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Sample records for wasp polybia occidentalis

  1. Recruitment in Swarm-Founding Wasps: Polybia occidentalis Does not Actively Scent-Mark Carbohydrate Food Sources

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    Benjamin J. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scent marking food resources is expected to enhance foraging efficiency reducing search time. Many social bees exhibit this behavior, but scent-marking is absent in social wasps, except for Vespa mandarinia. We tested for scent marking in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia occidentalis. This wasp has moderately large colonies and utilizes resources that are concentrated in time and space, making scent marking profitable. Also, this wasp uses chemical markings to lead nestmates to a new nest site during swarm emigration, making it possible that it could use the same behavior to recruit nestmates to a food source. Foragers from 11 colonies were given a choice between a previously visited feeder and an unvisited one, both containing a rich, unscented sucrose solution. There was no difference in the number of visits to the two treatments. However, some individuals chose the feeder on one side more often. We conclude that foragers of this species of wasp do not use odor marks left behind by nestmates to find food, but they do exhibit the tendency, when returning to a food source that has not been depleted, to choose a resource based on its relative position, presumably by using visual cues.

  2. The nest as fortress: Defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

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    Sean O'Donnell

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata. nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata. responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata. workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata.. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata. workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior.

  3. Antifungal effect and action mechanism of antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kairong; Jia, Fengjing; Dang, Wen; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhu, Ranran; Sun, Mengyang; Qiu, Shuai; An, Xiaoping; Ma, Zelin; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Yan, Jiexi; Kong, Ziqing; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of life-threatening invasive fungal infections increased significantly in recent years. However, the antifungal therapeutic options are very limited. Antimicrobial peptides are a class of potential lead chemical for the development of novel antifungal agents. Antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP was purified from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista. In this study, we synthesized polybia-CP and determined its antifungal effects against a series of Candidian species. Our results showed that polybia-CP has potent antifungal activity and fungicidal activity against the tested fungal cells with a proposed membrane-active action mode. In addition, polybia-CP could induce the increase of cellular reactive oxygen species production, which would attribute to its antifungal activity. In conclusion, the present study suggests that polybia-CP has potential as an antifungal agent or may offer a new strategy for antifungal therapeutic option. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Utilização de frutos de cactos (Cactaceae como recurso alimentar por vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae em uma área de caatinga (Ipirá, Bahia, Brasil The use of cactus fruit food resources by social wasp (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in an area of Caatinga (lpirá, Bahia, Brazil

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    Gilberto M. M. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar as espécies utilizadas como recurso alimentar e descrever os padrões locais de utilização de frutos de cactos como recurso alimentar por vespas sociais em uma área de Caatinga. Novecentos e oito indivíduos de nove espécies de vespas foram capturados visitando seis espécies de cactáceas. Cereus jamacaru DC. e Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & G.D foram as cactáceas mais utilizadas por vespas sociais, tanto em número de espécies quanto de indivíduos. Polybia paulista von Ihering, 1896, Polybia ignobilis (Haliday, 1836, Polistes versicolor (Olivier, 1791, Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951, Polistes billardieri Fabricius, 1804, Polistes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758, Polybia occidentalis (Olivier, 1791 e Polybia sericea (Olivier, 1705 apresentaram as maiores amplitudes de nicho trófico. As maiores sobreposições no nicho trófico foram observadas entre Mischocyttarus lanei Zikán, 1949 e Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951 (0,83. Os altos níveis de sobreposição de nichos observados são explicados em função do comportamento generalista das vespas sociais, bem como da exploração intensiva de poucas espécies de cactáceas.This study aims to identify food resource plants used by social wasp species in a Caatinga area, as well as describe the local patterns of cactus fruit resources used by wasps. Nine hundreds and eight foraging wasps, belonging to nine species, were captured while visiting six cactus species. Cereus jamacaru DC. and Pilosocereus catingicola (Gurke Byles & G.D. were the most frequently visited plants. Several wasp species and a great number of individuals visited them. Polybia paulista von Ihering, 1896, Polybia ignobilis (Haliday, 1836, Polistes versicolor (Olivier, 1791, Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951, Polistes billardieri Fabricius, 1804, Polistes canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758, Polybia occidentalis (Olivier, 1791 and Polybia sericea (Olivier, 1705 had the larger trophic

  5. Temporal polyethism and worker specialization in the wasp, Vespula germanica.

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    Hurd, Christine R; Jeanne, Robert L; Nordheim, Erik V

    2007-01-01

    Temporal polyethism is a common mechanism of worker specialization observed in social insect species with large colony sizes, Vespula wasp colonies consist of thousands of monomorphic workers, yet studies based on small cohorts of workers report that temporal polyethism is either weak or completely absent in different Vespula species. Concerned that the small sample size of these studies precluded detection of temporal polyethism, several hundred, known-age Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) workers were studied. High variability was found in the sequence and diversity of tasks workers perform, suggesting that V. germanica colonies exhibit weak temporal polyethism. The most common order in which tasks were taken up was 1) nest work, 2) pulp foraging, 3) carbohydrate foraging, and 4) protein foraging. However, only 61% of the wasps performed more than two of the tasks during their lives. Thorax size had a significant negative effect on the age at first foraging, but the magnitude of the effect was small. The daily ratio of task generalists to specialists was relatively constant despite the high turnover of workers, growth of the colony, and the colony's transition from rearing worker larvae to rearing reproductives. Over the course of their lives, 43% of the workers averaged more than one kind of task performed per day. Life history traits are identified that may explain why vespines with large colonies use a generalist strategy of labor division rather than the specialist strategy observed in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and large colonies of wasps (Polybia occidentalis).

  6. Guia de identificação dos ninhos de vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae na Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Identification guide for nests of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespidae sociais utilizam principalmente material vegetal para a elaboração de seus ninhos. Embora existam alguns estudos referentes à fauna de vespas na região Amazônica, nenhum trabalho trata exclusivamente dos ninhos. Além disso, nas coleções biológicas poucos são os ninhos tombados, devido principalmente à fragilidade e difícil conservação dos mesmos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi o conhecimento de alguns ninhos encontrados na Reserva Ducke, apresentando informações a respeito dos mesmos e uma chave de identificação dos gêneros. Os ninhos foram coletados através da busca direta, percorrendo os transectos da grade do Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade; locais como margens de igarapés, bordas de acampamentos e construções na sede da reserva também foram explorados. Para todos os ninhos obteve-se o registro fotográfico e a localização exata por GPS. Foram registrados 39 ninhos de vespas sociais alocados em 17 espécies de Polistinae: Agelaia constructor, A. pallipes, Angiopolybia pallens, Apoica pallens, Metapolybia unilineata, Mischocyttarus lecointei, M. saturatus, Polybia bistriata, P. dimidiata, P. jurinei, P. liliacea, P. occidentalis, P. procellosa, P. rejecta, Protopolybia bituberculata, P. chartergoides e Synoeca virginea. Cinco ninhos desabitados de Mischocyttarus, Polybia e Polistes também foram coletados.Nests of social wasps are composed mainly out of plant material. Although there are some studies about the social wasp fauna in the Amazon region, there is no work exclusively about these wasps' nests. Also, there are few catalogued nests in biological collections, because of their fragility and difficult conservation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinds of nests found at "Reserva Ducke", compiling information about them and developing a key to identify the nests of each genera. The nests were actively collected in tracks of the "Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade" plot; areas such

  7. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.

  8. The cues have it; nest-based, cue-mediated recruitment to carbohydrate resources in a swarm-founding social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller, Teresa I.; Nordheim, Erik V.; Taylor, Benjamin J.; Jeanne, Robert L.

    2010-11-01

    This study explores whether or not foragers of the Neotropical swarm-founding wasp Polybia occidentalis use nest-based recruitment to direct colony mates to carbohydrate resources. Recruitment allows social insect colonies to rapidly exploit ephemeral resources, an ability especially advantageous to species such as P. occidentalis, which store nectar and prey in their nests. Although recruitment is often defined as being strictly signal mediated, it can also occur via cue-mediated information transfer. Previous studies indicated that P. occidentalis employs local enhancement, a type of cue-mediated recruitment in which the presence of conspecifics at a site attracts foragers. This recruitment is resource-based, and as such, is a blunt recruitment tool, which does not exclude non-colony mates. We therefore investigated whether P. occidentalis also employs a form of nest-based recruitment. A scented sucrose solution was applied directly to the nest. This mimicked a scented carbohydrate resource brought back by employed foragers, but, as foragers were not allowed to return to the nest with the resource, there was no possibility for on-nest recruitment behavior. Foragers were offered two dishes—one containing the test scent and the other an alternate scent. Foragers chose the test scent more often, signifying that its presence in the nest induces naïve foragers to search for it off-nest. P. occidentalis, therefore, employs a form of nest-based recruitment to carbohydrate resources that is mediated by a cue, the presence of a scented resource in the nest.

  9. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Análise do conteúdo do trato digestivo das larvas de Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 é uma vespa social de interesse biológico devido ao seu papel como polinizador e possível agente de controle biológico de pragas sanitárias e agrícolas. O presente estudo analisou o conteúdo do trato digestivo de larvas de P. scutellaris de quatros ninhos em Magdalena (província de Buenos Aires, Argentina. O conteúdo inclui restos animais (partes de artrópodos e vegetais (pólen, epiderme de folhas e frutos. A análise do conteúdo polínico mostrou que as vespas visitaram 19 táxons durante o último período ativo da colônia antes dos ninhos serem coletados. A diversidade de recursos utilizados por P. scutellaris permite caracterizá-la como um visitante generalista de flores. As vespas visitaram plantas nativas e exóticas localizados nas proximidades do ninho. A maioria dos restos de epiderme encontradas no trato digestivo das larvas pertence às Malvaceae, uma família não explorada pelas colônias estudadas como fonte de pólen.

  10. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  11. Introduced and Native Parasitoid Wasps Associated With Larch Casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) in Western Larch

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    M. Miller-Pierce; D. C. Shaw; A. Demarco; P. T. Oester

    2015-01-01

    The larch casebearer [Coleophora laricella (Hubner)], a non-native insect, continues to impact western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) through defoliation events in the Pacific Northwest. Biological control programs starting in the 1960s released seven species of parasitoid wasps to control C. laricella...

  12. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves we...

  13. D-amino acid substitution enhances the stability of antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fengjing; Wang, Jiayi; Peng, Jinxiu; Zhao, Ping; Kong, Ziqing; Wang, Kairong; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing emergence of resistant microbes toward conventional antimicrobial agents, there is an urgent need for the development of antimicrobial agents with novel action mode. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are believed to be one kind of ideal alternatives. However, AMPs can be easily degraded by protease, which limited their therapeutic use. In the present study, D-amino acid substitution strategy was employed to enhance the stability of polybia-CP. We investigated the stability of peptides against the degradation of trypsin and chymotrypsin by determining the antimicrobial activity or determining the HPLC profile of peptides after incubation with proteases. Our results showed that both the all D-amino acid derivative (D-CP) and partial D-lysine substitution derivative (D-lys-CP) have an improved stability against trypsin and chymotrypsin. Although D-CP takes left-hand α-helical conformation and D-lys-CP loses some α-helical content, both of the D-amino acid-substituted derivatives maintain their parental peptides' membrane active action mode. In addition, D-lys-CP showed a slight weaker antimicrobial activity than polybia-CP, but the hemolytic activity decreased greatly. These results suggest that D-CP and D-lys-CP can offer strategy to improve the property of AMPs and may be leading compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42, WASP-55 (Southworth+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Andersen, M. I.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; Colque, J. P.; D'Ago, G.; Dominik, M.; Evans, D. F.; Gu, S.-H.; Herrera-Cordova, A.; Hinse, T. C.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Juncher, D.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Skottfelt, J.; Tronsgaard, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.; Alsubai, K. A.; Andersen, J. M.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M.; Damerdji, Y.; Diehl, C.; Elyiv, A.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Haugbolle, T.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Liebig, C.; Mathiasen, M.; Penny, M. T.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Vilela, C.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.

    2018-05-01

    17 light curves of transits of the extrasolar planetary systems WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55 are presented. 13 of the light curves were obtained using the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO La Silla, Chile, in the Bessell R or Bessell I passbands. The other 4 light curves were obtained using the 84cm telescope at Observatorio Cerro Armazones, Chile, using either an R filter or no filter. The errorbars for each transit have been scaled so the best-fitting model (obtained using the JKTEBOP code) has a reduced chi-squared value of 1.0. (4 data files).

  16. Production ecology of Thuja occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Robert S. Seymour; Laura S. Kenefic

    2010-01-01

    Equations to predict branch and tree leaf area, foliar mass, and stemwood volume were developed from 25 destructively sampled northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) trees, a species whose production ecology has not been studied. Resulting models were applied to a large sample of 296 cored trees from 60 sites stratified across a soil gradient...

  17. Safety with Wasps and Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with safe learning activities concerning bees and wasps. The following topics are included: (1) the importance of a positive teacher attitude towards bees and wasps; (2) special problems posed by paper wasps; (3) what to do when a child is bothered by a wasp; (4) what to do if a wasp…

  18. Ocellar optics in nocturnal and diurnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Wallén, Rita; Wcislo, William T

    2006-12-01

    Nocturnal bees, wasps and ants have considerably larger ocelli than their diurnal relatives, suggesting an active role in vision at night. In a first step to understanding what this role might be, the morphology and physiological optics of ocelli were investigated in three tropical rainforest species - the nocturnal sweat bee Megalopta genalis, the nocturnal paper wasp Apoica pallens and the diurnal paper wasp Polistes occidentalis - using hanging-drop techniques and standard histological methods. Ocellar image quality, in addition to lens focal length and back focal distance, was determined in all three species. During flight, the ocellar receptive fields of both nocturnal species are centred very dorsally, possibly in order to maximise sensitivity to the narrow dorsal field of light that enters through gaps in the rainforest canopy. Since all ocelli investigated had a slightly oval shape, images were found to be astigmatic: images formed by the major axis of the ocellus were located further from the proximal surface of the lens than images formed by the minor axis. Despite being astigmatic, images formed at either focal plane were reasonably sharp in all ocelli investigated. When compared to the position of the retina below the lens, measurements of back focal distance reveal that the ocelli of Megalopta are highly underfocused and unable to resolve spatial detail. This together with their very large and tightly packed rhabdoms suggests a role in making sensitive measurements of ambient light intensity. In contrast, the ocelli of the two wasps form images near the proximal boundary of the retina, suggesting the potential for modest resolving power. In light of these results, possible roles for ocelli in nocturnal bees and wasps are discussed, including the hypothesis that they might be involved in nocturnal homing and navigation, using two main cues: the spatial pattern of bright patches of daylight visible through the rainforest canopy, and compass information

  19. Social wasps (Polistinae from Pampa Biome: South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to determine social wasps’ species from Pampa Biome. Were examined samples of social wasps from south-central of Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, parts of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé and La Pampa provinces (Argentina and in Uruguay maintained in the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brazil, American Museum of Natural History (USA, Natural History Museum (London-United Kingdom and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-France. Thirty species were recorded: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 and Protonectarina (01. Vespas sociais do Bioma Pampa: sul do Brasil, nordeste da Argentina e Uruguai. Resumo. Este estudo objetivou determinar as espécies de vespas sociais provenientes do Bioma Pampa. Foram examinadas vespas sociais provenientes de coletas da região centro-sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, parte das províncias de Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé e La Pampa (Argentina e Uruguai depositadas na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brasil, American Museum of Natural History (Nova Iorque-USA, Natural History Museum (Londres-Reino Unido e Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-França. Trinta espécies foram registradas: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 e Protonectarina (01.

