We report a case of wasp bite to the preputial skin of the penis leading to severe phimosis, difficulty in micturition and localized gangrene requiring emergency circumcision. Analysis of such cases can provide important information on the determinants of severe morbidity that may then be used in injury prevention.

  2. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  3. The thermogenic center in social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S; Plotkin, Marian; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Volynchik, Stanislav; Barkay, Zahava; Bergman, David J

    2006-01-01

    In the social wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula germanica (Hymenoptera, Vespinae), a thermogenic center has been found in the dorsal part of the first thoracic segment. The temperature in this region of the prothorax is higher by 6-9 degrees C than that at the tip of the abdomen, and this in actively flying hornets outside the nest (workers, males or queens) as well as in hornets inside the nest that attend to the brood in the combs. On viewing the region from the outside, one discerns a canal or rather a fissure in the cuticle, which commences at the center of the dorsal surface of the prothorax and extends till the mesothorax. Thus the length of this canal or fissure is approximately 5-7 mm and it is seen to contain numerous thin hairs whose shape varies from that of the hairs alongside the structure. Beneath the cuticle in this region there are dorsoventral as well as longitudinal muscles in abundance, much the same as the musculature in the remaining thoracic segments (i.e. the meso- and metathorax), which activate the two pairs of wings. The canal-bearing segment is of course devoid of wings, and its dorsoventral muscles are attached to the cuticle, which in this region resembles a bowl harboring several layers of epithelium that boasts numerous butterfly-shaped tracheal branches. Additionally there are layers that display lymph-filled spaces and also perforated layers and depressions, and beneath all these is a lace-like layer that also coats the cuticle's hollows. Underneath the cuticle proper, there are numerous large mitochondria and tracheae, which occupy a considerable part of the cuticular epithelium surface. These abundant mitochondria are, most probably, the main element of heat production in the thermogenic center.

  4. Venom gland components of the ectoparasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae is a small ectoparasitoid that attacks stored product pest beetle larvae that develop inside grain kernels, and is thus a potential insect control tool. The components of the venom have not been studied, but venom peptides from other organisms have been identified ...

  5. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) that occur on oak trees (Quercus spp.) and produce galls on a certain part of the host. In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in ...

  6. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  7. A mechanical signal biases caste development in a social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath Suryanarayanan; John C. Hermanson; Robert L. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the proximate mechanisms of caste development in eusocial taxa can reveal how social species evolved from solitary ancestors. In Polistes wasps, the current paradigm holds that differential amounts of nutrition during the larval stage cause the divergence of worker and gyne (potential queen) castes. But nutrition level alone cannot explain how the first...

  8. Validation of the Revised WAsP Park Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole Steen; Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Leon, J.P. Murcia

    The DTU Wind Energy wind-resource model WAsP contains a wind farm wake model Park (Park1). This Park model in has been revised, Park2, to improve prediction accuracy in large wind farms, based on sound physical and mathematical principles: consistent wake-modelling and perturbation theory for wak...

  9. History and management of sirex wood wasp in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and management of Sirex noctilio in Australia, including information from previous reviews as well as more recent data. The sirex wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata in Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Turkey, S...

  10. The WASP-South search for transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006 WASP-South has been scanning the Southern sky for transiting exoplanets. Combined with Geneva Observatory radial velocities we have so far found over 30 transiting exoplanets around relatively bright stars of magnitude 9–13. We present a status report for this ongoing survey.

  11. Mechanisms Underlying the Nonconsumptive Effects of Parasitoid Wasps on Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerslew, K S; Finke, D L

    2017-02-01

    Natural enemies need not consume herbivores to suppress herbivore populations. Behavioral interactions can adversely impact herbivore fitness from reduced time feeding, investment in defense, or injury from failed attacks. The importance of such "nonconsumptive effects" for herbivore suppression may vary across species based on the specificity and intensity of the herbivore defensive response. In a series of manipulative studies, we quantified the nature and consequences of nonconsumptive interactions between two parasitoid wasps, Aphidius ervi Haliday and Aphidius colemani Viereck, on two aphid species, pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) and green peach aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer)). Both wasps successfully parasitize green peach aphids, but only A. ervi parasitizes pea aphids. We observed A. ervi antennating and stinging pea aphids and documented a decrease in pea aphid longevity in response to stinging even when the aphid survived the interaction and no mummy formed. The primary defensive tactic of pea aphids in response to either wasp species was dropping from the host plant. Both wasp species antennated and stung green peach aphids, but they elicited unique defensive behaviors. Green peach aphids kicked or emitted cornicle secretions in response to A. colemani but spent more time off the plant in the presence of A. ervi. Green peach aphid longevity and fecundity were not affected by wasp stings when the aphid survived and no mummy formed. Our study demonstrates the complexity of behavioral interactions between parasitoids and their potential hosts and contributes to a mechanistic understanding of variation in the nonconsumptive suppression of herbivore populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohacsova, Monika; Mediannikov, Oleg; Kazimirova, Maria; Raoult, Didier; Sekeyova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria) in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  13. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  14. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean McCann

    Full Text Available Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1 video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2 analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3 inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests. Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  15. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Sean; Moeri, Onour; Jones, Tanya; Scott, Catherine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Regine; O'Donnell, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae) are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1) video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2) analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3) inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests). Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  16. Host-plant species conservatism and ecology of a parasitoid fig wasp genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McLeish

    Full Text Available Parasitoid diversity in terrestrial ecosystems is enormous. However, ecological processes underpinning their evolutionary diversification in association with other trophic groups are still unclear. Specialisation and interdependencies among chalcid wasps that reproduce on Ficus presents an opportunity to investigate the ecology of a multi-trophic system that includes parasitoids. Here we estimate the host-plant species specificity of a parasitoid fig wasp genus that attacks the galls of non-pollinating pteromalid and pollinating agaonid fig wasps. We discuss the interactions between parasitoids and the Ficus species present in a forest patch of Uganda in context with populations in Southern Africa. Haplotype networks are inferred to examine intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergences and phylogenetic approaches used to infer putative species relationships. Taxonomic appraisal and putative species delimitation by molecular and morphological techniques are compared. Results demonstrate that a parasitoid fig wasp population is able to reproduce on at least four Ficus species present in a patch. This suggests that parasitoid fig wasps have relatively broad host-Ficus species ranges compared to fig wasps that oviposit internally. Parasitoid fig wasps did not recruit on all available host plants present in the forest census area and suggests an important ecological consequence in mitigating fitness trade-offs between pollinator and Ficus reproduction. The extent to which parasitoid fig wasps exert influence on the pollination mutualism must consider the fitness consequences imposed by the ability to interact with phenotypes of multiple Ficus and fig wasps species, but not equally across space and time.

  17. Now you see me - the WASP-117b version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Ludmila

    2017-08-01

    WASP-117b is an unique exoplanet as it's elliptical orbit causes the temperature of the atmosphere to cross the 970 K temperature boundary, which separates the disequilibrium and equilibrium chemistry regime. Due to the long orbital period (10.022 days) compared to chemistry and dynamical time scales and due to the orbital orientation, we can expect the planet to be well in the disequilibrium chemistry temperature regime (Teff albedo and cloud coverage. Since the planet is expected to spend several days each in the disequilibrium and equilibrium chemistry regime over the course of one orbit, HST observations will also provide a vital first input for planning future phase resolved JWST observations. The latter will allow to investigate atmosphere and cloud composition changes as WASP-117b switches in between chemical regimes.

  18. Detection of sodium in the atmosphere of WASP-69b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasayas-Barris, N.; Palle, E.; Nowak, G.; Yan, F.; Nortmann, L.; Murgas, F.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Transit spectroscopy is one of the most commonly used methods to characterize exoplanets' atmospheres. From the ground, these observations are very challenging due to the terrestrial atmosphere and its intrinsic variations, but high-spectral-resolution observations overcome this difficulty by resolving the spectral lines and taking advantage of the different Doppler velocities of the Earth, the host star, and the exoplanet. Aims: We analyze the transmission spectrum around the Na I doublet at 589 nm of the extrasolar planet WASP-69b, a hot Jupiter orbiting a K-type star with a period of 3.868 days, and compare the analysis to that of the well-known hot Jupiter HD 189733b. We also present the analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect for WASP-69b. Methods: We observed two transits of WASP-69b with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS-North) spectrograph (R = 115 000) at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). We perform a telluric contamination subtraction based on the comparison between the observed spectra and a telluric water model. Then, the common steps of the differential spectroscopy are followed to extract the transmission spectrum. The method is tested with archival transit data of the extensively studied exoplanet HD 189733b, obtained with the HARPS-South spectrograph at ESO 3.6 m telescope, and then applied to WASP-69b data. Results: For HD 189733b, we spectrally resolve the Na I doublet and measure line contrasts of 0.72 ± 0.05% (D2) and 0.51 ± 0.05% (D1), and full width half maximum (FWHM) values of 0.64 ± 0.04 Å (D2) and 0.60 ± 0.06 Å (D1), in agreement with previously published results. For WASP-69b only the contrast of the D2 line can be measured (5.8 ± 0.3%). This corresponds to a detection at the 5σ-level of excess absorption of 0.5 ± 0.1% in a passband of 1.5 Å. A net blueshift of 0.04 Å is measured for HD 189733b and no shift is obtained for WASP-69b. By measuring the RM effect, we get an angular

  19. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSE DEPTHS WITH MULTIPLE INTRAPIXEL SENSITIVITY CORRECTION METHODS OBSERVATIONS OF WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, AND HAT-P-22b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Box 1843, Brown University, Providence, RI 02904 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kataria, Tiffany [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E., E-mail: brian_kilpatrick@brown.edu, E-mail: nlewis@stsci.org, E-mail: tiffany.kataria@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: krick@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μ m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope . Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  20. Laterally Transferred Gene Recruited as a Venom in Parasitoid Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Werren, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps use venom to manipulate the immunity and metabolism of their host insects in a variety of ways to provide resources for their offspring. Yet, how genes are recruited and evolve to perform venom functions remain open questions. A recently recognized source of eukaryotic genome innovation is lateral gene transfer (LGT). Glycoside hydrolase family 19 (GH19) chitinases are widespread in bacteria, microsporidia, and plants where they are used in nutrient acquisition or defense, but have previously not been known in metazoans. In this study, a GH19 chitinase LGT is described from the unicellular microsporidia/Rozella clade into parasitoid wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, where it has become recruited as a venom protein. The GH19 chitinase is present in 15 species of chalcidoid wasps representing four families, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it was laterally transferred near or before the origin of Chalcidoidea (∼95 Ma). The GH19 chitinase gene is highly expressed in the venom gland of at least seven species, indicating a role in the complex host manipulations performed by parasitoid wasp venom. RNAi knockdown in the model parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis reveals that—following envenomation—the GH19 chitinase induces fly hosts to upregulate genes involved in an immune response to fungi. A second, independent LGT of GH19 chitinase from microsporidia into mosquitoes was also found, also supported by phylogenetic reconstructions. Besides these two LGT events, GH19 chitinase is not found in any other sequenced animal genome, or in any fungi outside the microsporidia/Rozella clade. PMID:26715630

  1. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  2. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  3. Early memory in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmann, Daria; Kugel, Dominic; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2015-04-01

    We studied early memory in Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitoid of fly pupae and emerging model organism for ecological questions in the context of learning. After associative training consisting of one drilling experience in a host in the presence of cinnamon, females showed a preference to cinnamon for at least 24 h. To study sensitisation, wasps were trained by one drilling in a host without cinnamon. These wasps were not attracted to cinnamon immediately afterwards. Obviously, sensitisation is not involved in early memory. Wasps that were anaesthetised by CO2 directly after associative training did not react to cinnamon 30-45 min later, but after 1 and 24 h. CO2 treatment≥5 min after training did not erase the reaction to cinnamon. This indicates the existence of four early memory phases. (a) One phase<5 min after training, in which CO2 has to be applied to become effective. (b) One subsequent phase which is resistant to CO2. (c) One phase<1 h in which memory can be erased by CO2 treatment directly after training. (d) One phase 1-24 h not affected by CO2 treatment. Together with earlier data this enables us to establish a complete memory structure for N. vitripennis.

  4. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Delrez, Laetitia [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Barker, Adrian J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel, E-mail: awilkins@astro.umd.edu [Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, allée du 6 Août 19C, B-4000 Lige (Belgium)

    2017-02-20

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b ( M{sub p} = 10.3 M{sub J}, a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q ′, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer ) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope ) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q ′ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q ′ ≥ 1 × 10{sup 6}, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  5. Write a scientific paper (WASP) - a career-critical skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Cuschieri, Sarah

    2018-01-17

    The ability to write a scientific paper (WASP) is becoming progressively more critical because the "publish or perish" mantra is increasingly valid in today's world where success is judged by number of publications and quality of publications based on journals which publish the researcher's work. These metrics are used to gauge applicants in often cut-throat competitions for jobs and/or career advancement. However, the science and art of paper-writing comprise a vast panoply of different skills, from writing a proposal, to ethics and data protection applications, to data collection and analysis, to writing and dealing with editors and authors, and so on. Over the next few issues, Early Human Development will embark on a series of Best Practice Guidelines that will outline and explain the various requisite WASP skills while providing practical guidelines for paper writing. The purpose is to impart the authors' collective experience to trainees in this crucial aspect of career progress. This first set of WASP papers will mainly focus on statistical analysis using Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. WASP-12b and Its Possible Fiery Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Jupiter-like planets on orbits close to their hosts are predicted to spiral ever closer to their hosts until they meet their eventual demise and yet weve never observed orbital decay. Could WASP-12b provide the first evidence?Undetected PredictionsSince the discovery of the first hot Jupiter more than 20 years ago, weve studied a number of these peculiar exoplanets. Despite our many observations, two phenomena predicted of hot Jupiters have not yet been detected, due to the long timescales needed to identify them:Tidal orbital decayTidal forces should cause a hot Jupiters orbit to shrink over time, causing the planet to eventually spiral into its host star. This phenomenon would explain a number of statistical properties of observed star-planet systems (for instance, the scarcity of gas giants with periods less than a day).An illustration of apsidal precession. [Mpfiz]Apsidal precessionThe orbits of hot Jupiters should be apsidally precessing on timescales of decades, as long as they are at least slightly eccentric. Since the precession rate depends on the planets tidally deformed mass distribution, measuring this would allow us to probe the interior of the planet.A team of scientists led by Kishore Patra (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) think that the hot Jupiter WASP-12b may be our first chance to study one of these two phenomena. The question is, which one?WASP-12bWASP-12b has orbital period of 1.09 days one of the shortest periods observed for a giant planet and weve monitored it for a decade, making it a great target to test for both of these long-term effects.Timing residuals for WASP-12b. Squares show the new data points, circles show previous data from the past decade. The data are better fit by the decay model than the precession model, but both are still consistent. [Patra et al. 2017]Patra and collaborators made transit observations with the 1.2-m telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona and occultation observations with the

  7. Effects of Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling on the Complexity of Monoaminergic Neurons in a Minute Parasitic Wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps show large phenotypic plasticity in brain and body size, resulting in a 5-fold difference in brain volume among genetically identical sister wasps. Brain volume scales linearly with body volume in these wasps. This isometric brain scaling forms an exception to

  8. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906),

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: newly discovered planets from WASP-South (Turner+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    Lightcurves and radial velocity data of three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey. Discovery data come from the WASP-South telescope (SAAO, South Africa) with follow-up lightcurves from the TRAPPIST telescope and EulerCam on the Swiss telescope (La Silla, Chile). Radial velocity data are from the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss telescope. (6 data files).

  10. Demonstration of long-term memory in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurmann, D.; Sommer, C.; Schinko, A.P.B.; Greschista, M.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the formation of protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of fly pupae. Female wasps were trained in one of five different training procedures in the presence of hosts and the odour

  11. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti

  12. WAsP E-learning - Developing and running an interactive online course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Jowitt, William Richard

    This report describes the development and testing of an E-learning course in WAsP – the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program. WAsP is the industry standard tool for wind energy resource assessment. The software is developed and distributed by the Department of Wind Energy at the Technical ...

  13. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  14. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 3: Plotting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-13

    The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of the Revised WAsP Park Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole Steen; Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Leon, J.P. Murcia

    The DTU Wind Energy wind-resource model WAsP contains a wind farm wake model Park (Park1). This Park model in has been revised, Park2, to improve prediction accuracy in large wind farms, based on sound physical and mathematical principles: consistent wake-modelling and perturbation theory for wake......-wake-interaction. Park2 has been validated and calibrated using a number of off-shore and on-shore wind farms. The calibration has resulted in recommended values for the wakeexpansion coefficients of the Park2 model....

  16. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Chisato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Oshima, Takuma [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Takenouchi, Takato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Chiba, Joe [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kitani, Hiroshi [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.

  17. The discoveries of WASP-91b, WASP-105b and WASP-107b: Two warm Jupiters and a planet in the transition region between ice giants and gas giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Madhusudhan, N.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    We report the discoveries of three transiting exoplanets. WASP-91b is a warm Jupiter (1.34 MJup, 1.03 RJup) in a 2.8-day orbit around a metal-rich K3 star. WASP-105b is a warm Jupiter (1.8 MJup, 0.96 RJup) in a 7.9-day orbit around a metal-rich K2 star. WASP-107b is a warm super-Neptune/sub-Saturn (0.12 MJup, 0.94 RJup) in a 5.7-day orbit around a solar-metallicity K6 star. Considering that giant planets seem to be more common around stars of higher metallicity and stars of higher mass, it is notable that the hosts are all metal-rich, late-type stars. With orbital separations that place both WASP-105b and WASP-107b in the weak-tide regime, measurements of the alignment between the planets' orbital axes and their stars' spin axes may help us to understand the inward migration of short-period, giant planets. The mass of WASP-107b (2.2 MNep, 0.40 MSat) places it in the transition region between the ice giants and gas giants of the Solar System. Its radius of 0.94 RJup suggests that it is a low-mass gas giant with a H/He-dominated composition. The planet thus sets a lower limit of 2.2 MNep on the planetary mass above which large gaseous envelopes can be accreted and retained by proto-planets on their way to becoming gas giants. We may discover whether WASP-107b more closely resembles an ice giant or a gas giant by measuring its atmospheric metallicity via transmission spectroscopy, for which WASP-107b is a very good target. Based on observations made with: the WASP-South photometric survey instrument, the 0.6-m TRAPPIST robotic imager, and the EulerCam camera and the CORALIE spectrograph mounted on the 1.2-m Euler-Swiss telescope.The photometric time-series and radial-velocity data used in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A110

  18. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  19. Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  20. HST PanCET Program: A Cloudy Atmosphere for the Promising JWST Target WASP-101b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, H. R.; Mandell, A. [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stevenson, K. B.; Lewis, N. K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sing, D. K.; Evans, T. [Astrophysics Group, Physics Building, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); López-Morales, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marley, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-5, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kataria, T. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballester, G. E. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1541 E Univ. Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barstow, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Ben-Jaffel, L. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D. [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Buchhave, L. A. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); García Muñoz, A., E-mail: hannah.wakeford@nasa.gov [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2017-01-20

    We present results from the first observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanet Treasury program for WASP-101b, a highly inflated hot Jupiter and one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) Early Release Science (ERS) program. From a single HST Wide Field Camera 3 observation, we find that the near-infrared transmission spectrum of WASP-101b contains no significant H{sub 2}O absorption features and we rule out a clear atmosphere at 13 σ . Therefore, WASP-101b is not an optimum target for a JWST ERS program aimed at observing strong molecular transmission features. We compare WASP-101b to the well-studied and nearly identical hot Jupiter WASP-31b. These twin planets show similar temperature–pressure profiles and atmospheric features in the near-infrared. We suggest exoplanets in the same parameter space as WASP-101b and WASP-31b will also exhibit cloudy transmission spectral features. For future HST exoplanet studies, our analysis also suggests that a lower count limit needs to be exceeded per pixel on the detector in order to avoid unwanted instrumental systematics.

  1. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  2. Accidental genetic engineers: horizontal sequence transfer from parasitoid wasps to their Lepidopteran hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean E Schneider

    Full Text Available We show here that 105 regions in two Lepidoptera genomes appear to derive from horizontally transferred wasp DNA. We experimentally verified the presence of two of these sequences in a diverse set of silkworm (Bombyx mori genomes. We hypothesize that these horizontal transfers are made possible by the unusual strategy many parasitoid wasps employ of injecting hosts with endosymbiotic polydnaviruses to minimize the host's defense response. Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host. Two transferred sequences code for a BEN domain, known to be associated with polydnaviruses and transcriptional regulation. These findings represent the first documented cases of horizontal transfer of genes between two organisms by a polydnavirus. This presents an interesting evolutionary paradigm in which host species can acquire new sequences from parasitoid wasps that attack them. Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera diverged ∼300 MYA, making this type of event a source of novel sequences for recipient species. Unlike many other cases of horizontal transfer between two eukaryote species, these sequence transfers can be explained without the need to invoke the sequences 'hitchhiking' on a third organism (e.g. retrovirus capable of independent reproduction. The cellular machinery necessary for the transfer is contained entirely in the wasp genome. The work presented here is the first such discovery of what is likely to be a broader phenomenon among species affected by these wasps.

  3. Complementary Sex Determination in the Parasitic Wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela; Muntaabski, Irina; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Viscarret, Mariana; Juri, Marianela; Fueyo-Sánchez, Luciana; Papeschi, Alba; Cladera, Jorge; Bressa, María José

    2015-01-01

    We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD) known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD) or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD). Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general. PMID:25789748

  4. The occurrence of fig wasps in the fruits of female gynodioecious fig trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Dunn, Derek W.; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Niu, Li-Ming; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Pan, Xian-Li; Feng, Gui; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by wasp mutualists, whose larvae consume some of the plant's ovaries. Many fig species (350+) are gynodioecious, whereby pollinators generally develop in the figs of 'male' trees and seeds generally in the 'females.' Pollinators usually cannot reproduce in 'female' figs at all because their ovipositors cannot penetrate the long flower styles to gall the ovaries. Many non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) species also only reproduce in figs. These wasps can be either phytophagous gallers or parasites of other wasps. The lack of pollinators in female figs may thus constrain or benefit different NPFWs through host absence or relaxed competition. To determine the rates of wasp occurrence and abundance we surveyed 11 dioecious fig species on Hainan Island, China, and performed subsequent experiments with Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa to identify the trophic relationships between NPFWs that enable development in female syconia. We found NPFWs naturally occurring in the females of Ficus auriculata, Ficus hainanensis and F. tinctoria subsp. gibbosa. Because pollinators occurred only in male syconia, when NPFWs also occurred in female syconia, overall there were more wasps in male than in female figs. Species occurrence concurred with experimental data, which showed that at least one phytophagous galler NPFW is essential to enable multiple wasp species to coexist within a female fig. Individuals of galler NPFW species present in both male and female figs of the same fig species were more abundant in females than in males, consistent with relaxed competition due to the absence of pollinator. However, these wasps replaced pollinators on a fewer than one-to-one basis, inferring that other unknown mechanisms prevent the widespread exploitation by wasps of female figs. Because some NPFW species may use the holes chewed by pollinator males to escape from their natal fig, we suggest that dispersal factors could be involved.

  5. Conditional N-WASP knockout in mouse brain implicates actin cytoskeleton regulation in hydrocephalus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neeraj; Lim, Lee Wei; Tan, Wei Ting; George, Bhawana; Makeyev, Eugene; Thanabalu, Thirumaran

    2014-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus and moved by multi-ciliated ependymal cells through the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain. Defects in the ependymal layer functionality are a common cause of hydrocephalus. N-WASP (Neural-Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein) is a brain-enriched regulator of actin cytoskeleton and N-WASP knockout caused embryonic lethality in mice with neural tube and cardiac abnormalities. To shed light on the role of N-WASP in mouse brain development, we generated N-WASP conditional knockout mouse model N-WASP(fl/fl); Nestin-Cre (NKO-Nes). NKO-Nes mice were born with Mendelian ratios but exhibited reduced growth characteristics compared to their littermates containing functional N-WASP alleles. Importantly, all NKO-Nes mice developed cranial deformities due to excessive CSF accumulation and did not survive past weaning. Coronal brain sections of these animals revealed dilated lateral ventricles, defects in ciliogenesis, loss of ependymal layer integrity, reduced thickness of cerebral cortex and aqueductal stenosis. Immunostaining for N-cadherin suggests that ependymal integrity in NKO-Nes mice is lost as compared to normal morphology in the wild-type controls. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence analyses of coronal brain sections with anti-acetylated tubulin antibodies revealed the absence of cilia in ventricular walls of NKO-Nes mice indicative of ciliogenesis defects. N-WASP deficiency does not lead to altered expression of N-WASP regulatory proteins, Fyn and Cdc42, which have been previously implicated in hydrocephalus pathology. Taken together, our results suggest that N-WASP plays a critical role in normal brain development and implicate actin cytoskeleton regulation as a vulnerable axis frequently deregulated in hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lozada

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication, foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded, or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted. Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  7. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  8. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  9. Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Strand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is a common phenomenon in which associated organisms can cooperate in ways that increase their ability to survive, reproduce, or utilize hostile environments. Here, we discuss polydnavirus symbionts of parasitic wasps. These viruses are novel in two ways: (1 they have become non-autonomous domesticated entities that cannot replicate outside of wasps; and (2 they function as a delivery vector of genes that ensure successful parasitism of host insects that wasps parasitize. In this review we discuss how these novelties may have arisen, which genes are potentially involved, and what the consequences have been for genome evolution.

  10. An unusual case of sustained ventricular tachycardia following a wasp bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT is a life-threatening condition which requires immediate intervention. We report a case of unusual etiology of sustained VT in a 42-year-old male after a wasp bite in the absence of anaphylaxis. The patient was treated with amiodarone and improved within 48 h. Thus, wasp stings can lead to serious tachyarrhythmias which can be life-threatening. Emergency care physicians should be aware of such arrhythmias in the setting of wasp bites which can be fatal.

  11. The wasp larva's last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lohrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalosomatidae are an unusual family of wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata comprising less than 100 species found in the tropics and subtropics of all continents except Europe and Antarctica. Whereas some species resemble nocturnal Ichneumonidae, others might be mistaken for spider wasps or different groups of brachypterous Hymenoptera. Despite their varied morphology, all members of the family supposedly develop as larval ectoparasitoids of crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea. Here, we report on the first record of a fossil rhopalosomatid larva which was discovered in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Burma. The larva is attached to the lateral side of a cricket between the metafemur and the abdomen, impacting the natural position of the hind leg, exactly as documented for modern species. Additionally, the larval gestalt is strikingly similar to those of extant forms. These observations imply that this behavioral specialization, e.g., host association and positioning on host, likely evolved in the stem of the family at least 100 million years ago.

  12. A unique nest-protection strategy in a new species of spider wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera show a great variation in reproductive potential and nesting behavior, from thousands of eggs in sawflies to just a dozen in nest-provisioning wasps. Reduction in reproductive potential in evolutionary derived Hymenoptera is often facilitated by advanced behavioral mechanisms and nesting strategies. Here we describe a surprising nesting behavior that was previously unknown in the entire animal kingdom: the use of a vestibular cell filled with dead ants in a new spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae species collected with trap nests in South-East China. We scientifically describe the 'Bone-house Wasp' as Deuteragenia ossarium sp. nov., named after graveyard bone-houses or ossuaries. We show that D. ossarium nests are less vulnerable to natural enemies than nests of other sympatric trap-nesting wasps, suggesting an effective nest protection strategy, most likely by utilizing chemical cues emanating from the dead ants.

  13. Sublethal doses of imidacloprid disrupt sexual communication and host finding in a parasitoid wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappert, Lars; Pokorny, Tamara; Hofferberth, John; Ruther, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all. Courtship behaviour of treated couples was also impeded resulting in a reduction of mating rates by up to 80%. Moreover, treated females were no longer able to locate hosts by using olfactory cues. Olfaction is crucial for the reproductive success of parasitoid wasps. Hence, sublethal doses of neonicotinoids might compromise the function of parasitoid wasps as natural enemies with potentially dire consequences for ecosystem services.

  14. 2009 Progress Report on Surveys of Bees and Some Wasps of Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes an updated list of bee and wasp species collected as part of study at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Report includes map of survey...

  15. New Double-Mode and Other RR Lyrae Stars from WASP Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wils, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    42 RRab, 46 RRc and 7 previously unidentified double-mode RR Lyrae stars were found in the publicly available data of the WASP archive. The Galactic double-mode RR Lyrae stars appear to show a bimodal period distribution.

  16. Different habitats, different habitats? Response to foraging information in the parasitic wasp Venturia canescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, A.; Driessen, G.J.J.; Hoffmeister, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    The parasitic wasp, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), has two reproductive modes, namely, thelytoky or arrhenotoky, and occurs in habitats with highly variable or relatively stable host abundances, respectively. Since information processing is costly, we expected that

  17. Preliminary report on the segregation of resistance in chestnuts to infestation by oriental chestnut gall wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Anagnostakis; Stacy Clark; Henry Mcnab

    2009-01-01

    In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.),where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ispresent. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the

  18. Activities of Venom Proteins and Peptides with Possible Therapeutic Applications from Bees and WASPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiujuan; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Charlene C W; Chan, Gabriel H H; Sze, Stephen C W; Zhang, Kalin Y; Naude, Ryno; Rolka, Krzysztof; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-01-01

    The variety of proteins and peptides isolated from honey bee venom and wasp venom includes melittin, adiapin, apamine, bradykinin, cardiopep, mast cell degranulating peptide, mastoparan, phospholipase A2 and secapin. Some of the activities they demonstrate may find therapeutic applications.

  19. Altered Host Plant Volatiles Are Proxies for Sex Pheromones in the Gall Wasp Antistrophus rufus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John F. Tooker; Wilfried A. Koenig; Lawrence M. Hanks

    2002-01-01

    ...: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L...

  20. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee...... only for Odense and 2009-2014 for the whole region). Discharge summaries with diagnosis related to anaphylaxis according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) were reviewed to identify bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions. The severity of the anaphylactic reaction...... was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. RESULTS: We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced...

  1. The long-term population dynamics of common wasps in their native and invaded range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Philip J; Haywood, John; Archer, Michael E; Shortall, Chris R

    2017-03-01

    Populations of introduced species are often thought to perform differently, or experience different population dynamics, in their introduced range compared to their native habitat. Differences between habitats in climate, competition or natural enemies may result in populations with varying density dependence and population dynamics. We examined the long-term population dynamics of the invasive common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, in its native range in England and its invaded range in New Zealand. We used 39 years of wasp density data from four sites in England, and 23 years of data from six sites in New Zealand. Wasp population time series was examined using partial rate correlation functions. Gompertz population models and multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) models were fitted, incorporating climatic variation. Gompertz models successfully explained 59-66% of the variation in wasp abundance between years. Density dependence in wasp populations appeared to act similarly in both the native and invaded range, with wasp abundance in the previous year as the most important variable in predicting intrinsic rate of increase (r). No evidence of cyclic population dynamics was observed. Both the Gompertz and MARSS models highlighted the role of weather conditions in each country as significant predictors of annual wasp abundance. The temporal evolution of wasp populations at all sites was best modelled jointly using a single latent dynamic factor for local trends, with the inclusion of a latent spring weather covariate. That same parsimonious multivariate model structure was optimal in both the native and invaded range. Density dependence is overwhelmingly important in predicting wasp densities and 'wasp years' in both the native and invaded range. Spring weather conditions in both countries have a major influence, probably through their impact on wasp colony initiation and early development. The population dynamics in the native range and invaded range show no

  2. Multiple horizontal transfers of bacteriophage WO and host Wolbachia in fig wasps in a closed community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningxin eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasps. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23 and 39.1% (9/23, respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a special clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future.

  3. The emerging contribution of social wasps to grape rot disease ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne A. Madden

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape sour (bunch rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex. Like fruit flies, social wasps are abundant in vineyards where they feed on ripe berries and cause significant damage, while also dispersing yeasts involved in wine fermentation. Despite this, their possible role in disease facilitation and dispersal of grape rots has not been explored. We tested the hypothesis that the paper wasp Polistes dominulus could facilitate grape sour rot in the absence of other insect vectors. Using marker gene sequencing we characterized the bacterial and fungal community of wild-caught adults. We used a sterilized foraging arena to determine if these wasps transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. We then tested if wasps harboring their native microbial community, or those inoculated with sour rot, had an effect on grape sour rot incidence and severity using a laboratory foraging arena. We found that all wasps harbor some portion of the sour rot microbial community and that they have the ability to transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. Foraging by inoculated and uninoculated wasps led to an increase in berry rot disease symptom severity and incidence. Our results indicate that paper wasps can facilitate sour rot diseases in the absence of other vectors and that the mechanism of this facilitation may include both increasing host susceptibility and transmitting these microbial communities to the grapes

  4. Mortal combat and competition for oviposition sites in female pollinating fig wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Derek W.; K. Charlotte Jandér; Anayra G. Lamas; Pereira,Rodrigo A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive contests between animals are common but rarely result in death because the benefits of winning a fight rarely exceed the cost of losing. Lethal combat can evolve, however, when the contested resource translates to much of the future reproductive success of each combatant. Female agaonid fig wasps pollinate and lay their eggs in the flowers within the enclosed inflorescences ("figs") of fig trees (Ficus spp.). Wasps rarely leave the first fig entered so the reproductive success of e...

  5. Ancient conservation of trinucleotide microsatellite loci in polistine wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwa, V O; Peters, J M; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Microsatellites have proven to be very useful genetic markers for studies of kinship, parentage, and gene mapping. If microsatellites are conserved among species, then those developed for one species can be used on related species, which would save the time and effort of developing new loci. We...... evaluated conservation of 27 trinucleotide loci that were derived from 2 species of Polistes wasps in cross-species applications on 27 species chosen from the major lineages of the Vespidae, which diverged as much as 144 million years ago. We further investigated cross-species polymorphism levels for 18...... of the loci. There was a clear relationship between cladistic distance and both conservation of the priming sites and heterozygosity. However the loci derived from P. bellicosus were much more widely conserved and polymorphic than were those derived from P. annularis. The disparity in cross-species utility...

  6. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 2: Pivot tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-01-12

    Data analysis at the descriptive stage and the eventual presentation of results requires the tabulation and summarisation of data. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics. Pivot tables and pivot charts are one of Excel's most powerful and underutilised features, with tabulation functions that immensely facilitate descriptive statistics. Pivot tables permit users to dynamically summarise and cross-tabulate data, create tables in several dimensions, offer a range of summary statistics and can be modified interactively with instant outputs. Large and detailed datasets are thereby easily manipulated making pivot tables arguably the best way to explore, summarise and present data from many different angles. This second paper in the WASP series in Early Human Development provides pointers for pivot table manipulation in Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castro Huertas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox; Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron; Ageniella fallax (Arlé; Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron; Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; Aporus (Aporus cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus diverticulus (Fox; Aporus (Notoplaniceps canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks; Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox; Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron; Ageniella zeteki (Banks; Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks; and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans.

  8. A checklist to the wasps of Peru (Hymenoptera, Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rasmussen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The first checklist to the 225 genera and 1169 reported species-group taxa of aculeate wasps of Peru is presented. The list is based on a literature survey and examination of Peruvian entomological collections and include locality references for each taxon. Bibliographic references for the identification of families, genera, and species are provided when available. The occurrence data are published in addition as a downloadable file (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.2.ds, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.3.ds, and 10.3897/zookeys.15.196.app.4.ds and were uploaded onto GBIF infrastructure simultaneously with the publication process. The following new combinations are proposed: Ancistroceroides cirrifer (Zavattari, 1912, Ancistrocerus epicus (Zavattari, 1912, and Stenodynerus corallineipes (Zavattari, 1912.

  9. The WASP and NGTS ground-based transit surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    I will review the current status of ground-based exoplanet transit surveys, using the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) and the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) as specific examples. I will describe the methods employed by these surveys and show how planets from Neptune to Jupiter-size are detected and confirmed around bright stars. I will also give an overview of the remarkably wide range of exoplanet characterization that is made possible with large-telescope follow up of these bright transiting systems. This characterization includes bulk composition and spin-orbit alignment, as well as atmospheric properties such as thermal structure, composition and dynamics. Finally, I will outline how ground-based photometric studies of transiting planets will evolve with the advent of new space-based surveys such as TESS and PLATO.

  10. Market forces influence helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding paper wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Field, Jeremy

    2017-01-24

    Biological market theory is potentially useful for understanding helping behaviour in animal societies. It predicts that competition for trading partners will affect the value of commodities exchanged. It has gained empirical support in cooperative breeders, where subordinates help dominant breeders in exchange for group membership, but so far without considering one crucial aspect: outside options. We find support for a biological market in paper wasps, Polistes dominula. We first show that females have a choice of cooperative partners. Second, by manipulating entire subpopulations in the field, we increase the supply of outside options for subordinates, freeing up suitable nesting spots and providing additional nesting partners. We predicted that by intensifying competition for help, our manipulation would force dominants to accept a lower price for group membership. As expected, subordinates reduce their foraging effort following our treatments. We conclude that to accurately predict the amount of help provided, social units cannot be viewed in isolation: the surrounding market must also be considered.

  11. Constraints on a second planet in the WASP-3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciejewski, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Deka, B.; Adamów, M.; Górecka, M. [Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Wolszczan, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Neuhäuser, R.; Errmann, R.; Seeliger, M. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, Schillergässchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Winn, J. N.; McKnight, L. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía 3, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Ohlert, J. [Michael Adrian Observatorium, Astronomie Stiftung Trebur, D-65468 Trebur (Germany); Dimitrov, D. [Institute of Astronomy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Latham, D. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Holman, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    There have been previous hints that the transiting planet WASP-3b is accompanied by a second planet in a nearby orbit, based on small deviations from strict periodicity of the observed transits. Here we present 17 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements and 32 transit light curves that were acquired between 2009 and 2011. These data were used to refine the parameters of the host star and transiting planet. This has resulted in reduced uncertainties for the radii and masses of the star and planet. The RV data and the transit times show no evidence for an additional planet in the system. Therefore, we have determined the upper limit on the mass of any hypothetical second planet, as a function of its orbital period.

  12. [Spatial distribution of fig wasps in syconia of two monoecious Ficus sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Ji; Li, Guo-Chang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong

    2012-04-01

    In addition to pollinator fig wasps, there are several non-pollinating fig wasps associated with monoecious Ficus sp. In order to understand how pollinator fig wasps and non-pollinating fig wasps are distributed across the same syconium, the spatial distribution of fig wasps associated with Ficus altissima and F. benjamina were compared using the pedicle lengths of galls containing each species. The results indicate that in Ficus altissima, the average pedicel length of galls containing Eupristina sp. is longer than that containing E. altissima. Average pedicel length of galls containing Sycobia sp., Micranisa ralianga and Sycoscapter sp. two did not show significant difference. The range of pedicel lengths of galls containing Sycobia sp., M. ralianga or Sycoscapter sp. two is narrower than that of galls containing E. altissima, indicating these non-pollinating fig wasps and pollinator have partially separated spatial niches. In F. benjamina, E. koningsbergeri was distributed in galls from the outer layer to inner layer, while most Walkerella sp. were found in outer layer galls, indicating E. koningsbergeri and Walkerella sp. have partially separated spatial niches.

  13. Parasitic mites as part-time bodyguards of a host wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Kimiko; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2008-10-07

    Some bees and wasps that host mites have peculiar pocket-like structures called acarinaria. These have long been considered as morphological adaptations to securely transfer beneficial mites into nests, and thus are thought to be the product of a mutualistic relationship. However, there has been little compelling evidence to support this hypothesis. We demonstrated that the parasitic mite Ensliniella parasitica, which uses acarinaria, increases the reproductive success of its host wasp Allodynerus delphinalis by protecting it from parasitoid wasps. Every time the parasitoid Melittobia acasta accessed a prepupal or pupal wasp host cell, adult mites attacked it, continuously clinging to it and possibly piercing the intersegmental membrane of the parasitoid with their chelicerae. Subsequent mortality of the parasitoid depended on the number of attacking mites: an average of six mites led to a 70% chance of mortality, and 10 mites led to a 100% chance of mortality. In this way, parent mites protect the food source (juvenile wasps) for themselves and ultimately for their offspring. We propose that wasps evolved acarinaria to maintain this protective guarding behaviour.

  14. Negative fitness consequences and transmission dynamics of a heritable fungal symbiont of a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cara M; Hunter, Martha S

    2009-05-01

    Heritable bacterial symbionts are widespread in insects and can have many important effects on host ecology and fitness. Fungal symbionts are also important in shaping their hosts' behavior, interactions, and evolution, but they have been largely overlooked. Experimental tests to determine the relevance of fungal symbionts to their insect hosts are currently extremely rare, and to our knowledge, there have been no such tests for strictly predacious insects. We investigated the fitness consequences for a parasitic wasp (Comperia merceti) of an inherited fungal symbiont in the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) that was long presumed to be a mutualist. In comparisons of wasp lines with and without this symbiont, we found no evidence of mutualism. Instead, there were significant fitness costs to the wasps in the presence of the yeast; infected wasps attacked fewer hosts and had longer development times. We also examined the relative competitive abilities of the larval progeny of infected and uninfected mothers, as well as horizontal transmission of the fungal symbiont among larval wasps that shared a single host cockroach egg case. We found no difference in larval competitive ability when larvae whose infection status differed shared a single host. We did find high rates of horizontal transmission of the fungus, and we suggest that this transmission is likely responsible for the maintenance of this infection in wasp populations.

  15. The influence of past experience on wasp choice related to foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Moreyra; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Memory has been little studied in social wasps. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) frequently revisits nondepleted food sources, making several trips between the resource and the nest. In this study, we analyzed this relocating behavior in order to evaluate whether this species is capable of remembering an established association after 1 h. To this end, we trained wasps to feed from a certain array. Then it was removed, setting it up again 1 h later, but this time 2 baited feeders were put in place, one at the original feeding site and the other opposite the first. We recorded the proportion of returning foragers, and their choice of feeder, after either 1 or 4 feeding trials. After 1 h, 78% of wasps trained with 4 feeding trials and 65% trained with 1, returned to the experimental area. Furthermore, during the testing phase, wasps trained with 4 feeding trials collected food from the previously learned feeder significantly more frequently than from the nonlearned one (P < 0.05). In contrast, wasps that had been trained only once chose both feeders equally. Thus, memory retrieval could be observed 1 h after wasps had collected food on 4 consecutive occasions, but not after only 1. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that V. germanica is capable of remembering an association 1 h after the last associative event, demonstrating that 1 h does not impair memory retention if 4 feeding experiences have occurred. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Wasp-waist interactions in the North Sea ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fauchald

    Full Text Available In a "wasp-waist" ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes.We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus, suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill.Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that "wasp-waist" interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades.

  17. Wasp-waist interactions in the North Sea ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchald, Per; Skov, Henrik; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Johns, David; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-01-01

    In a "wasp-waist" ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes. We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus), suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill. Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that "wasp-waist" interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades.

  18. Stalk-eyed wasps--review of a largely unnoticed group of morphologically bizarre chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae: Axima) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Pape, Thomas; Krogmann, Lars

    2014-09-25

    Axima Walker is a small genus of Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) exclusive to the Western Hemisphere. Some species are distinctive in having stalked eyes and Axima sidi, sp. n. is described as the third stalk-eyed species based on a single female from Colombia. A key to facilitate species identification of stalk-eyed Axima is included. The only species of Axima for which host biology is known is a primary parasitoid of dwarf carpenter bees of the genus Ceratina Latreille (Apidae: Xylocopinae). A hypothesis about the possible function of stalked eyes in Axima as devices to assist the escape of adult wasps from hosts enclosed in the soft pith of plant stems is proposed.

  19. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  20. VCA nanobodies target N-WASp to reduce invadopodium formation and functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hebbrecht

    Full Text Available Invasive cancer cells develop small actin-based protrusions called invadopodia, which perform a primordial role in metastasis and extracellular matrix remodelling. Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp is a scaffold protein which can directly bind to actin monomers and Arp2/3 and is a crucial player in the formation of an invadopodium precursor. Expression modulation has pointed to an important role for N-WASp in invadopodium formation but the role of its C-terminal VCA domain in this process remains unknown. In this study, we generated alpaca nanobodies against the N-WASp VCA domain and investigated if these nanobodies affect invadopodium formation. By using this approach, we were able to study functions of a selected functional/structural N-WASp protein domain in living cells, without requiring overexpression, dominant negative mutants or siRNAs which target the gene, and hence the entire protein. When expressed as intrabodies, the VCA nanobodies significantly reduced invadopodium formation in both MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and HNSCC61 head and neck squamous cancer cells. Furthermore, expression of distinct VCA Nbs (VCA Nb7 and VCA Nb14 in PC-3 prostate cancer cells resulted in reduced overall matrix degradation without affecting MMP9 secretion/activation or MT1-MMP localisation at invadopodial membranes. From these results, we conclude that we have generated nanobodies targeting N-WASp which reduce invadopodium formation and functioning, most likely via regulation of N-WASp-Arp2/3 complex interaction, indicating that this region of N-WASp plays an important role in these processes.

  1. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borodina

    Full Text Available Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A. All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST. Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy.

  2. Same but different: Larval development and gall-inducing process of a non-pollinating fig wasp compared to that of pollinating fig-wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen-González, Sergio; Teixeira, Simone de Padua; Kjellberg, Finn; Pereira, Rodrigo A. Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The receptacles of fig trees (Ficus spp.) can harbor a highly diversified and complex community of chalcid wasps. Functional groups of fig wasps (e.g. gallers, cleptoparasites and parasitoids) oviposit into the fig at different developmental stages, reflecting different feeding regimes for these insect larvae. There are few direct data available on larval feeding regimes and access to resources. We studied the gall induction and larval feeding strategy of an Idarnes (group flavicollis) species, a non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) associated to Ficus citrifolia P. Miller in Brazil. This Idarnes species shares with the pollinator characteristics such as time of oviposition, ovipositor insertion through flower and location of the egg inside plant ovaries. Nevertheless, we show that the gall induction differs considerably from that of the pollinating species. This Idarnes species relies on the induction of nucellus cell proliferation for gall formation and as the main larval resource. This strategy enables it to develop in both pollinated and unpollinated figs. The large differences between this NPFW and other fig wasps in how ovules are galled suggest that there are different ways to be a galler. A functional analysis of NPFW community structure may require descriptions of the histological processes associated with larval development.

  3. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  4. Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human-wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Evans, Joshua D

    2017-02-08

    Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan. Fieldwork comprised participant observation, semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys and a review of resources including the personal and public records of wasp collectors. The practice of keeping wasps in hive boxes has historical roots and has changed significantly within living memory. Current attempts to further develop the practice involve collectors' great efforts to keep new queens during their hibernation. Collectors have also tried, still without success, to keep wasps living within a human-made enclosure for their entire life cycle. These and other practices are costly in both time and money for collectors, who emphasise enjoyment as their primary motivation. At the same time, they also engage in practices such as pesticide use that they recognise as damaging to wasp ecology. These practices can be understood to some extent in domesticatory terms, and in terms of care. We develop a framework for understanding domesticatory practices of insect care, discuss how this case contributes to ongoing debates within domestication studies, and recommend further research to be pursued.

  5. Flower-Visiting Social Wasps and Plants Interaction: Network Pattern and Environmental Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Aparecido Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis as a tool for ecological interactions studies has been widely used since last decade. However, there are few studies on the factors that shape network patterns in communities. In this sense, we compared the topological properties of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants in two distinct phytophysiognomies in a Brazilian savanna (Riparian Forest and Rocky Grassland. Results showed that the landscapes differed in species richness and composition, and also the interaction networks between wasps and plants had different patterns. The network was more complex in the Riparian Forest, with a larger number of species and individuals and a greater amount of connections between them. The network specialization degree was more generalist in the Riparian Forest than in the Rocky Grassland. This result was corroborated by means of the nestedness index. In both networks was found asymmetry, with a large number of wasps per plant species. In general aspects, most wasps had low niche amplitude, visiting from one to three plant species. Our results suggest that differences in structural complexity of the environment directly influence the structure of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants.

  6. WASP and SCAR are evolutionarily conserved in actin-filled pseudopod-based motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K; Lord, Samuel J; Mullins, R Dyche

    2017-06-05

    Diverse eukaryotic cells crawl through complex environments using distinct modes of migration. To understand the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary relationships, we must define each mode and identify its phenotypic and molecular markers. In this study, we focus on a widely dispersed migration mode characterized by dynamic actin-filled pseudopods that we call "α-motility." Mining genomic data reveals a clear trend: only organisms with both WASP and SCAR/WAVE-activators of branched actin assembly-make actin-filled pseudopods. Although SCAR has been shown to drive pseudopod formation, WASP's role in this process is controversial. We hypothesize that these genes collectively represent a genetic signature of α-motility because both are used for pseudopod formation. WASP depletion from human neutrophils confirms that both proteins are involved in explosive actin polymerization, pseudopod formation, and cell migration. WASP and WAVE also colocalize to dynamic signaling structures. Moreover, retention of WASP together with SCAR correctly predicts α-motility in disease-causing chytrid fungi, which we show crawl at >30 µm/min with actin-filled pseudopods. By focusing on one migration mode in many eukaryotes, we identify a genetic marker of pseudopod formation, the morphological feature of α-motility, providing evidence for a widely distributed mode of cell crawling with a single evolutionary origin. © 2017 Fritz-Laylin et al.