  20. Paulistine—The Functional Duality of a Wasp Venom Peptide Toxin

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    Helen Andrade Arcuri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that Paulistine in the venom of the wasp Polybia paulista co-exists as two different forms: an oxidized form presenting a compact structure due to the presence of a disulfide bridge, which causes inflammation through an apparent interaction with receptors in the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, and a naturally reduced form (without the disulfide bridge that exists in a linear conformation and which also causes hyperalgesia and acts in the cyclooxygenase type II pathway. The reduced peptide was acetamidomethylated (Acm-Paulistine to stabilize this form, and it still maintained its typical inflammatory activity. Oxidized Paulistine docks onto PGHS2 (COX-2 molecules, blocking the access of oxygen to the heme group and inhibiting the inflammatory activity of Acm-Paulistine in the cyclooxygenase type II pathway. Docking simulations revealed that the site of the docking of Paulistine within the PGHS2 molecule is unusual among commercial inhibitors of the enzyme, with an affinity potentially much higher than those observed for traditional anti-inflammatory drugs. Therefore, Paulistine causes inflammatory activity at the level of the 5-lipooxygenase pathway and, in parallel, it competes with its reduced form in relation to the activation of the cyclooxygenase pathway. Thus, while the reduced Paulistine causes inflammation, its oxidized form is a potent inhibitor of this activity.

  1. Bee or Wasp Sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Leung, Alexander K C

    2017-09-01

    While jogging in a local park in Hong Kong, a 55-year-old, previously healthy man was stung on the ventral aspect of his right wrist. The tiny stinger was gently removed with nail cutters and examined under a microscope at 80x magni cation; plucking the stinger is ill- advised as this may inject more venom into the wounded site. Two days after stinging, the microscopic appearance of the stinger con rmed the diagnosis to be from a bee instead of a wasp or other insect. A simple method of con rming the nature of insect stings and an overview of Hymenoptera stings and their management are provided herein.

  2. Telfaira Occidentalis Aided Rhizoremediation of Agricultural Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizoremediation process was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of Telfaira occidentalis in the cleanup of a crude oil contaminated soil. The microbial profile of the agricultural soil used in the study was determined before and after crude oil treatment to identify the indigenous flora present in the soil. Microbiological ...

  3. Utilization of enzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight (8) week feeding trial was carried out to assess the use of enzyme natuzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk extract as growth inducer in the practical diet for Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets at 0 ml of stalk extract and enzyme (TRT 1), 15 ml (TRT 2) and 30 ...

  4. WAsP engineering DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Astrup, Poul; Kristensen, Leif

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 1.0 DK - Vindforhold for vindmølledesign. WAsP Engineering is a series of experimental and theoretical activities concerning properties of the winds in moderately complexterrain with relevance for loads on wind turbines...... and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. Thebasic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load...

  5. WAsP engineering 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Jørgensen, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulencein complex terrain. At the web page http......://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complexterrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison...... with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, ispointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological "reanalysis" data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate...

  6. SPIN–ORBIT ALIGNMENT FOR THREE TRANSITING HOT JUPITERS: WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J. [Exoplanetary Science Group, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bayliss, D., E-mail: baddison2005@gmail.com [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2016-05-20

    We have measured the sky-projected spin–orbit alignments for three transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, using spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect, with the CYCLOPS2 optical fiber bundle system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The resulting sky-projected spin–orbit angles of λ = 3° ± 33°, λ = −8° ± 11°, and λ = −4° ± 22° for WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, respectively, suggest that these three planets are likely on nearly aligned orbits with respect to their host star’s spin axis. WASP-103 is a particularly interesting system as its orbital distance is only 20% larger than its host star’s Roche radius and the planet likely experiences strong tidal effects. WASP-87 and WASP-66 are hot ( T {sub eff} = 6450 ± 120 K and T {sub eff} = 6600 ± 150 K, respectively) mid-F stars, making them similar to the majority of stars hosting planets on high-obliquity orbits. Moderate spin–orbit misalignments for WASP-103b and WASP-66b are consistent with our data, but polar and retrograde orbits are not favored for these systems.

  7. SPIN–ORBIT ALIGNMENT FOR THREE TRANSITING HOT JUPITERS: WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J.; Bayliss, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the sky-projected spin–orbit alignments for three transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, using spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect, with the CYCLOPS2 optical fiber bundle system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The resulting sky-projected spin–orbit angles of λ = 3° ± 33°, λ = −8° ± 11°, and λ = −4° ± 22° for WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, respectively, suggest that these three planets are likely on nearly aligned orbits with respect to their host star’s spin axis. WASP-103 is a particularly interesting system as its orbital distance is only 20% larger than its host star’s Roche radius and the planet likely experiences strong tidal effects. WASP-87 and WASP-66 are hot ( T eff = 6450 ± 120 K and T eff = 6600 ± 150 K, respectively) mid-F stars, making them similar to the majority of stars hosting planets on high-obliquity orbits. Moderate spin–orbit misalignments for WASP-103b and WASP-66b are consistent with our data, but polar and retrograde orbits are not favored for these systems.

  8. Hypoglycaemic activity of Telfairia occidentalis in rats | Eseyin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Telfairia occidentalis possess hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this could be beneficial in the ethnotherapy of diabetes mellitus. Key words: Telfairia occidentalis; Glibenclamide; Hypoglycaemic activity; Alloxan-induced diabetes. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.

  9. Effect of the root extract of Telfairia occidentalis on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... evaluated in the test animal showed significant difference from the control. The results show that, unlike the leaf, the root of T. occidentalis did not possess hypoglycaemic activity and the claim of toxicity of the root when eaten was not confirmed by this work.. Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis; Glucose; Toxicity; biomolecules

  10. In vitro culture of Telfairia occidentalis under different cytokinins and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telfairia occidentalis is a tropical vine and has been a good source of iron rich vegetable to man. It is normally propagated through seeds but the seeds are recalcitrant in nature. The vegetative propagation of T. occidentalis has been difficult hence there is a need to develop an in vitro method. Nodal cuttings of T.

  11. Nutritive evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis leaf protein concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf meal (LM), leaf proteins concentrate (LPC) and LPC residues from Telfairia occidentalis were produced, chemically characterized and the protein quality of the LPC evaluated using rats. Five infant weaning foods were formulated using varying combinations of T. occidentalis LPC and soybean meal. These foods were ...

  12. The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evidence from microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strassmann Joan E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social wasps in the subfamily Polistinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae have been important in studies of the evolution of sociality, kin selection, and within colony conflicts of interest. These studies have generally been conducted within species, because a resolved phylogeny among species is lacking. We used nuclear DNA microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters to generate a phylogeny for the Polistinae (Hymenoptera using 69 species. Results Our phylogeny is largely concordant with previous phylogenies at higher levels, and is more resolved at the species level. Our results support the monophyly of the New World subgenera of Polistini, while the Old World subgenera are a paraphyletic group. All genera for which we had more than one exemplar were supported as monophyletic except Polybia which is not resolved, and may be paraphyletic. Conclusion The combination of DNA sequences from flanks of microsatellite repeats with mtCOI sequences and morphological characters proved to be useful characters establishing relationships among the different subgenera and species of the Polistini. This is the first detailed hypothesis for the species of this important group.

  13. Queen signaling in social wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Social Hymenoptera are characterized by a reproductive division of labor, whereby queens perform most of the reproduction and workers help to raise her offspring. A long-lasting debate is whether queens maintain this reproductive dominance by manipulating their daughter workers into remaining...... sterile (queen control), or if instead queens honestly signal their fertility and workers reproduce according to their own evolutionary incentives (queen signaling). Here, we test these competing hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We show that in natural colonies of the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula...

  14. WAsP engineering 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Ott, S.; Hoffmann Joergensen, B.; Frank, H.P.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulence in complex terrain. At the web page http://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complex terrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, is pointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological 'reanalysis' data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate the extreme wind climate around Denmark. Among various alternative physical parameters in the database, such as surface winds, wind at various pressure levels or geostrophic winds at various heights, the surface geostrophic wind seems to give the most realistic results. Because of spatial filtering and intermittent temporal sampling the 50 year winds are underestimated by approximately 12%. Whether the method applies to larger areas of the world remains to be seen. The 50 year winds in Denmark is estimated from data using the flow model inWAsP Engineering and the values are approximately 1 m/s larger than previous analysis (Kristensen et al. 2000). A tool is developed to estimate crudely an extreme wind climate from a WAsP lib file. (au)

  15. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  16. effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of cassia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    seeds extract's relation with acid – base balance of the body. Serum concentrations ... Oral administration of aqueous extract of C. occidentalis ... irrespective of duration of administration (weeks). .... Student 't' test was used to analyse the data.

  17. Synergistic effect of aqueous extract of Telfaria occidentalis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic effect of aqueous extract of Telfaria occidentalis on the biological activities of ... Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan. 2. ... development of resistance to most of the earlier drugs.

  18. Insecticide resistance in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sten Erik

    of acetylcholinesterase, the target site enzyme for methiocarb. The results from bioassays with synergists included indicated involvement of cytochrome P450- monooxygenases and esterases in methiocarb resistance in the most resistant populations. Selection with methiocarb on one of the populations to increase the level......The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. In Denmark F. occidentalis is a pest in greenhouses. F. occidentalis is difficult to control with insecticides because of its thigmokinetic behaviour and resistance...... to insecticides. Since F. occidentulis spread to become a worldwide pest in 1980’es, resistance to a number of different insecticides has been shown in many populations of F. occidentalis. This flower thrips has the potential of fast development of resistance owing to the short generation time, high fecundity...

  19. Food items and general condition of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2017-07-20

    Jul 20, 2017 ... Key words: Food items, Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis, Warri River, condition factor. ... Sufficient food intake aids optimal growth in fish, resulting ... It covers a surface area of 255 km2 with ... examination was carried out.

  20. WASP in Nuclear Power Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chi; Vuong Minh Quang; Nguyen Tri Ho

    1993-03-01

    The main modules of WASP are presented in details in the introduction paragraph. The authors have emphasized on the probabilistic simulation used in WASP for evaluating different costs of the objective function and the Bellman principle for finding the optimal trajectory in dynamic programming. In the second paragraph the principal results obtained by the Nuclear Power Dept. of VINATOM are enumerated: a/the most cost-effective solution for Vietnam is to introduce a nuclear power capacity of 800-1200 MW by around the year 2010; b/ different types of reactors for the first NPP are ranked according to their economic criteria; c/ the sensitivity analysis is also carried out with respect to discount rates, LOLP (loss of load probability), ENS (energy non served), construction cost. (author). 4 figs, 7 tabs

  1. ANALYSIS OF SPIN-ORBIT ALIGNMENT IN THE WASP-32, WASP-38, AND HAT-P-27/WASP-40 SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Enoch, B.; Miller, G. R. M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Diaz, R. F. [LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Doyle, A. P.; Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Lennard-Jones Building, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Gillon, M. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17 (Bat. B5C) Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Queloz, D. [Observatoire Astronomique de l' Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Boisse, I. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Hebrard, G., E-mail: djab@st-andrews.ac.uk [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2012-12-01

    We present measurements of the spin-orbit alignment angle, {lambda}, for the hot Jupiter systems WASP-32, WASP-38, and HAT-P-27/WASP-40, based on data obtained using the HARPS spectrograph. We analyze the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for all three systems and also carry out Doppler tomography for WASP-32 and WASP-38. We find that WASP-32 (T {sub eff} = 6140{sup +90} {sub -100} K) is aligned, with an alignment angle of {lambda} = 10.{sup 0}5{sup +6.4} {sub -6.5} obtained through tomography, and that WASP-38 (T {sub eff} = 6180{sup +40} {sub -60} K) is also aligned, with tomographic analysis yielding {lambda} = 7.{sup 0}5{sup +4.7} {sub -6.1}. The latter result provides an order-of-magnitude improvement in the uncertainty in {lambda} compared to the previous analysis of Simpson et al. We are only able to loosely constrain the angle for HAT-P-27/WASP-40 (T{sub eff} = 5190{sup +160} {sub -170} K) to {lambda} = 24.{sup 0}2{sup +76.0}{sub -44.5}, owing to the poor signal-to-noise ratio of our data. We consider this result a non-detection under a slightly updated version of the alignment test of Brown et al. We place our results in the context of the full sample of spin-orbit alignment measurements, finding that they provide further support for previously established trends.

  2. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  3. New exoplanets from the SuperWASP-North survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the WASP search for transiting exoplanets, focusing on recent planet discoveries from SuperWASP-North and the joint equatorial region (-20≤Dec≤+20 observed by both WASP telescopes. We report the results of monitoring of WASP planets, and discuss how these contribute to our understanding of planet properties and their diversity.

  4. Evaluation of Orius species for biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommasini, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Heteroptera, Orius leavigatu, Orius majusculu, Orius niger, Orius insidiosus, Biology, Diapause, Biological control.The overall aim of this research was to develop a biological control programme for F. occidentalis through the selection of

  5. California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) habitat use patterns in a burned landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyes, Stephanie; Roberts, Susan L.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecosystem process of mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, but there is limited scientific information addressing wildlife habitat use in burned landscapes. Recent studies have presented contradictory information regarding the effects of stand-replacing wildfires on Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis) and their habitat. While fire promotes heterogeneous forest landscapes shown to be favored by owls, high severity fire may create large canopy gaps that can fragment the closed-canopy habitat preferred by Spotted Owls. We used radio-telemetry to determine whether foraging California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, showed selection for particular fire severity patch types within their home ranges. Our results suggested that Spotted Owls exhibited strong habitat selection within their home ranges for locations near the roost and edge habitats, and weak selection for lower fire severity patch types. Although owls selected high contrast edges with greater relative probabilities than low contrast edges, we did not detect a statistical difference between these probabilities. Protecting forests from stand-replacing fires via mechanical thinning or prescribed fire is a priority for management agencies, and our results suggest that fires of low to moderate severity can create habitat conditions within California Spotted Owls' home ranges that are favored for foraging.

  6. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sinukoff, Evan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  7. Cognitive plasticity in foraging Vespula germanica wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is a highly invasive social wasp that exhibits a rich behavioral repertoire in which learning and memory play a fundamental role in foraging. The learning abilities of these wasps were analyzed while relocating a food source and whether V. germanica foragers are capable of discriminating between different orientation patterns and generalizing their choice to a new pattern. Foraging wasps were trained to associate two different stripe orientation patterns with their respective food locations. Their response to a novel configuration that maintained the orientation of one of the learned patterns but differed in other aspects (e.g. width of stripes) was then evaluated. The results support the hypothesis that V. germanica wasps are able to associate a particular oriented pattern with the location of a feeder and to generalize their choice to a new pattern, which differed in quality, but presented the same orientation.

  8. Description of the 'Variable System' in WASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The VARSYS modul of the WASP code prepares a disc data file describing the plant types to be considered as candidates for possible addition to installed capacity in order to be able to meet forecast loads. (RW) [de

  9. Wasp sting: An unusual fatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.; Mathew, P.; Pawar, B.; Calton, N.

    2008-01-01

    Wasp stings are not uncommon especially in populations living in theproximity of forested area-s all over the world. Local manifestationsfollowing stings are common and unusually life threatening anaphylaxis mayoccur, requiring prompt treatment. Multi organ failure and acute renalfailure following wasp stings are rare and histological evaluation suggestacute tubular necrosis secondary to hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and directvenom toxicity. A rare complication of a patient following multiple waspstings with disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure andthrombotic microangiopathy is presented. (author)

  10. System interconnection studies using WASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrak, Y [Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Corp., Ankara (Turkey)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of WASP as a modelling tool for determining the development of two electric systems with interconnections. A case study has been carried out to determine the possibilities of transfer of baseload energy between Turkey and a neighboring country. The objective of this case study is to determine the amount of energy that can be transferred, variations of Loss Probability (LOLP) and unserved energy, and the cost of additional generation with interconnection. The break-even cost will be determined to obtain the minimum charge rate at which TEAS (Turkish Electricity Generation-Transmission Corp.) needs to sell the energy in order to recover the costs. The minimum charge rate for both capacity and energy will be estimated without considering extra capacity additions, except for the ones needed by the Turkish system alone. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  11. Synergistic effect of Murraya koenigii and Telfairia occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larger zones of inhibition were observed for M. Koenigii extract than T. occidentalis extract, and larger zones of inhibition were observed by their synergy than on their separate use. Synergistic antibacterial activity of the extract ranged from 0 mm to 20.0 ± 0.03 mm, zone of inhibition of M. koenigii extract ranged from 0 mm ...

  12. Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.): an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) is arguably one of the least studied commercial tree species in United States and Canada. It is an important source of wildlife habitat and forage, as well as commodities such as fence posts, shingles and siding. Much of the research on this species comes from the Lake States and Canada; few studies have...

  13. Effects of Telfairia Occidentalis Seed Oil on Female Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.T Shittu

    Summary: The effects of T. occidentalis seed oil on some female reproductive indices were investigated in Wistar rats. The study was ... analysis of fluted pumpkin seed oil showed that it is ..... Akang, E., Oremosu, A. A., Dosumo, O. O., Noronhe, ... Current diabetes reports. ... reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans.

  14. GROWTH AND HERBAGE OF TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS (HOOK F).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... occidentalis. INTRODUCTION ... maintenance of motor and internal combustion engines. ... polluted soil caused stunted growth in plant and the ... productive of soil polluted with spent engine oil and .... in total N and exchangeable K and moderate in ... rise in the level of heavy metal concentrations is in.

  15. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury intoxication in rodents causes damage to various organs including the brain via oxidative stress. Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (TOAE) may be a preventive agent by virtue of its reported antioxidant property. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible protective role of TOAE against ...

  16. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) was investigated on the kidney of adult wistar rats. The crude extract of pumpkin root were given both intraperitoneally and orally to rats respectively. The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration ...

  17. Meta-analysis of California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territory occupancy in the Sierra Nevada: habitat associations and their implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Tempel; John J. Keane; R. J. Gutierrez; Jared D. Wolfe; Gavin M. Jones; Alexander Koltunov; Carlos M. Ramirez; William J. Berigan; Claire V. Gallagher; Thomas E. Munton; Paula A. Shaklee; Sheila A. Whitmore; M. Zachariah Peery

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the occupancy dynamics of 275 California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territories in 4 study areas in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1993 to 2011. We used Landsat data to develop maps of canopy cover for each study area, which we then used to quantify annual territory-specific habitat...

  18. REVISED STREAM CODE AND WASP5 BENCHMARK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K

    2005-01-01

    STREAM is an emergency response code that predicts downstream pollutant concentrations for releases from the SRS area to the Savannah River. The STREAM code uses an algebraic equation to approximate the solution of the one dimensional advective transport differential equation. This approach generates spurious oscillations in the concentration profile when modeling long duration releases. To improve the capability of the STREAM code to model long-term releases, its calculation module was replaced by the WASP5 code. WASP5 is a US EPA water quality analysis program that simulates one-dimensional pollutant transport through surface water. Test cases were performed to compare the revised version of STREAM with the existing version. For continuous releases, results predicted by the revised STREAM code agree with physical expectations. The WASP5 code was benchmarked with the US EPA 1990 and 1991 dye tracer studies, in which the transport of the dye was measured from its release at the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam downstream to Savannah. The peak concentrations predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±20.0%. The transport times of the dye concentration peak predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±3.6%. These benchmarking results demonstrate that STREAM should be capable of accurately modeling releases from SRS outfalls

  19. TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-10 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, J. A.; Close, L. M.; Scuderi, L. J.; Morris, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present here observations of the transit of WASP-10b on 2009 October 14 UT taken from the University of Arizona's 1.55 m Kuiper telescope on Mount Bigelow. Conditions were photometric and accuracies of 2.0 mmag rms were obtained throughout the transit. We have found that the ratio of the planet to host star radii is in agreement with the measurements of Christian et al. instead of the refinements of Johnson et al., suggesting that WASP-10b is indeed inflated beyond what is expected from theoretical modeling. We find no evidence for large (>20 s) transit timing variations in WASP-10b's orbit from the ephemeris of Christian et al. and Johnson et al.

  20. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  1. Phytotoxic potential of Senna occidentalis and Senna obtusifolia = Potencial fitotóxico de Senna occidentalis e Senna obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic potential of the aerial and underground parts of Senna occidentalis and S. obtusifolia on the germination and initial growth of lettuce and onion. Four concentrations were used of each ethanol extract (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1, with four replications of 50 seeds. From the investigated species, the aerial part of S. occidentalis interfered in onion germination and the aerial part of S. obtusifolia interfered in the germinations of lettuce and onion. The ethanol extract from the aerial and underground parts of the studied species inhibited the root growth of lettuce and onion. The hypocotyl/coleoptile growth in lettuce and onion was inhibited by the extract of S. obtusifolia aerial part and the underground part of S. occidentalis and S. obtusifolia. The results obtained make it possible to infer that the studied species contain substances that influence the germination and growth of the target seedlings.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial fitotóxico das partes aérea e subterrânea de Senna occidentalis e S. obtusifolia sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de alface e cebola.Utilizaram-se quatro concentrações de cada extrato etanólico (0, 250, 500 e 1000 mg L-1, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Das espécies investigadas, a parte aérea de S. occidentalis interferiu na germinação de cebola e a parte aérea de S. obtusifolia, na germinação de alface e cebola. O extrato etanólico da parte aérea e subterrânea, das espécies em estudo, inibiu o crescimento da raiz de alface e de cebola. O crescimento do hipocótilo/coleóptilo de alface e cebola foi inibido pelo extrato da parte aérea de S. obtusifolia e da subterrânea de S. occidentalis e S. obtusifolia. Os resultados obtidos permitem inferir que as espécies em estudo contêm substâncias que influenciam a germinação e o crescimento das plântulas-alvo.

  2. Precise Masses in the WASP-47 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Mortier, Annelies; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; López-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Bouchy, François; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cosentino, Rosario; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Dumusque, Xavier; Fiorenzano, Aldo; Harutyunyan, Avet; Johnson, John Asher; Lorenzi, Vania; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Pedani, Marco; Pepe, Francesco; Piotto, Giampaolo; Phillips, David; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    We present precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47, a star known to host a hot Jupiter, a distant Jovian companion, and, uniquely, two additional transiting planets in short-period orbits: a super-Earth in a ≈19 hr orbit, and a Neptune in a ≈9 day orbit. We analyze our observations from the HARPS-N spectrograph along with previously published data to measure the most precise planet masses yet for this system. When combined with new stellar parameters and reanalyzed transit photometry, our mass measurements place strong constraints on the compositions of the two small planets. We find that, unlike most other ultra-short-period planets, the inner planet, WASP-47 e, has a mass (6.83 ± 0.66 {M}\\oplus ) and a radius (1.810 ± 0.027 {R}\\oplus ) that are inconsistent with an Earth-like composition. Instead, WASP-47 e likely has a volatile-rich envelope surrounding an Earth-like core and mantle. We also perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the orbital inclination of WASP-47 c, the outer Jovian planet. This planet likely orbits close to the plane of the inner three planets, suggesting a quiet dynamical history for the system. Our dynamical constraints also imply that WASP-47 c is much more likely to transit than a geometric calculation would suggest. We calculate a transit probability for WASP-47 c of about 10%, more than an order of magnitude larger than the geometric transit probability of 0.6%.

  3. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  4. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF WASP-18b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Campo, Christopher J.; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C.; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R.; Gillon, Michael; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don

    2011-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets project. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in the 3.6 μm and 5.8 μm bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm bands on 2008 December 24. We report eclipse depths of 0.30% ± 0.02%, 0.39% ± 0.02%, 0.37% ± 0.03%, 0.41% ± 0.02%, and brightness temperatures of 3100 ± 90, 3310 ± 130, 3080 ± 140, and 3120 ± 110 K in order of increasing wavelength. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets yet discovered—as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile most likely features a thermal inversion. The observations also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day side to the night side of the planet.

  5. Getting Started with WAsP 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Heathfield, D.N.; Myllerup, Lisbeth

    . The analysis part consists of a transformation of an observed wind climate (speed and direction distributions) to a wind atlas data set. The wind atlas data set can subsequently be applied for estimation of the wind climate and wind power potential, as well as for siting of specific wind turbines. The WAsP 9...

  6. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations...

  7. The sphecid wasps (Hym. Ampulicidae, Sphecidae & Crabronidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The list of Egyptian sphecid wasps includes the current names of those species recorded in the literature with indications where these have changed together with previously unrecorded genera and species. Three genera have not been recorded from Egypt hitherto (Spilomena, Crossocerus, Lestica). Twenty-four species ...

  8. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  9. WAsP in the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Landberg, Lars; Jensen, Niels Otto

    2005-01-01

    This article compares mean wind estimates from a WAsP analysis for three forest sites and one site near a forest with measurements taken at the sites. By standard WAsP settings for forest, the mean wind speed at the sites was overestimated. Agreement between the estimates and the measurements...... improved significantly if displacement height and roughness length as calculated from the forest mast data were used or if a simple model estimate of roughness length and displacement height based on stand density (frontal area index) was used. The two estimates of displacement height and roughness length...... (mast data and simple model) did not agree well with each other. One reason for this may be that all evaluated sites are windy and that both d and z0 depend on the wind speed. All analysed forest sites are dense, in which case the influence from the roughness sublayer is limited and the effect on mean...

  10. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-02-23

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes.

  11. Effects of inorganic lead on Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.salice@ttu.ed [US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Suski, Jamie G., E-mail: jamie.suski@ttu.ed [US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Bazar, Matthew A., E-mail: matthew.bazar@us.army.mi [US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G., E-mail: larry.talent@okstate.ed [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Although anthropogenic pollutants are thought to threaten reptilian species, there are few toxicity studies on reptiles. We evaluated the toxicity of Pb as lead acetate to the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). The acute lethal dose and sub-acute (14-day) toxicity studies were used to narrow exposure concentrations for a sub-chronic (60-day) study. In the sub-chronic study, adult and juvenile male lizards were dosed via gavage with 0, 1, 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/day. Mortality was limited and occurred only at the highest dose (20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d). There were statistically significant sub-lethal effects of 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d on body weight, cricket consumption, organ weight, hematological parameters and post-dose behaviors. Of these, Pb-induced changes in body weight are most useful for ecological risk assessment because it is linked to fitness in wild lizard populations. The Western fence lizard is a useful model for reptilian toxicity studies. - The Western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is sensitive to Pb and is a useful laboratory model for ecotoxicological testing of reptiles.

  12. Effects of inorganic lead on Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Suski, Jamie G.; Bazar, Matthew A.; Talent, Larry G.

    2009-01-01

    Although anthropogenic pollutants are thought to threaten reptilian species, there are few toxicity studies on reptiles. We evaluated the toxicity of Pb as lead acetate to the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). The acute lethal dose and sub-acute (14-day) toxicity studies were used to narrow exposure concentrations for a sub-chronic (60-day) study. In the sub-chronic study, adult and juvenile male lizards were dosed via gavage with 0, 1, 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/day. Mortality was limited and occurred only at the highest dose (20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d). There were statistically significant sub-lethal effects of 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d on body weight, cricket consumption, organ weight, hematological parameters and post-dose behaviors. Of these, Pb-induced changes in body weight are most useful for ecological risk assessment because it is linked to fitness in wild lizard populations. The Western fence lizard is a useful model for reptilian toxicity studies. - The Western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is sensitive to Pb and is a useful laboratory model for ecotoxicological testing of reptiles.

  13. Mercury in Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudith Burgos N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assessment the total concentration of mercury in the liver and feathers of Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia. Materials and methods. Mercury concentrations in liver and feather of Pelecanus occidentalis residents in the Cispata bay – Colombia were evaluated by digestion with an acidic mixture of H2SO4–HNO3 and KMnO4 to eliminate organic matter. The concentration of mercury was determined by the Atomic Absorption - Cold Vapor method (CVAAS. Results. Total mercury levels found in this study were higher in feathers (0.31-9.17 mgHg/kg than in the liver (0.63–6.29 mgHg/kg, being higher than those reported in other seabirds studies. Conclusions. The high levels of total mercury in feathers and liver can be explained by the feeding habits of the organisms under study, showing the utility of feathers as a potential non-invasive tool for the monitoring of the ecosystem and thereby preventing the sacrifice of specimens.

  14. Palp-faction: an African milkweed dismembers its wasp pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Adam; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-06-01

    Interactions between pollinators and nectar-producing flowers are usually assumed to be mutualistic, but the exploitative basis of these relationships can lead to antagonistic interactions. Flowers of the African milkweed, Pachycarpus appendiculatus E. Mey, produce concentrated nectar that is consumed primarily by the large spider-hunting wasp Hemipepsis dedjas Guerin (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Pollinaria of this milkweed become attached to the palps of these wasps during nectar feeding. Broken wasp palps were found between guide rails, attached to corpuscula that were trapped behind the guide rails, and attached to pollinia that were inserted into the stigmatic chambers of the flowers. Approximately 85% of wasps captured on flowers of P. appendiculatus were missing one or more palps, whereas only 9% of wasps captured on flowers of another asclepiad species were missing any palps. It thus seems that wasps face a high risk of losing their palps when foraging on these flowers. The interaction may thus be antagonistic for the wasps if the cost of losing their sensory palps (not yet established) is greater than the benefits of the nectar reward. The plants, however, gain clear benefit from the interaction, as verified by the removal and insertion of pollinia in flowers exposed solely to visits by pompilid wasps.

  15. Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago H. Auko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae. New associations of host and parasitoids involving potter wasps: Toxophora leucon and Pleurochrysis sp. were found parasitizing Cyphomenes anisitsii, Chrysis sp. (gr. intricans was found parasitizing Minixi suffusum, Plega beardi was found parasitizing Montezumia pelagica sepulchralis and Macrosiagon sp. was found parasitizing Pachodynerus nasidens.

  16. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program: WAsP 11 Help Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    of specific wind turbines and wind farms. The WAsP Help Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference. It further includes descriptions of the Observed Wind Climate Wizard, the WAsP Climate Analyst, the WAsP Map Editor tool, the WAsP Turbine Editor tool, the Air Density...

  17. Wasp venom proteins: phospholipase A1 and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T P; Kochoumian, L; Joslyn, A

    1984-04-01

    Three major venom proteins from different species of wasps have been isolated and characterized. They are hyaluronidase, phospholipase, and antigen 5 of as yet unknown biochemical function. These three proteins are allergens in wasp venom-sensitive persons. The species of wasps studied, of the genus Polistes, were annularis, carolina, exclamans, fuscatus, and instabilis. Antigen 5 and phospholipase from wasp venoms were shown to be antigenically distinct from homologous proteins of yellowjacket venoms. The venom phospholipase from wasp, as well as that from yellowjacket (Vespula germanica), appears to have dual enzymatic specificities of the A1 and B types. That is, hydrolysis takes place at the 1-acyl residue of phosphatidylcholine and at the 1- or 2-acyl residue of lysophosphatidylcholine.

  18. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  19. [Resistance risk and resistance stability of Frankliniella occidentalis to imidacloprid, emamectin benzoate, and phoxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Yu, Yi; Liu, Yong-Jie; Ma, Jing-Yu

    2012-12-01

    In order to effectively control the damage of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Phaseolus vuglaris was dipped with imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively to select the resistance populations of F. occidentalis from its susceptible population, and the resistance inheritance and resistance risk were analyzed with the resistance reality heredity. After 32, 32, and 24 generations' selection, the F. occidentalis populations obtained 13.8-fold, 29.4-fold and 39.0-fold resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively. The resistance reality heritability to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate was 0.112, 0.166, and 0.259, respectively. The resistance development rate to emamectin benzoate was the fastest, followed by to phoxim, and to imidacloprid. The higher the resistance levels of the selected populations, the lower the differences between the larva and adult susceptibility to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Stopping selection for 12 continuous generations, the resistance level of the selected resistance populations to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate had definite decline, but it was difficult to regain the original susceptibility. F. occidentalis had a greater potential to gain high level resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Compared with the resistance of F. occidentalis to phoxim and emamectin benzoate, the resistance to imidacloprid increased slower and decreased faster, and thus, imidacloprid was more appropriate to control F. occidentalis in practice.