  7. WASP family proteins and formins compete in pseudopod- and bleb-based migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew J; Amato, Clelia; Thomason, Peter A; Insall, Robert H

    2017-11-30

    Actin pseudopods induced by SCAR/WAVE drive normal migration and chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells. Cells can also migrate using blebs, in which the edge is driven forward by hydrostatic pressure instead of actin. In Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of SCAR is compensated by WASP moving to the leading edge to generate morphologically normal pseudopods. Here we use an inducible double knockout to show that cells lacking both SCAR and WASP are unable to grow, make pseudopods or, unexpectedly, migrate using blebs. Remarkably, amounts and dynamics of actin polymerization are normal. Pseudopods are replaced in double SCAR/WASP mutants by aberrant filopods, induced by the formin dDia2. Further disruption of the gene for dDia2 restores cells' ability to initiate blebs and thus migrate, though pseudopods are still lost. Triple knockout cells still contain near-normal F-actin levels. This work shows that SCAR, WASP, and dDia2 compete for actin. Loss of SCAR and WASP causes excessive dDia2 activity, maintaining F-actin levels but blocking pseudopod and bleb formation and migration. © 2018 Davidson et al.

  8. Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP8): Upgrades to the Advanced Toxicant Module for Simulating Dissolved Chemicals, Nanomaterials, and Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) is a dynamic, spatially-resolved, differential mass balance fate and transport modeling framework. WASP is used to develop models to simulate concentrations of environmental contaminants in surface waters and sediments. As a mo...

  9. Deletion analysis of the selfish B chromosome, Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR), in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Werren, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR) is a “selfish” B chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. It is transmitted via sperm, but causes supercondensation and destruction of the paternal chromosomes in early fertilized eggs. Because this wasp has haplodiploid sex determination, the effect of PSR is

  10. Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W. Campbell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds (Bambusa sp. were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis, Euodynerus megaera, Parancistrocerus pedestris, and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile. The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs. The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes.

  11. Dual effect of wasp queen pheromone in regulating insect sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Cintia A; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Caliari Oliveira, Ricardo; Millar, Jocelyn G; Verstrepen, Kevin J; van Zweden, Jelle S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Eusocial insects exhibit a remarkable reproductive division of labor between queens and largely sterile workers [1, 2]. Recently, it was shown that queens of diverse groups of social insects employ specific, evolutionarily conserved cuticular hydrocarbons to signal their presence and inhibit worker reproduction [3]. Workers also recognize and discriminate between eggs laid by the queen and those laid by workers, with the latter being destroyed by workers in a process known as "policing" [4, 5]. Worker policing represents a classic example of a conflict-reducing mechanism, in which the reproductive monopoly of the queen is maintained through the selective destruction of worker-laid eggs [5, 6]. However, the exact signals used in worker policing have thus far remained elusive [5, 7]. Here, we show that in the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, the pheromone that signals egg maternity and enables the workers to selectively destroy worker-laid eggs is in fact the same as one of the sterility-inducing queen signals that we identified earlier [3]. These results imply that queen pheromones regulate insect sociality in two distinct and complementary ways, i.e., by signaling the queen's presence and inhibiting worker reproduction, and by facilitating the recognition and policing of worker-laid eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wavelet-enabled progressive data Access and Storage Protocol (WASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, J.; Frank, L.; Lesperance, T.; Norton, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current practices for storing numerical simulation outputs hail from an era when the disparity between compute and I/O performance was not as great as it is today. The memory contents for every sample, computed at every grid point location, are simply saved at some prescribed temporal frequency. Though straightforward, this approach fails to take advantage of the coherency in neighboring grid points that invariably exists in numerical solutions to mathematical models. Exploiting such coherence is essential to digital multimedia; DVD-Video, digital cameras, streaming movies and audio are all possible today because of transform-based compression schemes that make substantial reductions in data possible by taking advantage of the strong correlation between adjacent samples in both space and time. Such methods can also be exploited to enable progressive data refinement in a manner akin to that used in ubiquitous digital mapping applications: views from far away are shown in coarsened detail to provide context, and can be progressively refined as the user zooms in on a localized region of interest. The NSF funded WASP project aims to provide a common, NetCDF-compatible software framework for supporting wavelet-based, multi-scale, progressive data, enabling interactive exploration of large data sets for the geoscience communities. This presentation will provide an overview of this work in progress to develop community cyber-infrastructure for the efficient analysis of very large data sets.

  13. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Perrichot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New material of the wasp family Maimetshidae (Apocrita is presented from four Cretaceous amber deposits – the Neocomian of Lebanon, the Early Albian of Spain, the latest Albian/earliest Cenomanian of France, and the Campanian of Canada. The new record from Canadian Cretaceous amber extends the temporal and paleogeographical range of the family. New material from France is assignable to Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica Perrichot et al. including the first females for the species, while a series of males and females from Spain are described and figured as Iberomaimetsha Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel gen. n., with the two new species Iberomaimetsha rasnitsyni Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel sp. n. and I. nihtmara Ortega-Blanco, Delclòs, and Engel sp. n.; a single female from Lebanon is described and figured as Ahiromaimetsha najlae Perrichot, Azar, Nel, and Engel gen. et sp. n., and a single male from Canada is described and figured as Ahstemiam cellula McKellar and Engel gen. et sp. n. The taxa are compared with other maimetshids, a key to genera and species is given, and brief comments made on the family.

  14. CED-10-WASP-Arp2/3 signaling axis regulates apoptotic cell corpse engulfment in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dou; Chai, Yongping; Zhu, Zhiwen; Li, Wenjing; Ou, Guangshuo; Li, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is essential for tissue homeostasis in metazoans. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have identified signaling cascades that activate CED-10/Rac1 GTPase and promote actin cytoskeletal rearrangement during apoptotic cell engulfment. However, the molecular connection between CED-10 activation and actin reorganization remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that CED-10 binds to the Arp2/3 nucleation promoting factor WASP; CED-10 recruits WASP and Arp2/3 to apoptotic cell corpses in the phagocytes. The loss of WASP and Arp2/3 impaired cell corpse engulfment. Furthermore, we uncover that a WASP-activating factor SEM-5/GRB2 functions in the phagocytes to promote cell corpse clearance. Together, our results suggest CED-10 reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton by recruiting the WASP-Arp2/3 actin nucleation factors during apoptotic cell engulfment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Floral resource partitioning by social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in an area of caatinga in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Cândida M L; Santos, Gilberto M de M

    2007-01-01

    Wasps and bees are important components of flower visitor guilds in the Neotropical region. The abundance of social wasps and bees, collected during flower visits, was used to calculate niche breadth and niche overlap indices, in order to characterize the utilization of the floral resources by those insects. Samples were taken monthly, for 13 months (156h), by two collectors which captured the specimens on flowers using entomological nets, while walking along a way in an area of caatinga at Itatim, State of Bahia, Brazil. Wasps and bees heavily visited a few sources of floral resources, but the most visited plants by each group were different, and few plant species were important for both groups, resulting in low niche overlap between bees and wasps. The niche overlap among wasp species was generally higher than among bee species. The general overlap, which takes into consideration all species together was low (< 30%).

  16. Long-term spatial memory in Vespula germanica social wasps: the influence of past experience on foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreyra, Sabrina; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2017-10-01

    Social insects exhibit complex learning and memory mechanisms while foraging. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is an invasive social wasp that frequently forages on undepleted food sources, making several flights between the resource and the nest. Previous studies have shown that during this relocating behavior, wasps learn to associate food with a certain site, and can recall this association 1 h later. In this work, we evaluated whether this wasp species is capable of retrieving an established association after 24 h. For this purpose, we trained free flying individuals to collect proteinaceous food from an experimental plate (feeder) located in an experimental array. A total of 150 individuals were allowed 2, 4, or 8 visits. After the training phase, the array was removed and set up again 24 h later, but this time a second baited plate was placed opposite to the first. After 24 h we recorded the rate of wasps that returned to the experimental area and those which collected food from the previously learned feeding station or the nonlearned one. During the testing phase, we observed that a low rate of wasps trained with 2 collecting visits returned to the experimental area (22%), whereas the rate of returning wasps trained with 4 or 8 collecting visits was higher (51% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, wasps trained with 8 feeding visits collected food from the previously learned feeding station at a higher rate than those that did from the nonlearned one. In contrast, wasps trained 2 or 4 times chose both feeding stations at a similar rate. Thus, significantly more wasps returned to the previously learned feeding station after 8 repeated foraging flights but not after only 2 or 4 visits. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of long-term spatial memory in V. germanica wasps. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Ultraviolet anomalies of the WASP-12 and HD 189733 systems: Trojan satellites as a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakova, Kristina; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Funk, Barbara; Lammer, Helmut; Fossati, Luca; Eggl, Siegfried; Schawarz, Richard; Boudyada, Mohammed; Erkaev, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    We suggest an additional possible plasma source in the WASP-12 and HD189733b systems to explain part of the phenomena observed in ultraviolet (UV) light curves during planetary transits. In the proposed scenario, material originates from the molten surface of Trojan satellites on orbits near the Lagrange points L4 and L5. We show that the temperature at the orbital location of WASP-12b is high enough to melt the surface of rocky Trojans and to form shallow lava oceans on them. At the orbital distance of WASP-12b, this leads to the release of elements such as Mg and Ca, which are expected to surround the system. The predicted Mg and Ca outgassing rates from two Io-sized WASP-12b Trojans are ≈ 2.2 × 1027 s-1 and ≈ 2.2 × 1026 s-1, respectively. Trojan outgassing can lead to the observed lack of emission in MgII h&k and CaII H&K line cores of WASP-12. For HD 189733b, the mechanism is only marginally possible due to the lower temperature. The early ingress of HD 189733b observed in the far-UV (FUV) CII doublet couldn't be explained by this mechanism due to absence of carbon within elements outgassed by molten lava. We investigate the long-term stability region of WASP-12b and HD 189733b in case of planar and inclined motion of these satellites and show that unlike the classical exomoons orbiting the planet, Io-sized Trojans can be stable for the whole systems life time.

  18. Does size matter? - Thermoregulation of 'heavyweight' and 'lightweight' wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-09-15

    In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (T(a): ~0-40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights.Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on T(a) on their arrival (mean T(th) = 30-40°C) and departure (mean T(th) = 33-40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (T(th)-T(a)) above ambient air of about 5-18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the T(th) on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.

  19. Geographic variation in the status signals of Polistes dominulus paper wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Tibbetts

    Full Text Available Understanding intraspecific geographic variation in animal signals poses a challenging evolutionary problem. Studies addressing geographic variation typically focus on signals used in mate-choice, however, geographic variation in intrasexual signals involved in competition is also known to occur. In Polistes dominulus paper wasps, females have black facial spots that signal dominance: individuals wasps with more complex 'broken' facial patterns are better fighters and are avoided by rivals. Recent work suggests there is dramatic geographic variation in these visual signals of quality, though this variation has not been explicitly described or quantified. Here, we analyze variation in P. dominulus signals across six populations and explore how environmental conditions may account for this variation. Overall, we found substantial variation in facial pattern brokenness across populations and castes. Workers have less broken facial patterns than gynes and queens, which have similar facial patterns. Strepsipteran parasitism, body size and temperature are all correlated with the facial pattern variation, suggesting that developmental plasticity likely plays a key role in this variation. First, the extent of parasitism varies across populations and parasitized individuals have lower facial pattern brokenness than unparasitized individuals. Second, there is substantial variation in body size across populations and a weak but significant relationship between facial pattern brokenness and body size. Wasps from populations with smaller body size (e.g. Italy tend to have less broken facial patterns than wasps from populations with larger body size (e.g. New York, USA. Third, there is an apparent association between facial patterns and climate, with wasp from cooler locations tending to have higher facial pattern brokenness than wasps from warmer locations. Additional experimental work testing the causes and consequences of facial pattern variation will be

  20. An introduction to parasitic wasps of Drosophila and the antiparasite immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Chiyedza; Paddibhatla, Indira; Rajwani, Roma; Govind, Shubha

    2012-05-07

    Most known parasitoid wasp species attack the larval or pupal stages of Drosophila. While Trichopria drosophilae infect the pupal stages of the host (Fig. 1A-C), females of the genus Leptopilina (Fig. 1D, 1F, 1G) and Ganaspis (Fig. 1E) attack the larval stages. We use these parasites to study the molecular basis of a biological arms race. Parasitic wasps have tremendous value as biocontrol agents. Most of them carry virulence and other factors that modify host physiology and immunity. Analysis of Drosophila wasps is providing insights into how species-specific interactions shape the genetic structures of natural communities. These studies also serve as a model for understanding the hosts' immune physiology and how coordinated immune reactions are thwarted by this class of parasites. The larval/pupal cuticle serves as the first line of defense. The wasp ovipositor is a sharp needle-like structure that efficiently delivers eggs into the host hemocoel. Oviposition is followed by a wound healing reaction at the cuticle (Fig. 1C, arrowheads). Some wasps can insert two or more eggs into the same host, although the development of only one egg succeeds. Supernumerary eggs or developing larvae are eliminated by a process that is not yet understood. These wasps are therefore referred to as solitary parasitoids. Depending on the fly strain and the wasp species, the wasp egg has one of two fates. It is either encapsulated, so that its development is blocked (host emerges; Fig. 2 left); or the wasp egg hatches, develops, molts, and grows into an adult (wasp emerges; Fig. 2 right). L. heterotoma is one of the best-studied species of Drosophila parasitic wasps. It is a "generalist," which means that it can utilize most Drosophila species as hosts. L. heterotoma and L. victoriae are sister species and they produce virus-like particles that actively interfere with the encapsulation response. Unlike L. heterotoma, L. boulardi is a specialist parasite and the range of Drosophila

  1. A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales infesting a primitive wasp in Myanmar amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2016-12-01

    A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales in Myanmar amber is described as Paleocadus burmiticus gen. et sp. nov. in the family Eccrinaceae. The fossil is represented by two types of sporangiospores formed on different thalli protruding from the anus of a primitive wasp, with secondary infestation spores multinucleate and thin walled. Its presence establishes the Eccrinales in the mid-Cretaceous and shows that at that time, lineages of this group parasitized wasps, an association unknown with extant members of the Order. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple cerebral infarctions with severe multi-organ dysfunction following multiple wasp stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp and bee sting are commonly encountered worldwide. Local reactions are more common, generally are self-limiting and settle within a few hours. Multiple stings can lead to various clinical manifestations like vomiting, diarrhea, dyspnea, generalized edema, hypotension, syncope, acute renal failure, and even death. Rarely, they can cause vasculitis, serum sickness, neuritis, and encephalitis. We are reporting a case of 40-year-old male who presented with stroke, right hemiparesis with severe multi-organ dysfunction due to multiple wasp stings.

  3. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    OpenAIRE

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span o...

  4. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic beta cell delamination and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell...... constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis....

  5. Regulation of N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex by Abp1 controls neuronal morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Pinyol

    Full Text Available Polymerization and organization of actin filaments into complex superstructures is indispensable for structure and function of neuronal networks. We here report that knock down of the F-actin-binding protein Abp1, which is important for endocytosis and synaptic organization, results in changes in axon development virtually identical to Arp2/3 complex inhibition, i.e., a selective increase of axon length. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that Abp1 interacts directly with N-WASP, an activator of the Arp2/3 complex, and releases the autoinhibition of N-WASP in cooperation with Cdc42 and thereby promotes N-WASP-triggered Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization. In line with our mechanistical studies and the colocalization of Abp1, N-WASP and Arp2/3 at sites of actin polymerization in neurons, we reveal an essential role of Abp1 and its cooperativity with Cdc42 in N-WASP-induced rearrangements of the neuronal cytoskeleton. We furthermore show that introduction of N-WASP mutants lacking the ability to bind Abp1 or Cdc42, Arp2/3 complex inhibition, Abp1 knock down, N-WASP knock down and Arp3 knock down, all cause identical neuromorphological phenotypes. Our data thus strongly suggest that these proteins and their complex formation are important for cytoskeletal processes underlying neuronal network formation.

  6. Regulation of N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex by Abp1 controls neuronal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyol, Roser; Haeckel, Akvile; Ritter, Anett; Qualmann, Britta; Kessels, Michael Manfred

    2007-05-02

    Polymerization and organization of actin filaments into complex superstructures is indispensable for structure and function of neuronal networks. We here report that knock down of the F-actin-binding protein Abp1, which is important for endocytosis and synaptic organization, results in changes in axon development virtually identical to Arp2/3 complex inhibition, i.e., a selective increase of axon length. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that Abp1 interacts directly with N-WASP, an activator of the Arp2/3 complex, and releases the autoinhibition of N-WASP in cooperation with Cdc42 and thereby promotes N-WASP-triggered Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization. In line with our mechanistical studies and the colocalization of Abp1, N-WASP and Arp2/3 at sites of actin polymerization in neurons, we reveal an essential role of Abp1 and its cooperativity with Cdc42 in N-WASP-induced rearrangements of the neuronal cytoskeleton. We furthermore show that introduction of N-WASP mutants lacking the ability to bind Abp1 or Cdc42, Arp2/3 complex inhibition, Abp1 knock down, N-WASP knock down and Arp3 knock down, all cause identical neuromorphological phenotypes. Our data thus strongly suggest that these proteins and their complex formation are important for cytoskeletal processes underlying neuronal network formation.

  7. Defence strategies against a parasitoid wasp in Drosophila: fight or flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thierry; de Roode, Jacobus C; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-04-23

    Hosts may defend themselves against parasitism through a wide variety of defence mechanisms, but due to finite resources, investment in one defence mechanism may trade-off with investment in another mechanism. We studied resistance strategies against the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi in two Drosophila species. We found that D. melanogaster had significantly lower physiological resistance against L. boulardi than D. simulans, and hypothesized that D. melanogaster might instead invest more heavily in other forms of defence, such as behavioural defence. We found that when given a choice between clean oviposition sites and sites infested with wasps, both D. melanogaster and D. simulans detected and avoided infested sites, which presumably limits later exposure of their offspring to infection. Unlike D. simulans, however, D. melanogaster laid significantly fewer eggs than controls in the forced presence of wasps. Our findings suggest that D. melanogaster relies more heavily on behavioural avoidance as defence against wasp parasitism than D. simulans, and that this may compensate for a lack of physiological defence.

  8. Chemical espionage on species-specific butterfly anti-aphrodisiacs by hitchhiking Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Woelke, J.B.; Pashalidou, F.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic wasps employ a wide range of chemical cues to find their hosts. Very recently, we discovered how 2 closely related egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens, exploit the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide of one of their hosts, the gregarious large cabbage

  9. The effect of different dietary sugars and honey on longevity and fecundity in two hyperparasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Cloutier, J.; Visser, B.; Ellers, J.; Wackers, F.L.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    In nature adult insects, such as parasitic wasps or ‘parasitoids’ often depend on supplemental nutritional sources, such as sugars and other carbohydrates, to maximize their life-expectancy and reproductive potential. These food resources are commonly obtained from animal secretions or plant

  10. Development of microsatellite markers and estimation of inbreeding frequency in the parasitoid wasp Melittobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, Jun; Pannebakker, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using

  11. Analysis of Genetic Variation across the Encapsidated Genome of Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus in Parasitoid Wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelen R Burke

    Full Text Available Insect parasitoids must complete part of their life cycle within or on another insect, ultimately resulting in the death of the host insect. One group of parasitoid wasps, the 'microgastroid complex' (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, engage in an association with beneficial symbiotic viruses that are essential for successful parasitism of hosts. These viruses, known as Bracoviruses, persist in an integrated form in the wasp genome, and activate to replicate in wasp ovaries during development to ultimately be delivered into host insects during parasitism. The lethal nature of host-parasitoid interactions, combined with the involvement of viruses in mediating these interactions, has led to the hypothesis that Bracoviruses are engaged in an arms race with hosts, resulting in recurrent adaptation in viral (and host genes. Deep sequencing was employed to characterize sequence variation across the encapsidated Bracovirus genome within laboratory and field populations of the parasitoid wasp species Microplitis demolitor. Contrary to expectations, there was a paucity of evidence for positive directional selection among virulence genes, which generally exhibited signatures of purifying selection. These data suggest that the dynamics of host-parasite interactions may not result in recurrent rounds of adaptation, and that adaptation may be more variable in time than previously expected.

  12. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  13. Dynamic Interaction of Amphiphysin with N-WASP Regulates Actin Assembly*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Park, Sun-Joo; Itoh, Toshiki; Chaineau, Mathilde; Monaldi, Ilaria; Cremona, Ottavio; Benfenati, Fabio; De Camilli, Pietro; Coppey-Moisan, Maïté; Tramier, Marc; Galli, Thierry; Takei, Kohji

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphysin 1, an endocytic adaptor concentrated at synapses that couples clathrin-mediated endocytosis to dynamin-dependent fission, was also shown to have a regulatory role in actin dynamics. Here, we report that amphiphysin 1 interacts with N-WASP and stimulates N-WASP- and Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization. Both the Src homology 3 and the N-BAR domains are required for this stimulation. Acidic liposome-triggered, N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization is strongly impaired in brain cytosol of amphiphysin 1 knock-out mice. FRET-FLIM analysis of Sertoli cells, where endogenously expressed amphiphysin 1 co-localizes with N-WASP in peripheral ruffles, confirmed the association between the two proteins in vivo. This association undergoes regulation and is enhanced by stimulating phosphatidylserine receptors on the cell surface with phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes that trigger ruffle formation. These results indicate that actin regulation is a key function of amphiphysin 1 and that such function cooperates with the endocytic adaptor role and membrane shaping/curvature sensing properties of the protein during the endocytic reaction. PMID:19759398

  14. Associative learning in two closely related parasitoid wasps: a neuroecological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Insects are useful model organisms to study learning and memory. Their brains are less complex than vertebrate brains, but the basic mechanisms of learning and memory are similar in both taxa. In this thesis I study learning and subsequent memory formation in two parasitoid wasp species that differ

  15. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...

  16. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - II. The transiting planetary system WASP-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    We present and analyse light curves of four transits of the Southern hemisphere extrasolar planetary system WASP-4, obtained with a telescope defocused so the radius of each point spread function was 17 arcsec (44 pixels). This approach minimizes both random and systematic errors, allowing us...

  17. Recognition of human face images by the free flying wasp Vespula vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Avarguès-Weber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to recognize perceptually similar complex visual stimuli such as human faces has classically been thought to require a large primate, and/or mammalian brain with neurobiological adaptations. However, recent work suggests that the relatively small brain of a paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, possesses specialized face processing capabilities. In parallel, the honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been shown to be able to rely on configural learning for extensive visual learning, thus converging with primate visual processing. Therefore, the honeybee may be able to recognize human faces, and show sophisticated learning performance due to its foraging lifestyle involving visiting and memorizing many flowers. We investigated the visual capacities of the widespread invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris, which is unlikely to have any specialization for face processing. Freely flying individual wasps were trained in an appetitive-aversive differential conditioning procedure to discriminate between perceptually similar human face images from a standard face recognition test. The wasps could then recognize the target face from novel dissimilar or similar human faces, but showed a significant drop in performance when the stimuli were rotated by 180°, thus paralleling results acquired on a similar protocol with honeybees. This result confirms that a general visual system can likely solve complex recognition tasks, the first stage to evolve a visual expertise system to face recognition, even in the absence of neurobiological or behavioral specialization.

  18. Strong dispersal in a parasitoid wasp overwhelms habitat fragmentation and host population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchoux, C; Seppä, P; van Nouhuys, S

    2016-07-01

    The population dynamics of a parasite depend on species traits, host dynamics and the environment. Those dynamics are reflected in the genetic structure of the population. Habitat fragmentation has a greater impact on parasites than on their hosts because resource distribution is increasingly fragmented for species at higher trophic levels. This could lead to either more or less genetic structure than the host, depending on the relative dispersal rates of species. We examined the spatial genetic structure of the parasitoid wasp Hyposoter horticola, and how it was influenced by dispersal, host population dynamics and habitat fragmentation. The host, the Glanville fritillary butterfly, lives as a metapopulation in a fragmented landscape in the Åland Islands, Finland. We collected wasps throughout the 50 by 70 km archipelago and determined the genetic diversity, spatial population structure and genetic differentiation using 14 neutral DNA microsatellite loci. We compared the genetic structure of the wasp with that of the host butterfly using published genetic data collected over the shared landscape. Using maternity assignment, we also identified full-siblings among the sampled parasitoids to estimate the dispersal range of individual females. We found that because the parasitoid is dispersive, it has low genetic structure, is not very sensitive to habitat fragmentation and has less spatial genetic structure than its butterfly host. The wasp is sensitive to regional rather than local host dynamics, and there is a geographic mosaic landscape for antagonistic co-evolution of host resistance and parasite virulence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The small societies of primitively eusocial wasps have provided interesting testing grounds for reproductive skew theory because all individuals have similar reproductive potential, which is unusual in social insects but common in vertebrate societies. Aggression is a key parameter in testing the...

  20. Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, John F; Koenig, Wilfried A; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2002-11-26

    We describe a previously uncharacterized function for changes in plant chemistry induced by phytophagous insects: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L. and Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacquin (Asteraceae). Adult male A. rufus emerge before females and are challenged with locating mates that are sequestered within dead plant stems that occur in a matrix of dead vegetation. Allozyme studies revealed complete reproductive isolation between wasp subpopulations in the two plant species. In laboratory bioassays, males responded only to their natal plant species, antennating the stem surface. Males from S. laciniatum also responded to hexane extracts of S. laciniatum stems, and extracts contained much higher concentrations of monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and camphene) than did S. terebinthinaceum. Ratios of "+" and "-" enantiomers of alpha- and beta-pinene approximated 50:50 for nongalled S. laciniatum stems but strongly differed from 50:50 in galled stems, with "+" and "-" enantiomers strongly dominant in different plants. In bioassays, male wasps from S. laciniatum responded to a synthetic blend of the monoterpenes in enantiomeric ratios characteristic of galled stems. Male A. rufus rely entirely on olfaction to locate females within stems in a complex prairie habitat, and gall wasps themselves apparently influence the plant to modify ratios of monoterpene enantiomers. These plant volatiles serve as a signal for males, acting as a sex pheromone proxy for females concealed within plant tissues.

  1. WAsP for offshore sites in confined coastal waters - the influence of the sea fetch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon, Randers (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The increasing interest in harvesting wind energy offshore requires reliable tools for the wind resource estimation at these sites. Most commonly used for wind resource predictions on land as well as offshore is the WAsP program. This program has been validated extensively for sites on land and at the coast. However, due to the lack of suitable measurements there is still a need for further validation for offshore sites. New data from ongoing measurements in the Danish Baltic Sea region are available now. The wind resources estimated from these measurements are compared to WAsP-predictions. They are found to agree well. The only deviation found is for two sites with comparable distance to the coast but with a different distribution of land. Here the measurements show slightly different wind resources which are not predicted by WAsP. Wind speed ratios of several pairs of stations are modelled with WAsP for 12 directional sectors and compared with the measurements. Deviations in the directional wind speed predictions were found to be dependent on the corresponding sea fetches: For smaller sea fetches WAsP seems to slightly overpredict the wind speed, while for long fetches of more than 30 km an underprediction is found. (au)

  2. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, D.; Buter, J.; Beek, van T.A.; Minnaard, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  3. Sexual size and development time dimorphism in a parasitoid wasp: an exception to the rule?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Strand, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in adult size (SSD) and development time (SDTD) occur in many groups of organisms. In insects, some of the best examples occur in parasitoid wasps where most studies report that females are larger than males but take longer to develop. Sex-specific differences in the effects of

  4. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community (Stevenson et al. 2016)

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  5. Host niches and defensive extended phenotypes structure parasitoid wasp communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bailey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oak galls are spectacular extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes in host oak tissues and have evolved complex morphologies that serve, in part, to exclude parasitoid natural enemies.Parasitoids and their insect herbivore hosts have coevolved to produce diverse communities comprising about a third of all animal species. The factors structuring these communities, however, remain poorly understood. An emerging theme in community ecology is the need to consider the effects of host traits, shaped by both natural selection and phylogenetic history, on associated communities of natural enemies. Here we examine the impact of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness on 48 ecologically closed and species-rich communities of parasitoids attacking gall-inducing wasps on oaks. Gallwasps induce the development of spectacular and structurally complex galls whose species- and generation-specific morphologies are the extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes. All the associated natural enemies attack their concealed hosts through gall tissues, and several structural gall traits have been shown to enhance defence against parasitoid attack. Here we explore the significance of these and other host traits in predicting variation in parasitoid community structure across gallwasp species. In particular, we test the "Enemy Hypothesis," which predicts that galls with similar morphology will exclude similar sets of parasitoids and therefore have similar parasitoid communities. Having controlled for phylogenetic patterning in host traits and communities, we found significant correlations between parasitoid community structure and several gall structural traits (toughness, hairiness, stickiness, supporting the Enemy Hypothesis. Parasitoid community structure was also consistently predicted by components of the hosts' spatiotemporal niche, particularly host oak taxonomy and gall location (e.g., leaf versus bud versus seed. The combined explanatory power of structural and

  6. Clinical features of severe wasp sting patients with dominantly toxic reaction: analysis of 1091 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive wasp stings have been greatly underestimated and have not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and treatment strategies of severe wasp stings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multicenter retrospective study was undertaken in 35 hospitals and medical centers including 12 tertiary care hospitals and 23 secondary care hospitals in the Hubei Province, China. The detailed clinical data of 1091 hospitalized wasp sting patients were investigated. Over three-fourths (76.9% of the cases had 10 or more stings and the in-hospital mortality of patients was 5.1%. Forty-eight patients died of organ injury following toxic reactions to the stings, whereas six died from anaphylactic shock. The in-hospital mortality in patients with >10 stings was higher than that of ≤10 stings (5.2% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.02. Acute kidney injury (AKI was seen in 21.0% patients and most patients required blood purification therapy. Rhabdomyolysis was seen in 24.1% patients, hemolysis in 19.2% patients, liver injury in 30.1% patients, and coagulopathy in 22.5% patients. Regression analysis revealed that high creatinine level, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. Blood purification therapy was beneficial for patients with ≥20 stings and delayed hospital admission of patients (≥4 hours after sting. CONCLUSIONS: In China, most patients with multiple wasp stings presented with toxic reactions and multiple organ dysfunction caused by the venom rather than an anaphylactic reaction. AKI is the prominent clinical manifestation of wasp stings with toxic reaction. High creatinine levels, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death.

  7. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  8. Parasitoid wasp venom SERCA regulates Drosophila calcium levels and inhibits cellular immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Nathan T; Goecks, Jeremy; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Mobley, James A; Bowersock, Gregory J; Taylor, James; Schlenke, Todd A

    2013-06-04

    Because parasite virulence factors target host immune responses, identification and functional characterization of these factors can provide insight into poorly understood host immune mechanisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model system for understanding humoral innate immunity, but Drosophila cellular innate immune responses remain incompletely characterized. Fruit flies are regularly infected by parasitoid wasps in nature and, following infection, flies mount a cellular immune response culminating in the cellular encapsulation of the wasp egg. The mechanistic basis of this response is largely unknown, but wasps use a mixture of virulence proteins derived from the venom gland to suppress cellular encapsulation. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying wasp virulence and fly cellular immunity, we used a joint transcriptomic/proteomic approach to identify venom genes from Ganaspis sp.1 (G1), a previously uncharacterized Drosophila parasitoid species, and found that G1 venom contains a highly abundant sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump. Accordingly, we found that fly immune cells termed plasmatocytes normally undergo a cytoplasmic calcium burst following infection, and that this calcium burst is required for activation of the cellular immune response. We further found that the plasmatocyte calcium burst is suppressed by G1 venom in a SERCA-dependent manner, leading to the failure of plasmatocytes to become activated and migrate toward G1 eggs. Finally, by genetically manipulating plasmatocyte calcium levels, we were able to alter fly immune success against G1 and other parasitoid species. Our characterization of parasitoid wasp venom proteins led us to identify plasmatocyte cytoplasmic calcium bursts as an important aspect of fly cellular immunity.

  9. Decrease of memory retention in a parasitic wasp: an effect of host manipulation by Wolbachia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishani Farahani, Hossein; Ashouri, Ahmad; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Shapiro, Martin S; Pierre, Jean-Sebastien; van Baaren, Joan

    2017-08-01

    Several factors, such as cold exposure, aging, the number of experiences and viral infection, have been shown to affect learning ability in different organisms. Wolbachia has been found worldwide as an arthropod parasite/mutualist symbiont in a wide range of species, including insects. Differing effects have been identified on physiology and behavior by Wolbachia. However, the effect of Wolbachia infection on the learning ability of their host had never previously been studied. The current study carried out to compare learning ability and memory duration in 2 strains of the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae: 1 uninfected and 1 infected by Wolbachia. Both strains were able to associate the novel odors with the reward of an oviposition into a host egg. However, the percentage of females that responded to the experimental design and displayed an ability to learn in these conditions was higher in the uninfected strain. Memory duration was longer in uninfected wasps (23.8 and 21.4 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively) than in infected wasps (18.9 and 16.2 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively). Memory retention increased in response to the number of conditioning sessions in both strains, but memory retention was always shorter in the infected wasps than in the uninfected ones. Wolbachia infection may select for reduced memory retention because shorter memory induces infected wasps to disperse in new environments and avoid competition with uninfected wasps by forgetting cues related to previously visited environments, thus increasing transmission of Wolbachia in new environments. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. A comparative study on the functional response of Wolbachia-infected and uninfected forms of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farrokhi, S.; Ashouri, A.; Shirazi, J.; Allahyari, H.; Huigens, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are haplo-diploid egg parasitoids that are frequently used as biological control agents against lepidopteran pests. These wasps display two reproductive modes, including arrhenotoky (bisexuality) and thelytoky (unisexuality). Thelytokous forms

  11. Structure, chemical composition and putative function of the postpharyngeal gland of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herzner, Gudrun; Ruther, Joachim; Goller, Stephan; Schulz, Stefan; Goettler, Wolfgang; Strohm, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    .... The latter alternative would be supported if a PPG was found in more basal taxa. Therefore, we examined a species at the base of the Apoidea, the solitary ampulicid wasp Ampulex compressa, for the existence of a PPG...

  12. Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengping; Peng, Yanqiong; Compton, Stephen G.; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Darong

    2009-04-01

    The Ficus-their specific pollinating fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) interaction presents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also shelter numerous non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that exploit the fig-pollinator mutualism. Only a few NPFW species can enter figs to oviposit, they do not belong to the pollinating lineage Agaonidae. The internally ovipositing non-agaonid fig wasps can efficiently pollinate the Ficus species that were passively pollinated. However, there is no study to focus on the net effect of these internally ovipositing non-agaonid wasps in actively pollinated Ficus species. By collecting the data of fig wasp community and conducting controlled experiments, our results showed that internally ovipositing Diaziella bizarrea cannot effectively pollinate Ficus glaberrima, an actively pollinated monoecious fig tree. Furthermore, D. bizarrea failed to reproduce if they were introduced into figs without Eupristina sp., the regular pollinator, as all the figs aborted. Furthermore, although D. bizarrea had no effect on seed production in shared figs, it significantly reduced the number of Eupristina sp. progeny emerging from them. Thus, our experimental evidence shows that reproduction in Diaziella depends on the presence of agaonid pollinators, and whether internally ovipositing parasites can act as pollinators depends on the host fig’s pollination mode (active or passive). Overall, this study and others suggest a relatively limited mutualistic role for internally ovipositing fig wasps from non-pollinator (non-Agaonidae) lineages.

  13. Thermoregulation of individual paper wasps ( Polistes dominula) plays an important role in nest defence and dominance battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höcherl, Nicole; Tautz, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Paper wasps, like Polistes dominula, are considered as primitively eusocial. Hence, they are often used as model species for studies about the evolution of eusociality and dominance hierarchies. However, our knowledge about basic physiological processes in these wasps remains limited. In particular, the thermoregulation of individual wasps in their natural habitat has not yet been investigated in detail. We conducted a comprehensive field study to test their ability to respond to external hazards with elevated thorax temperatures. We presented artificial threats by applying smoke or carbon dioxide simulating fire and predator attacks, respectively, and monitored the thorax temperature of wasps on the nest using infrared thermography. We found that P. dominula workers recognized smoke and CO2 and reacted almost instantaneously and simultaneously with an increase of their thorax temperature. The maximal thorax temperature was reached about 65 s after the application of both stressors, but subsequently, the wasps showed a different behaviour pattern. No rise of the thorax temperature was detectable after an air blast was applied or in wasps resting on the nest. These observations provide evidence that P. dominula is able to heat up its thorax and that thermoregulation is employed in escape and defence reactions. Additionally, we investigated the thorax temperatures of queens during dominance battles. We found that the thorax temperature of the dominant queens rose up to 5 °C compared to that of subordinate queens that attacked the former, suggesting that the dominant queen defends herself as well as her nest.

  14. Disease-associated missense mutations in the EVH1 domain disrupt intrinsic WASp function causing dysregulated actin dynamics and impaired dendritic cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Austen J J; Metelo, Joao; Bouma, Gerben; Moulding, Dale; Fritzsche, Marco; Vernay, Bertrand; Charras, Guillaume; Cory, Giles O C; Thrasher, Adrian J; Burns, Siobhan O

    2013-01-03

    Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-linked immunodeficiency, results from loss-of-function mutations in the human hematopoietic cytoskeletal regulator gene WAS. Many missense mutations in the Ena Vasp homology1 (EVH1) domain preserve low-level WAS protein (WASp) expression and confer a milder clinical phenotype. Although disrupted binding to WASp-interacting protein (WIP) leads to enhanced WASp degradation in vivo, the intrinsic function of EVH1-mutated WASp is poorly understood. In the present study, we show that, despite mediating enhanced actin polymerization compared with wild-type WASp in vitro, EVH1 missense mutated proteins did not support full biologic function in cells, even when levels were restored by forced overexpression. Podosome assembly was aberrant and associated with dysregulated lamellipodia formation and impaired persistence of migration. At sites of residual podosome-associated actin polymerization, localization of EVH1-mutated proteins was preserved even after deletion of the entire domain, implying that WIP-WASp complex formation is not absolutely required for WASp localization. However, retention of mutant proteins in podosomes was significantly impaired and associated with reduced levels of WASp tyrosine phosphorylation. Our results indicate that the EVH1 domain is important not only for WASp stability, but also for intrinsic biologic activity in vivo.

  15. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  16. Interactions between chestnut gall wasp and blight: a new criticality for chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast spread of Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a new constraint factor for chestnut stands and orchards in Italy. So far, the favourable effect of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica-Castanea sativa patho-system allowed the development of chestnut cultivation. This situation could be modified by the progressive weakening of the trees caused by intensive attacks of the new parasite. During recent surveys worrying blight damage recurrences were observed in different Italian chestnut areas (in Piemonte, Trentino and Toscana regions which were highly infested by the Chinese wasp. While biological control treatments against the parasite are carried out, it is necessary to set up integrated protocols for the management of chestnut orchards to allow the survival of trees and their productivity.

  17. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis following a wasp sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Xu, X; Ran, Y

    2017-04-10

    We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia spp. is relatively uncommon in clinics, but it was the distance of the lesions from the affected area of the wasp sting that has made this an even rarer case and of interest to report. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, B. M.; Søndergaard, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae preserve their native allergenic properties and whether the yeast native surface glycoproteins interfere with IgE binding. We chose to use the major allergens from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris venom: phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase and antigen 5 as the model. Results: The proteins...... their enzymatic activities. Phospholipase A1 severely inhibited the growth of the yeast cells. Antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells bound IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patient sera but not from control sera as demonstrated by FACS. Moreover, antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells were capable of mediating....... The non-modified S. cerevisiae cells did not cause any unspecific reaction in FACS or histamine release assay despite the expression of high-mannose oligosaccharides. In perspective the yeast surface display may be used for allergen discovery from cDNA libraries and possibly for sublingual immunotherapy...

  19. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of a parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nedoluzhko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of multicellular organisms coexist with bacterial symbionts that may play various roles during their life cycle. Parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae belongs to the smallest known insects whose size is comparable with some bacteria. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS, we described microbiota diversity for this arthropod and its potential impact on their lifecycle. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX2363723 and SRX2363724. We found that small body size and limited lifespan do not lead to a significant reduction of bacterial symbionts diversity. At the same time, we show here a specific feature of microbiota composition in M. amalphitanum – the absence of the Rickettsiaceae family representatives that are known to cause sex-ratio distortion in arthropods and well represented in other populations of parasitoid wasps.

  20. Spiroplasma bacteria enhance survival of Drosophila hydei attacked by the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternally-transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are ubiquitous. While many of these associations are obligate and mutually beneficial, many are facultative, and the mechanism(s by which these microbes persist in their host lineages remain elusive. Inherited microbes with imperfect transmission are expected to be lost from their host lineages if no other mechanisms increase their persistence (i.e., host reproductive manipulation and/or fitness benefits to host. Indeed numerous facultative heritable endosymbionts are reproductive manipulators. Nevertheless, many do not manipulate reproduction, so they are expected to confer fitness benefits to their hosts, as has been shown in several studies that report defense against natural enemies, tolerance to environmental stress, and increased fecundity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined whether larval to adult survival of Drosophila hydei against attack by a common parasitoid wasp (Leptopilina heterotoma, differed between uninfected flies and flies that were artificially infected with Spiroplasma, a heritable endosymbiont of Drosophila hydei that does not appear to manipulate host reproduction. Survival was significantly greater for Spiroplasma-infected flies, and the effect of Spiroplasma infection was most evident during the host's pupal stage. We examined whether or not increased survival of Spiroplasma-infected flies was due to reduced oviposition by the wasp (i.e., pre-oviposition mechanism. The number of wasp eggs per fly larva did not differ significantly between Spiroplasma-free and Spiroplasma-infected fly larvae, suggesting that differential fly survival is due to a post-oviposition mechanism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that Spiroplasma confers protection to D. hydei against wasp parasitism. This is to our knowledge the first report of a potential defensive mutualism in the genus Spiroplasma. Whether it explains the

  1. Structure elucidation of female-specific volatiles released by the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Tröger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce the putative polydeoxypropionates (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-diene and (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-dien-1-ol or their enantiomers as sex specific volatiles. The structures were assigned on the basis of GC–MS investigations using synthetic reference compounds.

  2. Revisiting the Energy Budget of WASP-43b: Enhanced Day–Night Heat Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Dylan; Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2017-11-01

    The large day–night temperature contrast of WASP-43b has so far eluded explanation. We revisit the energy budget of this planet by considering the impact of reflected light on dayside measurements and the physicality of implied nightside temperatures. Previous analyses of the infrared eclipses of WASP-43b have assumed reflected light from the planet is negligible and can be ignored. We develop a phenomenological eclipse model including reflected light, thermal emission, and water absorption, and we use it to fit published Hubble and Spitzer eclipse data. We infer a near-infrared geometric albedo of 24% ± 1% and a cooler dayside temperature of 1483 ± 10 K. Additionally, we perform light curve inversion on the three published orbital phase curves of WASP-43b and find that each suggests unphysical, negative flux on the nightside. By requiring non-negative brightnesses at all longitudes, we correct the unphysical parts of the maps and obtain a much hotter nightside effective temperature of 1076 ± 11 K. The cooler dayside and hotter nightside suggest a heat recirculation efficiency of 51% for WASP-43b, essentially the same as for HD 209458b, another hot Jupiter with nearly the same temperature. Our analysis therefore reaffirms the trend that planets with lower irradiation temperatures have more efficient day–night heat transport. Moreover, we note that (1) reflected light may be significant for many near-IR eclipse measurements of hot Jupiters, and (2) phase curves should be fit with physically possible longitudinal brightness profiles—it is insufficient to only require that the disk-integrated light curve be non-negative.

  3. No actual conflict over colony inheritance despite high potential conflict in the social wasp Polistes dominulus

    OpenAIRE

    Monnin, Thibaud; Cini, Alessandro; Lecat, Vincent; Fédérici, Pierre; Doums, Claudie

    2009-01-01

    Social insect societies are outstanding examples of cooperation and conflict. Individuals work together, yet seek to increase their inclusive fitness at each others' expense. One such conflict is over colony inheritance, when a queen inherits the colony following the death of the previous queen. Colony inheritance is common in the social wasp Polistes dominulus, and it can have dramatic fitness consequences. The subordinate inheriting the colony is often unrelated to the initial foundress (al...

  4. Diapriinae Wasps (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae Associated with Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Loiácono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of diapriid wasps associated with ants in Argentina and the diversity of interactions they have developed with their hosts. As a result, we report 16 species of nine genera of Diapriinae, two new geographic distributions, three new association records, illustrations, and photographs. We highlight myrmecophile symphylic species, with a high degree of integration with the host ants, adaptation being morphological and behavioral. A table with diapriid species and ant hosts is given.

  5. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  6. Comparative analysis of constraints and caste differences in brain investment among social paper wasps

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Sean; Clifford, Marie; Molina, Yamile

    2011-01-01

    We compared species mean data on the size of functionally distinct brain regions to test the relative rates at which investment in higher-order cognitive processing (mushroom body calyces) versus peripheral sensory processing (optic and antennal lobes) increased with increasing brain size. Subjects were eusocial paper wasps from queen and worker castes of 10 species from different genera. Relative investment in central processing tissue increased with brain size at a higher rate than peripher...

  7. Additional heritable virus in the parasitic wasp Leptopilina boulardi: prevalence, transmission and phenotypic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Julien; Lepetit, David; Ravallec, Marc; Fleury, Frédéric; Varaldi, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Parasitoid wasps can be found in association with heritable viruses. Although some viruses have been shown to profoundly affect the biology and evolution of parasitoid wasps, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of parasitoid-associated viruses remains largely unexplored. We previously discovered a behaviour-manipulating DNA virus in the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi. In this species, which lays its eggs inside Drosophila larvae, Leptopilina boulardi filamentous virus (LbFV) forces the females to lay their eggs in already parasitized Drosophila larvae. This behavioural manipulation increases the chances for the horizontal transmission of the virus. Here, we describe in the same parasitoid species another virus, which we propose to call Leptopilina boulardi toti-like virus (LbTV). This double-stranded RNA virus is highly prevalent in insect laboratory lines as well as in parasitoids caught in the field. In some cases, LbTV was found in coinfection with LbFV, but did not affect the behaviour of the wasp. Instead we found that the presence of LbTV correlates with an increase in the number of offspring, mostly due to increased survival of parasitoid larvae. LbTV is vertically transmitted mostly through the maternal lineage even if frequent paternal transmission also occurs. Unlike LbFV, LbTV is not horizontally transmitted. Its genome encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) showing similarities with RdRps of Totiviridae. These results underline the high incidence and diversity of inherited viruses in parasitoids as well as their potential impact on the phenotype of their hosts.

  8. Nature's Swiss Army knives: ovipositor structure mirrors ecology in a multitrophic fig wasp community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Ghara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resource partitioning is facilitated by adaptations along niche dimensions that range from morphology to behaviour. The exploitation of hidden resources may require specially adapted morphological or sensory tools for resource location and utilisation. Differences in tool diversity and complexity can determine not only how many species can utilize these hidden resources but also how they do so. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sclerotisation, gross morphology and ultrastructure of the ovipositors of a seven-member community of parasitic wasps comprising of gallers and parasitoids developing within the globular syconia (closed inflorescences of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae was investigated. These wasps also differ in their parasitism mode (external versus internal oviposition and their timing of oviposition into the expanding syconium during its development. The number and diversity of sensilla, as well as ovipositor teeth, increased from internally ovipositing to externally ovipositing species and from gallers to parasitoids. The extent of sclerotisation of the ovipositor tip matched the force required to penetrate the syconium at the time of oviposition of each species. The internally ovipositing pollinator had only one type of sensillum and a single notch on the ovipositor tip. Externally ovipositing species had multiple sensilla types and teeth on their ovipositors. Chemosensilla were most concentrated at ovipositor tips while mechanoreceptors were more widely distributed, facilitating the precise location of hidden hosts in these wasps which lack larval host-seeking behaviour. Ovipositor traits of one parasitoid differed from those of its syntopic galler congeners and clustered with those of parasitoids within a different wasp subfamily. Thus ovipositor tools can show lability based on adaptive necessity, and are not constrained by phylogeny. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ovipositor structure mirrored the increasingly complex

  9. Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus

    OpenAIRE

    Tooker, John F.; Koenig, Wilfried A.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a previously uncharacterized function for changes in plant chemistry induced by phytophagous insects: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L. and Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacquin (Asteraceae). Adult male A. rufus emerge before females and are challenged with locating mates that are sequestered within de...