  20. Pollinator attraction of the wasp-flower Scrophularia umbrosa (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, J; Emer, D; Ayasse, M

    2012-05-01

    Certain species of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae), such as S. nodosa and S. umbrosa, are mainly pollinated by social wasps and are consequently described as wasp-flowers. Because plants attract their pollinators with the help of various floral cues, such as floral odour and/or optical cues, we have investigated the role of olfactory and visual floral signals responsible for wasp attraction in S. umbrosa. Using a combination of chemical (GC, GC-MS) and electrophysiological analyses (GC-EAD), we identified ten compounds in the complex floral odour bouquet that are detectable by the wasps' antennae. As in the wasp-flower Epipactis helleborine, we found so-called 'green leaf volatiles' (GLVs) in the floral odour; these GLVs are highly attractive to the wasps. GLVs, mostly six-carbon aldehydes, alcohols and acetates, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are emitted by many plants infested with herbivores, e.g. caterpillars. In contrast to other investigated wasp-flowers, behavioural experiments have demonstrated that, in addition to the floral odour of S. umbrosa, visual cues are involved in pollinator attraction. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Ronquist

    Full Text Available Gall wasps (Cynipidae represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini, which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2 markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will

  2. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  3. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  4. NMR metabolomics of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistance in Senecio hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Choi, Young H; Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim B; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2009-02-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in F (2) hybrids of Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus. We identified thrips-resistant hybrids applying three different bioassays. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles of these hybrids applying nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The new developments of NMR facilitate a wide range coverage of the metabolome. This makes NMR especially suitable if there is no a priori knowledge of the compounds related to herbivore resistance and allows a holistic approach analyzing different chemical compounds simultaneously. We show that the metabolomes of thrips-resistant and -susceptible hybrids differed considerably. Thrips-resistant hybrids contained higher amounts of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), jacobine, and jaconine, especially in younger leaves. Also, a flavanoid, kaempferol glucoside, accumulated in the resistant plants. Both PAs and kaempferol are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores. In resistant and susceptible F (2) hybrids, young leaves showed less thrips damage than old leaves. Consistent with the optimal plant defense theory, young leaves contained increased levels of primary metabolites such as sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, but also accumulated jacaranone as a secondary plant defense compound. Our results prove NMR as a promising tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants.

  5. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million. The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn. has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control.

  6. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P; Balakrishnan, N

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control.

  7. Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide

  8. Absorbing Gas around the WASP-12 Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Bohlender, D.; Kochukhov, O.; Flöer, L.

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index (log R^{{\\prime }}_{HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Rechereche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del

  9. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Kincaid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  10. Specific Identification of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria occidentalis Populations by the Low Stringency Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Rodrigues Pires

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Biomphalaria occidentalis and B. tenagophila are indistinguishable on the basis of shell morphology and the majority of their genital organs, only the latter is susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Thus, the identification of these species is fundamental to epidemiological studies of schistosomiasis. Here we describe a simple and rapid method for differentiating B. tenagophila from B. occidentalis based on low stringency polymerase chain reaction and using a pair of primers specific for the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Analysis of the low stringency product profiles of populations of these snails from different geographical regions confirmed this approach as being applicable to the identification of B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis in cases where classical morphology is inconclusive

  11. Leptophis santamartensis (Serpentes, Colubridae), a junior synonym of Leptophis ahaetulla occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Nelson R.; de Passos, Paulo; Gotte, Steve W.

    2012-01-01

    Leptophis santamartensis, known only from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is one of the more poorly known species of the genus Leptophis. The characters used for its diagnosis largely overlap with those of other Leptophis, mainly with Leptophis ahaetulla occidentalis, the only other Leptophis known to occur in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. A detailed comparison of L. a. occidentalis with the two known specimens of L. santamartensis leads to the conclusion that the latter should be relegated to the synonymy of the former.

  12. Successful treatment of verruca vulgaris with Thuja occidentalis in a renal allograft recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus-driven verruca vulgaris infection is common in solid organ transplant recipients and increases the risk for squamous cell carcinoma. The available treatment modalities have limited response. We report a renal allograft recipient who presented with multiple warts not responding to cryotherapy and radiosurgery with one turning malignant, needing amputation of the finger. An extract from Thuja occidentalis (White cedar tree cured the resistant warts on the other fingers, leaving only superficial scars and without affecting allograft function. We have reviewed the pharmacological and clinical properties of T. occidentalis.

  13. Cassia occidentalis L.: a review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J P; Arya, Vedpriya; Yadav, Sanjay; Panghal, Manju; Kumar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema

    2010-06-01

    Cassia occidentalis L. is an annual or perennial Ayurvedic plant which is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. This weed has been known to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancerous, antimutagenic and hepatoprotective activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including achrosin, aloe-emodin, emodin, anthraquinones, anthrones, apigenin, aurantiobtusin, campesterol, cassiollin, chryso-obtusin, chrysophanic acid, chrysarobin, chrysophanol, chrysoeriol etc. have been isolated from this plant. The presented review summarizes the information concerning the botany, ethnopharmacologyquery, phytochemistry, biological activity and toxicity of the C.occidentalis plant. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  15. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  16. Clathrin Heavy Chain Is Important for Viability, Oviposition, Embryogenesis and, Possibly, Systemic RNAi Response in the Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke; Hoy, Marjorie A.

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin heavy chain has been shown to be important for viability, embryogenesis, and RNA interference (RNAi) in arthropods such as Drosophila melanogaster. However, the functional roles of clathrin heavy chain in chelicerate arthropods, such as the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis, remain unknown. We previously showed that dsRNA ingestion, followed by feeding on spider mites, induced systemic and robust RNAi in M. occidentalis females. In the current study, we performed a loss-of-function analysis of the clathrin heavy chain gene in M. occidentalis using RNAi. We showed that ingestion of clathrin heavy chain dsRNA by M. occidentalis females resulted in gene knockdown and reduced longevity. In addition, clathrin heavy chain dsRNA treatment almost completely abolished oviposition by M. occidentalis females and the few eggs produced did not hatch. Finally, we demonstrated that clathrin heavy chain gene knockdown in M. occidentalis females significantly reduced a subsequent RNAi response induced by ingestion of cathepsin L dsRNA. The last finding suggests that clathrin heavy chain may be involved in systemic RNAi responses mediated by orally delivered dsRNAs in M. occidentalis. PMID:25329675

  17. Comparison of three liquid lures for trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gerald S; Jordan, Kyle K

    2005-06-01

    Two citrus-based sodas and a known wasp attractant were compared in a field trial to assess their attractiveness to local nuisance wasp species. The wasps captured included Vespula germanica (F.), Vespula maculifrons (Buysson), Vespula vulgaris (L.), Vespula flavopilosa Jacobson, Vespula squamosa (Drury), Dolichovespula maculata (L.), Polistes fuscatus (L.), Polistes metricus Say, and Polistes dominulus (Christ). Wasps in the genus Vespula were present in significantly higher numbers in traps than Dolichovespula and Polistes. Both citrus soda products were superior to the isobutanol-acetic acid mixture as attractants for almost all of the wasp species.

  18. PLN's experience with the WASP-III model in generation expansion planning for the Java system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudja, N.; Afiff, A.; Simarmata, B.

    1988-01-01

    The State Electric Power Corporation of Indonesia (PLN) was one of the first recipients of the WASP computer model, and since 1976 has been using the model (first the version WASP-II, and later the WASP-III version) for carrying out generation expansion planning studies for the country, and particularly, for the Java power system. This paper discusses PLN's experience with WASP-III and comments on some problems and constraints encountered, particularly: the time-fixed forced outage rate (FOR) assumed for generating units, simulation of the hydro system and computation time. The paper concludes with some suggestions about future enhancements to WASP-III. (author). 3 figs, 11 tabs

  19. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...... phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest....

  20. The East-Asiatic and Indo-Australian species of Polybioides Buysson and Parapolybia Saussure (HYM., Vespidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, van der J.

    1966-01-01

    In 1913 A. von Schulthess published under the title "Parapolybia Saussure" a revision of the Old World social wasps which in general appearance are similar to certain species of the American genus Polybia. Only a few months later R. du Buysson described some new species of "Polybia" from Asia and

  1. Effect of host plant on body size of Frankliniella occidentalis and its correlation with reproductive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogel, de W.J.; Bosco, D.; Hoek, van der M.; Mollema, C.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of different host plants on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) body size was investigated. Thrips from three different populations, from the Netherlands, Italy, and USA, achieved greater body sizes when reared on cucumber than on bean. The same thrips grew

  2. A Telfairia Occidentalis Seed-incorporated Diet May Be Useful in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Andropause, a prevalent pathology of men, results from an imbalance in steroid hormone concentrations that often is associated with aging, and reduces the quality of life of the sufferer. This study investigates the usefulness of a diet containing 15% Telfairia occidentalis seeds in the inhibition of the induction of ...

  3. Stocktype and vegetative competition influences on Pseudotsuga menziesii and Larix occidentalis seedling establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah R. Pinto; Bridget A. McNassar; Olga A. Kildisheva; Anthony S. Davis

    2018-01-01

    Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mayr) Franco), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) are species of ecological and commercial importance that occur throughout the Western United States. Effective reforestation of these species relies on successful seedling establishment, which is affected by planting stock quality, stocktype size, and...

  4. Oxyfluorfen strongly affects Larix occidentalis but minimally affects Sagina procumbens in a bareroot nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jasmine L. Williams; Jeremy R. Pinto; Peng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate oxyfluorfen for control of birdseye pearlwort (Sagina procumbens L.) in a bareroot nursery crop of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings. Oxyfluorfen applied at rates up to 0.56 kg a.i./ha in a split-plot experiment with combinations and frequencies of pre- and postemergence sprays gave minimal control of birdseye pearlwort....

  5. Aspects of the biology of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of the biology of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis at Idah Area of River Niger were studied between October and December, 2010. A total of 129 fish samples were used for the study. The length-weight relationships were analyzed using the formula W = aLb and transformed to Log W = Log a + b Log L. Stomach ...

  6. Abundance and population characteristics of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Erran Seaman

    1997-01-01

    We monitored the threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park from 1992 through 1996. We used a stratified random sampling scheme to survey 35 plots totaling 236 km?, approximately 10 percent of the forested area of the park.

  7. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BORJI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, including toll like recep­tors (TLRs is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune re­sponses.Methods: Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcrip­tion polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner.Results: A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expres­sion was more pronounced and evident in our study.Conclsusion: Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and domi­nant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis

  8. Worker policing in the German wasp Vespula germanica

    OpenAIRE

    Wim Bonckaert; Kristel Vuerinckx; Johan Billen; Rob L. Hammond; Laurent Keller; Tom Wenseleers

    2008-01-01

    In some ants, bees, and wasps, workers kill or "police" male eggs laid by other workers in order to maintain the reproductive primacy of the queen. Kin selection theory predicts that multiple mating by the queen is one factor that can selectively favor worker policing. This is because when the queen is mated to multiple males, workers are more closely related to the queen's sons than to the sons of other workers. Earlier work has suggested that reproductive patterns in the German wasp Vespula...

  9. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  10. A mechanical signal biases caste development in a social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath Suryanarayanan; John C. Hermanson; Robert L. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the proximate mechanisms of caste development in eusocial taxa can reveal how social species evolved from solitary ancestors. In Polistes wasps, the current paradigm holds that differential amounts of nutrition during the larval stage cause the divergence of worker and gyne (potential queen) castes. But nutrition level alone cannot explain how the first...

  11. Venom gland components of the ectoparasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae is a small ectoparasitoid that attacks stored product pest beetle larvae that develop inside grain kernels, and is thus a potential insect control tool. The components of the venom have not been studied, but venom peptides from other organisms have been identified ...

  12. History and management of sirex wood wasp in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and management of Sirex noctilio in Australia, including information from previous reviews as well as more recent data. The sirex wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata in Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Turkey, S...

  13. Provisional host catalogue of Fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this catalogue — entitled "provisional" because our knowledge of the subject is still so evidently incomplete — all species of Ficus mentioned as hosts of fig wasps, are listed with the Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea reared from their receptacles. The names used for the Agaonidae are in

  14. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reece, S.E.; Shuker, D.M.; Pen, I.R.; Duncan, A.B.; Choudhary, A.; Batchelor, C.M.; West, S.A.

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This

  15. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  16. WASP as a planning tool of electrical generation systems expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Isidoro, G.

    1984-01-01

    The ''Wien Automatic System Package'' (WASP), consists of six modules or computer programmes which assist in decision taking process in expanding an electrical generation network. A general description of this model is made and some conclusions are drawn from the data processed to this date

  17. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in West-Azerbaijan province. The galls occurring on 50 cm sampled branches from four cardinal directions on each tree were counted multiple times throughout the season. Species ...

  18. Inheritance of gynandromorphism in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamping, Albert; Katju, Vaishali; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Werren, Jobn H.; Werren, John H.; Kaufman, T.C.

    The parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis has haplo-diploid sex determination. Males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, whereas females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid. Females and males can be easily distinguished by their morphology. A strain that produces individuals with

  19. The WASP-South search for transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006 WASP-South has been scanning the Southern sky for transiting exoplanets. Combined with Geneva Observatory radial velocities we have so far found over 30 transiting exoplanets around relatively bright stars of magnitude 9–13. We present a status report for this ongoing survey.

  20. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  1. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kerry M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont. Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism, then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont

  2. Aspectos étnicos, biológicos e químicos de Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. KANEKO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Senna occidentalis (sin. Cassia occidentalis é um arbusto perene nativo da América do Sul e distribuída em regiões tropicais ao redor do mundo, frequentemente contaminando pastos e culturas de cereais. Inúmeros estudos demonstraram que esta planta é tóxica para animais. Na medicina popular, tribos americanas, africanas e indianas usam preparações da S. occidentalis como tônico, estomáquico, febrífugo, laxante e antimicrobiano. Diversas propriedades biológicas da espécie já foram comprovadas, tais como a antibacteriana, antifúngica, antimalárica, antitumoral e hepatoprotetora. As análises fitoquímicas evidenciaram que as antraquinonas, os flavonóides e outros derivados fenólicos são os seus principais constituintes. Esta revisão apresenta dados etnofarmacológicos, químicos e biológicos publicados na literatura sobre S. occidentalis. Palavras-chave: Senna occidentalis. Cassia occidentalis. Fabaceae. Leguminosae. Caesalpinioideae. Fedegoso.

  3. Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig–wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis, and its two wasp pollinators (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A.; Underhill, J. G.; Cruaud, A.; Hossaert-McKey, M.; Johnson, S. D.; Tolley, K. A.; Kjellberg, F.; van Noort, S.; Proffit, M.

    2012-01-01

    Combining biogeographic, ecological, morphological, molecular and chemical data, we document departure from strict specialization in the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. We show that the pollinating wasps Elisabethiella stuckenbergi and Elisabethiella socotrensis form a species complex of five lineages in East and Southern Africa. Up to two morphologically distinct lineages were found to co-occur locally in the southern African region. Wasps belonging to a single lineage were frequently the main regional pollinators of several Ficus species. In South Africa, two sister lineages, E. stuckenbergi and E. socotrensis, pollinate Ficus natalensis but only E. stuckenbergi also regularly pollinates Ficus burkei. The two wasp species co-occur in individual trees of F. natalensis throughout KwaZulu-Natal. Floral volatile blends emitted by F. natalensis in KwaZulu-Natal were similar to those emitted by F. burkei and different from those produced by other African Ficus species. The fig odour similarity suggests evolutionary convergence to attract particular wasp species. The observed pattern may result from selection for pollinator sharing among Ficus species. Such a process, with one wasp species regionally pollinating several hosts, but several wasp species pollinating a given Ficus species across its geographical range could play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics of the Ficus-pollinating wasp association. PMID:22130605

  4. Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show evidence of hybridization. Populations are highly isolated, some of which appear to be very small; thus, the effects of drift are expected to reduce the efficiency of selection. Large genetic divergences among lineages, marked environmental differences in their ranges, reproductive isolation, and/or high isolation of populations may have resulted in morphological differences in L. occidentalis, not detected yet by traditional taxonomy. We used landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses to test for differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages of L. occidentalis, and among populations within these lineages. We analyzed a total of 492 individuals from 53 coastal localities from the southern California Bight to Central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. We conducted discriminant function analyses (DFAs) on body shape morphometrics to assess morphological variation among genetically differentiated lineages and their populations. We also tested for associations between phylogeny and morphological variation, and whether genetic divergence is correlated to multivariate morphological divergence. We detected significant differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages, and among populations within these lineages. Nonetheless, neither lineages nor populations can be discriminated on the basis of body shape, because correct classification rates of cross

  5. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae): A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Naser, Belal; Bodinet, Cornelia; Tegtmeier, Martin; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2005-01-01

    Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especial...

  6. Studies on physicochemical and nutritional properties of aerial parts of Cassia occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivam Manikandaselvi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present, work chemical composition and nutritional value of aerial parts of Cassia occidentalis L. was studied. The aerial parts of C. occidentalis possess favorable physicochemical properties with good nutritional value, such as high energy value, crude fibers, and vitamin levels. The X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry data revealed that the sample is rich in minerals, especially in Fe, Ca, K, and Mn. Further, minerals such as Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, P, and S are present in good amount and depicted the nutritional value of the selected material. The plant sample is rich in phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, lignin, tannins, and phenols. The presence of phytochemical constituents was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profile and high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting techniques. The findings stimulate the on-farm cultivation of C. occidentalis on a large scale to relieve the iron deficiency in local community, and it can be used as a dietary supplement to treat anemia.

  7. Biotransformation of hexavalent chromium into extracellular chromium(III) oxide nanoparticles using Schwanniomyces occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Pallavi T; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into Cr2O3 nanoparticles by the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Reaction mixtures containing S. occidentalis NCIM 3459 and Cr(VI) ions that were initially yellow turned green after 48 h incubation. The coloration was due to the synthesis of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles (Cr2O3NPs). UV-Visible spectra of the reaction mixtures showed peaks at 445 and 600 nm indicating (4)A2g → (4)T1g and (4)A2g → (4)T2g transitions in Cr2O3, respectively. FTIR profiles suggested the involvement of carboxyl and amide groups in nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization. The Cr2O3NPs ranged between 10 and 60 nm. Their crystalline nature was evident from the selective area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction patterns. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the chemical composition of the nanoparticles. These biogenic nanoparticles could find applications in different fields. S. occidentalis mediated biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into crystalline extracellular Cr2O3NPs under benign conditions.

  8. Refractoriness of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to the Lyme disease group spirochete Borrelia bissettii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R S; Mun, J; Eisen, L; Eisen, R J

    2006-08-01

    The western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is refractory to experimental infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, one of several Lyme disease spirochetes pathogenic for humans. Another member of the Lyme disease spirochete complex, Borrelia bissettii, is distributed widely throughout North America and a similar, if not identical, spirochete has been implicated as a human pathogen in southern Europe. To determine the susceptibility of S. occidentalis to B. bissettii, 6 naïve lizards were exposed to the feeding activities of Ixodes pacificus nymphs experimentally infected with this spirochete. None of the lizards developed spirochetemias detectable by polymerase chain reaction for up to 8 wk post-tick feeding, infected nymphs apparently lost their B. bissettii infections within 1-2 wk after engorgement, and xenodiagnostic L. pacificus larvae that co-fed alongside infected nymphs did not acquire and maintain spirochetes. In contrast, 3 of 4 naïve deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) exposed similarly to feeding by 1 or more B. bissettii-infected nymphs developed patent infections within 4 wk. These and previous findings suggest that the complement system of S. occidentalis typically destroys B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes present in tissues of attached and feeding I. pacificus nymphs, thereby potentially reducing the probability of transmission of these bacteria to humans or other animals by the resultant adult ticks.

  9. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  10. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Sean; Moeri, Onour; Jones, Tanya; Scott, Catherine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Regine; O'Donnell, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae) are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1) video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2) analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3) inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests). Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  11. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  12. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) package. Version 1.0. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. (WASP is designed for data analysis of the STAR and ALICE experiments). It uses a wavelet analysis for this purpose and the vanishing momentum or gaussian wavelets are chosen for transformations. WASP provides an user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) which makes it quite simple to use. WASP design, a brief description of the used wavelet transformation algorithm and GUI are presented in this user's guide

  13. Trap-nest occupation by solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in a forest urban remanent

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola, Rafael D.; Martins, Rogério P.

    2006-01-01

    Temporal variation of solitary wasps and bees, nesting frequency, mortality, and parasitism were recorded from a remanent forest in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Wasps and bees were collected in trap-nests placed in areas with 25, 100, and 400 m², from February to November 2004. The 137 trap-nests collected contained 11 species of wasps and bees. Wasps occupied most nests (75%). Occupation peaks occurred in March (25%) and September (26%); in June, the lowest occupation (2%) was observed. Excep...

  14. Detection of sodium in the atmosphere of WASP-69b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasayas-Barris, N.; Palle, E.; Nowak, G.; Yan, F.; Nortmann, L.; Murgas, F.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Transit spectroscopy is one of the most commonly used methods to characterize exoplanets' atmospheres. From the ground, these observations are very challenging due to the terrestrial atmosphere and its intrinsic variations, but high-spectral-resolution observations overcome this difficulty by resolving the spectral lines and taking advantage of the different Doppler velocities of the Earth, the host star, and the exoplanet. Aims: We analyze the transmission spectrum around the Na I doublet at 589 nm of the extrasolar planet WASP-69b, a hot Jupiter orbiting a K-type star with a period of 3.868 days, and compare the analysis to that of the well-known hot Jupiter HD 189733b. We also present the analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect for WASP-69b. Methods: We observed two transits of WASP-69b with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS-North) spectrograph (R = 115 000) at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). We perform a telluric contamination subtraction based on the comparison between the observed spectra and a telluric water model. Then, the common steps of the differential spectroscopy are followed to extract the transmission spectrum. The method is tested with archival transit data of the extensively studied exoplanet HD 189733b, obtained with the HARPS-South spectrograph at ESO 3.6 m telescope, and then applied to WASP-69b data. Results: For HD 189733b, we spectrally resolve the Na I doublet and measure line contrasts of 0.72 ± 0.05% (D2) and 0.51 ± 0.05% (D1), and full width half maximum (FWHM) values of 0.64 ± 0.04 Å (D2) and 0.60 ± 0.06 Å (D1), in agreement with previously published results. For WASP-69b only the contrast of the D2 line can be measured (5.8 ± 0.3%). This corresponds to a detection at the 5σ-level of excess absorption of 0.5 ± 0.1% in a passband of 1.5 Å. A net blueshift of 0.04 Å is measured for HD 189733b and no shift is obtained for WASP-69b. By measuring the RM effect, we get an angular

  15. Performance of Copan WASP for Routine Urine Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiblier, Chantal; Jetter, Marion; Rominski, Mark; Mouttet, Forouhar; Böttger, Erik C.; Keller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a manual workup of urine clinical samples with fully automated WASPLab processing. As a first step, two different inocula (1 and 10 μl) and different streaking patterns were compared using WASP and InoqulA BT instrumentation. Significantly more single colonies were produced with the10-μl inoculum than with the 1-μl inoculum, and automated streaking yielded significantly more single colonies than manual streaking on whole plates (P < 0.001). In a second step, 379 clinical urine samples were evaluated using WASP and the manual workup. Average numbers of detected morphologies, recovered species, and CFUs per milliliter of all 379 urine samples showed excellent agreement between WASPLab and the manual workup. The percentage of urine samples clinically categorized as positive or negative did not differ between the automated and manual workflow, but within the positive samples, automated processing by WASPLab resulted in the detection of more potential pathogens. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (i) the streaking pattern, i.e., primarily the number of zigzags/length of streaking lines, is critical for optimizing the number of single colonies yielded from primary cultures of urine samples; (ii) automated streaking by the WASP instrument is superior to manual streaking regarding the number of single colonies yielded (for 32.2% of the samples); and (iii) automated streaking leads to higher numbers of detected morphologies (for 47.5% of the samples), species (for 17.4% of the samples), and pathogens (for 3.4% of the samples). The results of this study point to an improved quality of microbiological analyses and laboratory reports when using automated sample processing by WASP and WASPLab. PMID:26677255

  16. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Depths with Multiple Intrapixel Sensitivity Correction Methods Observations of WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E.; Tucker, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μm thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  17. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  18. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  19. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSE DEPTHS WITH MULTIPLE INTRAPIXEL SENSITIVITY CORRECTION METHODS OBSERVATIONS OF WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, AND HAT-P-22b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Box 1843, Brown University, Providence, RI 02904 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kataria, Tiffany [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E., E-mail: brian_kilpatrick@brown.edu, E-mail: nlewis@stsci.org, E-mail: tiffany.kataria@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: krick@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μ m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope . Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  20. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop; Exigencias termicas e estimativa do numero de geracoes anuais de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) em morangueiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnica. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mails: RS; alinondillo@yahoo.com.br, luredael@ufrgs.br; silviapi@portoweb.com.br; rogitz29@yahoo.com.br; Botton, Marcos [Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br

    2008-11-15

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  1. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Delrez, Laetitia; Barker, Adrian J.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b (M p = 10.3M J , a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q‧, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q‧ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q‧ ≥ 1 × 106, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  2. Write a scientific paper (WASP) - a career-critical skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Cuschieri, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    The ability to write a scientific paper (WASP) is becoming progressively more critical because the "publish or perish" mantra is increasingly valid in today's world where success is judged by number of publications and quality of publications based on journals which publish the researcher's work. These metrics are used to gauge applicants in often cut-throat competitions for jobs and/or career advancement. However, the science and art of paper-writing comprise a vast panoply of different skills, from writing a proposal, to ethics and data protection applications, to data collection and analysis, to writing and dealing with editors and authors, and so on. Over the next few issues, Early Human Development will embark on a series of Best Practice Guidelines that will outline and explain the various requisite WASP skills while providing practical guidelines for paper writing. The purpose is to impart the authors' collective experience to trainees in this crucial aspect of career progress. This first set of WASP papers will mainly focus on statistical analysis using Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of a Parasitic Wasp as a Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Olson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Screening cargo for illicit substances is in need of rapid high-throughput inspection systems that accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component of cocaine, by examining their response to training concentrations, their sensitivity at low concentrations, and their ability to detect methyl benzoate when two concealment substances (green tea and ground coffee are added to the testing arena. Utilizing classical associative learning techniques with sucrose as reward, we found that M. croceipes learns individual concentrations of methyl benzoate, and they can generalize this learning to concentrations 100× lower than the training concentration. Their sensitivity to methyl benzoate is very low at an estimated 3 ppb. They are also able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by green tea, but were not able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by coffee grounds. Habituation to the tea and coffee odors prior to testing improves their responses, resulting in effective detection of methyl benzoate covered by the coffee grounds. With the aid of the portable device called ‘the wasp hound’, the wasps appear to have potential to be effective on-site biosensors for the detection of cocaine.

  4. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Delrez, Laetitia [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Barker, Adrian J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel, E-mail: awilkins@astro.umd.edu [Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, allée du 6 Août 19C, B-4000 Lige (Belgium)

    2017-02-20

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b ( M{sub p} = 10.3 M{sub J}, a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q ′, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer ) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope ) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q ′ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q ′ ≥ 1 × 10{sup 6}, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  5. Ineficiência da Thuja occidentalis no tratamento dos poxvirus aviários Thuja occidentalis ineficiency in avian poxviruses treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Castelo Branco Chaves

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicações à base de Tuia (Thuja occidentalis são comuns em tratamentos homeopáticos e fitoterápicos, na medicina humana e veterinária. Suas propriedades imunoestimulantes e antivirais são descritas e sua utilização empírica no tratamento das poxviroses aviárias é recomendada por criadores e veterinários. Para avaliar o potencial terapêutico da Tuia sobre estas infecções, dois grupos (controle e teste de dez aves jovens foram inoculados por escarificação, com uma amostra de campo de poxvírus aviário. As aves inoculadas foram examinadas diariamente, quanto ao início e evolução das lesões, registrando-se o número e tamanho destas, até a cicatrização. Após o surgimento das lesões, o grupo teste recebeu a tintura alcoólica diluída na água de consumo. A análise experimental indicou que, nas condições empregadas, a utilização da Tuia não favoreceu a regressão ou restrição no desenvolvimento das lesões de pele promovidas pela infecção experimental.Arbor Vitae (Thuja occidentalis is widely used in homoeopathic and phytotherapic treatments,either for human or for animals. Its immunestimulating and antiviral properties have been described and its empiric use in the treatment of the avian poxvirosis is recommended by animal breeders and veterinarians. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of Arbor Vitae in these infections, two groups (control and test of 10 young birds were inoculated by scarification with a field sample of avian poxvirus. When lesions were first observed the test group received the Arbor Vitae alcoholic extract diluted in the drinking water. The birds were examined daily, from the beginning and evolution of the lesions to the healing. The results indicated that, in our experimental conditions, the use of T. occidentalis did not favor the regression or restriction in the development of the skin lesions promoted by the experimental infection.

  6. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio

    2008-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  7. Wien Automatic System Package (WASP). A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    With several Member States, the IAEA has completed a new version of the WASP program, which has been called WASP-Ill Plus since it follows quite closely the methodology of the WASP-Ill model. The major enhancements in WASP-Ill Plus with respect to the WASP-Ill version are: increase in the number of thermal fuel types (from 5 to 10); verification of which configurations generated by CONGEN have already been simulated in previous iterations with MERSIM; direct calculation of combined Loading Order of FIXSYS and VARSYS plants; simulation of system operation includes consideration of physical constraints imposed on some fuel types (i.e., fuel availability for electricity generation); extended output of the resimulation of the optimal solution; generation of a file that can be used for graphical representation of the results of the resimulation of the optimal solution and cash flows of the investment costs; calculation of cash flows allows to include the capital costs of plants firmly committed or in construction (FIXSYS plants); user control of the distribution of capital cost expenditures during the construction period (if required to be different from the general 'S' curve distribution used as default). This second volume of the document to support use of the WASP-Ill Plus computer code consists of 5 appendices giving some additional information about the WASP-Ill Plus program. Appendix A is mainly addressed to the WASP-Ill Plus system analyst and supplies some information which could help in the implementation of the program on the user computer facilities. This appendix also includes some aspects about WASP-Ill Plus that could not be treated in detail in Chapters 1 to 11. Appendix B identifies all error and warning messages that may appear in the WASP printouts and advises the user how to overcome the problem. Appendix C presents the flow charts of the programs along with a brief description of the objectives and structure of each module. Appendix D describes the

  8. Effects of Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling on the Complexity of Monoaminergic Neurons in a Minute Parasitic Wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps show large phenotypic plasticity in brain and body size, resulting in a 5-fold difference in brain volume among genetically identical sister wasps. Brain volume scales linearly with body volume in these wasps. This isometric brain scaling forms an exception to

  9. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) Package. Version 1.2. Long Write Up and User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Altaisky, M V; Soloviev, A G; Stadnik, A V; Shitov, A B

    2001-01-01

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. WASP package is based on wavelet transform algorithms. This work includes the user's guide, description of algorithms and mathematical methods, graphical user interface. We have also analyzed what problems of nuclear physics can be tackled with WASP.

  10. Data from: Compatible and incompatible pathogen-plant interactions differentially affect plant volatile emissions and the attraction of parasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.; Weldegergis, B.T.; Dicke, M.; Gols, R.