  10. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A P; Sérsic, A N; Marino, S; Simões, A O; Cocucci, A A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators in other regions outside South

  11. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A. P.; Sérsic, A. N.; Marino, S.; Simões, A. O.; Cocucci, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae–Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Methods Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. Key Results The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Conclusions Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators

  12. High-throughput olfactory conditioning and memory retention test show variation in Nasonia parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedjes, K M; Steidle, J L M; Werren, J H; Vet, L E M; Smid, H M

    2012-10-01

    Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of parasitic wasps display substantial variation in memory dynamics and can be instrumental to understanding both the adaptive benefit of and mechanisms underlying this variation. Parasitic wasps of the genus Nasonia offer excellent opportunities for multidisciplinary research on this topic. Genetic and genomic resources available for Nasonia are unrivaled among parasitic wasps, providing tools for genetic dissection of mechanisms that cause differences in learning. This study presents a robust, high-throughput method for olfactory conditioning of Nasonia using a host encounter as reward. A T-maze olfactometer facilitates high-throughput memory retention testing and employs standardized odors of equal detectability, as quantified by electroantennogram recordings. Using this setup, differences in memory retention between Nasonia species were shown. In both Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia longicornis, memory was observed up to at least 5 days after a single conditioning trial, whereas Nasonia giraulti lost its memory after 2 days. This difference in learning may be an adaptation to species-specific differences in ecological factors, for example, host preference. The high-throughput methods for conditioning and memory retention testing are essential tools to study both ultimate and proximate factors that cause variation in learning and memory formation in Nasonia and other parasitic wasp species. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  13. WASP and SCAR are evolutionarily conserved in actin-filled pseudopod-based motility

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Lord, Samuel J.; Mullins, R Dyche

    2017-01-01

    Diverse eukaryotic cells crawl through complex environments using distinct modes of migration. To understand the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary relationships, we must define each mode and identify its phenotypic and molecular markers. In this study, we focus on a widely dispersed migration mode characterized by dynamic actin-filled pseudopods that we call ??-motility.? Mining genomic data reveals a clear trend: only organisms with both WASP and SCAR/WAVE?activators of branched a...

  14. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  15. Diapause and Cold Hardiness of the Almond Wasp, Eurytoma amygdali (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Two Independent Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohamadi, Fatemeh; Khajehali, Jahangir; Izadi, Hamzeh

    2016-08-01

    The almond wasp, Eurytoma amygdali Enderlein (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a key pest of almond, is a univoltine pest diapausing as last instar larvae inside the damaged fruits for almost nine months in a year. In this study, changes in the amount of total simple sugars, lipid, protein, glycogen, trehalose, glucose, supercooling points (SCPs), and cold hardiness of the diapausing larvae were measured from October to March for first year diapause-destined and in August and September for second year diapause-destined larvae. Changes in glycogen content were reversely proportional to changes in total simple sugars and low molecular weight carbohydrates. These changes reflect the interconversion of glycogen to sugar alcohol in order to increase the insect cold tolerance. We found that cold hardiness and diapause of the last instar larvae of the almond wasp have evolved separately. Cold hardiness was highly associated with physiological changes (accumulation of cryoprotectants), but no physiological changes occurred in early diapause of first year diapause-destined and second year diapause-destined larvae. The almond wasp larvae were found to be a freeze-avoidant insect, as no larva survived after SCP determination and crystallization of its body fluids. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic β cell delamination and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant; Öhlin, Zarah Löf; Johansson, Jenny Kristina; Li, Wan-Chun; Lommel, Silvia; Greiner, Thomas Uwe; Semb, Henrik

    2014-02-01

    Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell delamination and differentiation. These processes are normally associated with junctional actin and cell-cell junction disassembly and the expression of fate-determining transcription factors, such as Isl1 and MafA. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of N-WASP in β cells expressing constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis.

  17. TRAP-NESTING BEES AND WASPS (HYMENOPTERA, ACULEATA IN A SEMIDECIDUAL SEASONAL FOREST FRAGMENT, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trap-nesting bee and wasp inventories are common in Brazil but many phytophysiognomies are still poorly studied. The main objective of this study is to survey trap-nesting bees and wasps in a Semidecidual Seasonal Forest fragment. Also, we test the differences on nesting between interior and edge transects. A sum of 1,500 trap nests was made with bamboo cane internodes and two consecutive years were monitored. In the first year 46 nests were occupied by Pachodynerus grandis (19 nests, Pachodynerus guadulpensis (19, Centris analis (two, and Centris tarsata, Megachile fiebrigi, Megachile guaranitica, Megachile susurrans, Trypoxylon sp and Zethus smithii with one nest each. No statistical differences were found between interior and edge transects for richness and occupation rate, but the species composition was different. In the second year 39 nests were occupied by four species, three previously recorded, C. analis (seven nests, P. guadulpensis and P. grandis (six nests each, plus Monobia angulosa with 15 nests. Parasitoids from four families and one cleptoparasite were recorded and the mortality rate was higher in bees than in wasps. These findings reinforce the notion that trap nests assemblages from different studies are not directly comparable for richness and composition.

  18. Do Quiescence and Wasp Venom-Induced Lethargy Share Common Neuronal Mechanisms in Cockroaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stav Emanuel

    Full Text Available The escape behavior of a cockroach may not occur when it is either in a quiescent state or after being stung by the jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa. In the present paper, we show that quiescence is an innate lethargic state during which the cockroach is less responsive to external stimuli. The neuronal mechanism of such a state is poorly understood. In contrast to quiescence, the venom-induced lethargic state is not an innate state in cockroaches. The Jewel Wasp disables the escape behavior of cockroaches by injecting its venom directly in the head ganglia, inside a neuropile called the central complex a 'higher center' known to regulate motor behaviors. In this paper we show that the coxal slow motoneuron ongoing activity, known to be involved in posture, is reduced in quiescent animals, as compared to awake animals, and it is further reduced in stung animals. Moreover, the regular tonic firing of the slow motoneuron present in both awake and quiescent cockroaches is lost in stung cockroaches. Injection of procaine to prevent neuronal activity into the central complex to mimic the wasp venom injection produces a similar effect on the activity of the slow motoneuron. In conclusion, we speculate that the neuronal modulation during the quiescence and venom-induced lethargic states may occur in the central complex and that both states could share a common neuronal mechanism.

  19. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  20. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshu Agrawal

    Full Text Available Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  1. Prognosis of corneal wasp sting: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Pinghong; Yang, Jun; Cui, Hua; Xie, Hui

    2011-12-01

    To report the ocular complications associated with corneal wasp sting and to highlight the importance of eye protection in case of wasp offense. This was a retrospective, observational chart review. A 34-year-old man was referred for severely decreased vision after being stung by a swap to the left cornea. Ophthalmologic examination showed a large corneal epithelial defect, anterior uveitis, and a left relative afferent pupillary defect. Vision was light perception. After treatment with cycloplegic, topical antibiotic, and systemic steroids for 2 weeks, the epithelial defect healed and anterior uveitis subsided; however, bulbous keratopathy and traumatic cataract developed. The visual acuity remained light perception with poor light projections. Twenty additional cases of corneal hymenoptera sting were reviewed from the English language literature, which shared certain characteristics including anterior uveitis, intractable glaucoma, traumatic cataract, toxic optic neuropathy, corneal scarring, and a catastrophic prognosis. Wasp stings of the cornea may bring disastrous ocular damages. Outdoor works should manage to protect your eyes when confronted with a hymenoptera attack.

  2. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher [Department of Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: ebechter@nd.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  3. Late compartment syndrome of the hand due to wasp sting in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petratos, Dimitrios V; Galanakos, Spyridon P; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A; Anastasopoulos, John N

    2011-01-01

    We report a 6-year-old girl, with no history of previous anaphylactic reaction, who sustained a wasp sting to the volar aspect of her left hand. The child did not present any symptoms at the beginning. She was first examined at the emergency department with developed compartment syndrome, after more than 24 hours later and she was urgently taken to the operating theatre. The midpalmar, thenar, and hypothenar spaces were decompressed, and the transverse carpal ligament was released. At the 11-month followup, she presented with normal function of the hand and normal 2-point discrimination in all fingers. Although the accurate mechanism of the development of compartment syndrome after a wasp sting in children is not thoroughly clear, the treatment seems to be the same as in all other cases of compartment syndrome; urgent fasciotomy. It is very important to keep in mind the possibility, even if it is extremely low, of compartment syndrome after a wasp sting in children; even of those with no history of anaphylactic reaction.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR A TEMPERATURE INVERSION IN THE DAYSIDE ATMOSPHERE OF HOT JUPITER WASP-33b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Korey; Mandell, Avi M. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather, E-mail: khaynes0112@gmail.com [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    We present observations of two occultations of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is the most highly irradiated hot Jupiter discovered to date, and the only exoplanet known to orbit a δ-Scuti star. We observed in spatial scan mode to decrease instrument systematic effects in the data, and removed fluctuations in the data due to stellar pulsations. The rms for our final, binned spectrum is 1.05 times the photon noise. We compare our final spectrum, along with previously published photometric data, to atmospheric models of WASP-33b spanning a wide range in temperature profiles and chemical compositions. We find that the data require models with an oxygen-rich chemical composition and a temperature profile that increases at high altitude. We find that our measured spectrum displays an excess in the measured flux toward short wavelengths that is best explained as emission from TiO. If confirmed by additional measurements at shorter wavelengths, this planet would become the first hot Jupiter with a thermal inversion that can be definitively attributed to the presence of TiO in its dayside atmosphere.

  5. High Bee and Wasp Diversity in a Heterogeneous Tropical Farming System Compared to Protected Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems. PMID:23300598

  6. The Optical Transmission Spectrum of the Inflated Hot Jupiter WASP-94Ab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Osip, David; McDonald, Michael; Triaud, Amaury; Hellier, Coel; Gillon, Michael; Delrez, Laetitia; Queloz, Didier; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exoplaneteers study the color of sunset on other planets, by measuring the wavelength-dependence of the fraction of starlight transmitted through the planets' atmospheres during transit. These transmission spectroscopy observations can reveal the molecular composition and aerosol distribution along the planet's day-night terminator. Here, we present new observations of the transmission spectrum of WASP-94Ab, an inflated hot Jupiter in a 3.95 day orbit around a bright 6200K, V=10.1 dwarf star. The star is in a visual binary with a nearly identical star (6100K, V=10.5) located 15" away. We observed three transits of WASP-94Ab with the Magellan/LDSS3C multiobject spectrograph, taking advantage of the nearby companion to correct for temporal variations in Earth's telluric spectrum. Thanks to the Magellan Clay telescope's large 6.5m aperture and WASP-94Ab's low surface gravity, we achieve a spectrophotometric precision (in units of atmospheric scale heights) that rivals Hubble/STIS spectroscopy of the famous and much brighter hot Jupiter system HD209458b. We highlight the valuable role ground-based telescopes can play for exoplanetary characterization in the TESS era.

  7. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of the Exoplanet Wasp-14B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, J. E.; Ingalls, J.; Carey, S.; von Braun, K.; Kane, S. R.; Ciardi, D.; Plavchan, P.; Wong, I.; Lowrance, P.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling the phase curves of hot Jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of approximately two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easier to insert into the Spitzer observing schedule. We present our pilot study from this program using the exoplanet WASP-14b. Data of this system were taken both as a sparsely sampled phase curve as well as a staring-mode phase curve. Both data sets, as well as snapshot-style observations of a calibration star, are used to validate this technique. By fitting our WASP-14b phase snapshot data set, we successfully recover physical parameters for the transit and eclipse depths as well as the amplitude and maximum and minimum of the phase curve shape of this slightly eccentric hot Jupiter. We place a limit on the potential phase to phase variation of these parameters since our data are taken over many phases over the course of a year. We see no evidence for eclipse depth variations compared to other published WASP-14b eclipse depths over a 3.5 year baseline.

  8. The metabolic costs of fighting and host exploitation in a seed-drilling parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Romain P; Woods, H Arthur; Goubault, Marlène

    2017-11-01

    Oviposition sites may be challenging and energetically costly to access for females in the presence of competitors contesting that resource. Additionally, oviposition sites may be difficult to reach, and penetrating a hard substrate can raise energy costs. In the seed-drilling parasitic wasp Eupelmus vuilleti, females actively fight with conspecific competitors over access to hosts. They are often observed laying eggs on already parasitized hosts (superparasitism) living inside cowpea seeds despite the resulting larval competition. Using flow-through respirometry, we quantified the metabolic costs of fighting and of drilling through the seed to access the host, to understand the wasp's fighting strategies and the occurrence of superparasitism. Agonistic interactions such as kicks or pushes generated very small instantaneous costs, but the females that won their contests had higher pre-contest metabolic rates, suggesting a potential long-term cost associated with dominance. We also found that drilling holes through the seed accounted for approximately 15% of a wasp's estimated daily energy budget, and that females can reduce these drilling costs by reusing existing holes. Because exploiting new seeds incurs both drilling costs and the risk of fights, it appears cost effective in some situations for females to avoid confrontations and lay eggs in existing holes, on already parasitized hosts. Our study helps explain the evolution of superparasitism in this system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Transdifferentiation and Proliferation in Two Distinct Hemocyte Lineages in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae after Wasp Infection.

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    Ines Anderl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses require the generation and recruitment of diverse blood cell types that recognize and kill pathogens. In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, immune-inducible lamellocytes participate in recognizing and killing parasitoid wasp eggs. However, the sequence of events required for lamellocyte generation remains controversial. To study the cellular immune system, we developed a flow cytometry approach using in vivo reporters for lamellocytes as well as for plasmatocytes, the main hemocyte type in healthy larvae. We found that two different blood cell lineages, the plasmatocyte and lamellocyte lineages, contribute to the generation of lamellocytes in a demand-adapted hematopoietic process. Plasmatocytes transdifferentiate into lamellocyte-like cells in situ directly on the wasp egg. In parallel, a novel population of infection-induced cells, which we named lamelloblasts, appears in the circulation. Lamelloblasts proliferate vigorously and develop into the major class of circulating lamellocytes. Our data indicate that lamellocyte differentiation upon wasp parasitism is a plastic and dynamic process. Flow cytometry with in vivo hemocyte reporters can be used to study this phenomenon in detail.

  10. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana pollination in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Perez-Balam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although avocado is native to Mexico, there are no comparative measures in this country on the performance of its flower visitors as pollinators. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to the pollination of avocado from tropical Mexico was assessed by comparing abundance, speed of flower visitation, quantity of pollen carried per individual and pollen deposited on virgin flowers after single visits. The values of abundance and frequency of flower visitation with pollen deposition were combined to obtain a measure of pollinator performance (PP. The most abundant insects on avocado were flies (mean ± SE: 15. 2 ± 6.2, followed by honey bees (9.4 ± 6.3 and wasps (4.2 ± 3.1 (ANOVA F = 91.71, d.f. = 2,78; P P P = 0.001, the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma after a single visit was similar for the three taxa (2-5. There was evidence for a significant and similarly positive PP of both honey bees and flies as avocado pollinators over wasps, given their abundance, potential for pollen transport and deposition of pollen on stigmas.

  11. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

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    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  12. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  13. Transmission spectroscopy of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b from 0.7 to 5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Kreidberg, Laura [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 170-25 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Bergmann, Marcel [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Homeier, Derek, E-mail: kbs@uchicago.edu [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-06-01

    Since the first report of a potentially non-solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in its dayside atmosphere, the highly irradiated exoplanet WASP-12b has been under intense scrutiny and the subject of many follow-up observations. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 has obfuscated interpretation of the observational data. Here we present new ground-based multi-object transmission-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b that we acquired over two consecutive nights in the red optical with Gemini-N/GMOS. After correcting for the influence of WASP-12's stellar companions, we find that these data rule out a cloud-free H{sub 2} atmosphere with no additional opacity sources. We detect features in the transmission spectrum that may be attributed to metal oxides (such as TiO and VO) for an O-rich atmosphere or to metal hydrides (such as TiH) for a C-rich atmosphere. We also reanalyzed NIR transit-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b from HST/WFC3 and broadband transit photometry from Warm Spitzer. We attribute the broad spectral features in the WFC3 data to either H{sub 2}O or CH{sub 4} and HCN for an O-rich or C-rich atmosphere, respectively. The Spitzer data suggest shallower transit depths than the models predict at infrared wavelengths, albeit at low statistical significance. A multi-instrument, broad-wavelength analysis of WASP-12b suggests that the transmission spectrum is well approximated by a simple Rayleigh scattering model with a planet terminator temperature of 1870 ± 130 K. We conclude that additional high-precision data and isolated spectroscopic measurements of the companion stars are required to place definitive constraints on the composition of WASP-12b's atmosphere.

  14. Efeito de vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus - vespas de figos Effect of non-pollinating fig wasps over fig-fig wasp mutualism

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    Larissa G. Elias

    Full Text Available Relações ecológicas interespecíficas, que resultam em benefício para todos os organismos participantes, são conhecidas como mutualismo. No entanto, tal cooperação abre espaço para o surgimento de estratégias oportunistas (ou de trapaça, representadas por indivíduos parasitas do mutualismo, que recebem o benefício de um dos parceiros sem oferecer nada em troca. A interação figueiras - vespas - de - figo é um sistema adequado para o estudo do mutualismo e de estratégias oportunistas (parasitas de mutualismos. Representantes do gênero Ficus (Moraceae apresentam uma relação mutualística com pequenas vespas polinizadoras (Agaonidae e são explorados por outras espécies de vespas não-polinizadoras. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto das vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus citrifolia e suas vespas polinizadoras, Pegoscapus tonduzi Grandi, 1919. Para tal, foi comparada a produção de aquênios (função feminina e de fêmeas da espécie polinizadora (função masculina entre amostras de sicônios altamente infestados e pouco infestados por vespas não-polinizadoras, coletadas nos municípios de Londrina (Paraná, Campinas e Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo, Brasil. Nossos resultados apontaram que as vespas não-polinizadoras exercem impacto negativo nos componentes feminino e masculino da planta, sendo maior no masculino. A produção de vespas polinizadoras foi cerca de sete vezes menor nos figos infestados, ao passo que a produção de aquênios foi 1,5 vez menor nesses mesmos figos. Hipóteses sobre a estabilidade do mutualismo na presença das espécies oportunistas são discutidas.Mutualism is the name given to interspecific interactions which result in benefit for all partners involved. However, such cooperation is open to opportunistic strategies: individuals that extract the benefit from the partner, but do not offer any benefit in exchange. The fig-fig wasp interaction is an appropriate case to

  15. Signs of strong Na and K absorption in the transmission spectrum of WASP-103b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Hagelberg, J.; Müller, A.; Juvan, I.; Fossati, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Transmission spectroscopy has become a prominent tool for characterizing the atmospheric properties on close-in transiting planets. Recent observations have revealed a remarkable diversity in exoplanet spectra, which show absorption signatures of Na, K and H2O, in some cases partially or fully attenuated by atmospheric aerosols. Aerosols (clouds and hazes) themselves have been detected in the transmission spectra of several planets thanks to wavelength-dependent slopes caused by the particles' scattering properties. Aims: We present an optical 550-960 nm transmission spectrum of the extremely irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-103b, one of the hottest (2500 K) and most massive (1.5 MJ) planets yet to be studied with this technique. WASP-103b orbits its star at a separation of less than 1.2 times the Roche limit and is predicted to be strongly tidally distorted. Methods: We have used Gemini/GMOS to obtain multi-object spectroscopy throughout three transits of WASP-103b. We used relative spectrophotometry and bin sizes between 20 and 2 nm to infer the planet's transmission spectrum. Results: We find that WASP-103b shows increased absorption in the cores of the alkali (Na, K) line features. We do not confirm the presence of any strong scattering slope as previously suggested, pointing towards a clear atmosphere for the highly irradiated, massive exoplanet WASP-103b. We constrain the upper boundary of any potential cloud deck to reside at pressure levels above 0.01 bar. This finding is in line with previous studies on cloud occurrence on exoplanets which find that clouds dominate the transmission spectra of cool, low surface gravity planets while hot, high surface gravity planets are either cloud-free, or possess clouds located below the altitudes probed by transmission spectra. The spectrophotometric time series data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  16. Recruitment in Swarm-Founding Wasps: Polybia occidentalis Does not Actively Scent-Mark Carbohydrate Food Sources

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    Benjamin J. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scent marking food resources is expected to enhance foraging efficiency reducing search time. Many social bees exhibit this behavior, but scent-marking is absent in social wasps, except for Vespa mandarinia. We tested for scent marking in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia occidentalis. This wasp has moderately large colonies and utilizes resources that are concentrated in time and space, making scent marking profitable. Also, this wasp uses chemical markings to lead nestmates to a new nest site during swarm emigration, making it possible that it could use the same behavior to recruit nestmates to a food source. Foragers from 11 colonies were given a choice between a previously visited feeder and an unvisited one, both containing a rich, unscented sucrose solution. There was no difference in the number of visits to the two treatments. However, some individuals chose the feeder on one side more often. We conclude that foragers of this species of wasp do not use odor marks left behind by nestmates to find food, but they do exhibit the tendency, when returning to a food source that has not been depleted, to choose a resource based on its relative position, presumably by using visual cues.

  17. Using parasitoid wasps in Integrated Pest Management in museums against biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella

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    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella cause much damage to museum objects. Some objects and materials are very attractive to these two pest species and objects are often re-infested after treatment. For some years parasitoid wasps have been used in biological pest control to treat and reduce infestations of stored product pests in food processing facilities. Their application in museums is still new and in a research stage. Results from five different museums in Germany and Austria and their application are presented. Lariophagus distinguendus wasps were released against Stegobium paniceum in the municipal library Augsburger Stadtarchiv (Germany, the Ethnological Museum in Berlin (Germany and the Picture Gallery in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (Austria. Trichogramma evanescens were released against Tineola bisselliella in the Technisches Museum in Vienna (Austria and in the Deutsches Museum Verkehrszentrum in Munich (Germany. Results show that for active biscuit beetle infestations good results can be expected using the Lariophagus distinguendus in museums. Active clothes moth infestations are harder to treat but with a very regular and long-term exposure to the wasps, the clothes moth population can be reduced over the years. We see the application of parasitoid wasps as part of an Integrated Pest Management concept that should be used besides regular insect monitoring and other preventive measures. Difficulties, limitations and research needs in the application of parasitoid wasps in museums are discussed.

  18. Applying a Hydrodynamical Treatment of Stream Flow and Accretion Disk Formation in WASP-12/b Exoplanetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian; Lopez, Aaron; Macias, Phil

    2016-01-01

    WASP-12b is a hot Jupiter orbiting dangerously close to its parent star WASP-12 at a radius 1/44th the distance between the Earth and the Sun, or roughly 16 times closer than Mercury. WASP-12's gravitational influence at this incredibly close proximity generates tidal forces on WASP-12b that distort the planet into an egg-like shape. As a result, the planet's surface overflows its Roche lobe through L1, transferring mass to the host star at a rate of 270 million metric tonnes per second. This mass transferring stream forms an accretion disk that transits the parent star, which aids sensitive instruments, such as the Kepler spacecraft, whose role is to examine the periodic dimming of main sequence stars in order to detect ones with orbiting planets. The quasi-ballistic stream trajectory is approximated by that of a massless point particle released from analogous initial conditions in 2D. The particle dynamics are shown to deviate negligibly across a broad range of initial conditions, indicating applicability of our model to "WASP-like" systems in general. We then apply a comprehensive fluid treatment by way of hydrodynamical code FLASH in order to directly model the behavior of mass transfer in a non-inertial reference frame and subsequent disk formation. We hope to employ this model to generate virtual spectroscopic signatures and compare them against collected light curve data from the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS).

  19. Partial venom gland transcriptome of a Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina heterotoma, reveals novel and shared bioactive profiles with stinging Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Mary E; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Rajwani, Roma; Pagan, Pedro E; Small, Chiyedza; Govind, Shubha

    2013-09-10

    Analysis of natural host-parasite relationships reveals the evolutionary forces that shape the delicate and unique specificity characteristic of such interactions. The accessory long gland-reservoir complex of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Figitidae) produces venom with virus-like particles. Upon delivery, venom components delay host larval development and completely block host immune responses. The host range of this Drosophila endoparasitoid notably includes the highly-studied model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Categorization of 827 unigenes, using similarity as an indicator of putative homology, reveals that approximately 25% are novel or classified as hypothetical proteins. Most of the remaining unigenes are related to processes involved in signaling, cell cycle, and cell physiology including detoxification, protein biogenesis, and hormone production. Analysis of L. heterotoma's predicted venom gland proteins demonstrates conservation among endo- and ectoparasitoids within the Apocrita (e.g., this wasp and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis) and stinging aculeates (e.g., the honey bee and ants). Enzyme and KEGG pathway profiling predicts that kinases, esterases, and hydrolases may contribute to venom activity in this unique wasp. To our knowledge, this investigation is among the first functional genomic studies for a natural parasitic wasp of Drosophila. Our findings will help explain how L. heterotoma shuts down its hosts' immunity and shed light on the molecular basis of a natural arms race between these insects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling compound involved in defenses against insects and pathogens, and in the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of structures (galls) on their host plants which house immature wasps and provide them with nu...

  1. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae

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    Herzner Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae. Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Results Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow. In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula. The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only. We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and

  2. Does size matter? – Thermoregulation of ‘heavyweight’ and ‘lightweight’ wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.)

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    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Summary In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (Ta: ∼0–40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights. Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on Ta on their arrival (mean Tth  =  30–40°C) and departure (mean Tth  =  33–40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (Tth−Ta) above ambient air of about 5–18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the Tth on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg. PMID:23162695

  3. Does size matter? – Thermoregulation of ‘heavyweight’ and ‘lightweight’ wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kovac

    2012-07-01

    In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro, the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica in the entire range of ambient temperature (Ta: ∼0–40°C where the insects exhibited foraging flights. Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg, they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on Ta on their arrival (mean Tth  =  30–40°C and departure (mean Tth  =  33–40°C at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (Tth−Ta above ambient air of about 5–18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the Tth on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.

  4. Oocyte-specific deletion of N-WASP does not affect oocyte polarity, but causes failure of meiosis II completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Ma, Xue-Shan; Hu, Meng-Wen; Jiang, Zong-Zhe; Meng, Tie-Gang; Dong, Ming-Zhe; Fan, Li-Hua; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Snapper, Scott B; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    There is an unexplored physiological role of N-WASP (neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) in oocyte maturation that prevents completion of second meiosis. In mice, N-WASP deletion did not affect oocyte polarity and asymmetric meiotic division in first meiosis, but did impair midbody formation and second meiosis completion. N-WASP regulates actin dynamics and participates in various cell activities through the RHO-GTPase-Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3 complex) pathway, and specifically the Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42)-N-WASP-Arp2/3 pathway. Differences in the functions of Cdc42 have been obtained from in vitro compared to in vivo studies. By conditional knockout of N-WASP in mouse oocytes, we analyzed its in vivo functions by employing a variety of different methods including oocyte culture, immunofluorescent staining and live oocyte imaging. Each experiment was repeated at least three times, and data were analyzed by paired-samples t-test. Oocyte-specific deletion of N-WASP did not affect the process of oocyte maturation including spindle formation, spindle migration, polarity establishment and maintenance, and homologous chromosome or sister chromatid segregation, but caused failure of cytokinesis completion during second meiosis (P meiosis completion and failures in this process that affect oocyte quality. None. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2012CB944404) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos 30930065, 31371451, 31272260 and 31530049). There are no potential conflicts of interests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Generality of toxins in defensive symbiosis: Ribosome-inactivating proteins and defense against parasitic wasps in Drosophila.

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    Matthew J Ballinger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While it has become increasingly clear that multicellular organisms often harbor microbial symbionts that protect their hosts against natural enemies, the mechanistic underpinnings underlying most defensive symbioses are largely unknown. Spiroplasma bacteria are widespread associates of terrestrial arthropods, and include strains that protect diverse Drosophila flies against parasitic wasps and nematodes. Recent work implicated a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP encoded by Spiroplasma, and related to Shiga-like toxins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, in defense against a virulent parasitic nematode in the woodland fly, Drosophila neotestacea. Here we test the generality of RIP-mediated protection by examining whether Spiroplasma RIPs also play a role in wasp protection, in D. melanogaster and D. neotestacea. We find strong evidence for a major role of RIPs, with ribosomal RNA (rRNA from the larval endoparasitic wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, exhibiting the hallmarks of RIP activity. In Spiroplasma-containing hosts, parasitic wasp ribosomes show abundant site-specific depurination in the α-sarcin/ricin loop of the 28S rRNA, with depurination occurring soon after wasp eggs hatch inside fly larvae. Interestingly, we found that the pupal ectoparasitic wasp, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae, escapes protection by Spiroplasma, and its ribosomes do not show high levels of depurination. We also show that fly ribosomes show little evidence of targeting by RIPs. Finally, we find that the genome of D. neotestacea's defensive Spiroplasma encodes a diverse repertoire of RIP genes, which are differ in abundance. This work suggests that specificity of defensive symbionts against different natural enemies may be driven by the evolution of toxin repertoires, and that toxin diversity may play a role in shaping host-symbiont-enemy interactions.

  6. The SuperWASP catalogue of 4963 RR Lyr stars: identification of 983 Blazhko effect candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, P. A.; Payne, S. G.; Norton, A. J.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.; Kolb, U. C.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: We set out to compile a catalogue of RRab pulsating variables in the SuperWASP archive and identify candidate Blazhko effect objects within this catalogue. We analysed their light curves and power spectra for correlations in their common characteristics to further our understanding of the phenomenon. Methods: Pulsation periods were found for each SWASP RRab object using phase dispersion minimisation techniques. Low frequency periodic signals detected in the CLEAN power spectra of RRab stars were matched with modulation sidebands and combined with pairs of sidebands to produce a list of candidate Blazhko periods. A novel technique was used in an attempt to identify Blazhko effect stars by comparing scatter at different parts of the folded light curve. Pulsation amplitudes were calculated based on phase folded light curves. Results: The SuperWASP RRab catalogue consists of 4963 objects of which 3397 are previously unknown. We discovered 983 distinct candidates for Blazhko effect objects, 613 of these being previously unknown in the literature as RR Lyrae stars, and 894 are previously unknown to be Blazhko effect stars. Correlations were investigated between the scatter of points on the light curve, the periods and amplitudes of the objects' pulsations, and those of the Blazhko effect. Conclusions: A statistical analysis has been performed on a large population of Blazhko effect stars from the wide-field SuperWASP survey. No correlations were found between the Blazhko period and other parameters including the Blazhko amplitude, although we confirmed a lower rate of occurrence of the Blazhko effect in long pulsation period objects. Full Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A11

  7. Multifaceted defense against antagonistic microbes in developing offspring of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae.

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    Katharina Weiss

    Full Text Available Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R-(--mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R-(--mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R-(--mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum. We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R-(--mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several

  8. Seeing in the dark: vision and visual behaviour in nocturnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2008-06-01

    In response to the pressures of predation, parasitism and competition for limited resources, several groups of (mainly) tropical bees and wasps have independently evolved a nocturnal lifestyle. Like their day-active (diurnal) relatives, these insects possess apposition compound eyes, a relatively light-insensitive eye design that is best suited to vision in bright light. Despite this, nocturnal bees and wasps are able to forage at night, with many species capable of flying through a dark and complex forest between the nest and a foraging site, a behaviour that relies heavily on vision and is limited by light intensity. In the two best-studied species - the Central American sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae) and the Indian carpenter bee Xylocopa tranquebarica (Apidae) - learned visual landmarks are used to guide foraging and homing. Their apposition eyes, however, have only around 30 times greater optical sensitivity than the eyes of their closest diurnal relatives, a fact that is apparently inconsistent with their remarkable nocturnal visual abilities. Moreover, signals generated in the photoreceptors, even though amplified by a high transduction gain, are too noisy and slow to transmit significant amounts of information in dim light. How have nocturnal bees and wasps resolved these paradoxes? Even though this question remains to be answered conclusively, a mounting body of theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that the slow and noisy visual signals generated by the photoreceptors are spatially summed by second-order monopolar cells in the lamina, a process that could dramatically improve visual reliability for the coarser and slower features of the visual world at night.

  9. Can soda ash dumping grounds provide replacement habitats for digger wasps (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Spheciformes)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twerd, Lucyna; Krzyżyński, Maciej; Waldon-Rudzionek, Barbara; Olszewski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species. In the years 2007-2010 we carried out investigations in postindustrial soda ash dumping grounds located in Central Poland. We demonstrated that these areas serve as replacement habitats for thermophilic species of Spheciformes and, indirectly, for their potential prey. The studies were conducted in three microhabitat types, varying in soil moisture, salinity and alkalinity, that were changing in the course of ecological succession. We trapped 2571 specimens belonging to 64 species of digger wasps. Species typical of open sunny spaces comprised 73% of the whole inventory. The obtained results suggest that the stage of succession determines the richness, abundance and diversity of Spheciformes. The most favorable conditions for digger wasps were observed in habitats at late successional stages. Our results clearly showed that these habitats were replacement habitats for thermophilous Spheciformes, including rare taxa that require genetic, species and ecosystem protection, according to the Biodiversity Convention. We showed that some types of industry might play a positive role in the preservation of taxa in the landscape, and that even degraded industrial wasteland can replace habitats under anthropopressure, serving as refugia of biological diversity, especially for disturbance-dependent species.

  10. Colitis and Colon Cancer in WASP-Deficient Mice Require Helicobacter Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Deanna D.; Muthupalani, Suresh; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Eston, Michelle A.; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S.; McCabe, Amanda; Marin, Romela; Snapper, Scott B.; Fox, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP)-deficient patients and mice are immunodeficient and can develop inflammatory bowel disease. The intestinal microbiome is critical to the development of colitis in most animal models, in which, Helicobacter spp. have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. We sought to determine the role of Helicobacter spp. in colitis development in WASP-deficient (WKO) mice. Methods Feces from WKO mice raised under specific pathogen free conditions were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter spp., after which, a subset of mice were rederived in Helicobacter spp.-free conditions. Helicobacter spp.-free WKO animals were subsequently infected with Helicobacter bilis. Results Helicobacter spp. were detected in feces from WKO mice. After re-derivation in Helicobacter spp.-free conditions, WKO mice did not develop spontaneous colitis but were susceptible to radiation-induced colitis. Moreover, a T-cell transfer model of colitis dependent on WASP-deficient innate immune cells also required Helicobacter spp. colonization. Helicobacter bilis infection of rederived WKO mice led to typhlitis and colitis. Most notably, several H. bilis-infected animals developed dysplasia with 10% demonstrating colon carcinoma, which was not observed in uninfected controls. Conclusions Spontaneous and T-cell transfer, but not radiation-induced, colitis in WKO mice is dependent on the presence of Helicobacter spp. Furthermore, H. bilis infection is sufficient to induce typhlocolitis and colon cancer in Helicobacter spp.-free WKO mice. This animal model of a human immunodeficiency with chronic colitis and increased risk of colon cancer parallels what is seen in human colitis and implicates specific microbial constituents in promoting immune dysregulation in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23820270

  11. Body temperature of the parasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera) during host location by vibrational sounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroder, Stefan; Samietz, Jörg; Stabentheiner, Anton; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    The pupal parasitoid Pimpla turionellae (L.) uses self-produced vibrations transmitted on the plant substrate, so-called vibrational sounding, to locate immobile concealed pupal hosts. The wasps are able to use vibrational sounding reliably over a broad range of ambient temperatures and even show an increased signal frequency and intensity at low temperatures. The present study investigates how control of body temperature in the wasps by endothermic mechanisms may facilitate host location under changing thermal environments. Insect body temperature is measured with real-time IR thermography on plant-stem models at temperature treatments of 10, 18, 26 and 30 °C, whereas behaviour is recorded with respect to vibrational host location. The results reveal a low-level endothermy that likely interferes with vibrational sound production because it occurs only in nonsearching females. At the lowest temperature of 10 °C, the thoracic temperature is 1.15 °C warmer than the ambient surface temperature whereas, at the high temperatures of 26 and 30 ° C, the wasps cool down their thorax by 0.29 and 0.47 °C, respectively, and their head by 0.45 and 0.61 °C below ambient surface temperature. By contrast, regardless of ambient temperature, searching females always have a slightly elevated body temperature of at most 0.30 °C above the ambient surface temperature. Behavioural observations indicate that searching females interrupt host location more frequently at suboptimal temperatures, presumably due to the requirements of thermoregulation. It is assumed that both mechanisms, producing vibrations for host location and low-level endothermy, are located in the thorax. Endothermy by thoracic muscle work probably disturbs signal structure of vibrational sounding, so the processes cannot be used at the same time.

  12. Can soda ash dumping grounds provide replacement habitats for digger wasps (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Spheciformes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Twerd

    Full Text Available Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species.In the years 2007-2010 we carried out investigations in postindustrial soda ash dumping grounds located in Central Poland. We demonstrated that these areas serve as replacement habitats for thermophilic species of Spheciformes and, indirectly, for their potential prey. The studies were conducted in three microhabitat types, varying in soil moisture, salinity and alkalinity, that were changing in the course of ecological succession. We trapped 2571 specimens belonging to 64 species of digger wasps. Species typical of open sunny spaces comprised 73% of the whole inventory. The obtained results suggest that the stage of succession determines the richness, abundance and diversity of Spheciformes. The most favorable conditions for digger wasps were observed in habitats at late successional stages.Our results clearly showed that these habitats were replacement habitats for thermophilous Spheciformes, including rare taxa that require genetic, species and ecosystem protection, according to the Biodiversity Convention. We showed that some types of industry might play a positive role in the preservation of taxa in the landscape, and that even degraded industrial wasteland can replace habitats under anthropopressure, serving as refugia of biological diversity, especially for disturbance-dependent species.

  13. Colony size is linked to paternity frequency and paternity skew in yellowjacket wasps and hornets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Kevin J; Chien, Chun; Juhl, Michael

    2014-12-30

    The puzzle of the selective benefits of multiple mating and multiple paternity in social insects has been a major focus of research in evolutionary biology. We examine paternity in a clade of social insects, the vespine wasps (the yellowjackets and hornets), which contains species with high multiple paternity as well as species with single paternity. This group is particularly useful for comparative analyses given the wide interspecific variation in paternity traits despite similar sociobiology and ecology of the species in the genera Vespula, Dolichovespula and Vespa. We describe the paternity of 5 species of yellowjackets (Vespula spp.) and we perform a phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of relatedness, paternity frequency, paternity skew, colony size, and nest site across 22 vespine taxa. We found moderate multiple paternity in four small-colony Vespula rufa-group species (effective paternity 1.5 - 2.1), and higher multiple paternity in the large-colony Vespula flavopilosa (effective paternity ~3.1). Our comparative analysis shows that colony size, but not nest site, predicts average intracolony relatedness. Underlying this pattern, we found that greater colony size is associated with both higher paternity frequency and reduced paternity skew. Our results support hypotheses focusing on the enhancement of genetic diversity in species with large colonies, and run counter to the hypothesis that multiple paternity is adaptively maintained due to sperm limitation associated with large colonies. We confirm the patterns observed in taxonomically widespread analyses by comparing closely related species of wasps with similar ecology, behavior and social organization. The vespine wasps may be a useful group for experimental investigation of the benefits of multiple paternity in the future.

  14. WASP-121 b: a hot Jupiter close to tidal disruption transiting an active F star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrez, L.; Santerne, A.; Almenara, J.-M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Díaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter. The planet has a mass of 1.183_{-0.062}^{+0.064} MJup, a radius of 1.865 ± 0.044 RJup, and transits every 1.274 9255_{-0.000 0025}^{+0.000 0020} days an active F6-type main-sequence star (V = 10.4, 1.353_{-0.079}^{+0.080} M⊙, 1.458 ± 0.030 R⊙, Teff = 6460 ± 140 K). A notable property of WASP-121 b is that its orbital semimajor axis is only ˜1.15 times larger than its Roche limit, which suggests that the planet is close to tidal disruption. Furthermore, its large size and extreme irradiation (˜7.1 109 erg s-1 cm-2) make it an excellent target for atmospheric studies via secondary eclipse observations. Using the TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope, we indeed detect its emission in the z'-band at better than ˜4σ, the measured occultation depth being 603 ± 130 ppm. Finally, from a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect with the CORALIE spectrograph, we infer a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of 257.8°_{-5.5°}^{+5.3°}. This result may suggest a significant misalignment between the spin axis of the host star and the orbital plane of the planet. If confirmed, this high misalignment would favour a migration of the planet involving strong dynamical events with a third body.

  15. Little effect of seasonal constraints on population genetic structure in eusocial paper wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengronne, Thibault; Leadbeater, Ellouise; Patalano, Solenn; Dreier, Stephanie; Field, Jeremy; Sumner, Seirian; Keller, Laurent

    2012-10-01

    Climate has long been suggested to affect population genetic structures of eusocial insect societies. For instance, Hamilton [Journal of Theoretical Biology7 (1964) 17] discusses whether temperate and tropical eusocial insects may show differences in population-level genetic structure and viscosity, and how this might relate to differences in the degree of synchrony in their life cycles or modes of nest founding. Despite the importance of Hamilton's 1964 papers, this specific idea has not been tested in actual populations of wasps, probably due to the paucity of studies on tropical species. Here, we compare colony and population genetic structures in two species of primitively eusocial paper wasps with contrasting ecologies: the tropical species Polistes canadensis and the temperate species P. dominulus. Our results provide important clarifications of Hamilton's discussion. Specifically, we show that the genetic structures of the temperate and tropical species were very similar, indicating that seasonality does not greatly affect population viscosity or inbreeding. For both species, the high genetic differentiation between nests suggests strong selection at the nest level to live with relatives, whereas low population viscosity and low genetic differentiation between nest aggregations might reflect balancing selection to disperse, avoiding competition with relatives. Overall, our study suggests no prevalence of seasonal constraints of the life cycle in affecting the population genetic structure of eusocial paper wasps. These conclusions are likely to apply also to other primitively eusocial insects, such as halictine bees. They also highlight how selection for a kin structure that promotes altruism can override potential effects of ecology in eusocial insects.

  16. Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids.The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers.Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be used to improve the precision of the host location by the parasitoids.

  17. Orbital alignment and star-spot properties in the WASP-52 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Raia, G.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Mollière, P.; Bozza, V.; Bretton, M.; Bruni, I.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Dominik, M.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Korhonen, H.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Starkey, D.; Calchi Novati, S.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Henning, Th.; Juncher, D.; Haugbølle, T.; Kains, N.; Popovas, A.; Schmidt, R. W.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Surdej, J.; Wertz, O.

    2017-02-01

    We report 13 high-precision light curves of eight transits of the exoplanet WASP-52 b, obtained by using four medium-class telescopes, through different filters, and adopting the defocussing technique. One transit was recorded simultaneously from two different observatories and another one from the same site but with two different instruments, including a multiband camera. Anomalies were clearly detected in five light curves and modelled as star-spots occulted by the planet during the transit events. We fitted the clean light curves with the JKTEBOP code, and those with the anomalies with the PRISM+GEMC codes in order to simultaneously model the photometric parameters of the transits and the position, size and contrast of each star-spot. We used these new light curves and some from the literature to revise the physical properties of the WASP-52 system. Star-spots with similar characteristics were detected in four transits over a period of 43 d. In the hypothesis that we are dealing with the same star-spot, periodically occulted by the transiting planet, we estimated the projected orbital obliquity of WASP-52 b to be λ = 3.8° ± 8.4°. We also determined the true orbital obliquity, ψ = 20° ± 50°, which is, although very uncertain, the first measurement of ψ purely from star-spot crossings. We finally assembled an optical transmission spectrum of the planet and searched for variations of its radius as a function of wavelength. Our analysis suggests a flat transmission spectrum within the experimental uncertainties.

  18. Effects of habitat fragmentation on abundance, larval food and parasitism of a spider-hunting wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrain, Valérie; Herzog, Felix; Entling, Martin H

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation strongly affects species distribution and abundance. However, mechanisms underlying fragmentation effects often remain unresolved. Potential mechanisms are (1) reduced dispersal of a species or (2) altered species interactions in fragmented landscapes. We studied if abundance of the spider-hunting and cavity-nesting wasp Trypoxylon figulus Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) is affected by fragmentation, and then tested for any effect of larval food (bottom up regulation) and parasitism (top down regulation). Trap nests of T. figulus were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. The sites varied in the level of isolation from forest (adjacent, in the open landscape but connected, isolated) and in the amount of woody habitat (from 4% to 74%). We recorded wasp abundance (number of occupied reed tubes), determined parasitism of brood cells and analysed the diversity and abundance of spiders that were deposited as larval food. Abundances of T. figulus were negatively related to forest cover in the landscape. In addition, T. figulus abundances were highest at forest edges, reduced by 33.1% in connected sites and by 79.4% in isolated sites. The mean number of spiders per brood cell was lowest in isolated sites. Nevertheless, structural equation modelling revealed that this did not directly determine wasp abundance. Parasitism was neither related to the amount of woody habitat nor to isolation and did not change with host density. Therefore, our study showed that the abundance of T. figulus cannot be fully explained by the studied trophic interactions. Further factors, such as dispersal and habitat preference, seem to play a role in the population dynamics of this widespread secondary carnivore in agricultural landscapes.

  19. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Lars K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast surface display is a technique, where the proteins of interest are expressed as fusions with yeast surface proteins and thus remain attached to the yeast cell wall after expression. Our purpose was to study whether allergens expressed on the cell surface of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae preserve their native allergenic properties and whether the yeast native surface glycoproteins interfere with IgE binding. We chose to use the major allergens from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris venom: phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase and antigen 5 as the model. Results The proteins were expressed on the surface as fusions with a-agglutinin complex protein AGA2. The expression was confirmed by fluorescent cytometry (FACS after staining the cells with antibody against a C-tag attached to the C-terminal end of the allergens. Phospholipase A1 and hyaluronidase retained their enzymatic activities. Phospholipase A1 severely inhibited the growth of the yeast cells. Antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells bound IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patient sera but not from control sera as demonstrated by FACS. Moreover, antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells were capable of mediating allergen-specific histamine release from human basophils. Conclusions All the three major wasp venom allergens were expressed on the yeast surface. A high-level expression, which was observed only for antigen 5, was needed for detection of IgE binding by FACS and for induction of histamine release. The non-modified S. cerevisiae cells did not cause any unspecific reaction in FACS or histamine release assay despite the expression of high-mannose oligosaccharides. In perspective the yeast surface display may be used for allergen discovery from cDNA libraries and possibly for sublingual immunotherapy as the cells can serve as good adjuvant and can be produced in large amounts at a low price.

  20. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - VII. The ultrashort period planet WASP-103

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.

    2015-01-01

    for these calculations. The planet has a Roche lobe filling factor of 0.58, leading to a significant asphericity; we correct its measured mass and mean density for this phenomenon. A high-resolution Lucky Imaging observation shows no evidence for faint stars close enough to contaminate the point spread function of WASP......-103. Our data were obtained in the Bessell $RI$ and the SDSS $griz$ passbands and yield a larger planet radius at bluer optical wavelengths, to a confidence level of 7.3 sigma. Interpreting this as an effect of Rayleigh scattering in the planetary atmosphere leads to a measurement of the planetary...

  1. Immunochromatographic purification of a nematocyst toxin from the cnidarian Chironex fleckeri (sea wasp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C E; Pockl, E E; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1984-01-01

    A cardiotoxin from "milked venom" of the sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri) was purified by immunochromatography on an immobilized mouse monoclonal anti-Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) venom antibody column. The 20,000 molecular weight toxin caused bradycardia followed by cell lysis when applied to cultured chick embryonic cardiocytes at concentrations higher than 1.7 micrograms protein per ml and was lethal to mice at 0.04 micrograms protein per g. The toxin affected ion permeability in lipid bilayer membranes by forming monovalent cation channels.

  2. Orbital alignment and star-spot properties in the WASP-52 planetary system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Raia, G.

    2017-01-01

    the same site but with two different instruments, including a multi-band camera. Anomalies were clearly detected in five light curves and modelled as starspots occulted by the planet during the transit events. We fitted the clean light curves with the jktebop code, and those with the anomalies...... were detected in four transits over a period of 43 days. In the hypothesis that we are dealing with the same starspot, periodically occulted by the transiting planet, we estimated the projected orbital obliquity of WASP-52b to be lambda = 3.8 \\pm 8.4 degree. We also determined the true orbital...

  3. WASP-157b, a Transiting Hot Jupiter Observed with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Močnik, T.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    We announce the discovery of the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-157b in a 3.95-d orbit around a V = 12.9 G2 main-sequence star. This moderately inflated planet has a Saturn-like density, with a mass of 0.57 ± 0.10 MJup and a radius of 1.06 ± 0.05 RJup. We do not detect any rotational or phase curve modulations, nor the secondary eclipse, with conservative semi-amplitude upper limits of 250 and 20 ppm, respectively.