    2016-01-01

    The three data sheets show the data for the three types of comparisons that were made: (1) wasp choice when offered acaterpillar infested plant and a caterpillar + pathogen infected plant (2) wasp choice when offered a healthy plant against a singleattacker infected/infected plant and (3) wasp

  11. WASP-12b and Its Possible Fiery Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Jupiter-like planets on orbits close to their hosts are predicted to spiral ever closer to their hosts until they meet their eventual demise and yet weve never observed orbital decay. Could WASP-12b provide the first evidence?Undetected PredictionsSince the discovery of the first hot Jupiter more than 20 years ago, weve studied a number of these peculiar exoplanets. Despite our many observations, two phenomena predicted of hot Jupiters have not yet been detected, due to the long timescales needed to identify them:Tidal orbital decayTidal forces should cause a hot Jupiters orbit to shrink over time, causing the planet to eventually spiral into its host star. This phenomenon would explain a number of statistical properties of observed star-planet systems (for instance, the scarcity of gas giants with periods less than a day).An illustration of apsidal precession. [Mpfiz]Apsidal precessionThe orbits of hot Jupiters should be apsidally precessing on timescales of decades, as long as they are at least slightly eccentric. Since the precession rate depends on the planets tidally deformed mass distribution, measuring this would allow us to probe the interior of the planet.A team of scientists led by Kishore Patra (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) think that the hot Jupiter WASP-12b may be our first chance to study one of these two phenomena. The question is, which one?WASP-12bWASP-12b has orbital period of 1.09 days one of the shortest periods observed for a giant planet and weve monitored it for a decade, making it a great target to test for both of these long-term effects.Timing residuals for WASP-12b. Squares show the new data points, circles show previous data from the past decade. The data are better fit by the decay model than the precession model, but both are still consistent. [Patra et al. 2017]Patra and collaborators made transit observations with the 1.2-m telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona and occultation observations with the

  12. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906),

  13. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Radloff, S E; Li, J J; Hepburn, H R; Yang, M X; Zhang, L J; Neumann, P

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  14. Relevance of wing morphology in distinguishing and classifying genera and species of Stenogastrinae wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baracchi, D.; Dapporto, L.; Turillazzi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The phylogeny of the Stenogastrinae wasps is still under discussion and their systematic incomplete. In the present work we used geometric morphometrics, a technique based on a rigorous statistical assessment of shape, to compare the forewings of fifteen species of Stenogastrinae wasps belonging to

  15. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti

  16. WAsP E-learning - Developing and running an interactive online course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Jowitt, William Richard

    This report describes the development and testing of an E-learning course in WAsP – the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program. WAsP is the industry standard tool for wind energy resource assessment. The software is developed and distributed by the Department of Wind Energy at the Technical...

  17. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  18. Non-detection of a Helium Exosphere for the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Oklopčić, Antonija

    2018-06-01

    An exosphere was recently detected around the exoplanet WASP-107b, a low-density, warm Neptune, based on an absorption feature from metastable helium (which has a vacuum wavelength of 10833 \\AA). Inspired by the WASP-107b detection, we reanalyzed archival HST observations of another evaporating exoplanet, WASP-12b, to search for signs of helium in its exosphere. We find no significant increase in transit depth at 10833 \\AA. We compare this result to theoretical predictions from a 1D model, and find that the expected helium feature amplitude is small, in agreement with the observed non-detection. We discuss possible explanations for why the helium feature is weaker for WASP-12b than WASP-107b, and conclude that the amplitude of the signal is highly sensitive to the stellar spectrum and the geometry of the evaporating gas cloud. These considerations should be taken into account in the design of future searches for helium exospheres.

  19. Trap-nest occupation by solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in a forest urban remanent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Rafael D; Martins, Rogério P

    2006-01-01

    Temporal variation of solitary wasps and bees, nesting frequency, mortality, and parasitism were recorded from a remanent forest in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Wasps and bees were collected in trap-nests placed in areas with 25, 100, and 400 m2, from February to November 2004. The 137 trap-nests collected contained 11 species of wasps and bees. Wasps occupied most nests (75%). Occupation peaks occurred in March (25%) and September (26%); in June, the lowest occupation (2%) was observed. Except for Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure, no significant correlation was found between number of occupied nests, and temperature and rainfall means. In the nests, 48% of the immature specimens died; 13% of the nests were parasitized. Total death and parasitism rates of wasps and bees differed significantly.

  20. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As a continuation of its effort to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need for introducing nuclear power, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package for carrying out power generation expansion planning studies. WASP was originally developed in 1972 in the USA to meet the IAEA's needs to analyze the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. The model was first used by the IAEA to conduct global studies (Market Survey for Nuclear Power Plants in Developing Countries, 1972-1973) and to carry out Nuclear Power Planning Studies for several Member States. The WASP system developed into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. Following these developments, the so-called WASP-Ill version was produced in 1979. This version introduced important improvements to the system, namely in the treatment of hydroelectric power plants. The WASP-III version has been continually updated and maintained in order to incorporate needed enhancements. In 1981, the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) was developed in order to allow the determination of electricity demand, consistent with the overall requirements for final energy, and thus, to provide a more adequate forecast of electricity needs to be considered in the WASP study. MAED and WASP have been used by the Agency for the conduct of Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Studies for interested Member States. More recently, the VALORAGUA model was completed in 1992 as a means for helping in the preparation of the hydro plant characteristics to be input in the WASP study and to verify that the WASP overall optimized expansion plan takes also into account an optimization of the use of water for electricity generation. The combined application of VALORAGUA and WASP permits the

  1. Antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukemi Adetutu Osukoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The seeds of Telfairia occidentalis have been known to possess different biological properties and are used in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia to treat many ailments. The plant is particularly noted traditionally for its healing properties and is usually consumed in the form of herbal decoctions/concoctions as a blood tonic, to treat sudden attacks of convulsions, pain, malaria and anaemia. Aims: In the present study, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies were done on the methanolic extract of the seeds of Telfairia occidentalis to evaluate its antioxidant and antinociceptive properties to substantiate its traditional use. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the extract was done according to standard procedures. Antioxidant potential was ascertained using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content assays. Analgesic activity was analyzed using formalin induced paw licking test in albino rats at 100, 200 and 400 mg extract per kg body weight. Statistical Analysis Used: All results extrapolated from the experiments were expressed as mean ± SEM. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using ANOVA (one-way followed by Dennett's posthoc test. Results: Phytochemicals present in the extract were alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroid and anthraquinones. The extract significantly inhibited DPPH scavenging activity with percentage inhibition of 147.3%. The methanolic seed extract of T. occidentalis significantly reduced (P < 0.05 formalin induced paw licking in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin induced paw licking test, with 35.59 and 78.51% inhibition at 400 mg/kg, in albino rats in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: The seed extract in this study significantly reduced formalin induced hind paw licking, and could be used as an analgesic for treatment of pain and also showed marked antioxidant potential.

  2. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Expression of N-WASP is regulated by HiF1α through the hypoxia response element in the N-WASP promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Salvi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cell migration and invasion involves temporal and spatial regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which is regulated by the WASP family of proteins such as N-WASP (Neural- Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein. We have previously shown that expression of N-WASP was increased under hypoxic conditions. In order to characterize the regulation of N-WASP expression, we constructed an N-WASP promoter driven GFP reporter construct, N-WASPpro-GFP. Transfection of N-WASPpro-GFP construct and plasmid expressing HiF1α (Hypoxia Inducible factor 1α enhanced the expression of GFP suggesting that increased expression of N-WASP under hypoxic conditions is mediated by HiF1α. Sequence analysis of the N-WASP promoter revealed the presence of two hypoxia response elements (HREs characterized by the consensus sequence 5′-GCGTG-3′ at -132 bp(HRE1 and at -662 bp(HRE2 relative to transcription start site (TSS. Site-directed mutagenesis of HRE1(-132 but not HRE2(-662 abolished the HiF1α induced activation of N-WASP promoter. Similarly ChIP assay demonstrated that HiF1α bound to HRE1(-132 but not HRE2(-662 under hypoxic condition. MDA-MB-231 cells but not MDA-MB-231KD cells treated with hypoxia mimicking agent, DMOG showed enhanced gelatin degradation. Similarly MDA-MB-231KD(N-WASPpro-N-WASPR cells expressing N-WASPR under the transcriptional regulation of WT N-WASPpro but not MDA-MB-231KD(N-WASPproHRE1-N-WASPR cells expressing N-WASPR under the transcriptional regulation of N-WASPproHRE1 showed enhanced gelatin degradation when treated with DMOG. Thus indicating the importance of N-WASP in hypoxia induced invadopodia formation. Thus, our data demonstrates that hypoxia-induced activation of N-WASP expression is mediated by interaction of HiF1α with the HRE1(-132 and explains the role of N-WASP in hypoxia induced invadopodia formation.

  4. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Ojeifo, Uadia Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The phytochemical composition and acute toxicity of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts were investigated in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the pulverized leaf, root, pod and stem samples. Proximate analysis was also conducted for the root to ascertain the effect of drying procedures on its composition. Fifty-six (56) Wister albino rats, male and female were divided into two broad groups of 28 animals per group. The first group was randomly separated into seven (7) groups of four (4) animals per group. The control group received distilled water alone while the other groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of the Soluble and Insoluble Tefairia occidentalis root fraction. The second group of 28 animals was also distributed into 7 groups of 4 animals per group. Six test groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of Telfairia occidentalis fruit and stem extracts. The animals were observed for the first 12hr for any toxic symptoms and for 48 hr for mortality rate. Surviving animals were sacrificed after 48 hours. Phytochemical screening results reveal the presence of tannins, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoids, saponin, alkaloid, glycosides, proteins and carbohydrates. Flavonoid and saponin was not detected in stem sample; alkaloid is present in all samples except pod; and cyanogenic glycoside was found in both root and pod samples. Except for the fibre content, the method of preparation of the root had no significant effect on the proximate composition of the sample. The root extracts cause insignificant reduction in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, except for the significant reduction in ALT activity at highest dose. The pod extract significantly increased the ALT and AST activities, which is dose dependent, while the stem extract only caused increased activity of ALT, but not AST. None of the extracts administered had any significant effect on the

  5. Expansion of southern distributional range of Ucides occidentalis (Decapoda: Ucididae and Cardisoma crassum (Decapoda: Gecarcinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Alemán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Is recorded the species of crabs brachyuran Ucides occidentalis (mangrove crab and Cardisoma crassum (Blue crab or without mouth in the mangroves of San Pedro (Piura, expanding its geographical distribution south of Tumbes, which was the known limit. The habitat of these species is characterized by the presence of two varieties of mangrove trees, Jeli white (Laguncularia racemosa and salty Jeli (Avicenia germinans and halophytic shrub called glass (Batis maritima, it observing that the depth of the burrows is shallow (< 60 cm. Biometric information and some biological aspects of the collected specimens are also presented.

  6. Effect of roasting regime on phytochemical properties of Senna occidentalis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Olapade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Senna occidentalis seeds were roasted at varying temperatures of 190, 210 and 230 oC each for 10, 15 and 20 min. Phytochemicals of the roasted seeds were determined using standard methods. The phytochemicals analysed were tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, oxalate and phenolics. Phytochemicals are compounds hypothesized for much of the disease-protection provided by diets high in fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals and plant-based beverages. This study has clearly shown that roasting time and temperature have significant effects on the seed parameters analyzed. There was an increase in tannin, alkaloid, saponin and phenolic contents and a decrease in the contents of flavonoids and oxalates.

  7. Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate.

  8. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Benavides, William; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Chavarría, Juan B

    2009-09-01

    The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC). It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host). We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F citrifolia), in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females' sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games.

  9. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Bowman, Oliver; Nymeyer, Sarah [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M. S. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    WASP-43b is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis of a = 0.01526 ± 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (T {sub *} = 4520 ± 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} = 1440 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.347% ± 0.013% and 1670 ± 23 K at 3.6 μm and 0.382% ± 0.015% and 1514 ± 25 K at 4.5 μm. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347436 ± 1.4 × 10{sup –7} days) and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e=0.010{sub −0.007}{sup +0.010}). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths along with four previously reported ground-based photometric observations in the near-infrared to constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-43b. The data rule out a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. Model atmospheres with no thermal inversions and fiducial oxygen-rich compositions are able to explain all the available data. However, a wide range of metallicities and C/O ratios can explain the data. The data suggest low day-night energy redistribution in the planet, consistent with previous studies, with a nominal upper limit of about 35% for the fraction of energy incident on the dayside that is redistributed to the nightside.

  10. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perttu Seppä

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  11. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  12. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 3: Plotting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model Li......DAR measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  14. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Chisato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Oshima, Takuma [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Takenouchi, Takato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Chiba, Joe [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kitani, Hiroshi [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.

  15. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Chisato; Sato, Mitsuru; Oshima, Takuma; Takenouchi, Takato; Chiba, Joe; Kitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies

  16. Notes on the breeding ecology and conservation of snowy plovers Charadrius nivosus occidentalis in Paracas, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Küpper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The snowy plover is a shorebird endemic to the Americas. It consists of three subspecies. In South America the subspecies occidentalis is found along the coast of the Pacific ocean. Although breeding behaviour,population demography and reproductive success are well established in North America, little is known about these ecological parameters for occidentalis snowy plovers. In October 2008 we studied breeding ecology of snowy plovers in the National Reserve Paracas, Ica, Peru. Snowy plovers were found at all nine sandy beaches and coastal wetlands visited. Based on counts we estimate the population in Paracas to consist of a minimum of 500 snowy plovers. Evidence for breeding activity was found at six of nine sites. Most breeding activity was observed at Playón/Mendieta, surrounding a temporal salt lagoon. Two nests and ten families were found in the entire reserve. In total 24 chicks, eight males and seven females were captured and marked. Families were tended by both parents. Twenty-one of the chicks had perished by the end of the study. During the intense study period none of the marked chicks reached the fledgling age of 25 days and only one chick was confirmed to have fledged during a subsequent visit. Our observations highlight threads during the snowy plover reproduc- tive period that need to be addressed through conservation management and we suggest direct actions to counter the threads identified.

  17. Leukocyte profiles for western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, naturally infected by the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Victoria L; Lewis, William D; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    Plasmodium mexicanum is a malaria parasite that naturally infects the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis , in northern California. We set out to determine whether lizards naturally infected with this malaria parasite have different leukocyte profiles, indicating an immune response to infection. We used 29 naturally infected western fence lizards paired with uninfected lizards based on sex, snout-to-vent length, tail status, and the presence-absence of ectoparasites such as ticks and mites, as well as the presence-absence of another hemoparasite, Schellackia occidentalis. Complete white blood cell (WBC) counts were conducted on blood smears stained with Giemsa, and the proportion of granulocytes per microliter of blood was estimated using the Avian Leukopet method. The abundance of each WBC class (lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) in infected and uninfected lizards was compared to determine whether leukocyte densities varied with infection status. We found that the numbers of WBCs and lymphocytes per microliter of blood significantly differed (P lizard's immune response to increase the levels of circulating WBCs, but what effect this has on the biology of the parasite remains unclear.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the fructofuranosidase from Schwanniomyces occidentalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo, Aitana; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Fernández-Lobato, María; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The invertase from Schwanniomyces occidentalis has been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, purified and crystallized. The wild-type enzyme was also purified and crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. Schwanniomyces occidentalis invertase is an extracellular enzyme that releases β-fructose from the nonreducing termini of various β-d-fructofuranoside substrates. Its ability to produce 6-kestose by transglycosylation makes this enzyme an interesting research target for applications in industrial biotechnology. The enzyme has been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant and wild-type forms, which showed different glycosylation patterns, were crystallized by vapour-diffusion methods. Although crystallization trials were conducted on both forms of the protein, crystals suitable for X-ray crystallographic analyses were only obtained from the wild-type enzyme. The crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 105.78, b = 119.49, c = 137.68 Å. A diffraction data set was collected using a synchrotron source. Self-rotation function and sedimentation-velocity experiments suggested that the enzyme was dimeric with twofold symmetry

  19. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  20. PCR-RFLP method to distinguish Frankliniella occidentalis, Frankliniella intonsa, Frankliniella pallida and Frankliniella tenuicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybylska Arnika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrips from the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera, Thripidae are phytophagous on crops and wild plants. Some of them cause slight economic damage, however, others including F. occidentalis and F. intonsa are responsible for considerable losses in crop production. Moreover, they constitute a double threat for host plants by not only feeding on them but also vectoring viruses, some of which are on the quarantined list of the European Plant Protection Organization. The rapid detection and differentiation between more and less harmful Frankliniella species is, therefore, important in order to combat the pests at the time of their appearance. In this study, we have undertaken to develop a method of detecting F. occidentalis, F. intonsa, F. pallida, and F. tenuicornis. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of ITS1 rDNA fragments of these insects using universal primers pair giving products of slightly distinct length for studied insects. Restriction enzymes digestion which is easy to interpret, allows for visible differentiation of all these Frankliniella species. The method was shown to be species-specific and sensitive. Even single specimens in either the larvae or adult stage could be distinguished.