  4. NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION, CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY, AND STAR-PLANET INTERACTIONS IN THE WASP-12 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haswell, C. A.; Fossati, L.; Holmes, S.; Kolb, U. C.; Busuttil, R.; Carter, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Ayres, T.; France, K.; Froning, C. S. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Street, R. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Hebb, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cameron, A. Collier; Enoch, B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Burwitz, V. [Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rodriguez, J. [Observatori Astronomic de Mallorca, Cami de l' Observatori, E-07144 Costitx, Mallorca (Spain); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J., E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: l.fossati@open.ac.uk, E-mail: cynthia.froning@colorado.edu, E-mail: leslie.hebb@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-20

    Extended gas clouds have been previously detected surrounding the brightest known close-in transiting hot Jupiter exoplanets, HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b; we observed the distant but more extreme close-in hot Jupiter system, WASP-12, with Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Near-UV (NUV) transits up to three times deeper than the optical transit of WASP-12 b reveal extensive diffuse gas, extending well beyond the Roche lobe. The distribution of absorbing gas varies between visits. The deepest NUV transits are at wavelength ranges with strong stellar photospheric absorption, implying that the absorbing gas may have temperature and composition similar to those of the stellar photosphere. Our spectra reveal significantly enhanced absorption (greater than 3{sigma} below the median) at {approx}200 individual wavelengths on each of two HST visits; 65 of these wavelengths are consistent between the two visits, using a strict criterion for velocity matching that excludes matches with velocity shifts exceeding {approx}20 km s{sup -1}. Excess transit depths are robustly detected throughout the inner wings of the Mg II resonance lines independently on both HST visits. We detected absorption in Fe II {lambda}2586, the heaviest species yet detected in an exoplanet transit. The Mg II line cores have zero flux, emission cores exhibited by every other observed star of similar age and spectral type are conspicuously absent. WASP-12 probably produces normal Mg II profiles, but the inner portions of these strong resonance lines are likely affected by extrinsic absorption. The required Mg{sup +} column is an order of magnitude greater than expected from the interstellar medium, though we cannot completely dismiss that possibility. A more plausible source of absorption is gas lost by WASP-12 b. We show that planetary mass loss can produce the required column. Our Visit 2 NUV light curves show evidence for a stellar flare. We show that some of the possible transit detections in resonance

  5. Cdc42 interaction with N-WASP and Toca-1 regulates membrane tubulation, vesicle formation and vesicle motility: implications for endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Bu

    Full Text Available Transducer of Cdc42-dependent actin assembly (Toca-1 consists of an F-BAR domain, a Cdc42 binding site and an SH3 domain. Toca-1 interacts with N-WASP, an activator of actin nucleation that binds Cdc42. Cdc42 may play an important role in regulating Toca-1 and N-WASP functions. We report here that the cellular expression of Toca-1 and N-WASP induces membrane tubulation and the formation of motile vesicles. Marker and uptake analysis suggests that the tubules and vesicles are associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM analysis shows that Cdc42, N-WASP and Toca-1 form a trimer complex on the membrane tubules and vesicles and that Cdc42 interaction with N-WASP is critical for complex formation. Modulation of Cdc42 interaction with Toca-1 and/or N-WASP affects membrane tubulation, vesicle formation and vesicle motility. Thus Cdc42 may influence endocytic membrane trafficking by regulating the formation and activity of the Toca-1/N-WASP complex.

  6. A PRECISE WATER ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENT FOR THE HOT JUPITER WASP-43b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L.; Stevenson, Kevin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Line, Michael R.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Showman, Adam P.; Kataria, Tiffany [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ 85721 (United States); Charbonneau, David [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McCullough, Peter R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seager, Sara [Department of Physics, Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Homeier, Derek, E-mail: laura.kreidberg@uchicago.edu [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-10-01

    The water abundance in a planetary atmosphere provides a key constraint on the planet's primordial origins because water ice is expected to play an important role in the core accretion model of planet formation. However, the water content of the solar system giant planets is not well known because water is sequestered in clouds deep in their atmospheres. By contrast, short-period exoplanets have such high temperatures that their atmospheres have water in the gas phase, making it possible to measure the water abundance for these objects. We present a precise determination of the water abundance in the atmosphere of the 2 M {sub Jup} short-period exoplanet WASP-43b based on thermal emission and transmission spectroscopy measurements obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find the water content is consistent with the value expected in a solar composition gas at planetary temperatures (0.4-3.5 × solar at 1σ confidence). The metallicity of WASP-43b's atmosphere suggested by this result extends the trend observed in the solar system of lower metal enrichment for higher planet masses.

  7. Protection of Pea Aphids Associated with Coinfecting Bacterial Symbionts Persists During Superparasitism by a Braconid Wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, K J; Clarke, H V; Mitchell, C; Cornwell, R M; Hubbard, S F; Karley, A J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts that associate facultatively with insect herbivores can influence insect fitness and trophic interactions. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, can be protected from parasitism by the braconid wasp Aphidius ervi when harbouring particular symbiotic bacteria, with specific endosymbiont coinfections providing almost complete protection. However, studies often quantify aphid mummification with no control over parasitoid oviposition per aphid; thus, if mummy production fails or is low, the causes are often unclear. Here, we show that the high level of protection associated with the coinfecting endosymbionts Hamiltonella defensa and X-type is maintained even when pea aphids are superparasitised. This contrasts strongly with the protection provided by H. defensa alone, which has been shown by others to be overcome by superparasitism. By dissecting aphids exposed to two parasitoid attacks, we reveal that A. ervi deposits eggs equally freely in endosymbiont-infected and uninfected nymphs, and lack of mummification in endosymbiont-protected nymphs arises from failure of the wasp eggs to hatch or emerging larvae to develop.

  8. Evidence for a Dayside Thermal Inversion and High Metallicity for the Hot Jupiter WASP-18b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kyle; Mandell, Avi M.; Tamburo, Patrick; Gandhi, Siddarth; Pinhas, Arazi; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake

    2018-01-01

    Hot Jupiters have been vital in revealing the structural and atmospheric diversity of gas-rich planets. Since they are exposed to extreme conditions and relatively easy to observe through transit and eclipse spectroscopy, hot Jupiters provide a window into a unique part of parameter space, allowing us to better understand both atmospheric physics and planetary structure. Additionally, constraints on the structure and composition of exoplanetary atmospheres allow us to test and generalize planetary formation models. We find evidence for a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of the highly irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-18b (Teq=2400K, M=10MJ) based on Hubble Space Telescope secondary eclipse observations and Spitzer eclipse photometry. We report a 4.7σ detection of CO, and a non-detection of water vapor as well as all other relevant species (e.g., TiO, VO). The most probable atmospheric retrieval solution indicates a C/O ratio of 1 and an extremely high metallicity (C/H=~283x solar). If confirmed with future observations, WASP-18b would be the first example of a planet with a non-oxide driven thermal inversion and an atmospheric metallicity inconsistent with that predicted for Jupiter-mass planets.

  9. Functional and Taxonomic Diversity of Stinging Wasps in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, E F; Noll, F B; Brandão, C R F

    2014-04-01

    Vespoidea are the most functionally diverse superfamily of Hymenoptera. Ecological studies involving this family are primarily based on eusocial groups, including ants and social paper wasps. In the present study, we examine stinging wasp (Vespoidea) faunal diversity in the Atlantic Rain Forest, which is one of the most diverse and threatened ecosystems in the World. Three conservation areas were sampled employing a standardized sample protocol. Families and functional groups of Vespoidea were collected in each area, with the exception ants (Formicidae), and analyzed using diversity analyses, to generate taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices. Results indicated Pompilidae was the most diverse family, and the idiobiont parasitoid type was the most diverse functional group in the three study areas. Núcleo Picinguaba of the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar was taxonomically and functionally the most diverse and species rich area. Parque Estadual Intervales showed the highest number of dominant species and diversity of koinobiont parasitoids, while the Rebio Sooretama exhibited a decrease in several diversity parameters.

  10. Safety of specific immunotherapy using an ultra-rush induction regimen in bee and wasp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bożek, Andrzej; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof

    2017-11-06

    Specific allergen immunotherapy to Hymenoptera venom (VIT) is a basic treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of an ultra-rush regimen compared with the rush and conventional protocols. In 31 patients with an allergy to bee venom and 82 with an allergy to wasp venom, the allergic adverse reactions during VIT were monitored. Patients were selected based on the criteria established by EAACI (European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology) recommendations. Adverse reactions during the ultra-rush immunotherapy were measured, documented and classified according to the criteria of Mueller. Ultra-rush, rush or conventional protocols of the initial phase VIT using the Venomenhal vaccine (Hal Allergy, Leiden, Netherlands) were conducted. Six (13.7%) patients on the ultra-rush regimen, 5 (14.3%) patients on the rush regimen and 9 (26.5%) on conventional VIT experienced an allergic reaction. There were no associations between the adverse allergic reactions and the following factors: gender, total IgE and allergen-specific IgE to wasp or bee venom before the VIT and cardiological drugs that were used. We found that the ultra-rush protocol (similar to the rush protocol) using the Venomenhal vaccine is safer than the conventional protocol.

  11. Activity cycle of the pollen wasp, Trimeria howardi (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Southeastern Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Mech

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the wasps, the Masarinae are a peculiar subfamily. It is the only group of wasps that provisions brood cells with pollen and nectar. The studied species Trimeria howardi Bertoni, 1911, was until recently abundant in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. This paper deals with plant species visited by T. howardi, in relation to the species’ annual cycle of activity, based on periods of nest foundation, flight activity, and development stages of immatures present in the cells. During the study period (five years T. howardi visited four species of plants in two botanical families: Bidens pilosa L.(Asteraceae; Xanthium spinosum L. (Asteraceae; Stylosanthes guianensis (Aulb. Sw. (Leguminosae, and Zornia diphylla (L. Pers. (Leguminosae. Based on the number of visited families, T. howardi can be considered a narrow polylectic species. In general, the species annual activity cycle consists of three phases: Active phase: January to July; Inactive phase: August - September; Active phase: October to December. The annual cycle is bivoltine or multivoltine and the diapause is facultative, because it occurs in a single generation during the year.

  12. The intracellular bacterium Wolbachia uses parasitoid wasps as phoretic vectors for efficient horizontal transmission.

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    Muhammad Z Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Facultative bacterial endosymbionts are associated with many arthropods and are primarily transmitted vertically from mother to offspring. However, phylogenetic affiliations suggest that horizontal transmission must also occur. Such horizontal transfer can have important biological and agricultural consequences when endosymbionts increase host fitness. So far horizontal transmission is considered rare and has been difficult to document. Here, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and multi locus sequence typing (MLST to reveal a potentially common pathway of horizontal transmission of endosymbionts via parasitoids of insects. We illustrate that the mouthparts and ovipositors of an aphelinid parasitoid become contaminated with Wolbachia when this wasp feeds on or probes Wolbachia-infected Bemisia tabaci AsiaII7, and non-lethal probing of uninfected B. tabaci AsiaII7 nymphs by parasitoids carrying Wolbachia resulted in newly and stably infected B. tabaci matrilines. After they were exposed to infected whitefly, the parasitoids were able to transmit Wolbachia efficiently for the following 48 h. Whitefly infected with Wolbachia by parasitoids had increased survival and reduced development times. Overall, our study provides evidence for the horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between insect hosts by parasitic wasps, and the enhanced survival and reproductive abilities of insect hosts may adversely affect biological control programs.

  13. The nest as fortress: Defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O'Donnell

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata. nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata. responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata. workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata.. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata. workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior.

  14. Transcriptome and Expression Patterns of Chemosensory Genes in Antennae of the Parasitoid Wasp Chouioia cunea.

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    Yanni Zhao

    Full Text Available Chouioia cunea Yang is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Drury, an invasive moth species that severely damages forests in China. Chemosensory systems of insects are used to detect volatile chemical odors such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The antennae of parasite wasps are important for host detection and other sensory-mediated behaviors. We identified and documented differential expression profiles of chemoreception genes in C. cunea antennae. A total of 25 OBPs, 80 ORs, 10 IRs, 11 CSP, 1 SNMPs, and 17 GRs were annotated from adult male and female C. cunea antennal transcriptomes. The expression profiles of 25 OBPs, 16 ORs, and 17 GRs, 5 CSP, 5 IRs and 1 SNMP were determined by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for the antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen of male and female C. cunea. A total of 8 OBPs, 14 ORs, and 8 GRs, 1 CSP, 4 IRs and 1 SNMPs were exclusively or primarily expressed in female antennae. These female antennal-specific or dominant expression profiles may assist in locating suitable host and oviposition sites. These genes will provide useful targets for advanced study of their biological functions.

  15. Benchmarking WASP5 with data from the 1991 K-Reactor tritiated aqueous release incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.F.

    1996-11-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has upgraded its aqueous emergency response capability to model the transport of pollutants released from SRS facilities during normal operation or accidents through onsite streams to the Savannah River. The transport and dispersion modules from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) WASP5 model were incorporated into the SRS emergency response system, called the Weather Information and Display (WIND) System. WASP5 is a water quality analysis program that simulates surface water pollutant transport, using a finite difference method to solve the advective transport equation. Observed tritium concentrations in the SRS streams and the Savannah River from an accidental release from K-Reactor, one of the SRS nuclear material production reactors, were used to benchmark the new model. Although all SRS reactors have since been deactivated, this release of tritiated water occurred between December 22 and 25, 1991, through the K-Reactor secondary cooling water discharge. Analyses of reactor discharge water suggested the leak began sometime during December 22. The leak was positively identified and isolated on December 25. Following the release, tritium concentrations were tracked and measured as the tritiated water flowed from the K-Area outfall into Indian Grave Branch and pen Branch, through the Savannah River swamp, past the mouth of Steel Creek, and down the Savannah River. The measured tritium concentrations at Steel Creek, Highway 301, Becks Ferry and Abercorn Creek were used for benchmarking.

  16. Compositional changes in bee and wasp communities along Neotropical mountain altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, Lucas Neves; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira; Antonini, Yasmine; Martins, Rogério Parentoni

    2017-01-01

    Climate conditions tend to differ along an altitudinal gradient, resulting in some species groups' patterns of lower species richness with increasing altitude. While this pattern is well understood for tropical mountains, studies investigating possible determinants of variation in beta-diversity at its different altitudes are scarce. We sampled bee and wasp communities (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) along an altitudinal gradient (1,000-2,000 m.a.s.l.) in a tropical mountainous region of Brazil. Trap nests and Moericke traps were established at six sampling points, with 200 m difference in altitude between each point. We obtained average climate data (1970-2000) from Worldclim v2 for altitudes at each sampling site. Nest traps captured 17 bee and wasp species from six families, and Moericke traps captured 124 morphospecies from 13 families. We found a negative correlation between altitude and species richness and abundance. Temperature, precipitation, water vapor pressure, and wind speed influenced species richness and abundance, and were correlated with altitude. β-diversity was primarily determined by species turnover as opposed to nestedness, and Aculeate community similarity was higher for more similar altitudinal ranges. Moericke traps seem to be more efficient for altitudinal surveys compared to nest traps. We found high occurrence of singleton and doubleton species at all altitudes, highlighting the need for long-term studies to efficiently assess hymenopteran diversity in these environments.

  17. The role of moisture in the nest thermoregulation of social wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, R.; Richter, K.; Schmolz, E.; Keller, B.

    2005-09-01

    Paper nests of social wasps are intriguing constructions for both, biologists and engineers. We demonstrate that moisture and latent heat significantly influence the thermal performance of the nest construction. Two colonies of the hornet Vespa crabro were investigated in order to clarify the relation of the temperature and the moisture regime inside the nest. Next to fairly stable nest temperatures the hornets maintain a high relative humidity inside the nest. We found that in consequence a partial vapor-pressure gradient between nest and ambient drives a constant vapor flux through the envelope. The vapor flux is limited by the diffusion resistance of the envelope. The driving force of vapor flux is heat, which is consumed through evaporation inside the nest. The colony has to compensate this loss with metabolic heat production in order to maintain a stable nest temperature. However, humidity fluctuations inside the nest induce circadian adsorption and desorption cycles, which stabilize the nest temperature and thus contribute significantly to temperature homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that both mechanisms influence nest thermoregulation and need to be considered to understand the thermodynamic behavior of nests of wasps and social insects in general.

  18. Gravity orientation in social wasp comb cells (Vespinae) and the possible role of embedded minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Jacob S.; Barkay, Zahava; Eliaz, Noam; Plotkin, Marian; Volynchik, Stanislav; Bergman, David J.

    2008-04-01

    Social wasps and hornets maintain their nest in the dark. The building of the combs by all Vespinae is always in the direction of the gravitational force of Earth, and in each cell’s ceiling, at least one ‘keystone’ is embedded and fastened by saliva. The sensory mechanisms that enable both building of sizeable symmetrical combs and nursing of the brood in the darkness merit investigation, and the aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the ‘keystones’ that exist in the ceiling and in the walls of the social wasp comb cells. Bio-ferrography was used to isolate magnetic particles on slides. These slides, as well as original cells, were analyzed in an environmental scanning electron microscope by a variety of analytical tools. It was found that both the roof and the walls of each comb cell bear minerals, like ferrites, as well as Ti and Zr. The latter two elements are less abundant in the soil around the nest. Ti and Zr are known to reflect infrared (IR) light. IR imaging showed a thermoregulatory center in the dorsal thorax of the adult Oriental hornet. It is not known yet whether these insects can sense IR light.

  19. Can cuticular lipids provide sufficient information for within-colony nepotism in wasps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Francesca R; Foster, Kevin R; Zacchi, Francesca; Seppä, Perttu; Massolo, Alessandro; Carelli, Annalisa; Arévalo, Elisabeth; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2004-04-07

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that members of non-clonal societies will gain by directing altruistic acts towards their closest relatives. Multiple mating by queens and multiple queens creates distinct full-sister groups in many hymenopteran societies within which nepotism might occur. However, the weight of empirical data suggests that nepotism within full-sister groups is absent. It has been suggested that a lack of reliable recognition markers is responsible. In this paper, we investigated whether epicuticular lipids could provide reliable cues for intracolony kin recognition in two species of social wasps, the paper wasp Polistes dominulus and the hornet Vespa crabro. Epicuticular lipids have previously been shown to be central to kin recognition at the nest level, making them excellent candidates for within-nest discrimination. We genotyped individuals using DNA microsatellites and analysed surface chemistry by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We find that in both species epicuticular lipids typically could provide enough information to distinguish related nest-mates from unrelated nest-mates, a difference that occurs in colonies with multiple queens. However, in V. crabro, where colonies may be composed by different patrilines, information for discrimination between full sisters and half-sisters is weaker and prone to errors. Our data suggest that epicuticular lipids at best provide reliable information for intracolony nepotistic discrimination in multiple-queen colonies composed of unrelated lines.

  20. Coevolution of visual signals and eye morphology in Polistes paper wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael J; Jinn, Judy; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    To be effective, signals must propagate through the environment and be detected by receivers. As a result, signal form evolves in response to both the constraints imposed by the transmission environment and receiver perceptual abilities. Little work has examined the extent to which signals may act as selective forces on receiver sensory systems to improve the efficacy of communication. If receivers benefit from accurate signal assessment, selection could favour sensory organs that improve discrimination of established signals. Here, we provide evidence that visual resolution coevolves with visual signals in Polistes wasps. Multiple Polistes species have variable facial patterns that function as social signals, whereas other species lack visual signals. Analysis of 19 Polistes species shows that maximum eye facet size is positively associated with both eye size and presence of visual signals. Relatively larger facets within the eye's acute zone improve resolution of small images, such as wasp facial signals. Therefore, sensory systems may evolve to optimize signal assessment. Sensory adaptations to facilitate signal detection may represent an overlooked area of the evolution of animal communication.

  1. Differential effects of habitat isolation and landscape composition on wasps, bees, and their enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Herrmann, John D; Herzog, Felix; Schmidt-Entling, Martin H

    2011-03-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Effects of these usually intercorrelated processes on biodiversity have rarely been separated at a landscape scale. We studied the independent effects of amount of woody habitat in the landscape and three levels of isolation from the next woody habitat (patch isolation) on trap nesting bees, wasps, and their enemies at 30 farmland sites in the Swiss plateau. Species richness of wasps was negatively affected by patch isolation and positively affected by the amount of woody habitat in the landscape. In contrast, species richness of bees was neither influenced by patch isolation nor by landscape composition. Isolation from woody habitats reduced species richness and abundance of natural enemies more strongly than of their hosts, so that parasitism rate was lowered by half in isolated sites compared to forest edges. Thus, population regulation of the hosts may be weakened by habitat fragmentation. We conclude that habitat amount at the landscape scale and local patch connectivity are simultaneously important for biodiversity conservation.

  2. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span of the K2 light curve. We achieve a precision of around 22% for the radii of the star and the transiting planets, between 40% and 60% for their masses, and between 1.5% and 38% for their densities. All values agree with previously reported measurements. When theoretical stellar models are included, the system parameters are determined with a precision that exceeds that achieved by previous studies, thanks to the self-consistent modelling of light curve and radial velocity data.

  3. Genome methylation patterns across castes and generations in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaham, Roei; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Motro, Uzi; Keasar, Tamar

    2016-11-01

    Environmental influences shape phenotypes within and across generations, often through DNA methylations that modify gene expression. Methylations were proposed to mediate caste and task allocation in some eusocial insects, but how an insect's environment affects DNA methylation in its offspring is yet unknown. We characterized parental effects on methylation profiles in the polyembryonic parasitoid wasp Copidosoma koehleri, as well as methylation patterns associated with its simple caste system. We used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MS-AFLP) to compare methylation patterns, among (1) reproductive and soldier larvae; and (2) offspring (larvae, pupae, and adults) of wasps that were reared at either high or low larval density and mated in the four possible combinations. Methylation frequencies were similar across castes, but the profiles of methylated fragments differed significantly. Parental rearing density did not affect methylation frequencies in the offspring at any developmental stage. Principal coordinate analysis indicated no significant differences in methylation profiles among the four crossbreeding groups and the three developmental stages. Nevertheless, a clustering analysis, performed on a subset of the fragments, revealed similar methylation patterns in larvae, pupae, and adults in two of the four parental crosses. Nine fragments were methylated at two cytosine sites in all larvae, and five others were methylated at two sites in all adults. Thus, DNA methylations correlate with within-generation phenotypic plasticity due to caste. However, their association with developmental stage and with transgenerational epigenetic effects is not clearly supported.

  4. Does Gnomoniopsis castanea contribute to the natural biological control of chestnut gall wasp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Vettraino, AnnaMaria; Martignoni, Diana; Morales-Rodriguez, Carmen; Contarini, Mario; Caccia, Romina; Paparatti, Bruno; Speranza, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Gnomoniopsis castanea has been reported as the causal agent of necrosis of chestnut wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) galls. The fungus is frequently observed on galls in chestnut stands infested by the insect in Italy. In the present study the impact of gall necrosis and the dynamic of its development have been studied in mature and young Castanea sativa stands in Central Italy during spring and early summer, before the D. kuriphilus adult flies. Results suggest that gall necrosis develops from resident endophytic inoculum of G. castanea. During the 2 y of monitoring, no differences were found in incidence and severity of the disease. Gall necrosis increased exponentially during the season, reaching 75,4% of galls totally necrotized in the investigated site in mid July. Gall necrosis was shown to have a severe impact on D. kuriphilus vitality, mostly impacting the adults inside the galls. Gall necrosis by G. castanea appears to efficiently control gall wasp in chestnut stands, although the high virulence of the fungus to chestnut fruits precludes its use as biocontrol agent in biological control strategies. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain organization mirrors caste differences, colony founding and nest architecture in paper wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Y; Harris, R M; O'Donnell, S

    2009-09-22

    The cognitive challenges that social animals face depend on species differences in social organization and may affect mosaic brain evolution. We asked whether the relative size of functionally distinct brain regions corresponds to species differences in social behaviour among paper wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). We measured the volumes of targeted brain regions in eight species of paper wasps. We found species variation in functionally distinct brain regions, which was especially strong in queens. Queens from species with open-comb nests had larger central processing regions dedicated to vision (mushroom body (MB) calyx collars) than those with enclosed nests. Queens from advanced eusocial species (swarm founders), who rely on pheromones in several contexts, had larger antennal lobes than primitively eusocial independent founders. Queens from species with morphologically distinct castes had augmented central processing regions dedicated to antennal input (MB lips) relative to caste monomorphic species. Intraspecific caste differences also varied with mode of colony founding. Independent-founding queens had larger MB collars than their workers. Conversely, workers in swarm-founding species with decentralized colony regulation had larger MB calyx collars and optic lobes than their queens. Our results suggest that brain organization is affected by evolutionary transitions in social interactions and is related to the environmental stimuli group members face.

  6. Trade-offs and coexistence: a lottery model applied to fig wasp communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, A Bradley; Abbott, Karen C; Nason, John D

    2014-06-01

    Ecological communities in which organisms complete their life cycles on discrete ephemeral patches are common and often support an unusually large number of species. Explaining this diversity is challenging for communities of ecologically similar species undergoing preemptive competition, where classic coexistence mechanisms may not readily apply. We use nonpollinating fig wasps as a model community characterized by high diversity and preemptive competition to show how subadditive population growth and a trade-off between competitor fecundity and dispersal ability can lead to coexistence. Because nonpollinator species are often closely related, have similar life histories, and compete for the same discrete resources, understanding their coexistence is challenging given competitive exclusion is expected. Empirical observations suggest that nonpollinating fig wasp species may face a trade-off between egg loads and dispersal abilities. We model a lottery in which a species' competitive ability is determined by a trade-off between fecundity and dispersal ability. Variation in interpatch distance between figs generates temporal variability in the relative benefit of fecundity versus dispersal. We show that the temporal storage effect leads to coexistence for a range of biologically realistic parameter values. We further use individual-based modeling to show that when species' traits evolve, coexistence is less likely but trait divergence can result. We discuss the implications of this coexistence mechanism for ephemeral patch systems wherein competition is strongly preemptive.

  7. The insect chemoreceptor superfamily of the parasitoid jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, H M; Gadau, J; Wanner, K W

    2010-02-01

    Chemoreception is important for locating food, mates and other resources in many insects, including the parasitoid jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. In the insect chemoreceptor superfamily, Nasonia has 58 gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, of which 11 are pseudogenes, leaving 47 apparently intact proteins encoded. No carbon dioxide receptors, two candidate sugar receptors, a DmGr43a orthologue, and several additional Gr lineages were identified, including significant gene subfamily expansions related to the 10 Grs found in the honey bee Apis mellifera. Nasonia has a total of 301 odorant receptor (Or) genes, of which 76 are pseudogenes, leaving 225 apparently intact Ors. Phylogenetic comparison with the 174 honey bee Ors reveals differential gene subfamily expansion in each hymenopteran lineage, along with a few losses from each species. The only simple orthologous relationship is the expected single DmOr83b orthologue. The large number of Nasonia Ors is the result of several major subfamily expansions, including one of 55 genes. Nasonia does not have the elaborate social chemical communication of honey bees, nor the diversity of floral odours honey bees detect, however, Nasonia wasps might need to detect a diversity of odours to find potential mates and hosts or avoid harmful substances in its environment.

  8. Reduction of mass loss by the hot Jupiter WASP-12b due to its magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakcheev, A. S.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of the dipolar magnetic field of a "hot Jupiter" with the parameters of the object WASP-12b on the mass-loss rate from its atmosphere is investigated. The results of three-dimensional gas-dynamical and magnetohydrodynamical computations show that the presence of a magnetic moment with a strength of 0.1 the magnetic moment of Jupiter leads to appreciable variations of the matter flow structure. For example, in the case of the exoplanet WASP-12b with its specified set of atmospheric parameters, the stream from the vicinity of the Lagrange point L1 is not stopped by the dynamical pressure of the stellar wind, and the envelope remains open. Including the effect of the magnetic field leads to a variation in this picture—the atmosphere becomes quasi-closed, with a characteristic size of order 14 planetary radii, which, in turn, substantially decreases the mass-loss rate by the exoplanet atmosphere (by 70%). This reduction of the mass-loss rate due to the influence of the magnetic fieldmakes it possible for exoplanets to form closed and quasi-closed envelopes in the presence of more strongly overflowing Roche lobes than is possible without a magnetic field.

  9. Gall induction may benefit host plant: a case of a gall wasp and eucalyptus tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, S; Branco, M; Boas, L Vilas; Almeida, M H; Protasov, A; Mendel, Z

    2013-04-01

    Gall-inducing insects display intimate interactions with their host plants, usually described as parasitic relationships; the galls seem to favor the galler alone. We report on a case in which the presence of the galls induced by Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae) benefit its host plant, the river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Field observations showed that E. camaldulensis plants infected by this gall wasp were less susceptible to cold injury than neighboring conspecific plants without galls. In the laboratory, frost resistance was compared between galled and non-galled plants which were both divided into two subgroups: cold-acclimated plants and plants that were non-acclimated. Galled plants displayed higher frost resistance than the non-galled ones, and the differences were higher in non-acclimated plants compared with acclimated ones. Physiological changes in host plant were determined by chemical analyses of chlorophylls, proteins, soluble sugars and anthocyanin contents. The results showed higher values of all physiological parameters in the galled plants, supporting the hypothesis that the presence of the gall wasp induces physiological changes on the plant foliage, which may in turn increase plant defense mechanisms against cold. Therefore, the toll of galling by the herbivore may pay off by the host plant acquiring increased frost resistance. This work provides evidence for physiological changes induced by a herbivore which might have a positive indirect effect on the host plant, promoting frost resistance such as cold acclimation.

  10. Investigation of the lethal and behavioral effects of commercial insecticides on the parasitoid wasp Copidosoma truncatellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rodrigo S; de Araújo, Vitor C R; Pereira, Renata R; Martins, Júlio C; Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Silva, Ricardo S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-01-01

    Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an important parasitoid wasp of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by the application of certain insecticides. Therefore, to identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with C. truncatellum, the lethal and behavioral effects of nine chemicals used to control the soybean looper were evaluated for their toxicity to the wasp. Chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb were the least toxic insecticides to the parasitoid, resulting in mortalities of less than 25%. In contrast, cartap, deltamethrin, and methomyl caused 100% mortality, and acephate and spinosad caused 76% and 78% mortality, respectively. At least one of the detoxifying enzymes (monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase, and/or esterases) may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the selectivity of chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb for the parasitoid based on the results for the insecticide plus synergist treatment. Changes in the behavioral patterns (walking time and resting time) of the parasitoid were found with exposure to acephate, flubendiamide, indoxacarb and methomyl, but behavioral avoidance was not observed. Our results indicate that the insecticides chlorantraniliprole and chlorfenapyr are the most suitable for inclusion in integrated pest management strategies for the control of C. includens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Einstein Genome Gateway using WASP - a high throughput multi-layered life sciences portal for XSEDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Aaron; McLellan, Andrew S; Dubin, Robert A; Jing, Qiang; O Broin, Pilib; Moskowitz, David; Zhang, Zhengdong; Suzuki, Masako; Hargitai, Joseph; Calder, R Brent; Greally, John M

    2012-01-01

    Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies and their diverse applications in genomics and epigenomics research have yielded enormous new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of the human genome. The biggest hurdle remains the magnitude and diversity of the datasets generated, compromising our ability to manage, organize, process and ultimately analyse data. The Wiki-based Automated Sequence Processor (WASP), developed at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (hereafter Einstein), uniquely manages to tightly couple the sequencing platform, the sequencing assay, sample metadata and the automated workflows deployed on a heterogeneous high performance computing cluster infrastructure that yield sequenced, quality-controlled and 'mapped' sequence data, all within the one operating environment accessible by a web-based GUI interface. WASP at Einstein processes 4-6 TB of data per week and since its production cycle commenced it has processed ~ 1 PB of data overall and has revolutionized user interactivity with these new genomic technologies, who remain blissfully unaware of the data storage, management and most importantly processing services they request. The abstraction of such computational complexity for the user in effect makes WASP an ideal middleware solution, and an appropriate basis for the development of a grid-enabled resource - the Einstein Genome Gateway - as part of the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) program. In this paper we discuss the existing WASP system, its proposed middleware role, and its planned interaction with XSEDE to form the Einstein Genome Gateway.

  12. Natural variation in learning and memory dynamics studied by artificial selection on learning rate in parasitic wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.; Duivenvoorde, L.; Wang, G.; Tribuhl, S.; Bukovinszky, T.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Animals form memory types that differ in duration and stability. The initial anaesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) can be replaced by anaesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), and/or by protein synthesis-dependent, long-term memory (LTM). We previously showed that two closely related parasitic wasp species

  13. Happy birthday Willi Hennig!-Hyptia hennigi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae), a fossil ensign wasp from Eocene Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, John T; Krogmann, Lars; Priya, Priya

    2013-10-31

    The ensign wasp genus Hyptia Illiger was previously known from 52 extant New World species and one fossil species from Lower Miocene to Upper Oligocene Mexican amber. Hyptia hennigi sp. nov., from Eocene Baltic amber, is the oldest known species and the first member of the genus from the Old World.

  14. The origin of a selfish B chromosome triggering paternal sex ratio in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Stouthamer, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses molecular and cytogenetic methods to determine the origin of a B chromosome in some males of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai. This so-called paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome transmits only through sperm and shortly after fertilization triggers degeneration of the paternal genome,

  15. Phenotypic fitness effects of the selfish B chromosome, paternal sex ratio (PSR) in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1994-01-01

    B chromosomes are often considered genomic parasites. Paternal sex ratio (PSR) is an extreme example of a parasitic B chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. PSR is transmitted through the sperm of carrier males and destroys the other paternal chromosomes in early fertilized eggs. PSR

  16. Whole genome sequencing of the Braconid parasitoid wasp Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol agent of pest Tepritid fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The braconid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important biological control agent of tropical and subtropical pest fruit flies including two important global pests, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis}). The goal of this study was to dev...

  17. N-WASP is a novel regulator of hair-follicle cycling that controls antiproliferative TGF{beta} pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefever, Tine; Pedersen, Esben; Basse, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    alopecia and prolonged catagen and telogen phases. The delayed anagen onset correlated with an increased expression of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21CIP, and increased activity of the TGFbeta pathway, a known inducer of p21CIP expression. Primary N-WASP-null keratinocytes showed reduced growth compared...

  18. Gemini/GMOS Transmission Spectral Survey: Complete Optical Transmission Spectrum of the Hot Jupiter WASP-4b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitson, C. M.; Désert, J.-M.; Bean, J. L.; Fortney, J. J.; Stevenson, K. B.; Bergmann, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present the complete optical transmission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-4b from 440 to 940 nm at R ˜ 400-1500 obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrometers (GMOS); this is the first result from a comparative exoplanetology survey program of close-in gas giants conducted with GMOS. WASP-4b has an equilibrium temperature of 1700 K and is favorable to study in transmission due to its large scale height (370 km). We derive the transmission spectrum of WASP-4b using four transits observed with the MOS technique. We demonstrate repeatable results across multiple epochs with GMOS, and derive a combined transmission spectrum at a precision about twice above photon noise, which is roughly equal to one atmospheric scale height. The transmission spectrum is well fitted with a uniform opacity as a function of wavelength. The uniform opacity and absence of a Rayleigh slope from molecular hydrogen suggest that the atmosphere is dominated by clouds with condensate grain sizes of ˜1 μm. This result is consistent with previous observations of hot Jupiters since clouds have been seen in planets with similar equilibrium temperatures to WASP-4b. We describe a custom pipeline that we have written to reduce GMOS time-series data of exoplanet transits, and present a thorough analysis of the dominant noise sources in GMOS, which primarily consist of wavelength- and time-dependent displacements of the spectra on the detector, mainly due to a lack of atmospheric dispersion correction.

  19. Octopamine-like immunoreactivity in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of two parasitic wasps, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.; Zee, van der B.; Smid, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata L. and C. rubecula Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), differ in their display of associative learning and memory during host searching. As octopamine is involved in learning and memory in insects we investigated octopaminergic pathways

  20. ß-Glucosidase: an elicitor of herbivore-induced plant odor that attracts host-searching parasitic wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiacci, L.; Dicke, M.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cabbage plants respond to caterpillar (Pieris brassicae) herbivory by releasing a mixture of volatiles that makes them highly attractive to parasitic wasps (Cotesia glomerata) that attack the herbivores. Cabbage leaves that are artificially damaged and subsequently treated with gut regurgitant of P.

  1. Pollen waste and unrelated traits in a fig-fig wasp symbiosis : a new behaviour suggesting a host shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaloud, G; Bossu-Dupriez, N; Chevolot, M; Lasbleiz, C

    In a fig-fig wasp symbiosis, we have discovered that male fig pollinators (Alfonsiella fimbriata Waterston) bite into the dehiscent anthers of Ficus natalensis leprieuri Miq., thus scattering the pollen grains throughout the syconium. Female pollinators are the only ones to transfer pollen to

  2. Sand dune of Ruby, Arizona, an anthropogenically created biodiversity hotspot for wasps and their velvet ant parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin O. Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    A large artificial sand dune composed of finely crushed mine tailings was produced by deep mining operations at Ruby, Arizona. Today, the ghost town of Ruby is an important historical location and biodiversity refuge, with the newly formed dune forming the core of the refuge. The dune provides ideal nesting habitat for at least 13 species of sand-loving wasps,...

  3. Fig wasps from Israeli ficus Sycomorus and related East African species (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) 2. Agaonidae (concluded) and Sycophagini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1968-01-01

    The study of many new samples of fig wasps collected in Africa by Dr. J. Galil of Tel-Aviv University, Israel, revealed the unexpected fact that Ceratosolen arabicus Mayr and C. galili Wiebes develop together in the same receptacles of Ficus sycomorus L. Dr. Galil made experiments on the host

  4. Transcriptome and target DNA enrichment sequence data provide new insights into the phylogeny of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Sarah; Sann, Manuela; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    and suggest a single origin of using masticated and salivated plant material for building nests by Raphiglossinae, Zethinae, Polistinae, and Vespinae. The inferred phylogenetic relationships and the open access vespid wasp target DNA enrichment probes will provide a valuable tool for future comparative...

  5. The roles of ecological fitting, phylogeny and physiological equivalence in understanding realized and fundamental host ranges in endoparasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Ximenez De Embun, M.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    Co-evolutionary theory underpins our understanding of interactions in nature involving plant-herbivore and host-parasite interactions. However, many studies that are published in the empirical literature that have explored life history and development strategies between endoparasitoid wasps and

  6. The roles of ecological fitting, phylogeny and physiological equivalence in understanding realized and fundamental host ranges in endoparasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Ximenez de Embun, M.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    Co-evolutionary theory underpins our understanding of interactions in nature involving plant–herbivore and host–parasite interactions. However, many studies that are published in the empirical literature that have explored life history and development strategies between endoparasitoid wasps and

  7. Sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea) : A critical consideration of models and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Kamping, Albert; van de Zande, Louis

    Sex determining mechanisms are highly diverse. Like all Hymenoptera, the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy: males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex in Nasonia is not determined by complementary alleles at sex loci. Evidence for several alternative models is

  8. CREB expression in the brains of two closely related parasitic wasp species that differ in long-term memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Hontelez, S.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA signalling pathway and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) play key roles in long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, which were previously shown to be different in LTM

  9. Evolution of specialized spermatheca morphology in ant queens: insight from comparative developmental biology between ants and polistine wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Ayako; Billen, Johan; Hashim, Rosli; Ito, Fuminori

    2009-11-01

    In many ant species, the queens can keep spermatozoa alive in their spermatheca for several years, which goes along with unique morphological characteristics of the queen's spermatheca. The relative spermatheca size in ant queens is prominently larger than that in social wasps. Furthermore, the epithelium lining the spermatheca reservoir of ants consists of columnar cells in the hilar region and squamous cells in the distal region, whereas it is formed by columnar cells only in social wasps. To study the evolution of the unique spermatheca morphology in ant queens, we compared the various processes during spermatheca development between two ponerine ant species of the genus Pachycondyla (=Brachyponera) and three polistine wasp species of the genus Polistes. From histological observations, we can define four developmental events in the ant queens: (1) invagination of the spermatheca primordium, (2) the reservoir wall thickness becomes unequal, (3) the reservoir diameter doubles as the lining epithelial cells become flattened except for the hilar region, and (4) the increase in thickness of the reservoir epithelium is limited to the hilar region which doubles in thickness. In polistine wasps, the second and the third developmental events are absent and the entire epithelium of the spermatheca wall becomes thick in the final step. We therefore conclude that for ant queens the second and third steps are crucial for the enlargement of the spermatheca size, and that the second to the fourth steps are crucial for the specialization of the reservoir wall structure.

  10. Shared genes related to aggression, rather than chemical communication, are associated with reproductive dominance in paper wasps (Polistes metricus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Amy L; Tooker, John F; Radhakrishnan, Srihari; Minard, Robert; Henshaw, Michael T; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-01-28

    In social groups, dominant individuals may socially inhibit reproduction of subordinates using aggressive interactions or, in the case of highly eusocial insects, pheromonal communication. It has been hypothesized these two modes of reproductive inhibition utilize conserved pathways. Here, we use a comparative framework to investigate the chemical and genomic underpinnings of reproductive dominance in the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus. Our goals were to first characterize transcriptomic and chemical correlates of reproductive dominance and second, to test whether dominance-associated mechanisms in paper wasps overlapped with aggression or pheromone-related gene expression patterns in other species. To explore whether conserved molecular pathways relate to dominance, we compared wasp transcriptomic data to previous studies of gene expression associated with pheromonal communication and queen-worker differences in honey bees, and aggressive behavior in bees, Drosophila, and mice. By examining dominant and subordinate females from queen and worker castes in early and late season colonies, we found that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and genome-wide patterns of brain gene expression were primarily associated with season/social environment rather than dominance status. In contrast, gene expression patterns in the ovaries were associated primarily with caste and ovary activation. Comparative analyses suggest genes identified as differentially expressed in wasp brains are not related to queen pheromonal communication or caste in bees, but were significantly more likely to be associated with aggression in other insects (bees, flies), and even a mammal (mice). This study provides the first comprehensive chemical and molecular analysis of reproductive dominance in paper wasps. We found little evidence for a chemical basis for reproductive dominance in P. metricus, and our transcriptomic analyses suggest that different pathways regulate dominance in paper wasps

  11. NMR determines transient structure and dynamics in the disordered C-terminal domain of WASp interacting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Noam Y; Gross, Renana; Novacek, Jiri; Shaked, Hadassa; Zidek, Lukas; Barda-Saad, Mira; Chill, Jordan H

    2013-07-16

    WASp-interacting protein (WIP) is a 503-residue proline-rich polypeptide expressed in human T cells. The WIP C-terminal domain binds to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and regulates its activation and degradation, and the WIP-WASp interaction has been shown to be critical for actin polymerization and implicated in the onset of WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia. WIP is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein, a class of polypeptides that are of great interest because they violate the traditional structure-function paradigm. In this first (to our knowledge) study of WIP in its unbound state, we used NMR to investigate the biophysical behavior of WIP(C), a C-terminal domain fragment of WIP that includes residues 407-503 and contains the WASp-binding site. In light of the poor spectral dispersion exhibited by WIP(C) and the high occurrence (25%) of proline residues, we employed 5D-NMR(13)C-detected NMR experiments with nonuniform sampling to accomplish full resonance assignment. Secondary chemical-shift analysis, (15)N relaxation rates, and protection from solvent exchange all concurred in detecting transient structure located in motifs that span the WASp-binding site. Residues 446-456 exhibited a propensity for helical conformation, and an extended conformation followed by a short, capped helix was observed for residues 468-478. The (13)C-detected approach allows chemical-shift assignment in the WIP(C) polyproline stretches and thus sheds light on their conformation and dynamics. The effects of temperature on chemical shifts referenced to a denatured sample of the polypeptide demonstrate that heating reduces the structural character of WIP(C). Thus, we conclude that the disordered WIP(C) fragment is comprised of regions with latent structure connected by flexible loops, an architecture with implications for binding affinity and function. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentially expressed genes linked to natural variation in long-term memory formation in Cotesia parasitic wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke J. F. A. Van Vugt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though learning and memory are universal traits in the Animal Kingdom, closely related species reveal substantial variation in learning rate and memory dynamics. To determine the genetic background of this natural variation, we studied two congeneric parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, which lay their eggs in caterpillars of the large and small cabbage white butterfly. A successful egg laying event serves as an unconditioned stimulus in a classical conditioning paradigm, where plant odors become associated to the encounter of a suitable host caterpillar. Depending on the host species, the number of conditioning trials and the parasitic wasp species, three different types of transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM and one type of transcription-independent, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM can be distinguished. To identify transcripts underlying these differences in memory formation, we isolated mRNA from parasitic wasp heads at three different time points between induction and consolidation of each of the four memory types, and for each sample three biological replicates, where after strand-specific paired-end 100 bp deep sequencing. Transcriptomes were assembled de novo and differential expression was determined for each memory type and time point after conditioning, compared to unconditioned wasps. Most differentially expressed (DE genes and antisense transcripts were only DE in one of the LTM types. Among the DE genes that were DE in two or more LTM types, were many protein kinases and phosphatases, small GTPases, receptors and ion channels. Some genes were DE in opposing directions between any of the LTM memory types and ARM, suggesting that ARM in Cotesia requires the transcription of genes inhibiting LTM or vice versa. We discuss our findings in the context of neuronal functioning, including RNA splicing and transport, epigenetic regulation, neurotransmitter/peptide synthesis and antisense transcription. In

  13. Repetitive N-WASP-binding elements of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli effector EspF(U synergistically activate actin assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G Campellone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC generate F-actin-rich adhesion pedestals by delivering effector proteins into mammalian cells. These effectors include the translocated receptor Tir, along with EspF(U, a protein that associates indirectly with Tir and contains multiple peptide repeats that stimulate actin polymerization. In vitro, the EspF(U repeat region is capable of binding and activating recombinant derivatives of N-WASP, a host actin nucleation-promoting factor. In spite of the identification of these important bacterial and host factors, the underlying mechanisms of how EHEC so potently exploits the native actin assembly machinery have not been clearly defined. Here we show that Tir and EspF(U are sufficient for actin pedestal formation in cultured cells. Experimental clustering of Tir-EspF(U fusion proteins indicates that the central role of the cytoplasmic portion of Tir is to promote clustering of the repeat region of EspF(U. Whereas clustering of a single EspF(U repeat is sufficient to bind N-WASP and generate pedestals on cultured cells, multi-repeat EspF(U derivatives promote actin assembly more efficiently. Moreover, the EspF(U repeats activate a protein complex containing N-WASP and the actin-binding protein WIP in a synergistic fashion in vitro, further suggesting that the repeats cooperate to stimulate actin polymerization in vivo. One explanation for repeat synergy is that simultaneous engagement of multiple N-WASP molecules can enhance its ability to interact with the actin nucleating Arp2/3 complex. These findings define the minimal set of bacterial effectors required for pedestal formation and the elements within those effectors that contribute to actin assembly via N-WASP-Arp2/3-mediated signaling pathways.

  14. THE CURIOUS CASE OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE DIFFERENCES IN THE DUAL HOT JUPITER HOSTS WASP-94A AND B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teske, Johanna K. [Carnegie Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Khanal, Sandhya; Ramírez, Ivan, E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1402, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Binary stars provide an ideal laboratory for investigating the potential effects of planet formation on stellar composition. Assuming that the stars formed in the same environment/from the same material, any compositional anomalies between binary components might indicate differences in how material was sequestered in planets, or accreted by the star in the process of planet formation. We present here a study of the elemental abundance differences between WASP-94A and B, a pair of stars that each host a hot Jupiter exoplanet. The two stars are very similar in spectral type (F8 and F9), and their ∼2700 au separation suggests that their protoplanetary disks were likely not influenced by stellar interactions, but WASP-94Ab’s orbit—misaligned with the host star spin axis and likely retrograde—points toward a dynamically active formation mechanism, perhaps different from that of WASP-94Bb, which is not misaligned and has a nearly circular orbit. Based on our high-quality spectra and strictly relative abundance analysis, we detect a depletion of volatiles (∼−0.02 dex, on average) and enhancement of refractories (∼0.01 dex) in WASP-94A relative to B (standard errors are ∼0.005 dex). This is different from every other published case of binary host star abundances, in which either no significant abundance differences are reported or there is some degree of enhancement in all elements, including volatiles. Several scenarios that may explain the abundance trend are discussed, but none can be definitively accepted or rejected. Additional high-contrast imaging observations to search for companions that may be dynamically affecting the system, as well as a larger sample of binary host star studies, are needed to better understand the curious abundance trends we observe in WASP-94A and B.

  15. Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp and its social parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Jennifer L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects dominate ecological communities because of their sophisticated group behaviors. However, the intricate behaviors of social insects may be exploited by social parasites, which manipulate insect societies for their own benefit. Interactions between social parasites and their hosts lead to unusual coevolutionary dynamics that ultimately affect the breeding systems and population structures of both species. This study represents one of the first attempts to understand the population and colony genetic structure of a parasite and its host in a social wasp system. Results We used DNA microsatellite markers to investigate gene flow, genetic variation, and mating behavior of the facultative social parasite Vespula squamosa and its primary host, V. maculifrons. Our analyses of genetic variability uncovered that both species possessed similar amounts of genetic variation and failed to show genetic structure over the sampling area. Our analysis of mating system of V. maculifrons and V. squamosa revealed high levels of polyandry and no evidence for inbreeding in the two species. Moreover, we found no significant differences between estimates of worker relatedness in this study and a previous investigation conducted over two decades ago, suggesting that the selective pressures operating on queen mate number have remained constant. Finally, the distribution of queen mate number in both species deviated from simple expectations suggesting that mate number may be under stabilizing selection. Conclusion The general biology of V. squamosa has not changed substantially from that of a typical, nonparasitic Vespula wasp. For example, population sizes of the host and its parasite appear to be similar, in contrast to other social parasites, which often display lower population sizes than their hosts. In addition, parasitism has not caused the mating behavior of V. squamosa queens to deviate from the high levels of multiple mating

  16. Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp and its social parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric A; Kovacs, Jennifer L; Goodisman, Michael A D

    2008-08-20

    Social insects dominate ecological communities because of their sophisticated group behaviors. However, the intricate behaviors of social insects may be exploited by social parasites, which manipulate insect societies for their own benefit. Interactions between social parasites and their hosts lead to unusual coevolutionary dynamics that ultimately affect the breeding systems and population structures of both species. This study represents one of the first attempts to understand the population and colony genetic structure of a parasite and its host in a social wasp system. We used DNA microsatellite markers to investigate gene flow, genetic variation, and mating behavior of the facultative social parasite Vespula squamosa and its primary host, V. maculifrons. Our analyses of genetic variability uncovered that both species possessed similar amounts of genetic variation and failed to show genetic structure over the sampling area. Our analysis of mating system of V. maculifrons and V. squamosa revealed high levels of polyandry and no evidence for inbreeding in the two species. Moreover, we found no significant differences between estimates of worker relatedness in this study and a previous investigation conducted over two decades ago, suggesting that the selective pressures operating on queen mate number have remained constant. Finally, the distribution of queen mate number in both species deviated from simple expectations suggesting that mate number may be under stabilizing selection. The general biology of V. squamosa has not changed substantially from that of a typical, nonparasitic Vespula wasp. For example, population sizes of the host and its parasite appear to be similar, in contrast to other social parasites, which often display lower population sizes than their hosts. In addition, parasitism has not caused the mating behavior of V. squamosa queens to deviate from the high levels of multiple mating that typify Vespula wasps. This stands in contrast to some

  17. Expression and evolutionary divergence of the non-conventional olfactory receptor in four species of fig wasp associated with one species of fig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jinhua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of fig wasps and their host figs provide a model for investigating co-evolution. Fig wasps have specialized morphological characters and lifestyles thought to be adaptations to living in the fig's syconium. Although these aspects of natural history are well documented, the genetic mechanism(s underlying these changes remain(s unknown. Fig wasp olfaction is the key to host-specificity. The Or83b gene class, an unusual member of olfactory receptor family, plays a critical role in enabling the function of conventional olfactory receptors. Four Or83b orthologous genes from one pollinator (PFW (Ceratosolen solmsi and three non-pollinator fig wasps (NPFWs (Apocrypta bakeri, Philotrypesis pilosa and Philotrypesis sp. associated with one species of fig (Ficus hispida can be used to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the fig wasp's adaptation to its host. We made a comparison of spatial tissue-specific expression patterns and substitution rates of one orthologous gene in these fig wasps and sought evidence for selection pressures. Results A newly identified Or83b orthologous gene was named Or2. Expressions of Or2 were restricted to the heads of all wingless male fig wasps, which usually live in the dark cavity of a fig throughout their life cycle. However, expressions were widely detected in the antennae, legs and abdomens of all female fig wasps that fly from one fig to another for oviposition, and secondarily pollination. Weak expression was also observed in the thorax of PFWs. Compared with NPFWs, the Or2 gene in C. solmsi had an elevated rate of substitutions and lower codon usage. Analyses using Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F* tests indicated a non-neutral pattern of nucleotide variation in all fig wasps. Unlike in NPFWs, this non-neutral pattern was also observed for synonymous sites of Or2 within PFWs. Conclusion The sex- and species-specific expression patterns of Or2 genes detected beyond

  18. WASP-167b/KELT-13b : joint discovery of a hot Jupiter transiting a rapidly rotating F1V star

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Albrow, M. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Bayliss, D.; Beatty, T. G.; Bieryla, A.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cargile, P. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Collins, K. A.; Colón, K. D.; Curtis, I. A.; D'Ago, G.; Delrez, L.

    2017-01-01

    We report the joint WASP/KELT discovery of WASP-167b/KELT-13b, a transiting hot Jupiter with a 2.02-d orbit around a $V$ = 10.5, F1V star with [Fe/H] = 0.1 $\\pm$ 0.1. The 1.5 R$_{\\rm Jup}$ planet was confirmed by Doppler tomography of the stellar line profiles during transit. We place a limit of $

  19. Environmental Factors Influencing Foraging Activity in the Social Wasp Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Epiponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Cristina de Souza Canevazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior in social wasps is important in the development of the colony and reflects an important ecological interaction between the colony and the environment. Although the social traits of the colony play a role in the foraging activities, the conditions that establish the space and time limits are mainly physical. Here, we evaluate colonies of Polybia paulista throughout one year in order to verify the foraging activities and the items collected, as well as the importance of temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation on motivating foraging. Collection of liquids was always higher than that of solids; preys were collected all year long, and nests showed two annual episodic expansions. The linear mixed effects (LME model used to analyze which weather factors influence the foraging showed temperature as the most influencing factor on the collection of materials.

  20. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  1. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae - Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In: Alvarado M. 2014. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae. Revista peruana de biología 21(1: 003 - 060 (Mayo 2014, doi: http://doi.org/10.15381/rpb.v21i1.8245The following information on depository of the type material was not provided: Holotype of Alophophion atahualpai is housed in the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru (MUSM; and, the holotype of A. carcanchoi, A. coquimboensis and A. yestay are housed in the American Entomological Institute, USA (AEIC.I thank Gavin Broad for bringing this problem to my attention.

  2. A novel protein toxin from the deadly box jellyfish (Sea Wasp, Habu-kurage) Chiropsalmus quadrigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroshi; Takuwa-Kuroda, Kyoko; Nakao, Masahiro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Iwanaga, Setsuko; Nakajima, Terumi

    2002-01-01

    The deadly box jellyfish (Sea Wasp, Habu-kurage in Japanese) Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel (Cubozoa) is distributed widely in the tropical Pacific region. In Japan, three fatal cases due to stings from this species have been reported officially. We successfully isolated C. quadrigatus toxin-A (CqTX-A, 44 kDa), a major proteinaceous toxin, for the first time, from the nematocysts of C. quadrigatus. CqTX-A showed lethal toxicity to crayfish when administered via intraperitoneal injection (LD50 = 80 microg/kg) and hemolytic activity toward 0.8% sheep red blood cells (ED50 = 160 ng/ml). Furthermore, we sequenced the cDNA encoding CqTX-A. The deduced amino acid sequence of CqTX-A (462 amino acids) showed 25.2% and 21.6% sequence similarity to Carybdea rastoni toxins (CrTXs) and Carybdea alata toxin-A (CrTX-A), respectively, which are Cubozoan jellyfish toxins.

  3. A search for transit timing variations and orbital decay in WASP-46b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, R.; Jofré, E.; Ferrero, L. V.; Cúneo, V.; Saker, L.; Lovos, F.; Gómez, M.; Mauas, P.

    2018-02-01

    We present 12 new transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-46b obtained with the 1.54-m telescope at Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre (EABA, Argentina) and the 0.40-m Horacio Ghielmetti and 2.15-m Jorge Sahade telescopes at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina). We analyse them together with 37 light curves from the literature to re-determine the physical parameters and search for additional planets via transit timing variations (TTVs). We consider the 31 transits with uncertainties in their mid-transit times (e_T0) 7 × 103 on the tidal quality factor and determine that an additional 6 yr baseline is required to rule out Q⋆ < 105.

  4. Testing the Role of Habitat Isolation among Ecologically Divergent Gall Wasp Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Egan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat isolation occurs when habitat preferences lower the probability of mating between individuals associated with differing habitats. While a potential barrier to gene flow during ecological speciation, the effect of habitat isolation on reproductive isolation has rarely been directly tested. Herein, we first estimated habitat preference for each of six populations of the gall wasp Belonocnema treatae inhabiting either Quercus virginiana or Q. geminata. We then estimated the importance of habitat isolation in generating reproductive isolation between B. treatae populations that were host specific to either Q. virginiana or Q. geminata by measuring mate preference in the presence and absence of the respective host plants. All populations exhibited host preference for their native plant, and assortative mating increased significantly in the presence of the respective host plants. This host-plant-mediated assortative mating demonstrates that habitat isolation likely plays an important role in promoting reproductive isolation among populations of this host-specific gall former.

  5. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M.; Wagner, Tim

    and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification. Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect......229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted up to the level of 4 mg/L in shake flask culture. It was purified by nickel‐affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI‐TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom...

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GTC transit light curves of WASP-52b (Chen+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Palle, E.; Nortmann, L.; Murgas, F.; Parviainen, H.; Nowak, G.

    2017-04-01

    We provide here the transit light curves of the hot Jupiter WASP-52b obtained on the night of 2015/08/28 using the OSIRIS instrument at the 10.4-m GTC telescope. The data was obtained by using OSIRIS through a 40-arcsec broad slit with the R1000R grism. The white-color light curve covers the wavelength range of 515-905nm, with 755-765nm being excluded. The spectroscopic light curves contain 22 channels of 16.5nm, 3 channels of 1.6nm, and 1 channel of 1.8nm. We provide several auxiliary parameters of the observations, some of which we have used to correct the data from correlated noise, including the position drift of the stars on the CCD detector in spatial and dispersion direction, the relative change in the FWHM of absorption line (dispersion FWHM), seeing (spatial FWHM), air mass, and rotator angle. (3 data files).

  7. Stereochemistry of host plant monoterpenes as mate location cues for the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, John F; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2004-02-01

    In spring, adult males of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus L. emerge from inconspicuous galls in stems of their host plant Silphium laciniatum L. and search for sites on stems where females will later emerge. The behavior of males suggests that they use olfaction rather than visual or tactile cues in searching for mates. In an earlier publication, we reported that galls of A. rufus were associated with changes in enantiomeric ratios of alpha- and beta-pinene emitted by plant stems, and hypothesized that monoterpene stereochemistry served as a mate location cue for adult males. Here, we support this hypothesis with bioassays that demonstrate that males can discriminate between galled and ungalled stems, as well as between blends of synthetic monoterpenes with ratios of enantiomers representative of galled and ungalled stems.

  8. A new optical transmission spectrum of WASP-43b from ACCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian; University of Arizona, Católica, Carnegie

    2018-01-01

    We present a new ground-based optical transmission spectrum of the Hot Jupiter WASP--43b obtained with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. These observations were made as part of the Arizona-CfA-Catolica+Carnegie Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey (ACCESS), which aims at providing a uniform, large sample of visible transmission spectra of gaseous exoplanets that will become key in the era of JWST and comparative exoplanetology. Using multi-object differential spectrophotometry, we produce a high precision spectrum of this planet between 400 and 900 nm, combining three different transit epochs. In this analysis, we search for signals of Na I, H-alpha, and K I, as well as for the presence of hazes/clouds.

  9. Social Hackers: Integration in the Host Chemical Recognition System by a Paper Wasp Social Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, S.; Sledge, M. F.; Dani, F. R.; Cervo, R.; Massolo, A.; Fondelli, L.

    Obligate social parasites in the social insects have lost the worker caste and the ability to establish nests. As a result, parasites must usurp a host nest, overcome the host recognition system, and depend on the host workers to rear their offspring. We analysed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of live parasite females of the paper wasp social parasite Polistes sulcifer before and after usurpation of host nests, using the non-destructive technique of solid-phase micro-extraction. Our results reveal that hydrocarbon profiles of parasites change after usurpation of host nests to match the cuticular profile of the host species. Chemical evidence further shows that the parasite queen changes the odour of the nest by the addition of a parasite-specific hydrocarbon. We discuss the possible role of this in the recognition and acceptance of the parasite and its offspring in the host colony.

  10. Socially selected ornaments and fitness: Signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Taylor; Vernier, Cassondra; Jinn, Judy; Madagame, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests, are more likely to survive harsh winters, and obtain higher dominance rank than wasps that signal lower fighting ability. In comparison, body weight was not associated with fitness. Larger wasps were dominant over smaller wasps, but showed no difference in nest size or survival. Overall, the positive relationship between wasp facial patterns and fitness indicates that receivers can obtain diverse information about a signaler's phenotypic quality by paying attention to socially selected ornaments. Therefore, there are surprisingly strong parallels between the information conveyed by socially and sexually selected signals. Similar fitness relationships in social and sexually selected signals may be one reason it can be difficult to distinguish the role of social versus sexual selection in ornament evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Hobby-Eberly Telescope Optical Transmission Spectroscopy of the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Adam G.; Redfield, Seth; Cauley, Paul W.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Transmission spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres is an extremely useful tool that can be used for understanding exoplanetary composition as well as potentially revealing star-planet interactions from radiation, magnetic fields, and more. The hot Jupiter planet WASP-12b is interesting in that it is very close to its star (0.02 AU), has a large calculated scale height, has had water and metals detected in its atmosphere, and has had varying observational and theoretical constraints placed on its C/O ratio. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical transmission spectrum of WASP-12b taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Our data covers the optical wavelength range from approximately 4800 to 6850 Angstroms. Most notably this includes two Balmer lines of hydrogen (H-alpha at 6563 Angstroms and H-beta at 4861 Angstroms) and the sodium D doublet (at 5890 and 5896 Angstroms). Due to the relative faintness of the system's central star and different instrumental settings, the analysis involves several challenges that are not present in previous transmission spectroscopy observations with the HET.This work is supported by NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant 14-XRP14_2-0090 to the University of Nebraska-Kearney. The Hobby-Eberly Telescope is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, and Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen and is named in honor of its principal benefactors, William P. Hobby and Robert E. Eberly.

  12. Aerosol Constraints on the Atmosphere of the Hot Saturn-mass Planet WASP-49b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Patricio E.; Fossati, Luca; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Malik, Matej; Tokano, Tetsuya; Lendl, Monika; Johnstone, Colin P.; Lammer, Helmut; Wyttenbach, Aurélien

    2017-11-01

    The strong, nearly wavelength-independent absorption cross section of aerosols produces featureless exoplanet transmission spectra, limiting our ability to characterize their atmospheres. Here, we show that even in the presence of featureless spectra, we can still characterize certain atmospheric properties. Specifically, we constrain the upper and lower pressure boundaries of aerosol layers, and present plausible composition candidates. We study the case of the bloated Saturn-mass planet WASP-49 b, where near-infrared observations reveal a flat transmission spectrum between 0.7 and 1.0 μm. First, we use a hydrodynamic upper-atmosphere code to estimate the pressure reached by the ionizing stellar high-energy photons at {10}-8 bar, setting the upper pressure boundary where aerosols could exist. Then, we combine HELIOS and Pyrat Bay radiative-transfer models to constrain the temperature and photospheric pressure of atmospheric aerosols, in a Bayesian framework. For WASP-49 b, we constrain the transmission photosphere (hence, the aerosol deck boundaries) to pressures above {10}-5 bar (100× solar metallicity), {10}-4 bar (solar), and {10}-3 bar (0.1× solar) as the lower boundary, and below {10}-7 bar as the upper boundary. Lastly, we compare condensation curves of aerosol compounds with the planet’s pressure-temperature profile to identify plausible condensates responsible for the absorption. Under these circumstances, we find these candidates: {{Na}}2{{S}} (at 100× solar metallicity); Cr and MnS (at solar and 0.1× solar) and forsterite, enstatite, and alabandite (at 0.1× solar).

  13. Rush immunotherapy for wasp venom allergy seems safe and effective in patients with mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, M; Oldhoff, J M; Klemans, R J B; Lahey-de Boer, A; de Bruin-Weller, M S; Röckmann, H; Sanders, C; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Pasmans, S G M A; Knulst, A C

    2015-11-01

    Patients with mastocytosis and wasp venom allergy (WA) may benefit from venom immunotherapy (VIT). However, fatal insect sting reactions have been described in mastocytosis patients despite previous immunotherapy. We investigated the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. We describe nine patients with cutaneous mastocytosis and WA who received VIT. Cutaneous mastocytosis was confirmed by histopathology and systemic mastocytosis was diagnosed according to World Health Organization criteria. VIT was given according to a rush protocol. Given the difference in safety and efficacy of VIT in patients with WA and honeybee venom allergy, we reviewed the literature for VIT with the focus on WA patients with mastocytosis and addressed the difference between patients with cutaneous versus systemic mastocytosis. Nine patients had WA and mastocytosis, of whom six had cutaneous mastocytosis, two combined cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis and one systemic mastocytosis. All patients received rush IT with wasp venom. Most patients had only mild local side effects, with no systemic side effects during the course of VIT. One patient had a systemic reaction upon injection on one occasion, during the updosing phase, with dyspnoea and hypotension, but responded well to treatment. Immunotherapy was continued after temporary dose adjustment without problems. Two patients with a previous anaphylactic reaction were re-stung, without any systemic effects. VIT is safe in cutaneous mastocytosis patients with WA, while caution has to be made in case of systemic mastocytosis. VIT was effective in the patients who were re-stung.

  14. Genetic structure of an introduced paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Koji; Kudô, Kazuyuki; Ishiguro, Norio

    2014-08-01

    Several eusocial wasps are prominent invaders to remote islands. The paper wasp Polistes chinensis antennalis is native to East Asia, was introduced to New Zealand in 1979 and has expanded its distribution there. This provides an excellent opportunity to examine the impacts of an initial bottleneck and subsequent expansion on genetic structure. We analysed and compared the genetic population structures of the native (Japan and South Korea) and invasive New Zealand populations. Although 94% of individuals had shared haplotypes detected across both populations, the remaining 6% had private haplotypes identified in only one of the three countries. The genetic variation at microsatellite loci was lower in New Zealand than in native countries, and the genetic structure in New Zealand was clearly distinct from that in its native range. Higher frequencies of diploid-male- and triploid-female-producing colonies were detected in New Zealand than in the native countries, showing the reduction in genetic variation via a genetic bottleneck. At least two independent introductions were suggested, and the putative source regions for New Zealand were assigned as Kanto (central island) and Kyushu (south island) in Japan. Serial founder events following the initial introduction were also indicated. The estimated dispersal distance between mother and daughter in New Zealand was twice that in Japan. Thus, the introduction history of P. chinensis antennalis in New Zealand is probably the result of at least two independent introductions, passing through a bottleneck during introduction, followed by population expansion from the point of introduction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. (Methylthio)phenol semiochemicals are exploited by deceptive orchids as sexual attractants for Campylothynnus thynnine wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Björn; Phillips, Ryan D; Flematti, Gavin R; Peakall, Rod

    2017-09-28

    Until recently, (methylthio)phenols as natural products had only been reported from bacteria. Now, four representatives of this class of sulfurous aromatic compounds have been discovered as semiochemicals in the orchid Caladenia crebra, which secures pollination by sexual deception. In this case, field bioassays confirmed that a 10:1 blend of 2-(methylthio)benzene-1,4-diol (1) and 4-hydroxy-3-(methylthio)benzaldehyde (2) sexually attracts the male thynnine wasp Campylothynnus flavopictus (Tiphiidae:Thynnineae), the exclusive pollinator of C. crebra. Here we show with field bioassays that another undescribed species of Campylothynnus (sp. A) is strongly sexually attracted to a 1:1 blend of compounds 1 and 2, which elicits very high attempted copulation rates (88%). We also confirm that this Campylothynnus species is a pollinator of Caladenia attingens subsp. attingens. Chemical analysis of the flowers of this orchid revealed two (methylthio)phenols, compound 2 and 2-(methylthio)phenol (3), as candidate semiochemicals involved in pollinator attraction. Thus, (methylthio)phenols are likely to be more widely used than presently known. The confirmation of this Campylothynnus as a pollinator of C. attingens subsp. attingens at our study sites was unexpected, since elsewhere this orchid is pollinated by a different thynnine wasp (Thynnoides sp). In general, sexually deceptive Caladenia only use a single species of pollinator, and as such, this unusual case may offer a tractable study system for understanding the chemical basis of pollinator switching in sexually deceptive orchids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Extracellular superoxide dismutase in insects: characterization, function, and interspecific variation in parasitoid wasp venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Dominique; Cazes, Dominique; Belghazi, Maya; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Poirié, Marylène

    2011-11-18

    Endoparasitoid wasps inject venom proteins with their eggs to protect them from the host immune response and ensure successful parasitism. Here we report identification of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) transcripts for both intracellular SOD1 and extracellular SOD3 in the venom apparatus of two Leptopilina species, parasitoids of Drosophila. Leptopilina SODs show sequence and structure similarity to human SODs, but phylogenetic analyses indicate that the extracellular SODs are more related to cytoplasmic vertebrate SODs than to extracellular SODs, a feature shared by predicted insect extracellular SODs. We demonstrate that L. boulardi SOD3 is indeed secreted and active as monomeric glycosylated forms in venom. Our results also evidence quantitative variation in SOD3 venom contents between closely related parasitoid species, as sod3 is 100-fold less expressed in Leptopilina heterotoma venom apparatus and no protein and SOD activity are detected in its venom. Leptopilina recombinant SOD3s as well as a mammalian SOD in vitro inhibit the Drosophila phenoloxidase activity in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that SODs may interfere with the Drosophila melanization process and, therefore, with production of cytotoxic compounds. Although the recombinant L. boulardi SOD3 quantity needed to observe this effect precludes a systemic effect of the wasp venom SOD3, it is still consistent with a local action at oviposition. This work provides the first demonstration that insect extracellular SODs are indeed secreted and active in an insect fluid and can be used as virulence factors to counteract the host immune response, a strategy largely used by bacterial and fungal pathogens but also protozoan parasites during infection.

  17. Fig wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1962-01-01

    For the pollination of their flowers, plants of the genus Ficus are absolutely dependent upon the activity of small insects, the ”fig wasps” (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, family Agaonidae). Consequently, no account of Ficus can be exhaustive without considering the entomological data. On the other

  18. Pharmacological Alternatives for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Wasp and Bee Venoms and Their Components as New Neuroactive Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juliana; Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Gomes, Flávia; Lopes, Kamila; dos Anjos, Lilian; Campos, Gabriel; Arenas, Claudia; Biolchi, Andréia; Gonçalves, Jacqueline; Galante, Priscilla; Campos, Leandro; Mortari, Márcia

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are relentlessly progressive, severely impacting affected patients, families and society as a whole. Increased life expectancy has made these diseases more common worldwide. Unfortunately, available drugs have insufficient therapeutic effects on many subtypes of these intractable diseases, and adverse effects hamper continued treatment. Wasp and bee venoms and their components are potential means of managing or reducing these effects and provide new alternatives for the control of neurodegenerative diseases. These venoms and their components are well-known and irrefutable sources of neuroprotectors or neuromodulators. In this respect, the present study reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms of action and future prospects regarding the use of new drugs derived from wasp and bee venom in the treatment of major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PMID:26295258

  19. The nociception genes painless and Piezo are required for the cellular immune response of Drosophila larvae to wasp parasitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokusumi, Yumiko; Tokusumi, Tsuyoshi; Schulz, Robert A

    2017-05-13

    In vertebrates, interaction between the nervous system and immune system is important to protect a challenged host from stress inputs from external sources. In this study, we demonstrate that sensory neurons are involved in the cellular immune response elicited by wasp infestation of Drosophila larvae. Multidendritic class IV neurons sense contacts from external stimuli and induce avoidance behaviors for host defense. Our findings show that inactivation of these sensory neurons impairs the cellular response against wasp parasitization. We also demonstrate that the nociception genes encoding the mechanosensory receptors Painless and Piezo, both expressed in class IV neurons, are essential for the normal cellular immune response to parasite challenge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Diversity of social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae in Cerrado biome of the southern of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus H. Simões

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of social wasps in Cerrado biome of the southern of the state of Minas Gerais was performed. A comparison between field and Riparian Forest areas was made in relation to species richness; correlations between diversity, sample methods and environmental factors were conducted. A total of 32 species was registered and Polybia fastidiosuscula de Saussure, 1854 was the most abundant species. The higher richness was in the Cerrado Field, as well as the highest diversity index. The temperature and rainfall had significant correlation with species richness and a significant variation in richness between dry and wet seasons was observed. Polybia fastidiosuscula was more abundant in the Riparian Forest during the dry season and in the Cerrado Field during wet season. The study area showed a great diversity of social wasps, with record both widely distributed species such as rare species, which indicates the quality and potential area for future studies.

  1. Elevated and cross-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells in bee and wasp venom allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sumithra; Aslam, Aamir; Misbah, Siraj A; Salio, Mariolina; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Moody, D Branch; Ogg, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The role of CD1a-reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a-reactive T cells recognize neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a-transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. T-cell response was evaluated based on IFNγ, GM-CSF, and IL-13 cytokine production. Venom allergic individuals showed significantly higher frequencies of IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-13 producing CD1a-reactive T cells responsive to venom and venom-derived phospholipase than healthy individuals. Venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells were cross-responsive between wasp and bee suggesting shared pathways of allergenicity. Frequencies of CD1a-reactive T cells were initially induced during subcutaneous immunotherapy, peaking by weeks 5, but then reduced despite escalation of antigen dose. Our current understanding of venom allergy and immunotherapy is largely based on peptide and protein-specific T cell and antibody responses. Here, we show that lipid antigens and CD1a-reactive T cells associate with the allergic response. These data have implications for mechanisms of allergy and approaches to immunotherapy. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species

    OpenAIRE

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Smid, H.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Werren, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is...

  3. Quantitative differences in nourishment affect caste-related physiology and development in the paper wasp Polistes metricus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Judd

    Full Text Available The distinction between worker and reproductive castes of social insects is receiving increased attention from a developmental rather than adaptive perspective. In the wasp genus Polistes, colonies are founded by one or more females, and the female offspring that emerge in that colony are either non-reproducing workers or future reproductives of the following generation (gynes. A growing number of studies now indicate that workers emerge with activated reproductive physiology, whereas the future reproductive gynes do not. Low nourishment levels for larvae during the worker-rearing phase of the colony cycle and higher nourishment levels for larvae when gynes are reared are now strongly suspected of playing a major role in this difference. Here, we present the results of a laboratory rearing experiment in which Polistes metricus single foundresses were held in environmental conditions with a higher level of control than in any previously published study, and the amount of protein nourishment made available to feed larvae was the only input variable. Three experimental feeding treatments were tested: restricted, unrestricted, and hand-supplemented. Analysis of multiple response variables shows that wasps reared on restricted protein nourishment, which would be the case for wasps reared in field conditions that subsequently become workers, tend toward trait values that characterize active reproductive physiology. Wasps reared on unrestricted and hand-supplemented protein, which replicates higher feeding levels for larvae in field conditions that subsequently become gynes, tend toward trait values that characterize inactive reproductive physiology. Although the experiment was not designed to test for worker behavior per se, our results further implicate activated reproductive physiology as a developmental response to low larval nourishment as a fundamental aspect of worker behavior in Polistes.

  4. Reared Microgastrine Wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Yanayacu Biological Station and Environs (Napo Province, Ecuador): Diversity and Host Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, James B.; Rodriguez, Josephine J.; Masonick, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The microgastrine braconid wasps recovered up through 2007 by the NSF-sponsored rearing project “Caterpillars and Parasitoids of the Eastern Andes in Ecuador” are summarized in terms of their host specialization and faunistic uniqueness. Two hundred fifty eight rearings of caterpillars resulted in records of Microgastrinae, distributed among 14 genera (Apanteles Förster, Choeras Mason, Cotesia Cameron, Diolcogaster Ashmead, Distatrix Mason, Dolichogenidea Viereck, Exix Mason, Glyptapanteles A...

  5. Assessing honeybee and wasp thermoregulation and energetics-New insights by combination of flow-through respirometry with infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabentheiner, Anton, E-mail: anton.stabentheiner@uni-graz.at [Institut fuer Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kovac, Helmut, E-mail: he.kovac@uni-graz.at [Institut fuer Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Hetz, Stefan K. [Department of Animal Physiology/Systems Neurobiology and Neural Computation, Philippstrasse 13-Leonor Michaelis Haus, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin (Germany); Kaefer, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Gabriel [Institut fuer Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate the benefits of a combined use of infrared thermography with respiratory measurements in insect ecophysiological research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared thermography enables repeated investigation of behaviour and thermoregulation without behavioural impairment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with respirometry brings new insights into the mechanisms of energetic optimisation of bee and wasp foraging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods improves interpretation of respiratory traces in determinations of insect critical thermal limits. - Abstract: Endothermic insects like honeybees and some wasps have to cope with an enormous heat loss during foraging because of their small body size in comparison to endotherms like mammals and birds. The enormous costs of thermoregulation call for optimisation. Honeybees and wasps differ in their critical thermal maximum, which enables the bees to kill the wasps by heat. We here demonstrate the benefits of a combined use of body temperature measurement with infrared thermography, and respiratory measurements of energy turnover (O{sub 2} consumption or CO{sub 2} production via flow-through respirometry) to answer questions of insect ecophysiological research, and we describe calibrations to receive accurate results. To assess the question of what foraging honeybees optimise, their body temperature was compared with their energy turnover. Honeybees foraging from an artificial flower with unlimited sucrose flow increased body surface temperature and energy turnover with profitability of foraging (sucrose content of the food; 0.5 or 1.5 mol/L). Costs of thermoregulation, however, were rather independent of ambient temperature (13-30 Degree-Sign C). External heat gain by solar radiation was used to increase body temperature. This optimised foraging energetics by increasing suction speed. In determinations of insect respiratory critical thermal limits

  6. Exchange of hosts: can agaonid fig wasps reproduce successfully in the figs of non-host Ficus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei; Li, Zongbo; Peng, Yanqiong; Yang, Darong

    2012-03-01

    In the obligate mutualism between figs ( Ficus) and their specific pollinators (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae), each species of fig wasp typically reproduces in figs of a single host species. Host specificity is maintained largely because pollinators are attracted to tree-specific volatiles released from their host figs, but whether the wasps can reproduce if they enter figs of non-host species is unclear. We investigated the reproductive success of Ceratosolen emarginatus (associated with Ficus auriculata) and Ceratosolen sp. (associated with F. hainanensis) in atypical hosts by experimentally introducing foundresses into host and non-host figs. F. auriculata figs entered by Ceratosolen sp. were more likely to abort than if entered by C. emarginatus, but abortion of F. hainanensis figs was not affected by pollinator species. Single C. emarginatus foundresses produced more but smaller offspring in F. hainanensis than in their normal host. Conversely Ceratosolen sp. produced fewer but larger offspring in F. auriculata than in their normal host, probably as a result of having longer to develop. Mean style length differences, relative to the lengths of the wasps' ovipositors, may have dictated the number of offspring produced, with oviposition made easier by the shorter styles in F. hainanensis figs. Our results imply that, in addition to morphological constraints and tree-specific volatiles, reduced reproductive success in atypical hosts can be another factor maintaining host specificity, but for other species only behavioural changes are required for host switching to occur.

  7. An orbital period of 0.94 days for the hot-Jupiter planet WASP-18b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D R; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Hebb, L; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Horne, K; Irwin, J; Lister, T A; Mayor, M; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D L; Segransan, D; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J

    2009-08-27

    The 'hot Jupiters' that abound in lists of known extrasolar planets are thought to have formed far from their host stars, but migrate inwards through interactions with the proto-planetary disk from which they were born, or by an alternative mechanism such as planet-planet scattering. The hot Jupiters closest to their parent stars, at orbital distances of only approximately 0.02 astronomical units, have strong tidal interactions, and systems such as OGLE-TR-56 have been suggested as tests of tidal dissipation theory. Here we report the discovery of planet WASP-18b with an orbital period of 0.94 days and a mass of ten Jupiter masses (10 M(Jup)), resulting in a tidal interaction an order of magnitude stronger than that of planet OGLE-TR-56b. Under the assumption that the tidal-dissipation parameter Q of the host star is of the order of 10(6), as measured for Solar System bodies and binary stars and as often applied to extrasolar planets, WASP-18b will be spiralling inwards on a timescale less than a thousandth that of the lifetime of its host star. Therefore either WASP-18 is in a rare, exceptionally short-lived state, or the tidal dissipation in this system (and possibly other hot-Jupiter systems) must be much weaker than in the Solar System.

  8. Understanding Societies from Inside the Organisms. Leo Pardi's Work on Social Dominance in Polistes Wasps (1937-1952).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniglia, Guido

    2015-08-01

    Leo Pardi (1915-1990) was the initiator of ethological research in Italy. During more than 50 years of active scientific career, he gave groundbreaking contributions to the understanding of social life in insects, especially in Polistes wasps, an important model organism in sociobiology. In the 1940s, Pardi showed that Polistes societies are organized in a linear social hierarchy that relies on reproductive dominance and on the physiological and developmental mechanisms that regulate it, i.e. on the status of ovarian development of single wasps. Pardi's work set the stage for further research on the regulatory mechanisms governing social life in primitively eusocial organisms both in wasps and in other insect species. This article reconstructs Pardi's investigative pathway between 1937 and 1952 in the context of European ethology and American animal sociology. This reconstruction focuses on the development of Pardi's physiological approach and presents a new perspective on the interacting development of these two fields at the origins of our current understanding of animal social behavior.

  9. No evidence of enemy release in pathogen and microbial communities of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris in their native and introduced range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Lester

    Full Text Available When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris, which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand. We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range. Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult.

  10. No Evidence of Enemy Release in Pathogen and Microbial Communities of Common Wasps (Vespula vulgaris) in Their Native and Introduced Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Philip J.; Kapp, Eugene A.; Peng, Lifeng; Brenton-Rule, Evan C.; Buchanan, Joe; Stanislawek, Wlodek L.; Archer, Michael; Corley, Juan C.; Masciocchi, Maitè; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris), which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England) and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand). We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range). Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult. PMID:25798856

  11. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey. VIII. Flat transmission spectrum for the warm gas giant WASP-80b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, H.; Pallé, E.; Chen, G.; Nortmann, L.; Murgas, F.; Nowak, G.; Aigrain, S.; Booth, A.; Abazorius, M.; Iro, N.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We set out to study the atmosphere of WASP-80b, a warm inflated gas giant with an equilibrium temperature of 800 K, using ground-based transmission spectroscopy covering the spectral range from 520 to 910 nm. The observations allow us to probe the existence and abundance of K and Na in WASP-80b's atmosphere, existence of high-altitude clouds, and Rayleigh-scattering in the blue end of the spectrum. Methods: We observed two spectroscopic time series of WASP-80b transits with the OSIRIS spectrograph installed in the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), and use the observations to estimate the planet's transmission spectrum between 520 nm and 910 nm in 20 nm-wide passbands, and around the K I and Na I resonance doublets in 6 nm-wide passbands. We jointly model three previously published broadband datasets consisting of 27 light curves, prior to a transmission spectroscopy analysis in order to obtain improved estimates of the planet's orbital parameters, average radius ratio, and stellar density. The parameter posteriors from the broadband analysis are used to set informative priors on the transmission spectroscopy analysis. The final transmission spectroscopy analyses are carried out jointly for the two nights using a divide-by-white approach to remove the common-mode systematics, and Gaussian processes to model the residual wavelength-dependent systematics. Results: We recover a flat transmission spectrum with no evidence of Rayleigh scattering or K I or Na I absorption, and obtain an improved system characterisation as a by-product of the broadband- and GTC-dataset modelling. The transmission spectra estimated separately from the two observing runs are consistent with each other, as are the transmission spectra estimated using either a parametric or nonparametric systematics model. The flat transmission spectrum favours an atmosphere model with high-altitude clouds over cloud-free models with stellar or sub-stellar metallicities. Conclusions: Our results disagree

  12. How do landscape composition and configuration, organic farming and fallow strips affect the diversity of bees, wasps and their parasitoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzschuh, Andrea; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2010-03-01

    1. Habitat destruction and increasing land use intensity result in habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation, and subsequently in the loss of species diversity. The fact that these factors are often highly confounded makes disentangling their effects extremely difficult, if not impossible, and their relative impact on species loss is mostly speculative. 2. In a two-year study, we analysed the relative importance of changed landscape composition (increased areas of cropped habitats), reduced habitat connectivity and reduced habitat quality on nest colonization of cavity-nesting bees, wasps and their parasitoids. We selected 23 pairs of conventional and organic wheat fields in the centre of landscape circles (500 m radius) differing in edge densities (landscape configuration) and % non-crop habitats (landscape composition). Standardized trap nests were established in the field centres and in neighbouring permanent fallow strips (making a total of 92 nesting sites). 3. Factors at all three scales affected nest colonization. While bees were enhanced by high proportions of non-crop habitat in the landscape, wasps profited from high edge densities, supporting our hypothesis that wasps are enhanced by connecting corridors. Colonization of herbivore-predating wasps was lower in field centres than in fallow strips for conventional sites, but not for organic sites, indicating a fallow-like connectivity value of organic fields. The relative importance of habitat type and farming system varied among functional groups suggesting that their perception of crop-non-crop boundaries or the availability of their food resources differed. 4. Local and landscape effects on parasitoids were mainly mediated by their hosts. Parasitism rates were marginally affected by local factors. A specialist parasitoid was more sensitive to high land use intensity than its host, whereas generalist parasitoids were less sensitive. 5. We conclude that the conversion of cropland into non-crop habitat

  13. WASP-12b According to the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan C.; Rojo, Patricio M.; Lust, Nate B.; Bowman, M. Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew SD; Foster, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science

  14. A Random Walk on WASP-12b with the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan; Rojo, Patricio; Lust, Nathaniel B.; Bowman, Oliver; Blumenthal, Sarah D.; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Foster, Austin James; Stemm, Madison; Bruce, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    We present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code for atmospheric property retrievals from transit and eclipse spectra, and apply it to WASP-12b, a hot (~3000 K) exoplanet with a high eclipse signal-to-noise ratio. WASP-12b has been controversial. We (Madhusudhan et al. 2011, Nature) claimed it was the first planet with a high C/O abundance ratio. Line et al. (2014, ApJ) suggested a high CO2 abundance to explain the data. Stevenson et al. (2014, ApJ, atmospheric model by Madhusudhan) add additional data and reaffirm the original result, stating that C2H2 and HCN, not included in the Line et al. models, explain the data. We explore several modeling configurations and include Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based eclipse data.BART consists of a differential-evolution Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler that drives a line-by-line radiative transfer code through the phase space of thermal- and abundance-profile parameters. BART is written in Python and C. Python modules generate atmospheric profiles from sets of MCMC parameters and integrate the resulting spectra over observational bandpasses, allowing high flexibility in modeling the planet without interacting with the fast, C portions that calculate the spectra. BART's shared memory and optimized opacity calculation allow it to run on a laptop, enabling classroom use. Runs can scale constant abundance profiles, profiles of thermochemical equilibrium abundances (TEA) calculated by the included TEA code, or arbitrary curves. Several thermal profile parameterizations are available. BART is an open-source, reproducible-research code. Users must release any code or data modifications if they publish results from it, and we encourage the community to use it and to participate in its development via http://github.com/ExOSPORTS/BART.This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science

  15. The Very Low Albedo of WASP-12b from Spectral Eclipse Observations with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Taylor J.; Nikolov, Nikolay; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Barstow, Joanna K.; Barman, Travis S.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Gibson, Neale P.; Evans, Thomas M.; Sing, David K.; Knutson, Heather A.; Kataria, Tiffany; Lothringer, Joshua D.; Benneke, Björn; Schwartz, Joel C.

    2017-09-01

    We present an optical eclipse observation of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. These spectra allow us to place an upper limit of {A}gwhite light geometric albedo across 290-570 nm. Using six wavelength bins across the same wavelength range also produces stringent limits on the geometric albedo for all bins. However, our uncertainties in eclipse depth are ˜40% greater than the Poisson limit and may be limited by the intrinsic variability of the Sun-like host star—the solar luminosity is known to vary at the 10-4 level on a timescale of minutes. We use our eclipse depth limits to test two previously suggested atmospheric models for this planet: Mie scattering from an aluminum-oxide haze or cloud-free Rayleigh scattering. Our stringent nondetection rules out both models and is consistent with thermal emission plus weak Rayleigh scattering from atomic hydrogen and helium. Our results are in stark contrast with those for the much cooler HD 189733b, the only other hot Jupiter with spectrally resolved reflected light observations; those data showed an increase in albedo with decreasing wavelength. The fact that the first two exoplanets with optical albedo spectra exhibit significant differences demonstrates the importance of spectrally resolved reflected light observations and highlights the great diversity among hot Jupiters.

  16. Variation of cuticular chemical compounds in three species of Mischocyttarus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae eusocial wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ramona Pereira Soares

    Full Text Available Abstract The social wasps have a remarkable system of organization in which chemical communication mediate different behavioral interactions. Among the compounds involved in this process, cuticular hydrocarbons are considered the main signals for nestmate recognition, caste differentiation, and fertility communication. The aims of this study were to describe the cuticular chemical compounds of the species Mischocyttarus consimilis, Mischocyttarus bertonii, and Mischocyttarus latior, and to test whether these chemical compounds could be used to evaluate differences and similarities between Mischocyttarus species, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Workers from these three species presented a variety of hydrocarbons ranging from C17 to C37, and among the compounds identified, the most representative were branched alkanes, linear alkanes and alkenes. The results revealed quantitative and qualitative differences among the hydrocarbon profiles, as confirmed by discriminant analysis. This study supports the hypothesis that cuticular chemical profiles can be used as parameters to identify interspecific and intercolony differences in Mischocyttarus, highlighting the importance of these compounds for differentiation of species and populations.

  17. Hormonal pleiotropy helps maintain queen signal honesty in a highly eusocial wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ricardo Caliari; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Akemi Oi, Cintia; van Zweden, Jelle S; Nascimento, Fabio; Sullivan Brent, Colin; Wenseleers, Tom

    2017-05-10

    In insect societies, both queens and workers produce chemicals that reliably signal caste membership and reproductive status. The mechanisms that help to maintain the honesty of such queen and fertility signals, however, remain poorly studied. Here we test if queen signal honesty could be based on the shared endocrine control of queen fertility and the production of specific signals. In support of this "hormonal pleiotropy" hypothesis, we find that in the common wasp, application of methoprene (a juveline hormone analogue) caused workers to acquire a queen-like cuticular hydrocarbon profile, resulting in the overproduction of known queen pheromones as well as some compounds typically linked to worker fertility. By contrast, administration of precocene-I (a JH inhibitor) had a tendency to have the opposite effect. Furthermore, a clear gonadotropic effect of JH in queens was suggested by the fact that circulating levels of JH were ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher in queens than those in workers and virgin, non-egg-laying queens, even if methoprene or precocene treatment did not affect the ovary development of workers. Overall, these results suggest that queen signal honesty in this system is maintained by queen fertility and queen signal production being under shared endocrine control.

  18. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of the strictly Neotropical ophionine wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 are revised. New descriptions of all previously named species are provided, except Alophophion holosericeus (Taschenberg, 1875 for which the type series is lost and the name is herein considered a nomen dubium. The female of A. flavorufus (Brullé, 1846 is described for the first time. Four informal species groups are proposed based on the morphology of the mandibles, development of the malar space, and general proportions of the head (i.e., development of the face and gena. Whereas the genus previously included only seven named species, it is here expanded to include 49 species (not including the aforementioned nomen dubium, 43 of which are newly discovered and described and thereby increasing the diversity by over eight times. A key to the four species groups and their included taxa is provided. Alophophion is confined to cold and/or dry areas of subequatorial South America, with the exception of A. mancocapaci new species and A. pedroi new species which occur incloud forests around Cuzco, Peru. The genus is newly recorded from Bolivia and Ecuador, and more extensive and accurate distributions are summarized for A. chilensis, A. flavorufus, and A. politus. Alophophion flavorufus is newly recorded from Argentina.Traduce

  19. Reproductive efficiency of the bethylid wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis: the influences of spatial structure and host density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Kapranas, A; Givropoulou, E G; Hardy, I C W

    2017-04-01

    The parasitoid wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is commonly present in stored product facilities. While beneficial, it does not provide a high degree of biological pest control against its host, the saw-toothed beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). A candidate explanation for poor host population suppression is that adult females interfere with each other's foraging and reproductive behavior. We used simple laboratory microcosms to evaluate such mutual interference in terms of its overall effects on offspring production. We varied the density of the hosts and also the spatial structure of the environment, via the extent of population sub-division and the provision of different substrates. Production of C. tarsalis offspring was positively influenced by host density and by the isolation of females. With incomplete sub-division within microcosms offspring production was, in contrast, low and even zero. The provision of corrugated paper as a substrate enhanced offspring production and partially mitigated the effects of mutual interference. We recommend simple improvements to mass rearing practice and identify promising areas for further behavioral and chemical studies towards a better understanding of the mechanisms of mutual interference.

  20. Colony social structure in native and invasive populations of the social wasp Vespula pensylvanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Cause; Cook, Erin D.; Thompson, Ariel R.; Dare, Lyndzey E.; Palaski, Amanda L.; Foote, David; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Social insects rank among the most invasive of terrestrial species. The success of invasive social insects stems, in part, from the flexibility derived from their social behaviors. We used genetic markers to investigate if the social system of the invasive wasp, Vespula pensylvanica, differed in its introduced and native habitats in order to better understand variation in social phenotype in invasive social species. We found that (1) nestmate workers showed lower levels of relatedness in introduced populations than native populations, (2) introduced colonies contained workers produced by multiple queens whereas native colonies contained workers produced by only a single queen, (3) queen mate number did not differ significantly between introduced and native colonies, and (4) workers from introduced colonies were frequently produced by queens that originated from foreign nests. Thus, overall, native and introduced colonies differed substantially in social phenotype because introduced colonies more frequently contained workers produced by multiple, foreign queens. In addition, the similarity in levels of genetic variation in introduced and native habitats, as well as observed variation in colony social phenotype in native populations, suggest that colony structure in invasive populations may be partially associated with social plasticity. Overall, the differences in social structure observed in invasive V. pensylvanica parallel those in other, distantly related invasive social insects, suggesting that insect societies often develop similar social phenotypes upon introduction into new habitats.

  1. Danish extreme wind atlas: Background and methods for a WAsP engineering option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, O.; Kristensen, L.; Mann, J. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, S.O. [Svend Ole Hansen ApS, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Extreme wind statistics is necessary design information when establishing wind farms and erecting bridges, buildings and other structures in the open air. Normal mean wind statistics in terms of directional and speed distribution may be estimated by wind atlas methods and are used to estimate e.g. annual energy output for wind turbines. It is the purpose of the present work to extend the wind atlas method to also include the local extreme wind statistics so that an extreme value as e.g. the 50-year wind can be estimated at locations of interest. Together with turbulence estimates such information is important regarding the necessary strength of wind turbines or structures to withstand high wind loads. In the `WAsP Engineering` computer program a flow model, which includes a model for the dynamic roughness of water surfaces, is used to realise such an extended wind atlas method. With basis in an extended wind atlas, also containing extreme wind statistics, this allows the program to estimate extreme winds in addition to mean winds and turbulence intensities at specified positions and heights. (au) EFP-97. 15 refs.

  2. Coordinated autoinhibition of F-BAR domain membrane binding and WASp activation by Nervous Wreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanishneva-Konovalova, Tatiana B; Kelley, Charlotte F; Eskin, Tania L; Messelaar, Emily M; Wasserman, Steven A; Sokolova, Olga S; Rodal, Avital A

    2016-09-20

    Membrane remodeling by Fes/Cip4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs167 (F-BAR) proteins is regulated by autoinhibitory interactions between their SRC homology 3 (SH3) and F-BAR domains. The structural basis of autoregulation, and whether it affects interactions of SH3 domains with other cellular ligands, remain unclear. Here we used single-particle electron microscopy to determine the structure of the F-BAR protein Nervous Wreck (Nwk) in both soluble and membrane-bound states. On membrane binding, Nwk SH3 domains do not completely dissociate from the F-BAR dimer, but instead shift from its concave surface to positions on either side of the dimer. Unexpectedly, along with controlling membrane binding, these autoregulatory interactions inhibit the ability of Nwk-SH3a to activate Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp)/actin related protein (Arp) 2/3-dependent actin filament assembly. In Drosophila neurons, Nwk autoregulation restricts SH3a domain-dependent synaptopod formation, synaptic growth, and actin organization. Our results define structural rearrangements in Nwk that control F-BAR-membrane interactions as well as SH3 domain activities, and suggest that these two functions are tightly coordinated in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Karyotypes of parasitic wasps of the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera) attacking leaf-mining Lepidoptera (Gracillariidae, Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Yefremova, Zoya A; Yegorenkova, Ekaterina N

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypes of eleven parasitoid species of the family Eulophidae were examined, namely, Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839) (2n = 10), Chrysocharis sp. aff. laomedon (n = 5, 2n = 10), Chrysocharis sp. aff. albipes (Ashmead, 1904) (2n = 12), Mischotetrastichus petiolatus (Erdös, 1961) (n = 6, 2n = 12), Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees, 1834) (n = 5, 2n = 10), Cirrospilus pictus (Nees, 1834) (2n = 12), Hyssopus geniculatus (Hartig, 1838) (2n = 16), Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) (2n = 12), S. sericeicornis (Nees, 1834) (2n = 12), Pnigalio agraules (Walker, 1839) (2n = 12 + 0-2B) and Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (2n = 12 + 0-6B) reared from Phyllonorycter acerifoliella (Zeller, 1839), Ph. apparella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855), Ph. issikii (Kumata, 1963) (Gracillariidae) and Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg, 1794) (Gelechiidae). Chromosome sets of all species except P. agraules and P. gyamiensis were studied for the first time. B chromosomes were detected in the two latter species; in P. gyamiensis, the maximum number of B chromosomes represents the highest value known for parasitic wasps to date.