  1. Orchids mimic green-leaf volatiles to attract prey-hunting wasps for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Jennifer; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Hölzler, Gerald; Zhang, Qing-He; Ayasse, Manfred

    2008-05-20

    An outstanding feature of orchids is the diversity of their pollination systems [1]. Most remarkable are those species that employ chemical deceit for the attraction of pollinators [2]. The orchid Epipactis helleborine is a typical wasp flower, exhibiting physiological and morphological adaptations for the attraction of pollinating social wasps [3]. As noted by Darwin [1], this species is almost entirely overlooked by other potential pollinators, despite a large nectar reward. Therefore, the mechanism for the attraction of pollinating social wasps was something of a mystery. By using a combination of behavioral experiments, electrophysiological investigations, and chemical analyses, we demonstrate for the first time that the flowers of E. helleborine and E. purpurata emit green-leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are attractive to foragers of the social wasps Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris. GLVs, emitted by damaged plant tissues, are known to guide parasitic wasps to their hosts [4]. Several E. helleborine GLVs that induced response in the antennae of wasps were also emitted by cabbage leaves infested with caterpillars (Pieris brassicae), which are common prey items for wasps [5]. This is the first example in which GLVs have been implicated in chemical mimicry for the attraction of pollinating insects.

  2. HST PanCET Program: A Cloudy Atmosphere for the Promising JWST Target WASP-101b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, H. R.; Mandell, A. [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stevenson, K. B.; Lewis, N. K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sing, D. K.; Evans, T. [Astrophysics Group, Physics Building, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); López-Morales, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marley, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-5, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kataria, T. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballester, G. E. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1541 E Univ. Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barstow, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Ben-Jaffel, L. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D. [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Buchhave, L. A. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); García Muñoz, A., E-mail: hannah.wakeford@nasa.gov [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2017-01-20

    We present results from the first observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanet Treasury program for WASP-101b, a highly inflated hot Jupiter and one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) Early Release Science (ERS) program. From a single HST Wide Field Camera 3 observation, we find that the near-infrared transmission spectrum of WASP-101b contains no significant H{sub 2}O absorption features and we rule out a clear atmosphere at 13 σ . Therefore, WASP-101b is not an optimum target for a JWST ERS program aimed at observing strong molecular transmission features. We compare WASP-101b to the well-studied and nearly identical hot Jupiter WASP-31b. These twin planets show similar temperature–pressure profiles and atmospheric features in the near-infrared. We suggest exoplanets in the same parameter space as WASP-101b and WASP-31b will also exhibit cloudy transmission spectral features. For future HST exoplanet studies, our analysis also suggests that a lower count limit needs to be exceeded per pixel on the detector in order to avoid unwanted instrumental systematics.

  3. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  4. Accidental genetic engineers: horizontal sequence transfer from parasitoid wasps to their Lepidopteran hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean E Schneider

    Full Text Available We show here that 105 regions in two Lepidoptera genomes appear to derive from horizontally transferred wasp DNA. We experimentally verified the presence of two of these sequences in a diverse set of silkworm (Bombyx mori genomes. We hypothesize that these horizontal transfers are made possible by the unusual strategy many parasitoid wasps employ of injecting hosts with endosymbiotic polydnaviruses to minimize the host's defense response. Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host. Two transferred sequences code for a BEN domain, known to be associated with polydnaviruses and transcriptional regulation. These findings represent the first documented cases of horizontal transfer of genes between two organisms by a polydnavirus. This presents an interesting evolutionary paradigm in which host species can acquire new sequences from parasitoid wasps that attack them. Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera diverged ∼300 MYA, making this type of event a source of novel sequences for recipient species. Unlike many other cases of horizontal transfer between two eukaryote species, these sequence transfers can be explained without the need to invoke the sequences 'hitchhiking' on a third organism (e.g. retrovirus capable of independent reproduction. The cellular machinery necessary for the transfer is contained entirely in the wasp genome. The work presented here is the first such discovery of what is likely to be a broader phenomenon among species affected by these wasps.

  5. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  6. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; D' Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N

    2016-01-01

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication), foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded), or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted). Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  7. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lozada

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication, foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded, or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted. Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  8. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  9. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  10. Development of fine and coarse roots of Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant' in non-irrigated and drip irrigated field plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Willigen, de P.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aboveground dry mass, total root dry mass and root length density of the fine roots of Thuja occidentalis `Brabant' were determined under non- and drip-irrigated field conditions. Two-dimensional diffusion parameters for dynamic root growth were estimated based on dry mass production of the fine

  11. Mitochondrial genome analysis of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and a revisit of the Metaseiulus occidentalis mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Vanholme, Bartel; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    In this study we sequenced and analysed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Chilean predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Chelicerata: Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae: Amblyseiinae). The 16 199 bp genome (79.8% AT) contains the standard set of 13 protein-coding and 24 RNA genes. Compared with the ancestral arthropod mtDNA pattern, the gene order is extremely reshuffled (35 genes changed position) and represents a novel arrangement within the arthropods. This is probably related to the presence of several large noncoding regions in the genome. In contrast with the mt genome of the closely related species Metaseiulus occidentalis (Phytoseiidae: Typhlodrominae) - which was reported to be unusually large (24 961 bp), to lack nad6 and nad3 protein-coding genes, and to contain 22 tRNAs without T-arms - the genome of P. persimilis has all the features of a standard metazoan mt genome. Consequently, we performed additional experiments on the M. occidentalis mt genome. Our preliminary restriction digests and Southern hybridization data revealed that this genome is smaller than previously reported. In addition, we cloned nad3 in M. occidentalis and positioned this gene between nad4L and 12S-rRNA on the mt genome. Finally, we report that at least 15 of the 22 tRNAs in the M. occidentalis mt genome can be folded into canonical cloverleaf structures similar to their counterparts in P. persimilis.

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of cathepsin L-like cysteine protease cDNAs from Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, A.G.J.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cysteine proteases are predominant in thrips guts (TGs) and, therefore, a suitable target for selecting effective protease inhibitors against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). We report the isolation of four full-length cysteine protease cDNA clones from thrips in a two-step PCR

  13. Food habits of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) at six nest sites in Washington?s east Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth R. Bevis; Jo Ellen Richards; Gina M. King; Eric E. Hanson

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on 245 pellet samples containing 479 identified prey items collected at six Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) breeding sites in the eastern portion of its range. The majority of prey (biomass) came from four species; northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), bushy-tailed woodrats (...

  14. Chromosome-scale scaffolding of the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) genome based on chromatin interaction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a niche fruit crop valued for its flavour and potential health benefits. The improvement of fruit and cane characteristics via molecular breeding technologies has been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. The recently released draft geno...

  15. Assessment of the distribution and conservation status of the viviparous toad Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis on Monts Nimba, Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillers, A.; Loua, N.-S.; Rödel, M.-O.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of the viviparous Nimba toad Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis throughout its potential range, the montane grasslands of the Monts Nimba massif, West Africa. Although predominantly part of a World Heritage Site, the Monts Nimba also comprise a mining enclave in the

  16. Description and Flight Performance Results of the WASP Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, J. F.; Steffens, L. E.; Yuska, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    A general description of the design and construction of the WASP sounding rocket and of the performance of its first flight are presented. The purpose of the flight test was to place the 862-pound (391-kg) spacecraft above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) on free-fall trajectory for at least 6 minutes in order to study the effect of "weightlessness" on a slosh dynamics experiment. The WASP sounding rocket fulfilled its intended mission requirements. The sounding rocket approximately followed a nominal trajectory. The payload was in free fall above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) for 6.5 minutes and reached an apogee altitude of 134 nautical miles (248 km). Flight data including velocity, altitude, acceleration, roll rate, and angle of attack are discussed and compared to nominal performance calculations. The effect of residual burning of the second stage motor is analyzed. The flight vibration environment is presented and analyzed, including root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density analysis.

  17. Sting microsculpture in the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matushkina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sting microsculpture of the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Fabricius, 1781 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae is studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM for the first time. As in many other hymenopterans, the second valvifer of B. rostrata possesses two fields of styloconic sensilla (hair plates of proprioceptive function. The presence of two paired fields of campaniform sensilla on the second valvula and second valvifer is first shown in an apoid wasp. The first and the second valvulae bear scattered sensilla-like structures on the external surface, more numerous apically. The first valvula has two subapical barbs externally and a pair of valvilli on its inner surface, whereas the outer surface of the second valvula is smooth. The third valvula is sclerotized externally, consisting of proximal and distal parts, and bearing four sensilla morphotypes of mechanoreceptive and probably chemoreceptive functions. The inner surface of the valvulae and the membranous cuticle that is touching the sting have microstructures of different shapes directed distally. Functional aspects of characters studied are discussed.

  18. The Apparently Decaying Orbit of WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kishore C.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Yu, Liang; Deming, Drake; Dai, Fei

    2017-07-01

    We present new transit and occultation times for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. The data are compatible with a constant period derivative: \\dot{P}=-29+/- 3 ms yr-1 and P/\\dot{P}=3.2 {Myr}. However, it is difficult to tell whether we have observed orbital decay or a portion of a 14-year apsidal precession cycle. If interpreted as decay, the star’s tidal quality parameter {Q}\\star is about 2× {10}5. If interpreted as precession, the planet’s Love number is 0.44 ± 0.10. Orbital decay appears to be the more parsimonious model: it is favored by {{Δ }}{χ }2=5.5 despite having two fewer free parameters than the precession model. The decay model implies that WASP-12 was discovered within the final ˜0.2% of its existence, which is an unlikely coincidence but harmonizes with independent evidence that the planet is nearing disruption. Precession does not invoke any temporal coincidence, but it does require some mechanism to maintain an eccentricity of ≈ 0.002 in the face of rapid tidal circularization. To distinguish unequivocally between decay and precession will probably require a few more years of monitoring. Particularly helpful will be occultation timing in 2019 and thereafter.

  19. Life History of the Emerald Jewel Wasp Ampulex compressa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Arvidson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emerald Jewel Wasp Ampulex compressa (Fabricius is an endoparasitoid of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Its host subjugation strategy is unusual in that envenomation is directed into the host central nervous system, eliciting a long-term behavior modification termed hypokinesia, turning stung cockroaches into a lethargic and compliant, but not paralyzed, living food supply for wasp offspring. A. compressa manipulates hypokinesic cockroaches into a burrow, where it oviposits a single egg onto a mesothoracic leg, hatching three days later. Herein we describe the life history and developmental timing of A. compressa. Using head capsule measurements and observations of mandibular morphology, we found that the larvae develop through three instars, the first two ectoparasitoid, and the third exclusively endoparasitoid. The first two instars have mandibles sufficient for piercing and cutting the cuticle respectively, while the third instar has a larger and blunter mandibular structure. During ecdysis to the third instar, the larva enters the body cavity of the cockroach, consuming internal tissues selectively, including fat body and skeletal muscle, but sparing the gut and Malpighian tubules. The developmental timing to pupation is similar between males and females, but cocoon volume and mass, and pupation duration are sexually dimorphic. Further, we show that the difference in cocoon mass and volume can be used to predict sex before eclosion, which is valuable for studies in venom pharmacology, as only females produce venom.

  20. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonela Carabajal Paladino

    Full Text Available We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD. Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  1. Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Strand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is a common phenomenon in which associated organisms can cooperate in ways that increase their ability to survive, reproduce, or utilize hostile environments. Here, we discuss polydnavirus symbionts of parasitic wasps. These viruses are novel in two ways: (1 they have become non-autonomous domesticated entities that cannot replicate outside of wasps; and (2 they function as a delivery vector of genes that ensure successful parasitism of host insects that wasps parasitize. In this review we discuss how these novelties may have arisen, which genes are potentially involved, and what the consequences have been for genome evolution.

  2. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    As a continuation of its effort to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need for introducing nuclear power, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package for carrying out power generation expansion planning studies. WASP was originally developed in 1972 in the USA to meet the IAEA's needs to analyze the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. The model was first used by the IAEA to conduct global studies (Market Survey for Nuclear Power Plants in Developing Countries, 1972-1973) and to carry out Nuclear Power Planning Studies for several Member States. The WASP system developed into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. Following these developments, the so-called WASP-Ill version was produced in 1979. This version introduced important improvements to the system, namely in the treatment of hydroelectric power plants. The WASP-III version has been continually updated and maintained in order to incorporate needed enhancements. In 1981, the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) was developed in order to allow the determination of electricity demand, consistent with the overall requirements for final energy, and thus, to provide a more adequate forecast of electricity needs to be considered in the WASP study. MAED and WASP have been used by the Agency for the conduct of Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Studies for interested Member States. More recently, the VALORAGUA model was completed in 1992 as a means for helping in the preparation of the hydro plant characteristics to be input in the WASP study and to verify that the WASP overall optimized expansion plan takes also into account an optimization of the use of water for electricity generation. The combined application of VALORAGUA and WASP permits the

  3. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-IV. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    As a continuation of its efforts to provide methodologies and tools to Member States to carry out comparative assessment and analyse priority environmental issues related to the development of the electric power sector, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package WASP-IV for carrying out power generation expansion planning taking into consideration fuel availability and environmental constraints. This manual constitutes a part of this work and aims to provide users with a guide to use effectively the new version of the model WASP-IV. WASP was originally developed in 1972 by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA to meet the IAEA needs to analyse the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. Previous versions of the model were used by Member States in many national and regional studies to analyse the electric power system expansion planning and the role of nuclear energy in particular. Experience gained from its application allowed development of WASP into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. New, improved versions were developed, which took into consideration the needs expressed by the users of the programme in order to address important emerging issues being faced by the electric system planners. In 1979, WASP-IV was released and soon after became an indispensable tool in many Member States for generation expansion planning. The WASP-IV version was continually upgraded and the development of version WASP-III Plus commenced in 1992. By 1995, WASP-III Plus was completed, which followed closely the methodology of the WASP-III but incorporated new features. In order to meet the needs of electricity planners and following the recommendations of the Helsinki symposium, development of a new version of WASP was

  4. Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D. Loyola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps. The research was conducted in an urban forest remnant in southeast Brazil. We tested the predictions of the following hypotheses: (1 larger areas present higher species richness of bees and wasps, (2 solitary bees and wasps occupy more nests in larger areas, (3 rare species occupy more nests in smaller areas. We sampled Aculeate bees and wasps using trap nests from February to November 2004. We placed trap nests in sampling units (SU with different size (25, 100 and 400 m² located in 6 ha of secondary mesophytic forest. One hundred and thirty-seven trap nests were occupied by seven species of bees and four species of wasps. We found an increase in wasp, but not bee species richness following increase in SU size. Hymenoptera richness (i.e. bees plus wasps was also greater in larger SU. Both the number and density of occupied nests increased with SU size. The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse responded significantly to area size, larger SU having more occupied nests. The same pattern was exhibited by the wasp Auplopus militaris, the Megachile bee species, and the bee Anthodioctes megachiloides. Only Trypoxylon sp. was not affected by SU size. Our results show that cavity-nesting bee and wasps respond differently to the area effects. Such findings must be complemented by information on the frequency and dynamics of area colonization and nest occupancy by species of solitary Hymenoptera.

  5. The wasp larva's last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lohrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalosomatidae are an unusual family of wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata comprising less than 100 species found in the tropics and subtropics of all continents except Europe and Antarctica. Whereas some species resemble nocturnal Ichneumonidae, others might be mistaken for spider wasps or different groups of brachypterous Hymenoptera. Despite their varied morphology, all members of the family supposedly develop as larval ectoparasitoids of crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea. Here, we report on the first record of a fossil rhopalosomatid larva which was discovered in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Burma. The larva is attached to the lateral side of a cricket between the metafemur and the abdomen, impacting the natural position of the hind leg, exactly as documented for modern species. Additionally, the larval gestalt is strikingly similar to those of extant forms. These observations imply that this behavioral specialization, e.g., host association and positioning on host, likely evolved in the stem of the family at least 100 million years ago.