  4. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  5. Sex allocation theory reveals a hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, Penelope R; Cook, Nicola; Blackburn, Charlotte V; Gill, Sophie M; Green, Jade; Shuker, David M

    2015-05-22

    Sex allocation theory has proved to be one the most successful theories in evolutionary ecology. However, its role in more applied aspects of ecology has been limited. Here we show how sex allocation theory helps uncover an otherwise hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Female N. vitripennis allocate the sex of their offspring in line with Local Mate Competition (LMC) theory. Neonicotinoids are an economically important class of insecticides, but their deployment remains controversial, with evidence linking them to the decline of beneficial species. We demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, that neonicotinoids disrupt the crucial reproductive behaviour of facultative sex allocation at sub-lethal, field-relevant doses in N. vitripennis. The quantitative predictions we can make from LMC theory show that females exposed to neonicotinoids are less able to allocate sex optimally and that this failure imposes a significant fitness cost. Our work highlights that understanding the ecological consequences of neonicotinoid deployment requires not just measures of mortality or even fecundity reduction among non-target species, but also measures that capture broader fitness costs, in this case offspring sex allocation. Our work also highlights new avenues for exploring how females obtain information when allocating sex under LMC. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Ampulexins: A New Family of Peptides in Venom of the Emerald Jewel Wasp, Ampulex compressa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eugene; Arvidson, Ryan; Banks, Christopher; Urenda, Jean; Duong, Elizabeth; Mohammad, Haroun; Adams, Michael E

    2018-01-19

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa injects venom directly into the brain and subesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, inducing a seven to ten day lethargy termed hypokinesia. Hypokinesia presents as a significant reduction in both escape response and spontaneous walking. We examined aminergic and peptidergic components of milked venom with HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection confirmed presence of dopamine in milked venom, while mass spectrometry revealed that the venom gland and venom sac have distinct peptide profiles, with milked venom predominantly composed of venom sac peptides. We isolated and characterized novel alpha-helical, amphipathic venom sac peptides that constitute a new family of venom toxins termed ampulexins. Injection of the most abundant venom peptide, ampulexin-1, into the subesophageal ganglion of cockroaches resulted in a short-term increase in escape threshold. Neither milked venom nor venom peptides interfered with growth of Escherichia coli or Bacillus thuringiensis on agar plates and exposure to ampulexins or milked venom did not induce cell death in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) or Hi5 cells (Trichoplusia ni).

  7. Flies from meat and wasps from trees: Reevaluating Francesco Redi's spontaneous generation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Emily C

    2014-03-01

    Francesco Redi's seventeenth-century experiments on insect generation are regarded as a key contribution to the downfall of belief in spontaneous generation. Scholars praise Redi for his experiments demonstrating that meat does not generate insects, but condemn him for his claim elsewhere that trees can generate wasps and gallflies. He has been charged with rejecting spontaneous generation only to change his mind and accept it, and in the process, with failing (at least in some sense) as a rigorous experimental philosopher. In this paper I defend Redi from both of these charges. In doing so, I draw some broader lessons for our understanding of spontaneous generation. 'Spontaneous generation' does not refer to a single theory, but rather a landscape of possible views. I analyze Redi's theoretical commitments and situate them within this landscape, and argue that his error in the case of insects from plants is not as problematic as previous commentators have said it is. In his research on gall insects Redi was addressing a different question from that of his experiments on insect generation-the question was not "Can insects come from nonliving matter?," but rather, "Can insects come from living organisms which are not their parents (namely, trees)?" In the latter case, he gave an answer which we now know to be false, but this was not due to any failure in his rigor as an experimental philosopher. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and evolution of brain allometry in wasps (Vespidae): size, ecology and sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean; Bulova, Susan

    2017-08-01

    We review research on brain development and brain evolution in the wasp family Vespidae. Basic vespid neuroanatomy and some aspects of functional neural circuitry are well-characterized, and genomic tools for exploring brain plasticity are being developed. Although relatively modest in terms of species richness, the Vespidae include species spanning much of the known range of animal social complexity, from solitary nesters to highly eusocial species with some of the largest known colonies and multiple reproductives. Eusocial species differ in behavior and ecology including variation in queen/worker caste differentiation and in diurnal/nocturnal activity. Species differences in overall brain size are strongly associated with brain allometry; relative sizes of visual processing tissues increase at faster rates than antennal processing tissues. The lower relative size of the central-processing mushroom bodies (MB) in eusocial species compared to solitary relatives suggests sociality may relax demands on individual cognitive abilities. However, queens have greater relative MB volumes than their workers, and MB development is positively associated with social dominance status in some species. Fruitful areas for future investigations of adaptive brain investment in the clade include sampling of key overlooked taxa with diverse social structures, and the analysis of neural correlations with ecological divergence in foraging resources and diel activity patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative morphology of the mandibles of female polistine social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the mandibles of female polistine social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae. Diversity of mandibular forms in female polistines is explored and compared among 116 species of all polistine genera. Inferences about function are made and discussed based on observed form differences. Mandible length and width measurements are analyzed for a subset of polistine species plus two vespines and two eumenines. A variable expressing the ratio between these variables is also considered in morphometric analyses. The following mechanical interactions among mandible structural elements are highlighted: opposition and crossing of mandibles' apical teeth at the middle of the closing trajectory; shearing action of the apical teeth against mesial denticles of the opposite mandible; shearing action of the mandible anterior margin against the ventral margin of the clypeus. In the genera Agelaia and Angiopolybia, exceptionally developed mesial mandibular structures may be related to necrophagy. In some epiponine genera, poorly developed mesial denticles and strong torsion of mandibles may be partially related to use of short wood fibers in nest construction as advanced by Sarmiento (2004. The considerable morphological variation found across the subfamily Polistinae is certain to be important in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies at the genus and species levels.

  10. Costs of egg-laying and offspring provisioning: multifaceted parental investment in a digger wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Jeremy; Turner, Ed; Fayle, Tom; Foster, William A

    2007-02-07

    Nest-building Hymenoptera have been a major testing ground for theories of parental investment and sex allocation. Investment has usually been estimated by the likely costs of offspring provisioning, ignoring other aspects of parental care. Using three experimental treatments, we estimated the costs of egg-laying and provisioning separately under field conditions in a digger wasp Ammophila pubescens. In one treatment, we increased the provisioning effort required per offspring by removing alternate prey items as they were brought to the nest. In two other treatments, we reduced parental effort by either preventing females from provisioning alternate nests or preventing them from both ovipositing and provisioning. Our results indicate that both egg-laying and provisioning represent significant costs of reproduction, expressed as differences in productivity but not survival. A trade-off-based model suggests that other components of parental care such as nest initiation may also represent significant costs. Costs of egg production and nest initiation are probably similar for male and female offspring, so that taking them into account leads to a less male-biased expected sex ratio. Mothers compensated only partially for prey removal in terms of the total provisions they gave to individual offspring.

  11. Periodic eclipses of the young star PDS 110 discovered with WASP and KELT photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, H. P.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Kennedy, G. M.; Mamajek, E. E.; Robinson, C. E.; Espaillat, C. C.; Armstrong, D. J.; Shappee, B. J.; Bieryla, A.; Latham, D. W.; Anderson, D. R.; Beatty, T. G.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Hellier, C.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; James, D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Kuhn, R. B.; Lund, M. B.; Pepper, J.; Pollacco, D. L.; Prieto, J. L.; Siverd, R. J.; Stassun, K. G.; Stevens, D. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; West, R. G.

    2017-10-01

    We report the discovery of eclipses by circumstellar disc material associated with the young star PDS 110 in the Ori OB1a association using the SuperWASP and Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope surveys. PDS 110 (HD 290380, IRAS 05209-0107) is a rare Fe/Ge-type star, an ∼10 Myr-old accreting intermediate-mass star showing strong infrared excess (LIR/Lbol ≃ 0.25). Two extremely similar eclipses with a depth of 30 per cent and duration ∼25 d were observed in 2008 November and 2011 January. We interpret the eclipses as caused by the same structure with an orbital period of 808 ± 2 d. Shearing over a single orbit rules out diffuse dust clumps as the cause, favouring the hypothesis of a companion at ∼2 au. The characteristics of the eclipses are consistent with transits by an unseen low-mass (1.8-70 MJup) planet or brown dwarf with a circumsecondary disc of diameter ∼0.3 au. The next eclipse event is predicted to take place in 2017 September and could be monitored by amateur and professional observatories across the world.

  12. Inbreeding depression in a parasitoid wasp with single-locus complementary sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssade, Chloé; de Fazio, Céline; Quaglietti, Bastien; Auguste, Alexandra; Ris, Nicolas; Fauvergue, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding and inbreeding depression are key processes in small or isolated populations and are therefore central concerns for the management of threatened or (re)introduced organisms. Haplodiploid species of the order Hymenoptera have a particular status with regard to inbreeding depression. Although recessive deleterious alleles that are expressed in males should be purged, an alternative form of inbreeding depression exists in species with single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD). Under sl-CSD, genetically-related parents have a high probability of producing sterile sons instead of fertile daughters. In this article, we study inbreeding depression in Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid wasp with sl-CSD. We used a crossing design to manipulate relatedness according to three levels: within-family, between-family and between-population. For each level, several fitness components were measured on parents and female offspring. We found a 20% reduction in egg load at emergence for inbred crosses. Inbred crosses also yielded a higher proportion of males, as expected in a species with sl-CSD. Mating probability, presence of daughters among offspring, body size, symmetry and longevity were unaffected by inbreeding.

  13. Karyotypes of parasitic wasps of the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking leaf-mining Lepidoptera (Gracillariidae, Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gokhman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eleven parasitoid species of the family Eulophidae were examined, namely, Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839 (2n = 10, Chrysocharis sp. aff. laomedon (n = 5, 2n = 10, Chrysocharis sp. aff. albipes (Ashmead, 1904 (2n = 12, Mischotetrastichus petiolatus (Erdös, 1961 (n = 6, 2n = 12, Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees, 1834 (n = 5, 2n = 10, Cirrospilus pictus (Nees, 1834 (2n = 12, Hyssopus geniculatus (Hartig, 1838 (2n = 16, Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839 (2n = 12, S. sericeicornis (Nees, 1834 (2n = 12, Pnigalio agraules (Walker, 1839 (2n = 12 + 0–2B and Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (2n = 12 + 0–6B reared from Phyllonorycter acerifoliella (Zeller, 1839, Ph. apparella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855, Ph. issikii (Kumata, 1963 (Gracillariidae and Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg, 1794 (Gelechiidae. Chromosome sets of all species except P. agraules and P. gyamiensis were studied for the first time. B chromosomes were detected in the two latter species; in P. gyamiensis, the maximum number of B chromosomes represents the highest value known for parasitic wasps to date.

  14. Optimal resource allocation to survival and reproduction in parasitic wasps foraging in fragmented habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wajnberg

    Full Text Available Expansion and intensification of human land use represents the major cause of habitat fragmentation. Such fragmentation can have dramatic consequences on species richness and trophic interactions within food webs. Although the associated ecological consequences have been studied by several authors, the evolutionary effects on interacting species have received little research attention. Using a genetic algorithm, we quantified how habitat fragmentation and environmental variability affect the optimal reproductive strategies of parasitic wasps foraging for hosts. As observed in real animal species, the model is based on the existence of a negative trade-off between survival and reproduction resulting from competitive allocation of resources to either somatic maintenance or egg production. We also asked to what degree plasticity along this trade-off would be optimal, when plasticity is costly. We found that habitat fragmentation can indeed have strong effects on the reproductive strategies adopted by parasitoids. With increasing habitat fragmentation animals should invest in greater longevity with lower fecundity; yet, especially in unpredictable environments, some level of phenotypic plasticity should be selected for. Other consequences in terms of learning ability of foraging animals were also observed. The evolutionary consequences of these results are discussed.

  15. Does early learning drive ecological divergence during speciation processes in parasitoid wasps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Kerstin; Krimmer, Elena; Brose, Sören; Gantert, Cornelia; Buschlüter, Ines; König, Christian; Klopfstein, Seraina; Wendt, Ingo; Baur, Hannes; Krogmann, Lars; Steidle, Johannes L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Central to the concept of ecological speciation is the evolution of ecotypes, i.e. groups of individuals occupying different ecological niches. However, the mechanisms behind the first step of separation, the switch of individuals into new niches, are unclear. One long-standing hypothesis, which was proposed for insects but never tested, is that early learning causes new ecological preferences, leading to a switch into a new niche within one generation. Here, we show that a host switch occurred within a parasitoid wasp, which is associated with the ability for early learning and the splitting into separate lineages during speciation. Lariophagus distinguendus consists of two genetically distinct lineages, most likely representing different species. One attacks drugstore beetle larvae (Stegobium paniceum (L.)), which were probably the ancestral host of both lineages. The drugstore beetle lineage has an innate host preference that cannot be altered by experience. In contrast, the second lineage is found on Sitophilus weevils as hosts and changes its preference by early learning. We conclude that a host switch has occurred in the ancestor of the second lineage, which must have been enabled by early learning. Because early learning is widespread in insects, it might have facilitated ecological divergence and associated speciation in this hyperdiverse group. PMID:25621331

  16. Hybrid incompatibilities are affected by dominance and dosage in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia

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    Leo W Beukeboom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study of genome incompatibilities in species hybrids is important for understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. According to Haldane’s rulehybridization affects the heterogametic sex more than the homogametic sex. Several theories have been proposed that attribute asymmetry in hybridization effects to either phenotype (sex or genotype (heterogamety. Here we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid genome incompatibility in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia using the powerful features of haploid males and sex reversal. We separately investigate the effects of heterozygosity (ploidy level and sex by generating sex reversed diploid hybrid males and comparing them to genotypically similar haploid hybrid males and diploid hybrid females. Hybrid effects of sterility were more pronounced than of inviability, and were particularly strong in haploid males, but weak to absent in diploid males and females, indicating a strong ploidy level but no sex specific effect. Molecular markers identified a number of genomic regions associated with hybrid inviability in haploid males that disappeared under diploidy in both hybrid males and females. Hybrid inviability was rescued by dominance effects at some genomic regions, but aggravated or alleviated by dosage effects at other regions, consistent with cytonuclear incompatibilities. Dosage effects underlying Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM incompatibilities need more consideration in explaining Haldane’s Rule in diploid systems.

  17. Reducing honey bee defensive responses and social wasp colonization with methyl anthranilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, Tanya

    2009-07-01

    Human victims of a massive number of stings have been steadily increasing since the invasion of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) to the United States in 1990. Multiple honey bee stings may result in venom toxicity, leading to renal failure and even death. Here we tested the efficacy of methyl anthranilate as a honey bee repellent during a massive defensive response by Africanized honey bees. An aerosolized solution of 10% methyl anthranilate reduced the number of defensive bee hits to a retreating victim by 95% compared with a water control. One hundred fifty milliliters of the 10% methyl anthranilate solution sprayed onto stationary foam balls covered with black suede leather located 2 m from provoked Africanized colonies received 80% fewer stings than targets treated with water. Methyl anthranilate (100%) delivered through a UV blocking 3 mil polyethylene pouch was 100% effective in preventing Polistes colonization in wildlife observation huts and from the roof overhang of home patios. Although methyl anthranilate was not 100% effective in preventing honey bee stinging, it seemed to reduce number of stings below the average human LD50, indicative of a promising tool for preventing honey bee venom toxicity and wasp colonization.

  18. Reproductive queue without overt conflict in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Alok; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2012-09-04

    Colonies of the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata consist of a single egg layer (queen) and a number of non-egg-laying workers. Although the queen is a docile individual, not at the top of the behavioral dominance hierarchy of the colony, she maintains complete reproductive monopoly. If the queen is lost or removed, one and only one of the workers [potential queen (PQ)] becomes hyperaggressive and will become the next queen of the colony. The PQ is almost never challenged because she first becomes hyperaggressive and then gradually loses her aggression, develops her ovaries, and starts laying eggs. Although we are unable to identify the PQ when the queen is present, she appears to be a "cryptic heir designate." Here, we show that there is not just one heir designate but a long reproductive queue and that PQs take over the role of egg-laying, successively, without overt conflict, as the queen or previous PQs are removed. The dominance rank of an individual is not a significant predictor of its position in the succession hierarchy. The age of an individual is a significant predictor, but it is not a perfect predictor because PQs often bypass older individuals to become successors. We suggest that such a predesignated reproductive queue that is implemented without overt conflict is adaptive in the tropics, where conspecific usurpers from outside the colony, which can take advantage of the anarchy prevailing in a queenless colony and invade it, are likely to be present throughout the year.

  19. Field Method for Testing Repellency of an Icaridin-Containing Skin Lotion against Vespid Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Boevé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vespid wasps are ecologically beneficial predators of insects but their stings also pose a human health risk. Current control methods based on killing vespids are suboptimal. Here, the repellent effect against Vespula vulgaris of a 20% icaridin skin lotion was evaluated under field conditions. An experimental setup was designed in which six artificial skin pieces (10 × 10 cm were video-recorded for 1 h, to count each min the numbers of flying and feeding vespids. Prior to monitoring, five pieces were successively smeared with 2 mg of cream per cm2, in 30 min intervals, from t = −120 min to 0. The sixth sheet remained untreated to serve as a control. One milliliter of an attractant, fruit jam, was deposited on each of the six surfaces at t = 0. The control surface was free of any flying or feeding vespid during an average period of 25 min, whereas the other five surfaces (treated at t = −120, −90, −60, −30, and 0 min remained vespid-free for 39, 40, 45, 49, and 51 min, respectively. The skin lotion remained significantly active for at least 2 h. The experimental methodology is adjustable and allows the study of repellents against vespids in semi-natural conditions.

  20. A survey of DNA methylation across social insect species, life stages, and castes reveals abundant and caste-associated methylation in a primitively social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Susan A.; Galbraith, David A.; Adams, Dean C.; Valenzuela, Nicole; Noll, Fernando B.; Grozinger, Christina M.; Toth, Amy L.

    2013-08-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the epigenetic control of developmental and behavioral plasticity, with connections to the generation of striking phenotypic differences between castes (larger, reproductive queens and smaller, non-reproductive workers) in honeybees and ants. Here, we provide the first comparative investigation of caste- and life stage-associated DNA methylation in several species of bees and vespid wasps displaying different levels of social organization. Our results reveal moderate levels of DNA methylation in most bees and wasps, with no clear relationship to the level of sociality. Strikingly, primitively social Polistes dominula paper wasps show unusually high overall DNA methylation and caste-related differences in site-specific methylation. These results suggest DNA methylation may play a role in the regulation of behavioral and physiological differences in primitively social species with more flexible caste differences.

  1. The queen is not a pacemaker in the small-colony wasps Polistes instabilis and P. dominulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jha, Shalene; Casey-Ford, Rowan G.; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2006-01-01

    that suggest that two species of paper wasps do not fit this pattern. Polistes wasps are traditionally classified as primitively eusocial wasps, showing characteristics of simple insect societies, such as small colony sizes, lack of queen-worker dimorphism, and queen control of both reproduction and worker......How work is organized varies in social insect colonies. Some investigators have argued that the queen plays an active role in regulating worker activity in species with small, simple colonies, but that work is self-organized in species with large, complex colonies. Here, we present data...... the queen was removed did not differ significantly from activity levels in colonies with queens. Polistes instabilis and P. dominulus colonies showed characteristics of primitively eusocial insect societies, but also showed worker initiation of colony activity, suggesting that these two species represent...

  2. Repression of Wasp by JAK/STAT signalling inhibits medial actomyosin network assembly and apical cell constriction in intercalating epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertet, Claire; Rauzi, Matteo; Lecuit, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires stereotyped cell shape changes, such as apical cell constriction in the mesoderm and cell intercalation in the ventrolateral ectoderm of Drosophila. Both processes require force generation by an actomyosin network. The subcellular localization of Myosin-II (Myo-II) dictates these different morphogenetic processes. In the intercalating ectoderm Myo-II is mostly cortical, but in the mesoderm Myo-II is concentrated in a medial meshwork. We report that apical constriction is repressed by JAK/STAT signalling in the lateral ectoderm independently of Twist. Inactivation of the JAK/STAT pathway causes germband extension defects because of apical constriction ventrolaterally. This is associated with ectopic recruitment of Myo-II in a medial web, which causes apical cell constriction as shown by laser nanosurgery. Reducing Myo-II levels rescues the JAK/STAT mutant phenotype, whereas overexpression of the Myo-II heavy chain (also known as Zipper), or constitutive activation of its regulatory light chain, does not cause medial accumulation of Myo-II nor apical constriction. Thus, JAK/STAT controls Myo-II localization by additional mechanisms. We show that regulation of actin polymerization by Wasp, but not by Dia, is important in this process. Constitutive activation of Wasp, a branched actin regulator, causes apical cell constriction and promotes medial 'web' formation. Wasp is inactivated at the cell cortex in the germband by JAK/STAT signalling. Lastly, wasp mutants rescue the normal cortical enrichment of Myo-II and inhibit apical constriction in JAK/STAT mutants, indicating that Wasp is an effector of JAK/STAT signalling in the germband. We discuss possible models for the role of Wasp activity in the regulation of Myo-II distribution.

  3. Odour-mediated foraging by yellowjacket wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): predation on leks of pheromone-calling Mediterranean fruit fly males (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichs, J; Katsoyannos, B I; Wornoayporn, V; Hendrichs, M A

    1994-09-01

    Predation is probably the most important male mortality factor in insect species with courtship displays that render males performing them conspicuous targets of predators. Sexually active Mediterranean fruit fly males, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), aggregate in leks, where they participate in agonistic encounters and engage in visual, acoustic and pheromone-calling displays to attract receptive females. The objective of this study was to assess: a) whether sexually displaying C. capitata males in leks inside host and non-host foliage are subject to predation by the most prominent predators yellow-jacket wasps, Vespula germanica (F.), and if so, b) whether olfactory, visual or auditive stimuli are used by foraging wasps in locating male C. capitata prey. Studies were carried out in a citrus orchard and surroundings on the island of Chios, Greece. Observations were conducted using perforated containers hung within mulberry, fig or citrus foliage. Living C. capitata flies of different sex and either mature or immature were placed inside. Our results show that the yellowjacket wasps have learned to associate the presence of sexually active medfly males aggregated in leks with their prey's pheromone (kairomone). Foraging wasps, flying through the crowns of host trees, responded to the odour source of C. capitata male pheromone by approaching from downwind. Even inside dense citrus tree foliage, wasps keyed in on aggregations of pheromone-calling males using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli of visual and acoustic male signalling were only used at close range, after having followed the pheromone plume close to its source. Visual cues played a greater role in directing wasp foraging under more open and exposed host foliage conditions. Odour-based foraging of wasps inside host foliage in the mid-morning hours, when medfly male lekking activities peak, shifted gradually to a more visual-based host fruit patrolling in the afternoons to capture ovipositing and feeding medfly females

  4. Moving your sons to safety: galls containing male fig wasps expand into the centre of figs, away from enemies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    Full Text Available Figs are the inflorescences of fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae. They are shaped like a hollow ball, lined on their inner surface by numerous tiny female flowers. Pollination is carried out by host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae. Female pollinators enter the figs through a narrow entrance gate and once inside can walk around on a platform generated by the stigmas of the flowers. They lay their eggs into the ovules, via the stigmas and styles, and also gall the flowers, causing the ovules to expand and their pedicels to elongate. A single pollinator larva develops in each galled ovule. Numerous species of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW, belonging to other families of Chalcidoidea also make use of galled ovules in the figs. Some initiate galls, others make use of pollinator-generated galls, killing pollinator larvae. Most NPFW oviposit from the outside of figs, making peripherally-located pollinator larvae more prone to attack. Style length variation is high among monoecious Ficus spp. and pollinators mainly oviposit into more centrally-located ovules, with shorter styles. Style length variation is lower in male (wasp-producing figs of dioecious Ficus spp., making ovules equally vulnerable to attack by NPFW at the time that pollinators oviposit. We recorded the spatial distributions of galled ovules in mature male figs of the dioecious Ficus hirta in Southern China. The galls contained pollinators and three NPFW that kill them. Pollinators were concentrated in galls located towards the centre of the figs, NPFW towards the periphery. Due to greater pedicel elongation by male galls, male pollinators became located in more central galls than their females, and so were less likely to be attacked. This helps ensure that sufficient males survive, despite strongly female-biased sex ratios, and may be a consequence of the pollinator females laying mostly male eggs at the start of oviposition sequences.

  5. Changes in the Hydrocarbon Proportions of Colony Odor and Their Consequences on Nestmate Recognition in Social Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzi, Elena; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève; Lorenzi, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In social insects, colonies have exclusive memberships and residents promptly detect and reject non-nestmates. Blends of epicuticular hydrocarbons communicate colony affiliation, but the question remains how social insects use the complex information in the blends to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. To test this we altered colony odor by simulating interspecific nest usurpation. We split Polistes dominulus paper-wasp nests into two halves and assigned a half to the original foundress and the other half to a P. nimphus usurper for 4 days. We then removed foundresses and usurpers from nests and investigated whether emerging P. dominulus workers recognized their never-before-encountered mothers, usurpers and non-nestmates of the two species. Behavioral and chemical analyses of wasps and nests indicated that 1) foundresses marked their nests with their cuticular hydrocarbons; 2) usurpers overmarked foundress marks and 3) emerging workers learned colony odor from nests as the odor of the female that was last on nest. However, notwithstanding colony odor was usurper-biased in usurped nests, workers from these nests recognized their mothers, suggesting that there were pre-imaginal and/or genetically encoded components in colony-odor learning. Surprisingly, workers from usurped nests also erroneously tolerated P. nimphus non-nestmates, suggesting they could not tell odor differences between their P. nimphus usurpers and P. nimphus non-nestmates. Usurpers changed the odors of their nests quantitatively, because the two species had cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that differed only quantitatively. Possibly, P. dominulus workers were unable to detect differences between nestmate and non-nestmate P. nimphus because the concentration of some peaks in these wasps was beyond the range of workers' discriminatory abilities (as stated by Weber's law). Indeed, workers displayed the least discrimination abilities in the usurped nests where the relative odor changes due

  6. Observation of intra- and interspecific differences in the nest chemical profiles of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Polistinae) using infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sguarizi-Antonio, Denise; Torres, Viviana O; Firmino, Ellen L B; Lima, Sandro M; Andrade, Luis H C; Antonialli-Junior, William F

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the nest chemical profile (NCP) can be used to determine intra- and interspecific differences in social wasps of the subfamily Polistinae. For this purpose, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was used to directly analyze small pieces of nest as well as the gasters of females. An advantage of the methodology was that no sample preparation was required. FTIR-PAS combined with multivariate discriminant analyzes was used, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, to evaluate the NCPs of six species of polistine wasps, observing the influence of the nesting environment and investigating the relationships among the nest and female cuticular chemical profiles. The results revealed significant inter-species differences among the NCPs, as well as strong correlations with the environments in which the nests were located. The Mischocyttarus and Polistes species belong to the same tribe (Polistini) and therefore exhibited similar NCPs. These species were separated from the Polybia species in the NCP dendrogram, mainly because the Polybia belong to another tribe (Epiponini). Correlation was observed between the NCPs and the cuticular chemical profiles of females. The findings of the study demonstrated the importance of the NCP for differentiation of species and environments, and the utility of FTIR-PAS for identification of correlations between individuals and nests. The results confirmed the hypothesis that the NCP can be used as an additional tool for intra- and interspecific differentiation in social wasps of the subfamily Polistinae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The geological record and phylogeny of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae): A revision of fossil species and their phylogenetic placement.

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    Rodriguez, Juanita; Waichert, Cecilia; von Dohlen, Carol D; Pitts, James P

    2017-01-01

    Accurate fossil identification has become increasingly relevant with the widespread use of phylogenetic divergence time estimation methods, which rely on fossil data to determine clade hard-minimum ages. Here we revise, diagnose and illustrate known spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) fossil species and place them within the latest Pompilidae phylogenetic hypothesis. Ceropalites infelix Cockerell, from the Florissant Fossil Beds (Priabonian), is no longer recognized as Pompilidae, but as Aulacidae. Agenioideus saxigenus (Cockerell) comb. nov., Deuteragenia wettweri (Statz) comb. nov., Caputelus scudderi (Cockerell, 1906) comb. nov., Pepsinites avitula (Cockerell, 1941) comb. nov., Pepsinites contentus (Theobald, 1937) comb. nov., Pepsinites florissantensis (Cockerell, 1906) comb. nov., Pepsinites laminarum (Rohwer, 1909) comb. nov., Pepsinites scelerosus (Meunier, 1919) comb. nov., Pepsinites cockerellae (Rohwer, 1909) comb. nov., Pompilinites coquandi (Theobald, 1937) comb. nov., Pompilinites depressus (Statz, 1936) comb. nov., Pompilites incertus (Theobald, 1937) comb. nov., Pompilites induratus (Heer, 1849) comb. nov., Pompilites fasciatus (Theobald, 1937) comb. nov., and Pompilites senex comb. nov. are new combinations. Twenty-three fossil species of spider wasps are now recognized in 13 genera. Four new genera are proposed: Caputelus Waichert & Pitts gen. nov., Pompilites Rodriguez gen. nov., Pompilinites Rodriguez & Waichert gen. nov., and Pepsinites Rodriguez & Waichert gen. nov., of which the three latter are collective-group names for fossils with taxonomic uncertainty. One species of fossil spider wasp is described: Deuteragenia catalunyia Rodriguez, Waichert & Pitts sp. nov., from the Bellver deposits in Catalonia, Spain. Five of the 23 known species can be used to determine hard-minimum age for calibrations of genera stem-groups (Agenioideus, Anoplius, Cryptocheilus, Deuteragenia, Priocnemis). The fossil belonging to the stem-group of the tribe

  8. Brain size and visual environment predict species differences in paper wasp sensory processing brain regions (hymenoptera: vespidae, polistinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean; Clifford, Marie R; DeLeon, Sara; Papa, Christopher; Zahedi, Nazaneen; Bulova, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    The mosaic brain evolution hypothesis predicts that the relative volumes of functionally distinct brain regions will vary independently and correlate with species' ecology. Paper wasp species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) differ in light exposure: they construct open versus enclosed nests and one genus (Apoica) is nocturnal. We asked whether light environments were related to species differences in the size of antennal and optic processing brain tissues. Paper wasp brains have anatomically distinct peripheral and central regions that process antennal and optic sensory inputs. We measured the volumes of 4 sensory processing brain regions in paper wasp species from 13 Neotropical genera including open and enclosed nesters, and diurnal and nocturnal species. Species differed in sensory region volumes, but there was no evidence for trade-offs among sensory modalities. All sensory region volumes correlated with brain size. However, peripheral optic processing investment increased with brain size at a higher rate than peripheral antennal processing investment. Our data suggest that mosaic and concerted (size-constrained) brain evolution are not exclusive alternatives. When brain regions increase with brain size at different rates, these distinct allometries can allow for differential investment among sensory modalities. As predicted by mosaic evolution, species ecology was associated with some aspects of brain region investment. Nest architecture variation was not associated with brain investment differences, but the nocturnal genus Apoica had the largest antennal:optic volume ratio in its peripheral sensory lobes. Investment in central processing tissues was not related to nocturnality, a pattern also noted in mammals. The plasticity of neural connections in central regions may accommodate evolutionary shifts in input from the periphery with relatively minor changes in volume. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Purification and partial characterization of an entomopoxvirus (DlEPV from a parasitic wasp of tephritid fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline O. Lawrence

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available An insect poxvirus [entomopoxvirus (EPV] occurs in the poison gland apparatus of female Diachasmimorpha longicaudata , a parasitic wasp of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa and other tephritid fruit flies. The DlEPV virion is 250-300 nm in diameter, has a "bumpy" appearance and a unipartite double stranded DNA genome of 290-300 kb. DlEPV DNA restriction fragment profiles differed from those reported for Amsacta moorei EPV (AmEPV and Melanoplus sanguinipes EPV (MsEPV, the only two EPVs whose genomes have been sequenced, and from those reported for vaccinia (Vac, a vertebrate poxvirus (chordopoxvirus, ChPV. Blast search and ClustalW alignment of the amino acids deduced from the 2316 nucleotides of a DlEPV DNA fragment cloned from an EcoR1 genomic library revealed 75-78% homology with the putative DNA-directed RNA polymerases of AmEPV, MsEPV, and two ChPV homologs of the Vac J6R gene. Of the deduced 772 amino acids in the DlEPV sequence, 28.4% are conserved/substituted among the four poxviruses aligned, 12.9% occur in at least one EPV, 6.5% in at least one ChPV, 3.1 % in at least one EPV and one ChPV, and 49.1% occur only in DlEPV. Although the RI-36-1 fragment represents a portion of the gene, it contains nucleotides that encode the NADFDGDE consensus sequence of known DNA-directed RNA polymerases. Western blots using a mouse polyclonal anti-DlEPV serum recognized six major protein bands in combined fractions of sucrose-purified DlEPV, at least one band in homogenates of male and female wasps, and at least two bands in host hemolymph that contained DlEPV virions. A digoxigenin-labeled DlEPV genomic DNA probe recognized DNA in dot-blots of male and female wasps. These results confirm that DlEPV is a true EPV and probably a member of the Group C EPVs. Unlike other EPVs, DlEPV does not express the spheroidin protein. Since it also replicates in both the wasp and fly, members of two different insect Orders, DlEPV may represent a new EPV

  10. Transcriptome sequence-based phylogeny of chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) reveals a history of rapid radiations, convergence, and evolutionary success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ralph S; Niehuis, Oliver; Gunkel, Simon; Bläser, Marcel; Mayer, Christoph; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Kozlov, Alexey; Donath, Alexander; van Noort, Simon; Liu, Shanlin; Zhou, Xin; Misof, Bernhard; Heraty, John; Krogmann, Lars

    2017-12-13

    Chalcidoidea are a megadiverse group of mostly parasitoid wasps of major ecological and economical importance that are omnipresent in almost all extant terrestrial habitats. The timing and pattern of chalcidoid diversification is so far poorly understood and has left many important questions on the evolutionary history of Chalcidoidea unanswered. In this study, we infer the early divergence events within Chalcidoidea and address the question of whether or not ancestral chalcidoids were small egg parasitoids. We also trace the evolution of some key traits: jumping ability, development of enlarged hind femora, and associations with figs. Our phylogenetic inference is based on the analysis of 3,239 single-copy genes across 48 chalcidoid wasps and outgroups representatives. We applied an innovative a posteriori evaluation approach to molecular clock-dating based on nine carefully validated fossils, resulting in the first molecular clock-based estimation of deep Chalcidoidea divergence times. Our results suggest a late Jurassic origin of Chalcidoidea, with a first divergence of morphologically and biologically distinct groups in the early to mid Cretaceous, between 129 and 81 million years ago (mya). Diversification of most extant lineages happened rapidly after the Cretaceous in the early Paleogene, between 75 and 53 mya. The inferred Chalcidoidea tree suggests a transition from ancestral minute egg parasitoids to larger-bodied parasitoids of other host stages during the early history of chalcidoid evolution. The ability to jump evolved independently at least three times, namely in Eupelmidae, Encyrtidae, and Tanaostigmatidae. Furthermore, the large-bodied strongly sclerotized species with enlarged hind femora in Chalcididae and Leucospidae are not closely related. Finally, the close association of some chalcidoid wasps with figs, either as pollinators, or as inquilines/gallers or as parasitoids, likely evolved at least twice independently: in the Eocene, giving rise

  11. SuperWASP discovery and SALT confirmation of a semi-detached eclipsing binary that contains a delta Scuti star

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, A. J.; Lohr, M. E.; Smalley, B.; Wheatley, P. J.; West, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    We searched the SuperWASP archive for objects displaying multiply periodic photometric variations. Specifically we sought evidence for eclipsing binary stars displaying a further non-harmonically related signal in their power spectra. The object SWASP J050634.16-353648.4 is identified as a relatively bright (V ~ 11.5) semi-detached eclipsing binary with a 5.104 d orbital period that displays coherent pulsations with a semi-amplitude of 65 mmag at a frequency of 13.45 per day. Follow-up radial...

  12. The pollination of a self-incompatible, food-mimic orchid, Coelogyne fimbriata (Orchidaceae), by female Vespula wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Shi, Jun; Shangguan, Fa-Zhi; Dafni, Amots; Deng, Zhen-Hai; Luo, Yi-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The study of specialized interactions between species is crucial to our understanding of processes in evolutionary ecology due to their profound effect on life cycles and diversification. Obligate pollination by a single wasp species is rare in Orchidaceae except in species with sexually deceptive flowers that are pollinated exclusively by male insects. The object of this study was to document pollination of the food-deceptive flowers of Coelogyne fimbriata, a species pollinated exclusively by female wasps. Methods Field observations and experiments were conducted in two populations of C. fimbriata. Floral phenology was recorded, and functional floral architecture was measured. Insect visitors to flowers were observed from 2005 to 2007. Bioassay experiments were conducted to check whether the floral odour attracted pollinators. Natural (insect-mediated) rates of pollinarium removal, pollinium deposition on stigmas, and fruit set were recorded. To determine the importance of cross-pollination, the breeding system was assessed via controlled, hand-pollination experiments. Key Results Two populations of C. fimbriata with fragrant, nectarless flowers are pollinated by females of the same Vespula species (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Experiments on wasps show that they crawl towards the source of the odour. The flowering period appears to coincide with an annual peak in Vespula colony expansion when additional workers forage for carbohydrates. Rates of pollinarium removal (0·069–0·918) and pollinium deposition on stigmas (0·025–0·695) are extremely variable. However, fruit set in C. fimbriata is always low (0·014–0·069) and appears to be based on self-incompatibility coupled with intraclonal (geitonogamous) deposition of pollinia. Conclusions Coelogyne fimbriata and Steveniella satyrioides are now the only orchid species known to have food-deceptive flowers that are pollinated exclusively by eusocial, worker wasps. In C. fimbriata, floral

  13. ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 induces rearrangement of actin cytoskeletons possibly through Cdc42/N-WASP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, K; Hirano, K; Tsujii, K; Ikegami, C; Zhongyan, Z; Nishida, Y; Ohama, T; Matsuura, F; Yamashita, S; Matsuzawa, Y

    2001-09-28

    Positional cloning approaches revealed that Tangier disease (TD), a genetic high density lipoprotein deficiency, is associated with mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA1) gene. However, the biological function of ABCA1 is still not fully investigated. Recently, we have reported that the cells from the patients with TD had abnormal actin cytoskeletons in association with decreased expression of Cdc42, a member of RhoGTPases family. In the present study, we have found that actin cytoskeletons were altered in HEK293 cells transfected with human ABCA1 (hABCA1) cDNA. Cells expressing hABCA1 were divided into the following two groups by the distinct morphology with altered actin cytoskeletons: one had increased formation of filopodia (designated as Type I) and the other had long protrusions (designated as Type II). Type I cells had morphology similar to that of cells transfected with dominant active form of Cdc42 (Cdc42-DA, V12Cdc42Hs-DA). Type II cells had morphology similar to that of cells transfected with neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP),one of the established downstream effector molecules of Cdc42. We have obtained the data showing a possible pathway of ABCA1/Cdc42/N-WASP by the following experiments. Introduction of mutant of Cdc42 (dominant negative form of Cdc42, N17Cdc42Hs-DN) and N-WASP (N-WASP lacking verprolin homology domain, N-WASPDeltaVPH), both of which are supposed to have potential to inhibit rearrangement of actin cytoskeletons, significantly inhibited the morphological changes induced by expression of hABCA1. Immunoprecipitation study with FLAG-tagged ABCA1 (hABCA1-FLAG) revealed that Cdc42 was coimmunoprecipitated with hABCA1-FLAG. In addition, we have demonstrated possible intracellular colocalization of these two molecules in the overexpressing cells by the confocal laser microscopy. These results may suggest that hABCA1 regulates actin organization through the possible interaction with Cdc42Hs. Copyright 2001

  14. Social wasps (Polistinae from Pampa Biome: South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to determine social wasps’ species from Pampa Biome. Were examined samples of social wasps from south-central of Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, parts of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé and La Pampa provinces (Argentina and in Uruguay maintained in the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brazil, American Museum of Natural History (USA, Natural History Museum (London-United Kingdom and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-France. Thirty species were recorded: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 and Protonectarina (01. Vespas sociais do Bioma Pampa: sul do Brasil, nordeste da Argentina e Uruguai. Resumo. Este estudo objetivou determinar as espécies de vespas sociais provenientes do Bioma Pampa. Foram examinadas vespas sociais provenientes de coletas da região centro-sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, parte das províncias de Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé e La Pampa (Argentina e Uruguai depositadas na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brasil, American Museum of Natural History (Nova Iorque-USA, Natural History Museum (Londres-Reino Unido e Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-França. Trinta espécies foram registradas: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 e Protonectarina (01.

  15. Novel proteinaceous toxins from the box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea rastoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H; Takuwa, K; Nakao, M; Ito, E; Miyake, M; Noda, M; Nakajima, T

    2000-08-28

    During summer and autumn, the box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea rastoni is one of the most bothersome stinging pests to swimmers and bathers on the Japanese coast. Two labile but potent hemolytic toxins from the tentacles of Carybdea rastoni were isolated in their active forms using newly developed purification methods. The molecular masses of the isolated C. rastoni toxin-A and toxin-B (CrTX-A and CrTX-B) are 43 and 46 kDa, respectively, as calculated from SDS-PAGE. In the present study, we sequenced the full-length cDNA (1600 bp), which encodes both CrTX-A and CrTX-B. The deduced 450 amino acid sequence of the CrTXs, showed no significant homology with any known protein. This report presents the first complete sequence of a proteinaceous jellyfish toxin. Furthermore, it was revealed that CrTX-A was primarily localized in the nematocyst, whereas CrTX-B was detected only in the tentacle. Because the nematocyst is the organ responsible for the cnidarian sting, the remainder of the study focused on the toxicity of CrTX-A. We found that CrTX-A was fatally toxic to mice at 20 microg/kg (i.v.) and crayfish at 5 microg/kg (i.p.). Subcutaneously injected CrTX-A (0.1 microg) caused inflammation of mouse skin. These results showed that CrTX-A is responsible for the cutaneous inflammation observed in humans stung by C. rastoni. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Simulating the Fate and Transport of an Acid Mine Drainage Release Using the WASP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, C. D.; Kate, S.; Avant, B. K.; Cyterski, M.; Washington, J.; Prieto, L.

    2016-12-01

    On August 5, 2015, approximately 3 million gallons of acid mine drainage were released from the Gold King Mine into Cement Creek in the San Juan River watershed (CO, NM, UT). The release further mobilized additional metals, which resulted in a large mass of solids and dissolved metals entering Cement Creek. These metals were released into the Animas River. As the release acidity was neutralized, the metals precipitated and formed the visually noticeable "yellow boy," which flowed down the San Juan River. We applied the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) using empirically based parameterization to simulate and describe the movement of the plume and total and dissolved concentrations of all metals, including Arsenic, Copper, Lead, and Zinc. We estimated that the plume took between approximately 1 to 3 days to pass any given location. The peak concentration of the plume took about 2 hours to reach Silverton, CO (16 rkm), 1.5 days to reach Durango, CO (94 rkm), 2.9 days to reach Farmington, NM, (190 rkm) and 5.8 days to reach Mexican Hat, UT (422 km). Total metal concentration decreased rapidly going downstream, dropping 80% upon entering the Animas at Silverton, CO, and 99.5% entering the San Juan at Farmington. Metal concentrations decreased by dilution, settling, and dispersion. Modeling suggests that deposition occurred primarily in the upper Animas River near Silverton and near Durango, which was supported with empirical evidence. This work demonstrates the utility of a combined empirical and mechanistic modeling analysis. We additionally investigate long-term residual effects and potential exposure concentrations during storm and snowmelt high flow periods after the visible plume had traversed the system.

  17. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

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    Martin Kaltenpoth

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes. Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of

  18. Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai'i Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, R.W.; Banko, P.C.; Schwarzfeld, M.; Euaparadorn, M.; Brinck, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Through intentional and accidental introduction, more than 100 species of alien Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera) have become established in the Hawaiian Islands. The extent to which these parasitoid wasps have penetrated native wet forests was investigated over a 1,765 m elevation gradient on windward Hawai'i Island. For >1 year, malaise traps were used to continuously monitor parasitoid abundance and species richness in nine sites over three elevations. A total of 18,996 individuals from 16 subfamilies were collected. Overall, the fauna was dominated by aliens, with 44 of 58 species foreign to the Hawaiian Islands. Ichneumonidae was dominant over Braconidae in terms of both diversity and abundance, comprising 67.5% of individuals and 69.0% of species collected. Parasitoid abundance and species richness varied significantly with elevation: abundance was greater at mid and high elevations compared to low elevation while species richness increased with increasing elevation, with all three elevations differing significantly from each other. Nine species purposely introduced to control pest insects were found, but one braconid, Meteorus laphygmae, comprised 98.0% of this assemblage, or 28.3% of the entire fauna. Endemic species, primarily within the genera Spolas and Enicospilus, were collected almost exclusively at mid- and high-elevation sites, where they made up 22.1% and 36.0% of the total catch, respectively. Overall, 75.9% of species and 96.0% of individuals are inferred to parasitize Lepidoptera larvae and pupae. Our results support previous data indicating that alien parasitoids have deeply penetrated native forest habitats and may have substantial impacts on Hawaiian ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Intrinsic competition and its effects on the survival and development of three species of endoparasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Gols, Rieta; Strand, Michael R

    2009-02-09

    In natural systems, pre-adult stages of some insect herbivores are known to be attacked by several species of parasitoids. Under certain conditions, hosts may be simultaneously parasitised by more than one parasitoid species (= multiparasitism), even though only one parasitoid species can successfully develop in an individual host. Here, we compared development, survival, and intrinsic competitive interactions amongst three species of solitary larval endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Microplitis demolitor Wilkinson, and Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in singly parasitised and multiparasitised hosts. The three species differed in certain traits, such as in host usage strategies and adult body size. Campoletis sonorensis and M. demolitor survived equally well to eclosion in two host species that differed profoundly in size, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and the larger Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (both Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Egg-to-adult development time in C. sonorensis and M. demolitor also differed in the two hosts. Moreover, adult body mass in C. sonorensis (and not M. demolitor) was greater when developing in H. virescens larvae. We then monitored the outcome of competitive interactions in host larvae that were parasitised by one parasitoid species and subsequently multiparasitised by another species at various time intervals (0, 6, 24, and 48 h) after the initial parasitism. These experiments revealed that M. croceipes was generally a superior competitor to the other two species, whereas M. demolitor was the poorest competitor, with C. sonorensis being intermediate in this capacity. However, competition sometimes incurred fitness costs in M. croceipes and C. sonorensis, with longer development time and/or smaller adult mass observed in surviving wasps emerging from multiparasitised hosts. Our results suggest that rapid growth and large size relative to competitors of a similar age

  20. Insights into the venom composition and evolution of an endoparasitoid wasp by combining proteomic and transcriptomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhichao; Fang, Qi; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jinding; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Fei; Li, Fei; Werren, John H; Ye, Gongyin

    2016-01-25

    Parasitoid wasps are abundant and diverse hymenopteran insects that lay their eggs into the internal body (endoparasitoid) or on the external surface (ectoparasitoid) of their hosts. To make a more conducive environment for the wasps' young, both ecto- and endoparasitoids inject venoms into the host to modulate host immunity, metabolism and development. Endoparasitoids have evolved from ectoparasitoids independently in different hymenopteran lineages. Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid of various butterflies, represents a relatively recent evolution of endoparasitism within pteromalids. Using a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we have identified 70 putative venom proteins in P. puparum. Most of them show higher similarity to venom proteins from the related ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis than from other more distantly related endoparasitoids. In addition, 13 venom proteins are similar to venoms of distantly related endoparasitoids but have no detectable venom matches in Nasonia. These venom proteins may have a role in adaptation to endoparasitism. Overall, these results lay the groundwork for more detailed studies of venom function and adaptation to the endoparasitic lifestyle.

  1. Biochemical characterization and comparison of aspartylglucosaminidases secreted in venom of the parasitoid wasps Asobara tabida and Leptopilina heterotoma.

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    Quentin Coulette

    Full Text Available Aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA is a low-abundance intracellular enzyme that plays a key role in the last stage of glycoproteins degradation, and whose deficiency leads to human aspartylglucosaminuria, a lysosomal storage disease. Surprisingly, high amounts of AGA-like proteins are secreted in the venom of two phylogenetically distant hymenopteran parasitoid wasp species, Asobara tabida (Braconidae and Leptopilina heterotoma (Cynipidae. These venom AGAs have a similar domain organization as mammalian AGAs. They share with them key residues for autocatalysis and activity, and the mature α- and β-subunits also form an (αβ2 structure in solution. Interestingly, only one of these AGAs subunits (α for AtAGA and β for LhAGA is glycosylated instead of the two subunits for lysosomal human AGA (hAGA, and these glycosylations are partially resistant to PGNase F treatment. The two venom AGAs are secreted as fully activated enzymes, they have a similar aspartylglucosaminidase activity and are both also efficient asparaginases. Once AGAs are injected into the larvae of the Drosophila melanogaster host, the asparaginase activity may play a role in modulating their physiology. Altogether, our data provide new elements for a better understanding of the secretion and the role of venom AGAs as virulence factors in the parasitoid wasps' success.

  2. Digger wasp fauna (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Crabronidae of La Palma (Canary Islands - a survey with description of a new species

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    Ljubomirov, T.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Asurvey of the digger wasp fauna of La Palma (Canary Islands is made. Eleven species are confirmed as present and five of them –Liris nigricans nigricans (Walker, 1871, Miscophus eatoni E. Saunders, 1903, Tachysphex nitidus (Spinola, 1806, Solierella insidiosa de Beaumont, 1964, and Nitela laevigata sp. n.– are recorded for the first time for the fauna of La Palma. A brief evaluation of the digger wasp species richness of La Palma is provided.

    Se presenta un estudio de la fauna de Crabronidae y Sphecidae de la isla de La Palma (Islas Canarias. Se considera probada la presencia de once especies, cinco de las cuales –Liris nigricans nigricans (Walker, 1871, Miscophus eatoni E. Saunders, 1903, Tachysphex nitidus (Spinola, 1806, Solierella insidiosa de Beaumont, 1964 y Nitela laevigata sp. n.– se registran por vez primera para la fauna de La Palma. Se adjunta una breve evaluación de la riqueza específica de ambas familias en la isla.

  3. Natural variation in learning rate and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps: opportunities for converging ecology and neuroscience

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    Hoedjes, Katja M.; Kruidhof, H. Marjolein; Huigens, Martinus E.; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E. M.; Smid, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the neural and genetic pathways underlying learning and memory formation seem strikingly similar among species of distant animal phyla, several more subtle inter- and intraspecific differences become evident from studies on model organisms. The true significance of such variation can only be understood when integrating this with information on the ecological relevance. Here, we argue that parasitoid wasps provide an excellent opportunity for multi-disciplinary studies that integrate ultimate and proximate approaches. These insects display interspecific variation in learning rate and memory dynamics that reflects natural variation in a daunting foraging task that largely determines their fitness: finding the inconspicuous hosts to which they will assign their offspring to develop. We review bioassays used for oviposition learning, the ecological factors that are considered to underlie the observed differences in learning rate and memory dynamics, and the opportunities for convergence of ecology and neuroscience that are offered by using parasitoid wasps as model species. We advocate that variation in learning and memory traits has evolved to suit an insect's lifestyle within its ecological niche. PMID:21106587

  4. Species identification and genetic differentiation of European cavity-nesting wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pompilidae, Crabronidae) inferred from DNA barcoding data.

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    Turčinavičienė, Jurga; Radzevičiūtė, Rita; Budrienė, Anna; Budrys, Eduardas

    2016-01-01

    Solitary trap-nesting wasps are prospective bioindicators of anthropogenic pressures on natural ecosystems and one of the surrogate taxa for biodiversity assessments. The implementation of these studies is taxonomy-based and relies on accurate identification of species. The identification of larval stages of cavity-nesting Hymenoptera, collected using trap-nests, is complicated or impossible before the post-hibernation hatching of adults. DNA barcoding may allow the identification of the trap-nesting Hymenoptera species immediately after collection of the trap-nests, using larvae or dead specimens as sources of DNA. Using the standard barcoding sequence, we identified 33 wasp species from the families Vespidae, Pompilidae and Crabronidae, inhabiting trap-nests in Europe. Within-species and between-species genetic distances were estimated to evaluate the differences of intraspecific and interspecific genetic diversity. Genetic distances between related species indicated an obvious "barcoding gap". Neighbour-joining analysis revealed that groups corresponding to taxa of genus level are cohesive as well. COI barcode approach was confirmed as a valuable tool for taxonomy-based biodiversity studies of the trap-nesting Hymenoptera.

  5. Gene variation and genetic differentiation among populations of the solitary mud dauber wasp Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius 1804 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

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    Antonio C.B. Bergamaschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trypoxylon is a genus of solitary crabronid wasps whose population genetics is poorly known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation and differentiation among five populations of Trypoxylon albitarse, a species widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, with records from Panama to northern Argentina. Eight species-specific microsatellite loci were used for genotyping 96 adult wasps (one female per nest sampled at five sites in Brazil. The analysis of allelic richness and private alleles indicated high genetic diversity in the populations sampled. Pairwise comparisons using the Fst and Dest indices revealed significant differentiation for all, but one pair of populations. Fst, Dest, AMOVA and assignment test values pointed to inter-population differentiation. Additionally, the analysis of population structure using Bayesian and PCA methods characterized two alternative genetic groups. The Mantel test indicated no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Despite evidence of considerable dispersal capacity for T. albitarse, the data indicate low to moderate population structuring in this species.

  6. SuperWASP discovery and SALT confirmation of a semi-detached eclipsing binary that contains a δ Scuti star

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    Norton, A. J.; Lohr, M. E.; Smalley, B.; Wheatley, P. J.; West, R. G.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We searched the SuperWASP archive for objects that display multiply periodic photometric variations. Methods: Specifically we sought evidence for eclipsing binary stars that display a further non-harmonically related signal in their power spectra. Results: The object 1SWASP J050634.16-353648.4 has been identified as a relatively bright (V ~ 11.5) semi-detached eclipsing binary with a 5.104 d orbital period that displays coherent pulsations with a semi-amplitude of 65 mmag at a frequency of 13.45 d-1. Follow-up radial velocity spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope confirmed the binary nature of the system. Using the phoebe code to model the radial velocity curve with the SuperWASP photometry enabled parameters of both stellar components to be determined. This yielded a primary (pulsating) star with a mass of 1.73 ± 0.11 M⊙ and a radius of 2.41 ± 0.06 R⊙, as well as a Roche-lobe filling secondary star with a mass of 0.41 ± 0.03 M⊙ and a radius of 4.21 ± 0.11 R⊙. Conclusions: 1SWASP J050634.16-353648.4 is therefore a bright δ Sct pulsator in a semi-detached eclipsing binary with one of the largest pulsation amplitudes of any such system known. The pulsation constant indicates that the mode is likely a first overtone radial pulsation.

  7. Evidence for the circadian gene period as a proximate mechanism of protandry in a pollinating fig wasp.

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    Gu, Hai-Feng; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Dunn, Derek W; Niu, Li-Ming; Wang, Bo; Jia, Ling-Yi; Huang, Da-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Protandry in insects is the tendency for adult males to emerge before females and usually results from intra-sexual selection. However, the genetic basis of this common phenomenon is poorly understood. Pollinating fig wasp (Agaonidae) larvae develop in galled flowers within the enclosed inflorescences ('figs') of fig trees. Upon emergence, males locate and mate with the still galled females. After mating, males release females from their galls to enable dispersal. Females cannot exit galls or disperse from a fig without male assistance. We sampled male and female Ceratosolen solmsi (the pollinator of Ficus hispida) every 3 h over a 24 h emergence period, and then measured the expression of five circadian genes: period (per), clock (clk), cycle (cyc), pigment-dispersing factor (pdf) and clockwork orange (cwo). We found significant male-biased sexual dimorphism in the expression of all five genes. per showed the greatest divergence between the sexes and was the only gene rhythmically expressed. Expression of per correlated closely with emergence rates at specific time intervals in both male and female wasps. We suggest that this rhythmical expression of per may be a proximate mechanism of protandry in this species.

  8. THE WELL-ALIGNED ORBIT OF WASP-84b: EVIDENCE FOR DISK MIGRATION OF A HOT JUPITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D. R.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Brown, D. J. A.; Clark, B. J. M.; Smalley, B.; Cameron, A. Collier; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Lovis, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smith, A. M. S., E-mail: d.r.anderson@keele.ac.uk [N. Copernicus Astronomical Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-02-10

    We report the sky-projected orbital obliquity (spin–orbit angle) of WASP-84 b, a 0.69M{sub Jup} planet in an 8.52 day orbit around a G9V/K0V star, to be λ = −0.3 ± 1.7°. We obtain a true obliquity of ψ = 17.3 ± 7.7° from a measurement of the inclination of the stellar spin axis with respect to the sky plane. Due to the young age and the weak tidal forcing of the system, we suggest that the orbit of WASP-84b is unlikely to have both realigned and circularized from the misaligned and/or eccentric orbit likely to have arisen from high-eccentricity migration. Therefore we conclude that the planet probably migrated via interaction with the protoplanetary disk. This would make it the first “hot Jupiter” (P<10 d) to have been shown to have migrated via this pathway. Further, we argue that the distribution of obliquities for planets orbiting cool stars (T{sub eff} < 6250 K) suggests that high-eccentricity migration is an important pathway for the formation of short-orbit, giant planets.

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing of the Braconid Parasitoid Wasp Fopius arisanus, an Important Biocontrol Agent of Pest Tepritid Fruit Flies

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    Scott M. Geib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The braconid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan is an important biological control agent of tropical and subtropical pest fruit flies, including two important global pests, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis. The goal of this study was to develop foundational genomic resources for this species to provide tools that can be used to answer questions exploring the multitrophic interactions between the host and parasitoid in this important research system. Here, we present a whole genome assembly of F. arisanus, derived from a pool of haploid offspring from a single unmated female. The genome is ∼154 Mb in size, with a N50 contig and scaffold size of 51,867 bp and 0.98 Mb, respectively. Utilizing existing RNA-Seq data for this species, as well as publicly available peptide sequences from related Hymenoptera, a high quality gene annotation set, which includes 10,991 protein coding genes, was generated. Prior to this assembly submission, no RefSeq proteins were present for this species. Parasitic wasps play an important role in a diverse ecosystem as well as a role in biological control of agricultural pests. This whole genome assembly and annotation data represents the first genome-scale assembly for this species or any closely related Opiine, and are publicly available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Genome and RefSeq databases, providing a much needed genomic resource for this hymenopteran group.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-31b:HST/Spitzer transmission spectral survey (Sing+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, D. K.; Wakeford, H. R.; Showman, A. P.; Nikolov, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Burrows, A. S.; Ballester, G. E.; Deming, D.; Aigrain, S.; Desert, J.-M.; Gibson, N. P.; Henry, G. W.; Knutson, H.; Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.; Pont, F.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Williamson, M. W.; Wilson, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    We observed two transits of WASP-31b with the HST STIS G430L grating during 2012 June 13 and 26, as well as one transit with the STIS G750L during 2012 July 10. In addition to the STIS data, observations of WASP-31b were also conducted in the infrared with WFC3 on the HST. Observations began on 2012 May 13 at 12:53 using the IR G141 grism in forward spatial scan mode over five HST orbits. We analyse two transit observations obtained using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) instrument (Programme 90092 with P.I. Desert) on the Spitzer space telescope in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels in subarray mode (32x32 pixel, or 39 centred on the planets host). The 3.6 μm observation was performed on UT 2013 March 9 (between 06:59 and 11:37) and the 4.5 observation was performed on UT 2013 March 19 (between 12:19 and 16:58). (1 data file).

  11. The soul-sucking wasp by popular acclaim--museum visitor participation in biodiversity discovery and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Michael; Lohrmann, Volker; Breitkreuz, Laura; Kirschey, Lukas; Krause, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy, the science of describing and naming of the living world, is recognized as an important and relevant field in modern biological science. While there is wide agreement on the importance of a complete inventory of all organisms on Earth, the public is partly unaware of the amount of known and unknown biodiversity. Out of the enormous number of undescribed (but already recognized) species in natural history museum collections, we selected an attractive example of a wasp, which was presented to museum visitors at a special museum event. We asked 300 visitors to vote on a name for the new species and out of four preselected options, Ampulex dementor Ohl n. sp. was selected. The name, derived from the 'soul sucking' dementors from the popular Harry Potter books is an allusion to the wasps' behavior to selectively paralyze its cockroach prey. In this example, public voting on a scientific name has been shown to be an appropriate way to link museum visitors emotionally to biodiversity and its discovery.

  12. The soul-sucking wasp by popular acclaim--museum visitor participation in biodiversity discovery and taxonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ohl

    Full Text Available Taxonomy, the science of describing and naming of the living world, is recognized as an important and relevant field in modern biological science. While there is wide agreement on the importance of a complete inventory of all organisms on Earth, the public is partly unaware of the amount of known and unknown biodiversity. Out of the enormous number of undescribed (but already recognized species in natural history museum collections, we selected an attractive example of a wasp, which was presented to museum visitors at a special museum event. We asked 300 visitors to vote on a name for the new species and out of four preselected options, Ampulex dementor Ohl n. sp. was selected. The name, derived from the 'soul sucking' dementors from the popular Harry Potter books is an allusion to the wasps' behavior to selectively paralyze its cockroach prey. In this example, public voting on a scientific name has been shown to be an appropriate way to link museum visitors emotionally to biodiversity and its discovery.

  13. A Comparative Study of WASP-67 b and HAT-P-38 b from WFC3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Filippazzo, Joseph; Hill, Matthew; Fraine, Jonathan D.; Wakeford, Hannah R.; Deming, Drake; Kilpatrick, Brian; Line, Michael R.; Morley, Caroline V.; Collins, Karen A.; Conti, Dennis M.; Garlitz, Joseph; Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric temperature and planetary gravity are thought to be the main parameters affecting cloud formation in giant exoplanet atmospheres. Recent attempts to understand cloud formation have explored wide regions of the equilibrium temperature-gravity parameter space. In this study, we instead compare the case of two giant planets with nearly identical equilibrium temperature (T eq ∼ 1050 K) and gravity (g ∼ 10 m s‑1). During HST Cycle 23, we collected WFC3/G141 observations of the two planets, WASP-67 b and HAT-P-38 b. HAT-P-38 b, with mass 0.42 M J and radius 1.4 R J, exhibits a relatively clear atmosphere with a clear detection of water. We refine the orbital period of this planet with new observations, obtaining P = 4.6403294 ± 0.0000055 days. WASP-67 b, with mass 0.27 M J and radius 0.83 R J, shows a more muted water absorption feature than that of HAT-P-38 b, indicating either a higher cloud deck in the atmosphere or a more metal-rich composition. The difference in the spectra supports the hypothesis that giant exoplanet atmospheres carry traces of their formation history. Future observations in the visible and mid-infrared are needed to probe the aerosol properties and constrain the evolutionary scenario of these planets.

  14. Evaluation of a commercially available ELISA kit for quantifying imidacloprid residues in Erthrina sandwicensis leaves for management of the Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Fischer; Brian Strom; Sheri Smith

    2009-01-01

    The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim 2004, was first detected in Hawaii in 2005 and has been infesting and killing Erythrina trees throughout the island chain since. It is believed EGW originated from Africa (Messing et al. 2009). Its host range appears to be limited to Erythrina; its...

  15. Species-diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphism and sequence-tagged site markers for the parasitic wasp genus nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehuis, O.; Judson, A. K.; Werren, J. H.; Hunter, W. B.; Dang, P. M.; Dowd, S. E.; Grillenberger, B.; Beukeboom, L. W.; Gadau, J.

    Wasps of the genus Nasonia are important biological control agents of house flies and related filth flies, which are major vectors of human pathogens. Species of Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are not easily differentiated from one another by morphological characters, and molecular markers for

  16. WASP-167b/KELT-13b: joint discovery of a hot Jupiter transiting a rapidly rotating F1V star

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    Temple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Albrow, M. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Bayliss, D.; Beatty, T. G.; Bieryla, A.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cargile, P. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Collins, K. A.; Colón, K. D.; Curtis, I. A.; D'Ago, G.; Delrez, L.; Eastman, J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gillon, M.; Gregorio, J.; James, D.; Jehin, E.; Joner, M. D.; Kielkopf, J. F.; Kuhn, R. B.; Labadie-Bartz, J.; Latham, D. W.; Lendl, M.; Lund, M. B.; Malpas, A. L.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Myers, G.; Oberst, T. E.; Pepe, F.; Pepper, J.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Ségransan, D.; Siverd, R. J.; Smalley, B.; Stassun, K. G.; Stevens, D. J.; Stockdale, C.; Tan, T. G.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Villanueva, S.; West, R. G.; Zhou, G.

    2017-11-01

    We report the joint WASP/KELT discovery of WASP-167b/KELT-13b, a transiting hot Jupiter with a 2.02-d orbit around a V = 10.5, F1V star with [Fe/H] = 0.1 ± 0.1. The 1.5 RJup planet was confirmed by Doppler tomography of the stellar line profiles during transit. We place a limit of <8 MJup on its mass. The planet is in a retrograde orbit with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of λ = -165° ± 5°. This is in agreement with the known tendency for orbits around hotter stars to be more likely to be misaligned. WASP-167/KELT-13 is one of the few systems where the stellar rotation period is less than the planetary orbital period. We find evidence of non-radial stellar pulsations in the host star, making it a δ-Scuti or γ-Dor variable. The similarity to WASP-33, a previously known hot-Jupiter host with pulsations, adds to the suggestion that close-in planets might be able to excite stellar pulsations.

  17. Speed and accuracy in nest-mate recognition: a hover wasp prioritizes face recognition over colony odour cues to minimize intrusion by outsiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchi, D.; Petrocelli, I.; Chittka, L.; Ricciardi, G.; Turillazzi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Social insects have evolved sophisticated recognition systems enabling them to accept nest-mates but reject alien conspecifics. In the social wasp, Liostenogaster flavolineata (Stenogastrinae), individuals differ in their cuticular hydrocarbon profiles according to colony membership; each female also possesses a unique (visual) facial pattern. This species represents a unique model to understand how vision and olfaction are integrated and the extent to which wasps prioritize one channel over the other to discriminate aliens and nest-mates. Liostenogaster flavolineata females are able to discriminate between alien and nest-mate females using facial patterns or chemical cues in isolation. However, the two sensory modalities are not equally efficient in the discrimination of ‘friend’ from ‘foe’. Visual cues induce an increased number of erroneous attacks on nest-mates (false alarms), but such attacks are quickly aborted and never result in serious injury. Odour cues, presented in isolation, result in an increased number of misses: erroneous acceptances of outsiders. Interestingly, wasps take the relative efficiencies of the two sensory modalities into account when making rapid decisions about colony membership of an individual: chemical profiles are entirely ignored when the visual and chemical stimuli are presented together. Thus, wasps adopt a strategy to ‘err on the safe side’ by memorizing individual faces to recognize colony members, and disregarding odour cues to minimize the risk of intrusion from colony outsiders. PMID:25652836

  18. First host record of the eulophid wasp Tetrastichus bilgiricus Narendran (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea along with the first description of a male from India

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    Ankita Gupta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Euthalia aconthea meridionalis Fruhstorfer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae is documented as the first host record for the eulophid wasp Tetrastichus bilgiricus Narendran (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea from Karnataka, India. The male of this species is recorded for the first time and described. Illustrations of both the female and male, and host details are given.

  19. Lactobacillus vespulae sp. nov., isolated from gut of a queen wasp (Vespula vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van-An; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Si-Kwan; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, oxidase- and catalase-negative, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, DCY75T, was isolated from a queen wasp (Vespula vulgaris). Growth occurred at 4–37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 3.5–8.0 (optimum, pH 5.0–6.0) and with ≤ 7.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain DCY75T produced gas during growth on glucose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain DCY75T belonged to the genus Lactobacillus and was closely related to Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis ATCC 27651T and Lactobacillus lindneri DSM 20690T at sequence similarities of 96.7 and 96.4 %, respectively. A comparison of two housekeeping genes, pheS and rpoA, revealed that strain DCT75T was well separated from other species of the genus Lactobacillus. Strain DCY75T produced d- and l-lactic acid isomers in a ratio of 22.5 : 77.5 (v/v). The major fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C18 :  1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 0.The peptidoglycan structure was of the A4α (l-Lys–d-Asp) type. Cell-wall sugars were glucose, galactose and ribose. The DNA G+C content was 35.5 ± 1.3 mol%. Based on phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain DCY75T represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus vespulae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY75T ( = KCTC 21023T = JCM 19742T).

  20. Retrieval Analysis of the Emission Spectrum of WASP-12b: Sensitivity of Outcomes to Prior Assumptions and Implications for Formation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshenko, Maria; Lavie, Baptiste; Grimm, Simon L.; Tsai, Shang-Min; Malik, Matej; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Mordasini, Christoph; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Quanz, Sascha P.; Trotta, Roberto; Heng, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b using our HELIOS-R retrieval code and HELIOS-K opacity calculator. When interpreting Hubble and Spitzer data, the retrieval outcomes are found to be prior-dominated. When the prior distributions of the molecular abundances are assumed to be log-uniform, the volume mixing ratio of HCN is found to be implausibly high. A VULCAN chemical kinetics model of WASP-12b suggests that chemical equilibrium is a reasonable assumption even when atmospheric mixing is implausibly rigorous. Guided by (exo)planet formation theory, we set Gaussian priors on the elemental abundances of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen with the Gaussian peaks being centered on the measured C/H, O/H, and N/H values of the star. By enforcing chemical equilibrium, we find substellar O/H and stellar to slightly superstellar C/H for the dayside atmosphere of WASP-12b. The superstellar carbon-to-oxygen ratio is just above unity, regardless of whether clouds are included in the retrieval analysis, consistent with Madhusudhan et al. Furthermore, whether a temperature inversion exists in the atmosphere depends on one’s assumption for the Gaussian width of the priors. Our retrieved posterior distributions are consistent with the formation of WASP-12b in a solar-composition protoplanetary disk, beyond the water iceline, via gravitational instability or pebble accretion (without core erosion) and migration inward to its present orbital location via a disk-free mechanism, and are inconsistent with both in situ formation and core accretion with disk migration, as predicted by Madhusudhan et al. We predict that the interpretation of James Webb Space Telescope WASP-12b data will not be prior-dominated.

  1. Retrieval Analysis of the Emission Spectrum of WASP-12b: Sensitivity of Outcomes to Prior Assumptions and Implications for Formation History

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oreshenko, Maria; Lavie, Baptiste; Grimm, Simon L.; Tsai, Shang-Min; Malik, Matej; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Mordasini, Christoph; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Quanz, Sascha P. [ETH Zürich, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Trotta, Roberto, E-mail: maria.oreshenko@csh.unibe.ch, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-20

    We analyze the emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b using our HELIOS-R retrieval code and HELIOS-K opacity calculator. When interpreting Hubble and Spitzer data, the retrieval outcomes are found to be prior-dominated. When the prior distributions of the molecular abundances are assumed to be log-uniform, the volume mixing ratio of HCN is found to be implausibly high. A VULCAN chemical kinetics model of WASP-12b suggests that chemical equilibrium is a reasonable assumption even when atmospheric mixing is implausibly rigorous. Guided by (exo)planet formation theory, we set Gaussian priors on the elemental abundances of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen with the Gaussian peaks being centered on the measured C/H, O/H, and N/H values of the star. By enforcing chemical equilibrium, we find substellar O/H and stellar to slightly superstellar C/H for the dayside atmosphere of WASP-12b. The superstellar carbon-to-oxygen ratio is just above unity, regardless of whether clouds are included in the retrieval analysis, consistent with Madhusudhan et al. Furthermore, whether a temperature inversion exists in the atmosphere depends on one’s assumption for the Gaussian width of the priors. Our retrieved posterior distributions are consistent with the formation of WASP-12b in a solar-composition protoplanetary disk, beyond the water iceline, via gravitational instability or pebble accretion (without core erosion) and migration inward to its present orbital location via a disk-free mechanism, and are inconsistent with both in situ formation and core accretion with disk migration, as predicted by Madhusudhan et al. We predict that the interpretation of James Webb Space Telescope WASP-12b data will not be prior-dominated.

  2. A wasp manipulates neuronal activity in the sub-esophageal ganglion to decrease the drive for walking in its cockroach prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Gal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile 'zombie', incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG. A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1 Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2 injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3 artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4 spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the

  3. Detection of secondary eclipses of WASP-10b and Qatar-1b in the Ks band and the correlation between Ks-band temperature and stellar activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Patricia; Barrado, David; Lillo-Box, Jorge; Diaz, Marcos; López-Morales, Mercedes; Birkby, Jayne; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hodgkin, Simon

    2017-10-01

    The Calar Alto Secondary Eclipse study was a program dedicated to observe secondary eclipses in the near-IR of two known close-orbiting exoplanets around K-dwarfs: WASP-10b and Qatar-1b. Such observations reveal hints on the orbital configuration of the system and on the thermal emission of the exoplanet, which allows the study of the brightness temperature of its atmosphere. The observations were performed at the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). We used the OMEGA2000 instrument (Ks band) at the 3.5m telescope. The data was acquired with the telescope strongly defocused. The differential light curve was corrected from systematic effects using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The final light curve was fitted using an occultation model to find the eclipse depth and a possible phase shift by performing a MCMC analysis. The observations have revealed a secondary eclipse of WASP-10b with depth of 0.137%, and a depth of 0.196% for Qatar-1b. The observed phase offset from expected mid-eclipse was of -0.0028 for WASP-10b, and of -0.0079 for Qatar-1b. These measured offsets led to a value for |ecosω| of 0.0044 for the WASP-10b system, leading to a derived eccentricity which was too small to be of any significance. For Qatar-1b, we have derived a |ecosω| of 0.0123, however, this last result needs to be confirmed with more data. The estimated Ks-band brightness temperatures are of 1647 K and 1885 K for WASP-10b and Qatar-1b, respectively. We also found an empirical correlation between the (R'HK) activity index of planet hosts and the Ks-band brightness temperature of exoplanets, considering a small number of systems.

  4. Hot Exoplanet Atmospheres Resolved with Transit Spectroscopy (HEARTS). I. Detection of hot neutral sodium at high altitudes on WASP-49b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Lovis, C.; Ehrenreich, D.; Bourrier, V.; Pino, L.; Allart, R.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Cegla, H. M.; Heng, K.; Lavie, B.; Melo, C.; Murgas, F.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Pepe, F.

    2017-06-01

    High-resolution optical spectroscopy during the transit of HD 189733b, a prototypical hot Jupiter, allowed the resolution of the Na I D sodium lines in the planet, giving access to the extreme conditions of the planet upper atmosphere. We have undertaken HEARTS, a spectroscopic survey of exoplanet upper atmospheres, to perform a comparative study of hot gas giants and determine how stellar irradiation affect them. Here, we report on the first HEARTS observations of the hot Saturn-mass planet WASP-49b. We observed the planet with the HARPS high-resolution spectrograph at ESO 3.6 m telescope. We collected 126 spectra of WASP-49, covering three transits of WASP-49b. We analyzed and modeled the planet transit spectrum, while paying particular attention to the treatment of potentially spurious signals of stellar origin. We spectrally resolve the Na I D lines in the planet atmosphere and show that these signatures are unlikely to arise from stellar contamination. The large contrasts of 2.0 ± 0.5% (D2) and 1.8 ± 0.7% (D1) require the presence of hot neutral sodium ( K) at high altitudes ( 1.5 planet radius or 45 000 km). From estimating the cloudiness index of WASP-49b, we determine its atmosphere to be cloud free at the altitudes probed by the sodium lines. WASP-49b is close to the border of the evaporation desert and exhibits an enhanced thermospheric signature with respect to a farther-away planet such as HD 189733b. Based on observations made at ESO 3.6 m telescope at the La Silla Observatory under ESO program 096.C-0331.

  5. Spitzer Phase Curve Constraints for WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Line, Michael R.; Bean, Jacob L.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Showman, Adam P.; Kataria, Tiffany; Kreidberg, Laura; Feng, Y. Katherina

    2017-02-01

    Previous measurements of heat redistribution efficiency (the ability to transport energy from a planet’s highly irradiated dayside to its eternally dark nightside) show considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a positive correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and temperature for tidally locked planets; however, recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WASP-43b spectroscopic phase curve results are inconsistent with current predictions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we obtained a total of three phase curve observations of WASP-43b (P = 0.813 days) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The first 3.6 μm visit exhibits spurious nightside emission that requires invoking unphysical conditions in our cloud-free atmospheric retrievals. The two other visits exhibit strong day-night contrasts that are consistent with the HST data. To reconcile the departure from theoretical predictions, WASP-43b would need to have a high-altitude, nightside cloud/haze layer blocking its thermal emission. Clouds/hazes could be produced within the planet’s cool, nearly retrograde mid-latitude flows before dispersing across its nightside at high altitudes. Since mid-latitude flows only materialize in fast-rotating (≲ 1 day) planets, this may explain an observed trend connecting measured day-night contrast with planet rotation rate that matches all current Spitzer phase curve results. Combining independent planetary emission measurements from multiple phases, we obtain a precise dayside hemisphere H2O abundance (2.5× {10}-5{--}1.1× {10}-4 at 1σ confidence) and, assuming chemical equilibrium and a scaled solar abundance pattern, we derive a corresponding metallicity estimate that is consistent with being solar (0.4-1.7). Using the retrieved global CO+CO2 abundance under the same assumptions, we estimate a comparable metallicity of 0.3-1.7× solar. This is the first time that precise abundance and metallicity constraints have been determined from multiple molecular

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy of the development of the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens within its host moth Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudek, J A; Crook, A M; Hubbard, S F; Hunter, G

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy was used to image the parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) within larval and pupal instars of its host, the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The images were obtained using gradient-echo and chemical shift selective pulse sequences and clearly showed the location and shapes of the parasitoid as it developed from the L1 larva to a pupal stage within the host. The digestive, nervous, and tracheal systems of the host were identified and changes were observed as the host underwent metamorphosis. Destruction of the host tissues by the parasitoid was visible. It was found that the parasitoid first ate the fat body and digestive system of the host, allowing the host to continue to grow, and only progressed to the vital organs when its own development had neared pupation.

  7. [Lung edema and erosive gastroduodenitis as a sequela of inappropriate use of an adrenaline dose aerosol after wasp sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balda, B R; Ludwig, A

    1997-03-01

    Epinephrine (adrenaline) is an important drug in the treatment of severe anaphylactic reactions. Along with other drugs such as H1-antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids, it is found in every first aid kit for at-risk individuals, such as those who are allergic to insect stings. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injections if carried out by an untrained individual or the patient himself might give rise to potential problems. Therefore, it is common to prescribe epinephrine pressure aerosol as a safer alternative. If epinephrine aerosol is overused, it can cause serious problems. A patient developed by self-medication following a wasp sting lung edema as well as an erosive gastroduodenitis. She consumed two aerosol vials each of which contained about 73 mg of adrenaline. In order to avoid such incidents it is crucial that every doctor provides his or her patient with sufficient oral and written information regarding the correct use fo epinephrine inhalers.

  8. K2-29 b/WASP-152 b : an aligned and inflated hot jupiter in a young visual binary

    OpenAIRE

    Santerne, A.; Hébrard, G.; Lillo-Box, J; Armstrong, David J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Demangeon, O; Barrado, D.; Debackere, A.; Deleuil, M.; Delgado Mena, E.; Montalto, M.; Pollacco, Don; Osborn, Hugh P.; Sousa, S. G.; Abe, L.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we report the discovery of a new hot Jupiter, EPIC211089792 b, first detected by the Super-WASP observatory and then by the K2 space mission during its campaign 4. The planet has a period of 3.25d, a mass of 0.73±0.04 MX, and a radius of 1.19±0.02RX. The host star is a relatively bright (V=12.5) G7 dwarf with a nearby K5V companion. Based on stellar rotation and the abundance of Lithium, we find that the system might be as young as about 450 Myr. The observation of the Ro...

  9. Evaluating Chlorophyll-a Changes During Algal Bloom in Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Extended WASP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal bloom in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR and one of its tributaries, Xiangxi River (XR, have become major concerns and the dynamic changes of such events were investigated using the hydrodynamic model SELFE and the extended Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP model to address nutrient and biomass dynamics. The model has taken into consideration the surface wind, heat fluxes, oxygen exchanges, solar radiations and boundary conditions from main river channel and tributaries. As an extension to our previous work, this study aimed to report in more detailed the result of chlorophyll-a simulations, where the field observed data of algal blooms in TGR in 2007 was used for calibration and the horizontal and vertical distributions of phytoplankton biomass (based on chlorophyll-a were presented. It was found that the chlorophyll-a concentration characterized as algal biomass was influenced by many complex factors. Further study results are yet to be reported.

  10. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Polidori

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera, a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae. A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids. The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP, two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B, s. campaniformia (SCa, s. basiconica (SB, five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E, large disc sensilla (LDS and large volcano sensilla (LVS. We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6-8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified.

  11. Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedjes, K M; Smid, H M; Vet, L E M; Werren, J H

    2014-01-01

    Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present at 24 h but is lost within 2 days after a single trial. The genetic basis of this interspecific difference in memory retention was studied in a backcrossing experiment in which the phenotype of N. giraulti was selected for in the background of N. vitripennis for up to five generations. A genotyping microarray revealed five regions that were retained in wasps with decreased memory retention. Independent introgressions of individual candidate regions were created using linked molecular markers and tested for memory retention. One region on chromosome 1 (spanning ∼5.8 cM) and another on chromosome 5 (spanning ∼25.6 cM) resulted in decreased memory after 72 h, without affecting 24-h-memory retention. This phenotype was observed in both heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a dopamine receptor, both with a known function in memory formation, are within these genomic regions and are candidates for the regulation of memory retention. Concluding, this study demonstrates a powerful approach to study variation in memory retention and provides a basis for future research on its genetic basis. PMID:25052416

  12. Feed-forward and visual feedback control of head roll orientation in wasps (Polistes humilis, Vespidae, Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viollet, Stéphane; Zeil, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Flying insects keep their visual system horizontally aligned, suggesting that gaze stabilization is a crucial first step in flight control. Unlike flies, hymenopteran insects such as bees and wasps do not have halteres that provide fast, feed-forward angular rate information to stabilize head orientation in the presence of body rotations. We tested whether hymenopteran insects use inertial (mechanosensory) information to control head orientation from other sources, such as the wings, by applying periodic roll perturbations to male Polistes humilis wasps flying in tether under different visual conditions indoors and in natural outdoor conditions. We oscillated the thorax of the insects with frequency-modulated sinusoids (chirps) with frequencies increasing from 0.2 to 2 Hz at a maximal amplitude of 50 deg peak-to-peak and maximal angular velocity of ±245 deg s(-1). We found that head roll stabilization is best outdoors, but completely absent in uniform visual conditions and in darkness. Step responses confirm that compensatory head roll movements are purely visually driven. Modelling step responses indicates that head roll stabilization is achieved by merging information on head angular velocity, presumably provided by motion-sensitive neurons and information on head orientation, presumably provided by light level integration across the compound eyes and/or ocelli (dorsal light response). Body roll in free flight reaches amplitudes of ±40 deg and angular velocities greater than 1000 deg s(-1), while head orientation remains horizontal for most of the time to within ±10 deg. In free flight, we did not find a delay between spontaneous body roll and compensatory head movements, and suggest that this is evidence for the contribution of a feed-forward control to head stabilization.

  13. Water, Methane Depletion, and High-Altitude Condensates in the Atmosphere of the Warm Super-Neptune WASP-107b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Line, Michael; Thorngren, Daniel; Morley, Caroline; Stevenson, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    The super-Neptune exoplanet WASP-107b is an exciting target for atmosphere characterization. It has an unusually large atmospheric scale height and a small, bright host star, raising the possibility of precise constraints on its current nature and formation history. In this talk, I will present the first atmospheric study of WASP-107b, a Hubble Space Telescope measurement of its near-infrared transmission spectrum. We determined the planet's composition with two techniques: atmospheric retrieval based on the transmission spectrum and interior structure modeling based on the observed mass and radius. The interior structure models set a 3σ upper limit on the atmospheric metallicity of 30x solar. The transmission spectrum shows strong evidence for water absorption (6.5σ confidence), and we infer a water abundance consistent with expectations for a solar abundance pattern. On the other hand, methane is depleted relative to expectations (at 3σ confidence), suggesting a low carbon-to-oxygen ratio or high internal heat flux. The water features are smaller than predicted for a cloudless atmosphere, crossing less than one scale height. A thick condensate layer at high altitudes (0.1 - 3 mbar) is needed to match the observations; however, we find that it is challenging for physically motivated cloud and haze models to produce opaque condensates at these pressures. Taken together, these findings serve as an illustration of the diversity and complexity of exoplanet atmospheres. The community can look forward to more such results with the high precision and wide spectral coverage afforded by future observing facilities.

  14. High C/O Chemistry and Weak Thermal Inversion in the Extremely Irradiated Atmosphere of Exoplanet WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Deming, Drake; Blecie, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Lust, Nate B.; Anderson, David R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition as found on Earth; the solar C/O is 0.54. Theory, shows that high C/O leads to a diversity of carbon-rich planets that can have very different interiors and atmospheres from those in the solar system. Here we report the detection of C/O greater than or equal to 1 in a planetary atmosphere. The transiting hot Jupiter WASP-12b has a dayside atmosphere depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane by over two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. The observed concentrations of the prominent molecules CO, CH4, and H2O are consistent with theoretical expectations for an atmosphere with the observed C/O = 1. The C/O ratios are not known for giant planets in the solar system, although they are expected to equal the solar value. If high C/O ratios are common, then extrasolar planets are likely very different in interior composition, and formed very differently, from expectations based on solar composition, potentially explaining the large diversity in observed radii. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (greater than 2500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion, or a stratosphere, and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  15. Diverse Filters to Sense: Great Variability of Antennal Morphology and Sensillar Equipment in Gall-Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Carlo; Nieves-Aldrey, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera), a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae). A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids). The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP), two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B), s. campaniformia (SCa), s. basiconica (SB), five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E), large disc sensilla (LDS) and large volcano sensilla (LVS). We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6–8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified. PMID:25003514

  16. Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedjes, K M; Smid, H M; Vet, L E M; Werren, J H

    2014-12-01

    Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present at 24 h but is lost within 2 days after a single trial. The genetic basis of this interspecific difference in memory retention was studied in a backcrossing experiment in which the phenotype of N. giraulti was selected for in the background of N. vitripennis for up to five generations. A genotyping microarray revealed five regions that were retained in wasps with decreased memory retention. Independent introgressions of individual candidate regions were created using linked molecular markers and tested for memory retention. One region on chromosome 1 (spanning ∼5.8 cM) and another on chromosome 5 (spanning ∼25.6 cM) resulted in decreased memory after 72 h, without affecting 24-h-memory retention. This phenotype was observed in both heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a dopamine receptor, both with a known function in memory formation, are within these genomic regions and are candidates for the regulation of memory retention. Concluding, this study demonstrates a powerful approach to study variation in memory retention and provides a basis for future research on its genetic basis.

  17. Allergen-specific immunosuppression by mucosal treatment with recombinant Ves v 5, a major allergen of Vespula vulgaris venom, in a murine model of wasp venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Birgit; Bolwig, Caroline; Seppälä, Ulla; Spangfort, Michael D; Ebner, Christof; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2003-11-01

    Up to 5% of the population suffer from systemic, 19% from local allergic hypersensitivity reactions to stinging insects. Even though specific immunotherapy is very effective in treating allergy to insect venom, new concepts of treatment strategies with only the disease eliciting allergen in recombinant form, along with antigen application via a less invasive route might be suggested for enhanced treatment efficacy and compliance. In the present study we aimed (i) to establish a mouse model of wasp venom allergy, mimicking the natural mode of sensitization, and (ii) to develop a prophylactic treatment strategy based on mucosal tolerance induction, using one major wasp venom allergen in recombinant form, i.e. recombinant (r)Ves v 5. Immunization with wasp venom--with or without the use of the adjuvant aluminium hydroxide--led to comparable T helper 2-like immune responses in vivo and in vitro. Intranasal administration of rVes v 5 prior to sensitization with wasp venom resulted in a significant reduction of wasp venom-specific antibody levels (immunoglobulin E (IgE)/IgG2a), type I hypersensitivity reactions in vivo and cytokine production in vitro. Pretreatment with the whole venom was less effective and caused toxic side reactions in higher concentrations, suggesting a favourable use of the recombinant venom allergen for mucosal application. Increased mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10, along with adoptive cell transfer experiments indicated that the immunosuppression after intranasal rVes v 5-application has been mediated by regulatory mechanisms. This is further supported by the fact that the immunosuppression to rVes v 5 was associated with a bystander suppression to the unrelated aero-allergen Bet v 1. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the intranasal application of recombinant Ves v 5 prevented subsequent allergic sensitization to all components of the whole wasp venom. As allergy to insect venom develops in dependence of the

  18. Revision of Canadian Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea associated with galls induced by cynipid wasps of the genus Diplolepis Geoffroy (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae and description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Miles Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eurytomids are small parasitic wasps associated with many communities of phytophagous insects. In most cases, the accurate identification of eurytomids is impeded by inadequate species descriptions that do not include figures of diagnostic features, and keys that are difficult to use. Here, diagnostic features and redescriptions are provided for both sexes of the eurytomids associated with galls induced by cynipid wasps of the genus Diplolepis Geoffroy found on shrub roses across Canada. Consequently, six species of Eurytoma Illiger, along with Tenuipetiolus ruber Bugbee, are dealt with. One new species, Eurytoma shorthousei Zhang & Gates, sp. n., is described. Two species are synonymized, E. hebes Bugbee, 1973 and E. spina Bugbee, 1951 under E. longavena Bugbee, 1951, syn. n. Several new host and distribution records are reported. A dichotomous key is provided for both sexes of all seven species using photographs and scanning electron microscopy images.

  19. WASP-36b: A NEW TRANSITING PLANET AROUND A METAL-POOR G-DWARF, AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO ANALYSES BASED ON A SINGLE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Collier Cameron, A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Gillon, M.; Jehin, E. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17 Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Lendl, M.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S. [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Street, R. A., E-mail: amss@astro.keele.ac.uk [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54 day orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude V = 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (T{sub eff} = 5959 {+-} 134 K), with [Fe/H] =-0.26 {+-} 0.10. We determine the planet to have mass and radius, respectively, 2.30 {+-} 0.07 and 1.28 {+-} 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allow us to investigate the potential effects on the fitted system parameters of using only a single light curve. We find that the solutions obtained by analyzing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  20. Record of postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical social wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer (Hymenoptera, Vespidae on pig carcasses in the Eastern Amazon region: implications in forensic taphonomy

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    Rodrigo R. Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPostmortem injuries are a source of misinterpretations in forensic analysis and therefore are subject matter of taphonomic interest. Many types of injuries can cause different artifacts, which deserve attention of the forensic pathologists when evaluating corpses, either at the crime scene or during an autopsy. Insects can be important biotaphonomic agents and their activity may result in artifacts that resemble antemortem injuries. Here, we describe postmortem injuries caused by the Neotropical wasp Agelaia fulvofasciata (Degeer, 1773 on domestic pig carcasses weighting 15 kg. The specimens showed extensive injuries to the lower lip, similar to lacerations, and some minor lesions on the snout and anus. In addition, we observed the same wasp species preying on larvae of Sarcophagidae (Peckia sp.. Besides causing postmortem injuries, the ability of this species to detect carcasses in the early and fresh decomposition stages should be noted. Thus, future applications aiming criminal, any biotaphonomic events caused by carrion insects need to be disclosed.

  1. The exotic wasp Megastigmus transvaalensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae: first record and damage on the Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius drupes, in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Pedro J. Ferreira-Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper records the first report of Megastigmus transvaalensis Hussey (Hymenoptera: Torymidae in Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae drupes in Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. This wasp is an invasive species and was found damaging S. terebinthifolius drupes in urban areas (35.0±15.8%, natural forests (21.5±10.2% and restoration areas (15.8±8.4%. The bio-ecology and damage caused by M. transvaalensis in the S. terebinthifolius drupes warrants further study focused upon the management of this phytophagous wasp. Megastigmus transvaalensis has a potential to be disseminated throughout Brazil and is posing a threat to the natural regeneration of S. terebinthifolius in the native forests and restoration areas and ecological regions of this country.

  2. Effects of chemical inhibition of N-WASP, a critical regulator of actin polymerization on aqueous humor outflow through the conventional pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Toshihiro; Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan P; Epstein, David L; Vasantha Rao, P

    2010-02-01

    The integrity of actin cytoskeletal organization in aqueous humor outflow pathway is thought to play a critical role in modulation of aqueous humor outflow through the trabecular meshwork. Our understanding of the regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in outflow pathway, however, is very limited. To explore the potential importance of Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), a critical regulator of actin polymerization/nucleation in aqueous humor outflow pathway, the effects of Wiskostatin, a selective pharmacological inhibitor of N-WASP, on aqueous humor outflow facility were evaluated using enucleated porcine eyes and a constant pressure perfusion system. Further, drug induced effects on actin cytoskeletal organization, cell adhesions, myosin II phosphorylation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and cytoskeletal protein profile in porcine trabecular meshwork (TM) cells were determined by immunofluorescence, zymography, and mass spectrometry. Aqueous humor outflow facility was increased significantly and progressively in the Wiskostatin perfused porcine eyes. The Wiskostatin perfused eyes appear to exhibit increased giant vacuoles in the inner wall of aqueous plexi and deformation of aqueous plexi. The Wiskostatin treated TM cells demonstrated extensive vacuoles in their cytosol, and both actin stress fibers and focal adhesions were decreased in a reversible manner. The drug-treated TM cells also revealed decreased myosin II and actin in the cytoskeletal enriched triton insoluble fraction but did not affect myosin II phosphorylation or MMP-2 activity. These data demonstrate that the chemical inhibition of N-WASP increases aqueous humor outflow facility in association with decreased actomyosin interaction and cell adhesive interactions revealing the importance of N-WASP in homeostasis of aqueous humor outflow. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Entomophytophagy ('Sequential Predatory, then Phytophagous Behaviour') in an Indian Braconid ‘Parasitoid’ Wasp (Hymenoptera): Specialized Larval Morphology, Biology and Description of a New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, U. K. A.; Butcher, Buntika A.; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Nasser, M.

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of braconid wasps are parasitoids of other insects. Although a few cases of pure phytophagy (primary gall production and seed predation) are known, no previous entomophytophagous species (i.e. ones that display entomophagy and phytophagy sequentially), has been discovered among braconids. We describe the detailed biology and specialized larval morphology for the first confirmed entomophytophagous braconid species. Leaf galls on Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae) in India, induced by the psyllid, Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, Phacopteronidae) were sampled throughout a period of several months and found to suffer a high level of attack by a new species Bracon garugaphagae Ranjith & Quicke which is here described and illustrated. The wasps oviposit singly into the galls without paralysing the psyllids. The larvae first attack psyllid nymphs which they seek out within the gall, kill them with a single bite and consume them. Unique dorsal abdominal tubercles, with eversible tips present on the abdominal segments of the larvae that are used to help maintain larval position while feeding, are illustrated. After consuming all available prey, the larvae continue feeding on gall tissue until mature enough to spin cocoons and pupate. The new species illustrates, for the first time, a possible intermediate stage in the evolution of pure phytophagy within the Braconidae. Interestingly, the two unrelated seed predator Bracon species are also associated with Burseraceae, perhaps indicating that this plant family is particularly suited as a food for braconine wasps. PMID:27355679

  4. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J., L.

    2004-03-10

    Horn, Scott, and James L. Hanula. 2004. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. 39(3): 464-469. Abstract: In recent years concern over widespread losses in biodiversity has grown to include a possible decline of many native pollinators, primarily bees. Factors such as habitat fragmentation, agricultural practices, use of pesticides, the introduction of invasive species, or changes in land use may negatively impact these vital organisims. Most reported studies show that human impacts on pollinators are overwhelmingly negative. Reductions in pollinator populations may profoundly impact plant population dynamics and ecosystem function. Little baseline data exists on the diversity and relative abundance of bees and wasps in southern forests. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, effective method of surveying cavity-nesting bees and wasps and to determine species diversity in mature forests of loblolly pine, the most widely planted tree species in the southern United States.

  5. Entomophytophagy ('Sequential Predatory, then Phytophagous Behaviour' in an Indian Braconid 'Parasitoid' Wasp (Hymenoptera: Specialized Larval Morphology, Biology and Description of a New Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Ranjith

    Full Text Available The vast majority of braconid wasps are parasitoids of other insects. Although a few cases of pure phytophagy (primary gall production and seed predation are known, no previous entomophytophagous species (i.e. ones that display entomophagy and phytophagy sequentially, has been discovered among braconids. We describe the detailed biology and specialized larval morphology for the first confirmed entomophytophagous braconid species. Leaf galls on Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae in India, induced by the psyllid, Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, Phacopteronidae were sampled throughout a period of several months and found to suffer a high level of attack by a new species Bracon garugaphagae Ranjith & Quicke which is here described and illustrated. The wasps oviposit singly into the galls without paralysing the psyllids. The larvae first attack psyllid nymphs which they seek out within the gall, kill them with a single bite and consume them. Unique dorsal abdominal tubercles, with eversible tips present on the abdominal segments of the larvae that are used to help maintain larval position while feeding, are illustrated. After consuming all available prey, the larvae continue feeding on gall tissue until mature enough to spin cocoons and pupate. The new species illustrates, for the first time, a possible intermediate stage in the evolution of pure phytophagy within the Braconidae. Interestingly, the two unrelated seed predator Bracon species are also associated with Burseraceae, perhaps indicating that this plant family is particularly suited as a food for braconine wasps.

  6. Local-scale spatial variation in diversity of social wasps in an Amazonian rain forest in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polistine wasps are important in Neotropical ecosystems due to their ubiquity and diversity. Inventories have not adequately considered spatial attributes of collected specimens. Spatial data on biodiversity are important for study and mitigation of anthropogenic impacts over natural ecosystems and for protecting species. We described and analyzed local-scale spatial patterns of collecting records of wasp species, as well as spatial variation of diversity descriptors in a 2500-hectare area of an Amazon forest in Brazil. Rare species comprised the largest fraction of the fauna. Close range spatial effects were detected for most of the more common species, with clustering of presence-data at short distances. Larger spatial lag effects could also be identified in some species, constituting probably cases of exogenous autocorrelation and candidates for explanations based on environmental factors. In a few cases, significant or near significant correlations were found between five species (of Agelaia, Angiopolybia, and Mischocyttarus and three studied environmental variables: distance to nearest stream, terrain altitude, and the type of forest canopy. However, association between these factors and biodiversity variables were generally low. When used as predictors of polistine richness in a linear multiple regression, only the coefficient for the forest canopy variable resulted significant. Some level of prediction of wasp diversity variables can be attained based on environmental variables, especially vegetation structure. Large-scale landscape and regional studies should be scheduled to address this issue.

  7. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences.

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    Francesco Nugnes

    Full Text Available The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed.

  8. Cytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic effects of the venom of the wasp Polybia paulista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshina, Márcia M; Santos, Lucilene D; Palma, Mario S; Marin-Morales, Maria A

    2013-09-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are constituted by a complex mixture of chemically or pharmacologically bioactive agents, such as phospholipases, hyaluronidases and mastoparans. Venoms can also contain substances that are able to inhibit and/or diminish the genotoxic or mutagenic action of other compounds that are capable of promoting damages in the genetic material. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the effect of the venom of Polybia paulista, a neotropical wasp, by assays with HepG2 cells maintained in culture. The cytotoxic potential of the wasp venom, assessed by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT assay), was tested for the concentrations of 10 μg/mL, 5 μg/mL and 1 μg/mL. As these concentrations were not cytotoxic, they were used to evaluate the genotoxic (comet assay) and mutagenic potential (micronucleus test) of the venom. In this study, it was verified that these concentrations induced damages in the DNA of the exposed cells, and it was necessary to test lower concentrations until it was found those that were not considered genotoxic and mutagenic. The concentrations of 1 ng/mL, 100 pg/mL and 10 pg/mL, which did not induce genotoxicity and mutagenicity, were used in four different treatments (post-treatment, pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment with and without incubation), in order to evaluate if these concentrations were able to inhibit or decrease the genotoxic and mutagenic action of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). None of the concentrations was able to inhibit and/or decrease the MMS activity. The genotoxic and mutagenic activity of the venom of P. paulista could be caused by the action of phospholipase, mastoparan and hyaluronidase, which are able to disrupt the cell membrane and thereby interact with the genetic material of the cells or even facilitate the entrance of other compounds of the venom that can act on the DNA. Another possible explanation for the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the venom can be the presence of substances able

  9. Post-egression host tissue feeding is another strategy of host regulation by the Koinobiont wasp, Toxoneuron nigriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriachan, Indira; Henderson, Ruth; Laca, Rachel; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2011-01-01

    Koinobiont wasps start their lives as hemolymph feeders inside the host body, but before they egress from the host many become tissue predators. One species, the endoparasitoid Toxoneuron nigriceps Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), exhibits the unusual behavior of egressing before initiating tissue predation. After egression from the host, it reinserts its head into the host body to begin tissue feeding. These third instar T. nigriceps larvae show a significant increase in body size and mass after post-egression feeding. Through this project the importance of post-egression feeding in the development of T. nigriceps in its host the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has been evaluated. The study was conducted by preventing the egressed third instar T. nigriceps larvae from feeding on host tissue and observing whether they could undergo further development. Though some of the larvae that were prevented from post-egression feeding did undergo cocoon formation, pupation, and adult emergence they were inferior in terms of size, body mass, and survival to those that developed from larvae allowed to feeding after egression. Hence, it is concluded that post-egression host tissue feeding is essential for the normal development of T. nigriceps, as the prevention of feeding resulted in significantly lighter and smaller larvae, cocoons, and adults as well as deformed adults and reduced adult survival. Post-egression feeding as a host regulatory strategy is discussed.

  10. The Dufour's gland and the cuticle in the social wasp Ropalidia marginata contain the same hydrocarbons in similar proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A; Gadagkar, R

    2014-01-23

    Queens in many social insects are known to maintain their status through chemicals (pheromones) and cuticular hydrocarbons and have been the focus of many investigations that have looked at the chemicals involved in queen signaling. In the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), the Dufour's gland has been shown to be involved in queen signaling, and Dufour's gland hydrocarbons have been found to be correlated with fertility. Hence, this study analyzed the cuticle of R. marginata along with the Dufour's gland in order to compare their hydrocarbon profiles. The results show that the Dufour's gland and cuticle contained the same set of hydrocarbons in similar proportions (for the majority of compounds). Patterns pertaining to fertility signaling present in cuticular hydrocarbons were also similar to those present in the Dufour's gland hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the haemolymph contained the same hydrocarbons as found in the Dufour's gland and cuticle in similar proportions, thereby providing an explanation as to why the hydrocarbon profiles of the Dufour's gland and cuticle are correlated. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  11. Different genetic structures revealed resident populations of a specialist parasitoid wasp in contrast to its migratory host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Zhou, Yuan; Fan, Xu-Lei; Hoffmann, Ary A; Cao, Li-Jun; Chen, Xue-Xin; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2017-07-01

    Genetic comparisons of parasitoids and their hosts are expected to reflect ecological and evolutionary processes that influence the interactions between species. The parasitoid wasp, Cotesia vestalis, and its host diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, provide opportunities to test whether the specialist natural enemy migrates seasonally with its host or occurs as resident population. We genotyped 17 microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial genes for 158 female adults of C. vestalis collected from 12 geographical populations, as well as nine microsatellite loci for 127 DBM larvae from six separate sites. The samplings covered both the likely source (southern) and immigrant (northern) areas of DBM from China. Populations of C. vestalis fell into three groups, pointing to isolation in northwestern and southwestern China and strong genetic differentiation of these populations from others in central and eastern China. In contrast, DBM showed much weaker genetic differentiation and high rates of gene flow. TESS analysis identified the immigrant populations of DBM as showing admixture in northern China. Genetic disconnect between C. vestalis and its host suggests that the parasitoid did not migrate yearly with its host but likely consisted of resident populations in places where its host could not survive in winter.

  12. TRANSIT MONITORING IN THE SOUTH (TraMoS) PROJECT: DISCARDING TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-5b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, S.; Rojo, P. [Astronomy Department, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Lopez-Morales, M., E-mail: shoyer@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: pato@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: mercedes@dtm.ciw.edu [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, parall, 2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-03-20

    We report nine new transit epochs of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b, observed in the Bessell I band with the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope at the Cerro Pachon Observatory and with the SMARTS 1 m Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, between 2008 August and 2009 October. The new transits have been combined with all previously published transit data for this planet to provide a new Transit Timing Variation (TTV) analysis of its orbit. We find no evidence of TTV rms variations larger than 1 minute over a 3 year time span. This result discards the presence of planets more massive than about 5 M{sub Circled-Plus }, 1 M{sub Circled-Plus }, and 2 M{sub Circled-Plus} around the 1:2, 5:3, and 2:1 orbital resonances, respectively. These new detection limits exceed by {approx}5-30 times the limits imposed by current radial velocity observations in the mean motion resonances of this system. Our search for the variation of other parameters, such as orbital inclination and transit depth, also yields negative results over the total time span of the transit observations. This result supports formation theories that predict a paucity of planetary companions to hot Jupiters.

  13. Prey selection in the trap-nesting wasp Trypoxylon (Trypargilum opacum Brèthes (Hymenprtera; Crabronidae

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    MLT. Buschini

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to document and discuss the temporal patterns of prey use shown by the trap-nesting wasp Trypoxylon opacum in two different habitats in Southern Brazil. It was carried out from December 2001 to December 2004. Twenty nine species belonging to five families of spiders were captured by T. opacum. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis´s coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA, the spiders can be divided into three groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Alpaida sp2, Bertrana rufostriata, Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Eustala sp3 and Eustala sp4, the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Alpaida, Alpaida gracia and Mangora sp2, and the third and largest group includes the less abundant species, (Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida argenata, Alpaida sp1, Araneus blumenau, Araneus sicki, Crysometa boraceia, Crysometa sp3, Eustala sp8, Eustala sp11, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1, Ocrepeira aff gnomo, Sanogasta sp., Sanogasta sp2, Sanogasta sp3, Salticidae sp2, Theridion sp1, Theridion sp2, Wagneriana eupalaestris, Wagneriana iguape. Of 1,053 identified spiders, 362 were captured in the grassland areas and 691 in the swamp, since T. opacum built nests only in these two habitats. The diversity, richness and evenness of spiders in T. opacum nests were higher in grassland than in the swamp.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the neotropical swarm-founding social wasp genus Synoeca (Hymenoptera: Vespidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Santos Telles Menezes

    Full Text Available The Neotropical Region harbors high biodiversity and many studies on mammals, reptiles, amphibians and avifauna have investigated the causes for this pattern. However, there is a paucity of such studies that focus on Neotropical insect groups. Synoeca de Saussure, 1852 is a Neotropical swarm-founding social wasp genus with five described species that is broadly and conspicuously distributed throughout the Neotropics. Here, we infer the phylogenetic relationships, diversification times, and historical biogeography of Synoeca species. We also investigate samples of the disjoint populations of S. septentrionalis that occur in both northwestern parts of South America through Central American and the Brazilian Atlantic rainforests. Our results showed that the interspecific relationships for Synoeca could be described as follows: (S. chalibea + S. virginea + (S. cyanea + (S. septentrionalis/S. surinama. Notably, samples of S. septentrionalis and S. surinama collected in the Atlantic Forest were interrelated and may be the result of incomplete lineage sorting and/or mitochondrial introgression among them. Our Bayesian divergence dating analysis revealed recent Plio-Pleistocene diversification in Synoeca. Moreover, our biogeographical analysis suggested an Amazonian origin of Synoeca, with three main dispersal events subsequently occurring during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  15. Mate finding in the parasitic wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead): more than one way to a female's heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collatz, Jana; Tolasch, Till; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2009-07-01

    The parasitic wasp, Cephalonomia tarsalis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), parasitizes larvae of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), and is used for biological control of this worldwide pest of stored grain. To study the hypothesis that C. tarsalis not only mates at its natal patch but also uses olfactory cues to find mating partners elsewhere, we investigated semiochemical use by male C. tarsalis. Olfactometer experiments revealed that male C. tarsalis are arrested by odors emanating from the cocoons of conspecifics, from young unmated females, and from feces of the host. Dodecanal, which was identified from extracts of filter paper contaminated by young females, had an arresting effect on males but not on females and was, therefore, considered as a sex pheromone. These findings indicate that C. tarsalis is a species with partial local mate competition. Males mate with females: 1) at the emergence site following location of females by sex pheromones from their cocoons, and 2) after dispersal from the natal patch following location of females directly by dodecanal and indirectly by unidentified sexual kairomones from host feces.

  16. Nest architecture of group-living wasps Microstigmus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae: role of the pedicel as a defense against ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretthehun G. Grajales

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The nest pedicel of a social sphecid wasp Microstigmus nr. thripoctenus plays an important role in protecting the brood against ant predators, as inferred from data on artificial nests. A pair of artificial nests with or without pedicels was suspended from the undersides of leaves (Carludovica palmata for 30 min to assess rates of discovery and removal of food (tuna bait by ants (N = 36 pairs. Three-hundred and forty-three individuals of five ant species removed food at a higher frequency from nests without pedicels (83.3% of 36 nests than for nests with pedicels (11.1% of 36 nests.La suspensión pedicelar en la arquitectura del nido de la avispa social Microstigmus nr. thripoctenus juega un importante papel en la protección de las crías contra los depredadores, especialmente hormigas, basado de estudios con nidos artificiales. Debajo de las hojas de Carludovica palmata un nido artificial con pedicelo y otro sin pedicelo fueron suspendidos por 30 min para determinar la frecuencia de descubrimiento y eliminación de un cebo (atún (N = 36 pares. El porcentaje de depredación fue menor (11.1% en los nidos con pedicelo que en nidos sin pedicelo (83.3%. Se observaron 343 individuos de cinco especies de hormigas atacando los nidos artificiales.

  17. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  18. The transformer genes in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi provide new evidence for duplications independent of complementary sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L-Y; Xiao, J-H; Xiong, T-L; Niu, L-M; Huang, D-W

    2016-06-01

    Transformer (tra) is the key gene that turns on the sex-determination cascade in Drosophila melanogaster and in some other insects. The honeybee Apis mellifera has two duplicates of tra, one of which (complementary sex determiner, csd) is the primary signal for complementary sex-determination (CSD), regulating the other duplicate (feminizer). Two tra duplicates have been found in some other hymenopteran species, resulting in the assumption that a single ancestral duplication of tra took place in the Hymenoptera. Here, we searched for tra homologues and pseudogenes in the Hymenoptera, focusing on five newly published hymenopteran genomes. We found three tra copies in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi. Further evolutionary and expression analyses also showed that the two duplicates (Csoltra-B and Csoltra-C) are under positive selection, and have female-specific expression, suggesting possible sex-related functions. Moreover, Aculeata species exhibit many pseudogenes generated by lineage-specific duplications. We conclude that phylogenetic reconstruction and pseudogene screening provide novel evidence supporting the hypothesis of independent duplications rather an ancestral origin of multiple tra paralogues in the Hymenoptera. The case of C. solmsi is the first example of a non-CSD species with duplicated tra, contrary to the previous assumption that derived tra paralogues function as the CSD locus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel protein toxin from the Hawaiian box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H; Takuwa, K; Nakao, M; Sakamoto, B; Crow, G L; Nakajima, T

    2000-08-28

    The box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea alata Reynaud, 1830 (Cubozoa) is distributed widely in the tropics. The sting of C. alata causes severe pain and cutaneous inflammation in humans. We successfully isolated C. alata toxin-A (CaTX-A, 43 kDa) and -B (CaTX-B, 45 kDa) for the first time from the tentacle of C. alata collected at a site along the Hawaiian shore. The experimental results showed that CaTX-A, but not CaTX-B, is present in the nematocyst, the organ responsible for stinging. Both CaTX-A and -B showed potent hemolytic activity, with CaTX-A being lethally toxic to crayfish when administered via intraperitoneal injection. Furthermore, we sequenced the cDNA encoding CaTX-A. The deduced amino acid sequence of CaTX-A (463 amino acids) showed 43.7% homology to Carybdea rastoni toxins (CrTXs) but not with any other known proteins. Therefore, these jellyfish toxins potentially represent a novel class of bioactive proteins. Secondary structure analysis of CaTX-A and CrTXs suggested the presence of amphiphilic alpha-helices, which are also seen in several known hemolytic or cytolytic protein toxins, including peptide toxins. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Specialization for pollination by beetles and wasps: the role of lollipop hairs and fragrance in Satyrium microrrhynchum (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D; Ellis, Allan; Dötterl, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Exposed nectar presentation is a key trait in flowers specialized for pollination by short-tongued insects. We investigated the pollination of Satyrium microrrhynchum, a rare South African orchid in which nectar is secreted as droplets on long floral hairs ("lollipop hairs") at the mouth of a shallow labellum. Our observations indicate that this orchid is pollinated specifically by two insect species: a cetoniid beetle (Atrichelaphinus tigrina) and a pompilid wasp (Hemipepsis hilaris). Both insects have short mouthparts and remove nectar from the hairs with sweeping motions of their mouthparts. Pollinaria become attached to the upper surface of their heads while they feed on the nectar. Beetles damage the hairs while feeding, which may explain the positive relationship between hair damage and pollination success in plants of S. microrrhynchum from populations where beetles were common. The orchid has cryptic green-yellow flowers with spectral reflectance similar to that of its leaves. The fragrance from plants in three populations, analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, was dominated by various terpenoids; linalool was the most abundant. Plants in different populations emitted similar compounds, but eugenol and derivatives of this compound were found in only one of the three populations. In an electrophysiological study (gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography), using antennae of A. tigrina, clear signals were elicited by some of the floral scent compounds.

  1. Bee, wasp and ant venomics pave the way for a component-resolved diagnosis of sting allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Dirk C; Aerts, Maarten; Danneels, Ellen; Devreese, Bart

    2009-03-06

    With the complete sequencing of its genome, the honey bee is now a preferred model organism for Hymenoptera species, also with respect to venomic studies. Major pitfalls in proteomic profiling are: i) highly abundant proteins masking low-copy number proteins; ii) high heterogeneity in proteomes due to isoforms, protease activity and PTMs; iii) the inability for protein function assignment. If genomic information is not available, proteins still might be identified through cross-species protein identifications or MS/MS data-based de novo sequencing techniques. Venomic approaches discovered several new proteins and peptides from honey bees, bumble bees, ants and different wasp species, and some of these constituents were proven to be of immunological significance. Further digging in the proteome/peptidome will yield more so-called "venom trace elements" with only a local function in the venom duct or reservoir or released by leakage of the gland tissue. An impressive list of recombinants venom proteins has become available from a diverse range of Hymenopterans. Protein microarray allows the determination and monitoring of allergic patients' IgE reactivity profiles to disease-causing allergens using single measurements and minute amounts of serum. The information the physician will get from such a single run will largely exceed the output from current IgE capturing tools using whole venom preparations.

  2. Patriline Differences Reveal Genetic Influence on Forewing Size and Shape in a Yellowjacket Wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespula flavopilosa Jacobson, 1978.

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    Adrien Perrard

    Full Text Available The wing venation is frequently used as a morphological marker to distinguish biological groups among insects. With geometric morphometrics, minute shape differences can be detected between closely related species or populations, making this technique useful for taxonomy. However, the direct influence of genetic differences on wing morphology has not been explored within colonies of social insects. Here, we show that the father's genotype has a direct effect on wing morphology in colonies of social wasps. Using geometric morphometrics on the venation pattern, we found significant differences in wing size and shape between patrilines of yellowjackets, taking allometry and measurement error into account. The genetic influence on wing size accounted for a small part of the overall size variation, but venation shape was highly structured by the differences between patrilines. Overall, our results showed a strong genetic influence on wing morphology likely acting at multiple levels of venation pattern development. This confirmed the pertinence of this marker for taxonomic purposes and suggests this phenotype as a potentially useful marker for phylogenies. This also raises doubts about the strength of selective pressures on this phenotype, which highlights the need to understand better the role of wing venation shape in insect flight.

  3. Roads may act as barriers to flying insects: species composition of bees and wasps differs on two sides of a large highway

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    Petter Andersson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Roads may act as barriers to animal movements, but direct barrier effects on insects have rarely been studied. In this study we collected data on bees and wasps along two sides of a large road in Sweden using yellow pan traps. We then analyzed if the species composition differed between the two sides of the road; first for the whole community, and then only for the smallest species (which typically are poorer dispersers. As a complement, we analyzed if different vegetation variables differed between the two sides of the road, as this may also affect differences in species composition. Finally, we analyzed if species richness and abundance in general differed between the two sides and how these two response variables were explained by the vegetation variables. There was a significant difference in species composition between the eastern and the western side of the road when analyzing the whole community, and this relationship became even stronger when the largest species were excluded. The vegetation variables did not strongly differ between the two sides, and there was no difference in species richness and abundance of bees and wasps either. Abundance was, however, explained by the number of flowering plants in the surroundings of the trap. Even though using a rather limited data set, our results indicate that large roads may act as barriers on the movement of bees and wasps, especially for small species with poor dispersal ability. On the other hand, road verges may be important habitat for many species, which leads to a potential conflict that is important to consider in the planning of green infrastructure.

  4. Plant secretions prevent wasp parasitism in nests of wool-carder bees, with implications for the diversification of nesting materials in Megachilidae

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    Thomas eEltz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees make use of plant substrates in more ways than any other group of insects, which is probably linked to their diversification and ecological success. The highly diverse Megachilidae use a wide range of plant-derived brood cell-building materials, including plant leaves, mortar made from plant tissue, resin, plant hairs (‘plant wool’, and plant trichome secretions. While certain plant-derived materials are believed to protect nests against microbial decay, this has not been tested, and the factors driving diversification of nesting materials are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the protective effects of plant-derived extrafloral trichome secretions which female European wool-carder bees, Anthidium manicatum, smear on their brood cells. By breeding bees in cages with differential resource supply we generated brood cells with or without trichome secretions. Brood cells with trichome secretions were less attractive to parasitic wasps (Monodontomerus obscurus in Y-maze olfactometer tests. Also, when exposed at sites where A. manicatum occurs in natural populations, brood cells smeared with trichome secretions were less affected by wasp (Melittobia acasta parasitism than those without trichome secretions. On the other hand, trichome secretions did not prevent the growth of mold on brood cells, and larval mortality due to microbial decay was almost non-existent even when brood cells were exposed to rainfall. We conclude that the use of plant trichome secretion for brood cell construction has more likely evolved to create enemy-free space in response to chalcidoid wasp parasitism. Parasitoids are likely an underestimated cause of the diversification of cell construction materials and adaptive radiation in megachilid bees.

  5. Mate-searching behaviour of common and rare wasps and the implications for pollen movement of the sexually deceptive orchids they pollinate.

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    Myles H M Menz

    Full Text Available Pollinator behaviour directly affects patterns of pollen movement and outcrossing rates in plants. In orchids pollinated by sexual deception of insects, patterns of pollen movement are primarily determined by the mate-searching behaviour of the deceived males. Here, using a capture-mark-recapture study (CMR and dietary analysis, we compare mate-searching behaviour in relation to local abundance of two pollinator species and explore the implications for pollen movement in sexually deceptive Drakaea (Orchidaceae. Drakaea are pollinated solely by the sexual deception of male thynnine wasps. The rare Drakaea elastica and widespread D. livida occur sympatrically and are pollinated by the rare but locally common Zaspilothynnus gilesi, and the widespread and abundant Z. nigripes, respectively. Local abundance was significantly different with Z. nigripes twice as abundant as Z. gilesi. For the 653 marked wasps, there was no significant difference in median movement distance between Z. gilesi and Z. nigripes. However, the maximum movement distance was twice as high for Z. gilesi (556 m compared with Z. nigripes (267 m. This is up to three times greater than previously reported for thynnines in CMR studies. Recapture rates were six times higher in Z. gilesi (57% compared to Z. nigripes (9%. Pollen loads and wasp longevity were similar, suggesting that this difference in recapture rate arises due to differences in the number of males moving at a scale >500 m rather than through diet or mortality. Differences in the frequency of longer movements may arise due to variation in the spatial distribution of the wingless females. We predict that pollen movement will largely be restricted to within populations of Drakaea (500 m.

  6. 3.6 AND 4.5 μm PHASE CURVES OF THE HIGHLY IRRADIATED ECCENTRIC HOT JUPITER WASP-14b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Ian; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kataria, Tiffany [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95604 (United States); Schwartz, Joel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Todorov, Kamen, E-mail: iwong@caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-01

    We present full-orbit phase curve observations of the eccentric (e ∼ 0.08) transiting hot Jupiter WASP-14b obtained in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We use two different methods for removing the intrapixel sensitivity effect and compare their efficacy in decoupling the instrumental noise. Our measured secondary eclipse depths of 0.1882% ± 0.0048% and 0.2247% ± 0.0086% at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively, are both consistent with a blackbody temperature of 2402 ± 35 K. We place a 2σ upper limit on the nightside flux at 3.6 μm and find it to be 9% ± 1% of the dayside flux, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1079 K. At 4.5 μm, the minimum planet flux is 30% ± 5% of the maximum flux, corresponding to a brightness temperature of 1380 ± 65 K. We compare our measured phase curves to the predictions of one-dimensional radiative transfer and three-dimensional general circulation models. We find that WASP-14b’s measured dayside emission is consistent with a model atmosphere with equilibrium chemistry and a moderate temperature inversion. These same models tend to overpredict the nightside emission at 3.6 μm, while underpredicting the nightside emission at 4.5 μm. We propose that this discrepancy might be explained by an enhanced global C/O ratio. In addition, we find that the phase curves of WASP-14b (7.8 M{sub Jup}) are consistent with a much lower albedo than those of other Jovian mass planets with thermal phase curve measurements, suggesting that it may be emitting detectable heat from the deep atmosphere or interior processes.

  7. Talarazines A-E: Noncytotoxic Iron(III) Chelators from an Australian Mud Dauber Wasp-Associated Fungus, Talaromyces sp. (CMB-W045).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Quezada, Michelle; Espósito, Breno P; Capon, Robert J

    2017-03-24

    Chemical analysis of an Australian mud dauber wasp-associated fungus, Talaromyces sp. (CMB-W045), yielded five new coprogen siderophores, talarazines A-E (1-5), together with dimerumic acid (6), desferricoprogen (7), and elutherazine B (8). Structures inclusive of absolute configuration were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and application of the C 3 Marfey's method. We report on the noncytotoxic Fe(III) chelation properties of 1-8 and demonstrate that biosynthesis is regulated by available Fe(III) in culture media. We demonstrate a magnetic nanoparticule approach to extracting high-affinity Fe(III) binding metabolites (i.e., 8) from complex extracts.

  8. Post-mating shift towards longer-chain cuticular hydrocarbons drastically reduces female attractiveness to males in a digger wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Carlo; Giordani, Irene; Wurdack, Mareike; Tormos, José; Asís, Josep D; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Females of most aculeate Hymenoptera mate only once and males are therefore under a strong competitive pressure which is expected to favour the evolution of rapid detection of virgin females. In several bee species, the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile exhibited by virgin females elicits male copulation attempts. However, it is still unknown how widespread this type of sexual communication is within Aculeata. Here, we investigated the use of CHCs as mating cues in the digger wasp Stizus continuus, which belongs to the family (Crabronidae) from within bees arose. In field experiments, unmanipulated, recently emerged virgin female dummies promptly elicit male copulation attempts, whereas 1-4days old mated females dummies were still attractive but to a much lesser extent. In contrast, old (10-15days) mated female dummies did not attract males at all. After hexane-washing, attractiveness almost disappeared but could be achieved by adding CHC extracts from virgin females even on hexane-washed old mated females. Thus, the chemical base of recognition of females as appropriate mating partner by males is coded in their CHC profile. Accordingly, differences in CHC profiles can be detected between sexes, with males having larger amounts of alkenes and exclusive long-chain alkanes, and within females specially according to their mating status. Shortly after mating, almost all of the major hydrocarbons found on the cuticle of females undergo significant changes in their abundance, with a clear shift from short-chain to long-chain linear and methyl-branched alkanes. The timely detection of virgin females by males in S. continuus could be advantageous within the narrow period of female emergence, when male-male competition is strongest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distributed cognition and social brains: reductions in mushroom body investment accompanied the origins of sociality in wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean; Bulova, Susan J; DeLeon, Sara; Khodak, Paulina; Miller, Skye; Sulger, Elisabeth

    2015-07-07

    The social brain hypothesis assumes the evolution of social behaviour changes animals' ecological environments, and predicts evolutionary shifts in social structure will be associated with changes in brain investment. Most social brain models to date assume social behaviour imposes additional cognitive challenges to animals, favouring the evolution of increased brain investment. Here, we present a modification of social brain models, which we term the distributed cognition hypothesis. Distributed cognition models assume group members can rely on social communication instead of individual cognition; these models predict reduced brain investment in social species. To test this hypothesis, we compared brain investment among 29 species of wasps (Vespidae family), including solitary species and social species with a wide range of social attributes (i.e. differences in colony size, mode of colony founding and degree of queen/worker caste differentiation). We compared species means of relative size of mushroom body (MB) calyces and the antennal to optic lobe ratio, as measures of brain investment in central processing and peripheral sensory processing, respectively. In support of distributed cognition predictions, and in contrast to patterns seen among vertebrates, MB investment decreased from solitary to social species. Among social species, differences in colony founding, colony size and caste differentiation were not associated with brain investment differences. Peripheral lobe investment did not covary with social structure. These patterns suggest the strongest changes in brain investment--a reduction in central processing brain regions--accompanied the evolutionary origins of eusociality in Vespidae. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphology, chemistry and function of the postpharyngeal gland in the South American digger wasps Trachypus boharti and Trachypus elongatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Herzner

    Full Text Available Microbes pose severe threats to animals as competitors or pathogens and strongly affect the evolution of life history traits like parental care. Females of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum, a solitary digger wasp, provision their offspring with paralyzed honeybees and embalm them with the secretion from large postpharyngeal glands (PPG that contain mainly unsaturated hydrocarbons. This coating changes the physico-chemical properties of the prey surface, causes a reduction of water condensation and retards growth of mold fungi. Here we examined the closely related South American genus Trachypus, which shows a life-history similar to Philanthus. We investigated whether Trachypus spp. also possess PPGs and embalm larval provisions. Using histological methods and 3D reconstructions we show that Trachypus boharti and T. elongatus possess PPGs that are similar to P. triangulum but somewhat smaller. The ultrastructure of the gland epithelium suggests that the gland content is at least partly sequestered from the hemolymph. Chemical analyses using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry revealed that both the cuticle and PPGs of Trachypus contain mainly unsaturated long-chain hydrocarbons. The gland of T. boharti additionally contains long-chain ketones. The hydrocarbons from the PPG of T. elongatus occurred on prey bees excavated from nests in the field but not on conspecific control bees. While the embalming only slightly elevated the amount of hydrocarbons on prey bees, the proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons, which is crucial for the antifungal effect, was significantly increased. The Trachypus species under study possess PPGs that are very similar to the PPG of P. triangulum with regard to morphology, ultrastructure and chemistry. Moreover, we provide clear evidence that T. elongatus females embalm their prey, presumably as a means of prey preservation. The observed differences among Trachypus and Philanthus in gland size and prey

  11. Parasitization of Manduca sexta larvae by the parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata induces an impaired host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Kevin E; Asgari, Sassan; Jung, Richard; Hongskula, Melissa; Beckage, Nancy E

    2005-05-01

    During oviposition, the parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata injects polydnavirus, venom, and parasitoid eggs into larvae of its lepidopteran host, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Polydnaviruses (PDVs) suppress the immune system of the host and allow the juvenile parasitoids to develop without being encapsulated by host hemocytes mobilized by the immune system. Previous work identified a gene in the Cotesia rubecula PDV (CrV1) that is responsible for depolymerization of actin in hemocytes of the host Pieris rapae during a narrow temporal window from 4 to 8h post-parasitization. Its expression appears temporally correlated with hemocyte dysfunction. After this time, the hemocytes recover, and encapsulation is then inhibited by other mechanism(s). In contrast, in parasitized tobacco hornworm larvae this type of inactivation in hemocytes of parasitized M. sexta larvae leads to irreversible cellular disruption. We have characterized the temporal pattern of expression of the CrV1-homolog from the C. congregata PDV in host fat body and hemocytes using Northern blots, and localized the protein in host hemocytes with polyclonal antibodies to CrV1 protein produced in P. rapae in response to expression of the CrV1 protein. Host hemocytes stained with FITC-labeled phalloidin, which binds to filamentous actin, were used to observe hemocyte disruption in parasitized and virus-injected hosts and a comparison was made to hemocytes of nonparasitized control larvae. At 24h post-parasitization host hemocytes were significantly altered compared to those of nonparasitized larvae. Hemocytes from newly parasitized hosts displayed blebbing, inhibition of spreading and adhesion, and overall cell disruption. A CrV1-homolog gene product was localized in host hemocytes using polyclonal CrV1 antibodies, suggesting that CrV1-like gene products of C. congregata's bracovirus are responsible for the impaired immune response of the host.

  12. Do biopesticides affect the demographic traits of a parasitoid wasp and its biocontrol services through sublethal effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biondi

    Full Text Available Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life

  13. Do Biopesticides Affect the Demographic Traits of a Parasitoid Wasp and Its Biocontrol Services through Sublethal Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Zappalà, Lucia; Stark, John D.; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk assessments are usually based on short-term acute toxicity tests, while longer-term population dynamic related traits, critical to the success of biological control and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, are often overlooked. This is increasingly important with respect to new biopesticides that frequently cause no short-term acute effects, but that can induce multiple physiological and behavioral sublethal effects, leading to a decrease in population growth and ecosystem services. In this study we assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of six biopesticides [abamectin, azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, borax plus citrus oil (Prev-Am®), emamectin benzoate, and spinosad], used in tomato crops to control the invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on adults and pupae of the parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Data on female survival and production of female offspring were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinosad caused 100% and 80% mortality in exposed adults (even 10 d after the treatment) and pupae, respectively. Although most of the biopesticides had low levels of acute toxicity, multiple sublethal effects were observed. The biocontrol activity of both females that survived 1-h and 10-d old residues, and females that emerged from topically treated pupae was significantly affected by the application of the neurotoxic insecticides emamectin benzoate and abamectin. Furthermore, very low B. nigricans demographic growth indices were estimated for these two insecticides, indicating potential local extinction of the wasp populations. Among the tested products, Bt proved to be the safest for B. nigricans adults and pupae. Our findings emphasize that acute toxicity assessment alone cannot fully predict the actual impact of pesticides on non-target parasitoids. Thus, sublethal effects related to the species specific life-history variables

  14. Maternal provision of transformer-2 is required for female development and embryo viability in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Rensink, Anna H; Rondeel, Inge; Beukeboom, Leo W; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C

    2017-11-01

    In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with TRA2, encoded by a transformer-2 (tra2) ortholog, to act as a sex specific splicing regulator of the downstream transcription factors doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Here, we identify the tra2 ortholog of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp N. vitripennis (Nv-tra2) and confirm its function in N. vitripennis sex determination. Knock down of Nv-tra2 by parental RNA interference (pRNAi) results in complete sex reversal of diploid offspring from female to male, indicating the requirement of Nv-tra2 for female sex determination. As Nv-tra2 pRNAi leads to frequent lethality in early developmental stages, maternal provision of Nv-tra2 transcripts is apparently also required for another, non-sex determining function during embryogenesis. In addition, lethality following Nv-tra2 pRNAi appears more pronounced in diploid than in haploid offspring. This diploid lethal effect was also observed following Nv-tra pRNAi, which served as a positive control in our experiments. As diploid embryos from fertilized eggs have a paternal chromosome set in addition to the maternal one, this suggests that either the presence of this paternal chromosome set or the dosage effect resulting from the diploid state is incompatible with the induced male development in N. vitripennis caused by either Nv-tra2 or Nv-tra pRNAi. The role of Nv-tra2 in activating the female sex determination pathway yields more insight into the sex determination mechanism of Nasonia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Folding Wings like a Cockroach: A Review of Transverse Wing Folding Ensign Wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, István; Copeland, Robert S.; Balhoff, James P.; Yoder, Matthew J.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves. PMID:24787704

  16. Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mikó

    Full Text Available We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea. It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

  17. Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, István; Copeland, Robert S; Balhoff, James P; Yoder, Matthew J; Deans, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

  18. The roles of ecological fitting, phylogeny and physiological equivalence in understanding realized and fundamental host ranges in endoparasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J A; Ximénez de Embún, M G; Bukovinszky, T; Gols, R

    2012-10-01

    Co-evolutionary theory underpins our understanding of interactions in nature involving plant-herbivore and host-parasite interactions. However, many studies that are published in the empirical literature that have explored life history and development strategies between endoparasitoid wasps and their hosts are based on species that have no evolutionary history with one another. Here, we investigated novel associations involving two closely related solitary endoparasitoids that originate from Europe and North America and several of their natural and factitious hosts from both continents. The natural hosts of both species are also closely related, all being members of the same family. We compared development and survival of both parasitoids on the four host species and predicted that parasitoid performance is better on their own natural hosts. In contrast with this expectation, survival, adult size and development time of both parasitoids were similar on all (with one exception) hosts, irrespective as to their geographic origin. Our results show that phylogenetic affinity among the natural and factitious hosts plays an important role in their nutritional suitability for related parasitoids. Evolved traits in parasitoids, such as immune suppression and development, thus enable them to successfully develop in novel host species with which they have no evolutionary history. Our results show that host suitability for specialized organisms like endoparasitoids is closely linked with phylogenetic history and macro-evolution as well as local adaptation and micro-evolution. We argue that the importance of novel interactions and 'ecological fitting' based on phylogeny is a greatly underappreciated concept in many resource-consumer studies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. The Properties of XO-5b and WASP-82b Redetermined Using New High-Precision Transit Photometry and Global Data Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. M. S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents new transit photometry from the Isaac Newton Telescope of two transiting exoplanetary systems, XO-5 and WASP-82. In each case the new transit light curve is more precise than any other of that system previously published. The new data are analyzed alongside previously-published photometry and radial velocities, resulting in an improved orbital ephemeris and a refined set of system parameters in each case. The observational baseline of XO-5 is extended by very nearly four years, resulting in a determination of the orbital period of XO-5b to a precision of just 50 ms. The mass and radius of XO-5b are 1.19±0.03 and 1.14±0.03 times those of Jupiter, respectively. The light curve of WASP-82 is only the second published for this system. The planetary mass is 1.25±0.05 MJup, and the radius is 1.71±0.08 RJup.

  20. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pharmalgen® for the treatment of bee and wasp venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenhull, J; Elremeli, M; Cherry, M G; Mahon, J; Lai, M; Darroch, J; Oyee, J; Boland, A; Dickson, R; Dundar, Y; Boyle, R

    2012-01-01

    Each year in the UK, there are between two and nine deaths from anaphylaxis caused by bee and wasp venom. Anaphylactic reactions can occur rapidly following a sting and can progress to a life-threatening condition within minutes. To avoid further reactions in people with a history of anaphylaxis to bee and wasp venom, the use of desensitisation, through a process known as venom immunotherapy (VIT), has been investigated and is in use in the UK. VIT consists of subcutaneous injections of increasing amounts of purified bee and/or wasp venom extract. Pharmalgen® products (ALK Abelló) have had UK marketing authorisation for VIT (as well as diagnosis) of allergy to bee venom (using Pharmalgen Bee Venom) and wasp venom (using Pharmalgen Wasp Venom) since March 1995. This review assessed the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pharmalgen in providing immunotherapy to individuals with a history of type 1 [immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated] systemic allergic reaction to bee and wasp venom. A comprehensive search strategy using a combination of index terms (e.g. Pharmalgen) and free-text words (e.g. allerg$) was developed and used to interrogate the following electronic databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library. Papers were included if they studied venom immunotherapy using Pharmalgen (PhVIT) in patients who had previously experienced a systemic reaction to a bee and/or a wasp sting. Comparators were any alternative treatment options available in the NHS without VIT. Included outcomes were systemic reactions, local reactions, mortality, anxiety related to the possibility of future allergic reactions, health-related quality of life (QoL) and adverse reactions (ARs) to treatment. Cost-effectiveness outcomes included cost per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Because of the small number of published randomised controlled trials (RCTs), no meta-analyses were conducted. A de novo economic model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of Ph

  1. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae); Biologia y habitos del barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A., E-mail: hernandez.luismartin@inifap.gob.m, E-mail: urias.marioalfonso@inifap.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestal000, Agricolas y Pecuarias, Santiago, Nayarit (Mexico). Campo Experimental Santiago Ixcuintla; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor, E-mail: nestor@colpos.m [Instituto de Fitosanidad, Montecillo, Texcoco (Mexico). Colegio de Postgraduados

    2010-07-15

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  2. Infestation of the woodwasp Tremex apicalis Matsumura (Hymenoptera, Siricidae on the large-leaf dogwood Swida macrophylla (Wall. with biological notes on its parasitoid wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumu Kuramitsu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The woodwasp Tremex apicalis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae infesting a decayed stand of Swida macrophylla (Cornales: Cornaceae was found in Honshu, Japan. S. macrophylla was newly recorded as a host tree of the woodwasps. We observed oviposition behavior of T. apicalis on the tree trunk on May, 2015. In addition, prepupae and pupae of T. apicalis were observed in the wood on April, 2016. However, no larvae of T. apicalis were found at that time. This suggests that T. apicalis requires one year from egg to pupation. Parasitoid wasps, Ibalia japonica (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae and Megarhyssa spp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, were also observed on the trunk (oviposition behavior of adult females and in the wood (pupae and newly emerged adults. Because Ibalia and Megarhyssa are known as larval parasitoids of woodwasps and there were no other insect species in the wood, we conclude that these wasps are parasitoids of T. apicalis larvae. These parasitoids appear to be major natural enemies of T. apicalis larvae in the study site.

  3. A rare but successful reproductive tactic in a social wasp (Hymenoptera:Vespidae: Use of heterospecific nests Una táctica reproductiva rara pero exitosa en una avispa social (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Uso de nidos de otras especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉ R. DE SOUZA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful heterospecific use of abandoned nests has been reported in birds. Although the same behavior has been observed in wasps, the success of such tactic has not been demonstrated. We described two cases in which the social wasp Polistes versicolor successfully reared its brood in empty nests of the social wasps Mischocyttarus drewseni and Mischocyttarus cassununga (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. We showed that this is a rare but a viable reproductive tactic for both solitary and associative foundress. Unlike birds, which use heterspecific nests very similar to their own, wasps are able to use heterspecific nests that do differ from their own.El uso adecuado de los nidos abandonados ha sido reportado en aves. Aunque el mismo comportamiento se ha observado en avispas, pero el éxito de tal táctica no ha sido demostrada. Se describen dos casos en los que la avispa social Polistes versicolor utiliza con éxito los nidos vacíos de la avispa social Mischocyttarus drewseni y Mischocyttarus cassununga (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Hemos demostrado que esta es una rara, pero una viable táctica reproductiva. A diferencia de las aves, que utilizan nidos muy similares a las suyas, las avispas son capaces de utilizar los nidos que difieran de los suyos.

  4. KELT-14b and KELT-15b: An Independent Discovery of WASP-122b and a New Hot Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Colón, Knicole D.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wright, Duncan; Cargile, Phillip A.; Bayliss, Daniel; Pepper, Joshua; Collins, Karen A.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Zhou, George; Gaudi, B. Scott; Tinney, C. G.; Penev, Kaloyan; Tan, T. G.; Stockdale, Chris; Curtis, Ivan A.; James, David; Udry, Stephane; Segransan, Damien; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Eastman, Jason D.; Myers, Gordon; Bartz, Jonathan; Bento, Joao; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Stevens, Daniel J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-14b and KELT-15b, two hot Jupiters from the KELT-South survey. KELT-14b, an independent discovery of the recently announced WASP-122b, is an inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a ˜ {5.0}-0.7+0.3 Gyr, V = 11.0, G2 star that is near the main sequence turnoff. The host star, KELT-14 (TYC 7638-981-1), has an inferred mass {M}* = {1.18}-0.07+0.05 M⊙ and radius {R}* = 1.37+/- -0.08 R⊙, and has {T}{{eff}} = {5802}-92+95 K, {log}{g}* = {4.23}-0.04+0.05 and [{{Fe}}/{{H}}] = 0.33 ± -0.09. The planet orbits with a period of 1.7100588 ± 0.0000025 days (T0 = 2457091.02863 ± 0.00047) and has a radius Rp = {1.52}-0.11+0.12 RJ and mass Mp = 1.196 ± 0.072 MJ, and the eccentricity is consistent with zero. KELT-15b is another inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a ˜{4.6}-0.4+0.5 Gyr, V = 11.2, G0 star (TYC 8146-86-1) that is near the “blue hook” stage of evolution prior to the Hertzsprung gap, and has an inferred mass {M}* = {1.181}-0.050+0.051 M⊙ and radius {R}* = {1.48}-0.04+0.09 R⊙, and {T}{{eff}} = {6003}-52+56 K, {log}{g}* = {4.17}-0.04+0.02 and [{{Fe}}/{{H}}] = 0.05 ± 0.03. The planet orbits on a period of 3.329441 ± 0.000016 days (T0 = 2457029.1663 ± 0.0073) and has a radius Rp = {1.443}-0.057+0.11 RJ and mass Mp = {0.91}-0.22+0.21 MJ and an eccentricity consistent with zero. KELT-14b has the second largest expected emission signal in the K-band for known transiting planets brighter than K < 10.5. Both KELT-14b and KELT-15b are predicted to have large enough emission signals that their secondary eclipses should be detectable using ground-based observatories.

  5. An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukkunen, Juho; Berg, Alexander; Soon, Villu; Ødegaard, Frode; Rosa, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The Chrysididae are a group of cleptoparasitic and parasitoid aculeate wasps with a large number of rare and endangered species. The taxonomy of this group has long been confusing due to the similarity of species and extensive intraspecific variation. We present for the first time a comprehensive dichotomous key for all 74 species found in the Nordic and Baltic countries. In addition to diagnostic characters, information on the distribution and biology of each species is also presented. A new species, Chrysis borealis Paukkunen, Ødegaard & Soon, sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected from Fennoscandia. Chrysis gracillima Förster, 1853 is recorded as new to the Nordic and Baltic countries.

  6. A new synonym of the Neotropical parasitoid wasp genus Notiospathius (Braconidae, Doryctinae), with redescription of two species and description of five new species from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Bonilla, Vladimir Salvador; Nunes, Juliano F.; Penteado-Dias, Angélica M.; Csösz, Sándor; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A junior synonym of the parasitoid wasp genus Notiospathius Matthews and Marsh, Hansonorum syn. n., with two new combinations, Notiospathius carolinae (Marsh) comb. n. and Notiospathius pauli (Marsh) comb. n., are proposed. Two species of Notiospathius from Brazil originally described in early twentieth century are redescribed, Notiospathius caudatus (Szépligeti) and Notiospathius diversus (Szépligeti). Five new species of Notiospathius from southern Brazil are also described: Notiospathius atra sp. n., Notiospathius johnlennoni sp. n., Notiospathius novateutoniae sp. n., Notiospathius sulcatus sp. n., and Notiospathius xanthofasciatus sp. n. Most of the type specimens of the above new species were collected in the mid twentieth century in the Nova Teutonia region, which is now part of the municipality of Seara in the state of Santa Catarina. PMID:21998528

  7. Proteome changes in the plasma of Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): effect of parasitization by the endoparasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-ying; Ye, Gong-yin; Fang, Qi; Hu, Cui

    2009-06-01

    Although the biochemical dissection of parasitoid-host interactions is becoming well characterized, the molecular knowledge concerning them is minimal. In order to understand the molecular bases of the host immune response to parasitoid attack, we explored the response of Papilio xuthus parasitized by the endoparasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum using proteomic approach. By examining the differential expression of plasma proteins in the parasitized and unparasitized host pupae by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, 16 proteins were found to vary in relation to parasitization compared with unparasitized control samples. All of them were submitted to identification by mass spectrometry coupled with a database search. The modulated proteins were found to fall into the following functional groups: humoral or cellular immunity, detoxification, energy metabolism, and others. This study contributes insights into the molecular mechanism of the relationships between parasitoids and their host insects.

  8. Silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) in some species of Hymenoptera (bees and parasitic wasp) and Coleoptera (lady-beetle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, E M; Pompolo, S G; Silva-Junior, J C; Caixeiro, A P; Rocha, M P; Dergam, J A

    2001-01-01

    Adaptations of the nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) banding technique using precipitation of silver salts significantly improved the NOR characterization of some species of hymenopterans and one coleopteran. The bee Melipona marginata (2n = 18) showed one metacentric pair of chromosomes with a NOR in the pericentromeric position. The parasitic wasp Mellitobia australica (2n = 12) also showed one metacentric pair with a strongly Ag-positive NOR. The male lady-beetle Cycloneda sanguinea (2n = 18 + Xy(p)) displayed a NOR on a pair of acrocentric autosomes. In the male Euglossa sp. (a haplodiploid species) (n = 21) the NOR were multiple, and occurred in five chromosomes. In the bee Plebeia sp. 1 (2n = 34) the NOR seemed restricted to one of the homologues of a metacentric pair. The systematic advances brought out by using this technique in the context of current theories of karyotypic evolution of these taxa are described and discussed.

  9. Optical dating and palaeoecological in