  6. Intoxicação por Senna occidentalis (Leg. Caesalpinoideae em bovinos em pastoreio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Claudio S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available São descritos três surtos da intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em bovinos em criação extensiva, exclusivamente em pastoreio, durante o outono e início do inverno, em três estabelecimentos do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os bovinos afetados tinham acesso a antigas lavouras de soja ou restevas de lavouras de soja e milho altamente infestados por fedegoso (S. occidentalis. No estabelecimento 1, de um total de 34 novilhas (de aprox. 18 meses de idade, 10 morreram (29,1%; no estabelecimento 2, morreram 9 (4,2% de um total de 212 vacas prenhes e, no estabelecimento 3, morreram 6 (12,0% de um total de 50 animais. O curso clínico variou de 3 a 6 dias, e os sinais clínicos incluíam urina marrom-escura, fraqueza muscular, tremores, andar cambaleante, decúbito esternal e morte. Os animais, mesmo em decúbito, permaneciam alerta e com reflexos normais, alimentando-se e bebendo água até poucas horas antes da morte. No estabelecimento 2, os bovinos começaram a adoecer 7 dias após terem sido retirados do campo infestado pela planta. As principais alterações observadas na necropsia foram áreas claras na musculatura esquelética, principalmente nos músculos dos membros posteriores e estrias esbranquiçadas na musculatura cardíaca. A principal lesão microscópica era de degeneração e necrose nos músculos esqueléticos (miopatia degenerativa tóxica multifocal multifásica. Os dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, de necropsia e histopatológico permitiram concluir pelo diagnóstico de intoxicação por S. occidentalis, nesses três surtos.

  7. Ovarian development in a primitively eusocial wasp: social interactions affect behaviorally dominant and subordinate wasps in opposite directions relative to solitary females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shantanu; Pareek, Vidhi; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2014-07-01

    In many primitively eusocial wasp species new nests are founded either by a single female or by a small group of females. In the single foundress nests, the lone female develops her ovaries, lays eggs as well as tends her brood. In multiple foundress nests social interactions, especially dominance-subordinate interactions, result in only one 'dominant' female developing her ovaries and laying eggs. Ovaries of the remaining 'subordinate' cofoundresses remain suppressed and these individuals function as workers and tend the dominant's brood. Using the tropical, primitively eusocial polistine wasp Ropalidia marginata and by comparing wasps held in isolation and those kept as pairs in the laboratory, we demonstrate that social interactions affect ovarian development of dominant and subordinate wasps among the pairs in opposite directions, suppressing the ovaries of the subordinate member of the pair below that of solitary wasps and boosting the ovaries of dominant member of the pair above that of solitary females. In addition to being of physiological interest, such mirror image effects of aggression on the ovaries of the aggressors and their victims, suggest yet another mechanism by which subordinates can enhance their indirect fitness and facilitate the evolution of worker behavior by kin selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Telfairia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Ajibade et al., 2006). Hence, female leaves and plants are in higher demand by housewives and farmers respectively since they bring additional monetary returns. Therefore, any production research that evolves ways of early sex ...

  9. Wasps are the cause of an increasing mastitis problem in dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Braverman, Y; Schwimmer, A

    1998-07-01

    The German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) has been observed to injure dairy cows teats, causing lesions which can lead to mastitis. The number of dairy herds in Israel reported to be affected in this way has increased from five prior to 1989 to 32 from 1989 to 1993. Likewise, the geographical distribution of the colonies of these wasps has expanded from the Galilee to the northern Negev. Most cases of mastitis appeared during August and September when the wasps were most active; the predominant organism isolated was Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Apparently the wasps served as a vector in spreading S. dysgalactiae infection in the herds. More adult cows than first-calving cows were affected. The teats of the front quarters were more affected than those of the hind quarters.

  10. Sensitivity to European wasps in a group of allergic patients in Marseille: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, R; Blanca, M; Sánchez, F; Juarez, C

    1994-01-01

    The wasp Polistes dominulus (PD), the yellow jacket Vespula germanica (VG) and the hornet Vespa crabro (VC) are allergenically important social wasps found in Europe. Serum samples obtained from allergic subjects in Marseille were studied in order to determine the positivity by RAST to these venoms. All the sera studied had IgE antibodies to at least one of the wasp venoms tested and 50% had IgE antibodies that reacted with more than one venom. The presence in some sera of IgE antibodies to the venoms of all three wasps and RAST inhibition studies suggested that the three venoms were relevant in the area studied and that most sera were positive to the three venoms due to allergenic cross-reactivity. However, inhibition studies revealed that 2 patients may have had antibodies that did not cross-react and that were specific for the venom of only one species.

  11. Mouthpart dimorphism in male and female wasps of Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica (Vespidae, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Baranek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social wasps perform a variety of tasks with their mouthparts. Female workers use them to feed on carbohydrate-rich fluids, to build nests by collecting wood fibers and forming paper, to hunt and manipulate insect prey for feeding larvae as well as for brood care. Since male wasps neither feed on insects nor participate in nest building, sex-specific differences in mouthpart morphology are expected. Despite these different applications, general mouthpart morphology of male and female wasps from the genus Vespula was similar. However, males possessed significantly shorter mandibles with fewer teeth than females. Furthermore, the adductor muscles of the mandibles were distinctly smaller in males than in females. Male wasps showed a higher number of sensilla on the mandibles and the labial palpi. Mouthpart dimorphism and functional morphology of fluid uptake are discussed.

  12. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee...... only for Odense and 2009-2014 for the whole region). Discharge summaries with diagnosis related to anaphylaxis according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) were reviewed to identify bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions. The severity of the anaphylactic reaction...... was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. RESULTS: We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced...

  13. A role for sexual conflict in the evolution of reproductive traits in Nasonia wasps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Pannebakker, Bart A.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual conflict theory predicts that female and male reproductive traits coevolve resulting in disruption of reproductive behaviour upon mating of individuals from diverged populations. We used interfertile species of haplodiploid Nasonia wasps to compare re-mating frequency, longevity, oviposition

  14. A unique nest-protection strategy in a new species of spider wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera show a great variation in reproductive potential and nesting behavior, from thousands of eggs in sawflies to just a dozen in nest-provisioning wasps. Reduction in reproductive potential in evolutionary derived Hymenoptera is often facilitated by advanced behavioral mechanisms and nesting strategies. Here we describe a surprising nesting behavior that was previously unknown in the entire animal kingdom: the use of a vestibular cell filled with dead ants in a new spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae species collected with trap nests in South-East China. We scientifically describe the 'Bone-house Wasp' as Deuteragenia ossarium sp. nov., named after graveyard bone-houses or ossuaries. We show that D. ossarium nests are less vulnerable to natural enemies than nests of other sympatric trap-nesting wasps, suggesting an effective nest protection strategy, most likely by utilizing chemical cues emanating from the dead ants.

  15. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV).

  16. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada, Mariana; D? Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N.

    2016-01-01

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (f...

  17. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Paredes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii. Our results indicate that S. poulsonii exerts protection against two distantly related wasp species, Leptopilina boulardi and Asobara tabida. S. poulsonii-mediated protection against parasitoid wasps takes place at the pupal stage and is not associated with an increased cellular immune response. In this work, we provide three important observations that support the notion that S. poulsonii bacteria and wasp larvae compete for host lipids and that this competition underlies symbiont-mediated protection. First, lipid quantification shows that both S. poulsonii and parasitoid wasps deplete D. melanogaster hemolymph lipids. Second, the depletion of hemolymphatic lipids using the Lpp RNA interference (Lpp RNAi construct reduces wasp success in larvae that are not infected with S. poulsonii and blocks S. poulsonii growth. Third, we show that the growth of S. poulsonii bacteria is not affected by the presence of the wasps, indicating that when S. poulsonii is present, larval wasps will develop in a lipid-depleted environment. We propose that competition for host lipids may be relevant to endosymbiont-mediated protection in other systems and could explain the broad spectrum of protection provided.

  18. [Sublethal effects of spinetoram and azadirachtin on development and reproduction of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang Ming; Zhi, Jun Rui; Li, Shun Xin; Liu, Li

    2016-11-18

    To evaluate the sublethal effects of spinetoram and azadirachtin on western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, leaf dipping method was used to determine their sublethal concentrations (LC 25 ) on the 2 nd instar nymph, and their influences on development and reproduction of F. occidentalis were studied. The results showed exposure of sublethal concentrations of spinetoram and azadirachtin to F. accidentalis had different degrees of effects on this insect pest. Under bisexual reproduction, the LC 25 spinetoram had no significant influences on pre-oviposition period, female adult longevity and fecundity, but male adult longevity was significantly shorter than the control. The LC 25 azadirachtin significantly reduced fecundity and prolonged pre-oviposition period. Under parthenogenesis, the LC 25 spinetoram and azadirachtin extended the pre-oviposition duration, whereas the LC 25 azadirachtin shortened the female adult longevity and significantly decreased fecundity. The LC 25 spinetoram and azadirachtin had different influences on developmental duration of each stage of next generation. The immature stage in treatment group of the LC 25 spinetoram was shorter than that in treatment group of the LC 25 azadirachtin, under bisexual reproduction or parthenogenesis. Intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) and finite rate of increase (λ) of population treated by the LC 25 spinetoram were higher than those of the control, whereas the r m , R 0 , and λ of population treated by the LC 25 azadirachtin were lower than those of the control. The findings indicated that the effects of the LC 25 spinetoram and azadirachtin on the development and reproduction of F. accidentalis were different. The LC 25 spinetoram had certain stimulating effect, whereas the LC 25 azadirach-tinon had significant inhibitory effect. Two biopesticides' influences were related with the reproductive patterns of F. accidentalis.

  19. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  20. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 2: Pivot tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    Data analysis at the descriptive stage and the eventual presentation of results requires the tabulation and summarisation of data. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics. Pivot tables and pivot charts are one of Excel's most powerful and underutilised features, with tabulation functions that immensely facilitate descriptive statistics. Pivot tables permit users to dynamically summarise and cross-tabulate data, create tables in several dimensions, offer a range of summary statistics and can be modified interactively with instant outputs. Large and detailed datasets are thereby easily manipulated making pivot tables arguably the best way to explore, summarise and present data from many different angles. This second paper in the WASP series in Early Human Development provides pointers for pivot table manipulation in Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ancient conservation of trinucleotide microsatellite loci in polistine wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwa, V O; Peters, J M; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Microsatellites have proven to be very useful genetic markers for studies of kinship, parentage, and gene mapping. If microsatellites are conserved among species, then those developed for one species can be used on related species, which would save the time and effort of developing new loci. We...... evaluated conservation of 27 trinucleotide loci that were derived from 2 species of Polistes wasps in cross-species applications on 27 species chosen from the major lineages of the Vespidae, which diverged as much as 144 million years ago. We further investigated cross-species polymorphism levels for 18...... of the loci. There was a clear relationship between cladistic distance and both conservation of the priming sites and heterozygosity. However the loci derived from P. bellicosus were much more widely conserved and polymorphic than were those derived from P. annularis. The disparity in cross-species utility...

  2. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae é uma das pragas mais importantes em cultivos protegidos, principalmente de plantas ornamentais e hortícolas. Entre os problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores estão a dificuldade de seu controle com o uso de inseticidas devido à sua preferência pelas partes internas das flores e a evolução de resistência aos agroquímicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar a resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade e avaliar a frequência de insetos resistentes ao inseticida, em áreas comerciais de crisântemo de diversos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência a espinosade foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de F. occidentalis, coletada em 2007 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Campinas (SP. No decorrer de sete seleções para resistência, a CL50 de espinosade passou de 8,41 mg i.a. L-1 para 1111 mg i.a. L-1. Comparando-se a linhagem resistente (R (selecionada e a suscetível (S, a razão de resistência (CL50 R/CL50 S atingiu valores de ≈280 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 98 mg i.a. L-1 para o monitoramento da resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 19 populações do tripes em áreas comerciais de crisântemo no Estado de São Paulo. Os bioensaios foram realizados com ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. occidentalis, colocadas em arenas de folha de feijão. As aplicações de espinosade, na sua concentração discriminatória, foram realizadas sobre as ninfas em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram alta variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a espinosade. Foram observadas populações com até 40,7% de insetos resistentes. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade no Brasil.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is one of the major

  3. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae é uma das pragas mais importantes em cultivos protegidos, principalmente de plantas ornamentais e hortícolas. Entre os problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores estão a dificuldade de seu controle com o uso de inseticidas devido à sua preferência pelas partes internas das flores e a evolução de resistência aos agroquímicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar a resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade e avaliar a frequência de insetos resistentes ao inseticida, em áreas comerciais de crisântemo de diversos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência a espinosade foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de F. occidentalis, coletada em 2007 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Campinas (SP. No decorrer de sete seleções para resistência, a CL50 de espinosade passou de 8,41 mg i.a. L-1 para 1111 mg i.a. L-1. Comparando-se a linhagem resistente (R (selecionada e a suscetível (S, a razão de resistência (CL50 R/CL50 S atingiu valores de ≈280 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 98 mg i.a. L-1 para o monitoramento da resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 19 populações do tripes em áreas comerciais de crisântemo no Estado de São Paulo. Os bioensaios foram realizados com ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. occidentalis, colocadas em arenas de folha de feijão. As aplicações de espinosade, na sua concentração discriminatória, foram realizadas sobre as ninfas em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram alta variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a espinosade. Foram observadas populações com até 40,7% de insetos resistentes. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade no Brasil.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is one of the major

  4. ON THE ORBIT OF EXOPLANET WASP-12b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Christopher J.; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Lust, Nate B.; Blecic, Jasmina; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Wheatley, Peter J.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Deming, Drake; Hebb, Leslie; Pollaco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    We observed two secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-12b using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The close proximity of WASP-12b to its G-type star results in extreme tidal forces capable of inducing apsidal precession with a period as short as a few decades. This precession would be measurable if the orbit had a significant eccentricity, leading to an estimate of the tidal Love number and an assessment of the degree of central concentration in the planetary interior. An initial ground-based secondary-eclipse phase reported by Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 ± 0.002) implied eccentricity at the 4.5σ level. The spectroscopic orbit of Hebb et al. has eccentricity 0.049 ± 0.015, a 3σ result, implying an eclipse phase of 0.509 ± 0.007. However, there is a well-documented tendency of spectroscopic data to overestimate small eccentricities. Our eclipse phases are 0.5010 ± 0.0006 (3.6 and 5.8 μm) and 0.5006 ± 0.0007 (4.5 and 8.0 μm). An unlikely orbital precession scenario invoking an alignment of the orbit during the Spitzer observations could have explained this apparent discrepancy, but the final eclipse phase of Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 ± +0.007 -0.006 ) is consistent with a circular orbit at better than 2σ. An orbit fit to all the available transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity data indicates precession at <1σ; a non-precessing solution fits better. We also comment on analysis and reporting for Spitzer exoplanet data in light of recent re-analyses.

  5. WASP-ASSOCIATED FACTORS ACT IN INTERSPECIES COMPETITION DURING MULTIPARASITISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaraog, Peter M; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence or displacement of parasitoids in hosts during intrinsic competitive interactions between different parasitoid species (multiparasitism) may depend on their life history traits and behavior. Intense competition for possession of hosts may lead to the elimination of the inferior competitor through physical attack and/or physiological suppression. However, the mechanisms of physiological suppression during multiparasitism remain unclear. Previous work has shown that first instar larvae of the solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis possess well-developed mandibles that are used to kill competitors. Two gregarious endoparasitoids, Cotesia kariyai and C. rufricus, share host resources especially when the time gap of oviposition is short. Here, we investigated the physiological influence of wasp-regulatory factors of the three endoparasitoids, M. pulchricornis, C. kariyai, and C. ruficrus, in their common host Mythimna separata. We found that MpVLP alone (or with venom) deleteriously affected the development of the two gregarious species. Similarly, CkPDV plus venom had toxic effect on M. pulchricornis eggs and immature larvae, although they were not harmful to immature stages of C. ruficrus. Cotesia kariyai and C. ruficrus were able to coexist mainly through the expression of regulatory factors and both could successfully emerge from a multiparasitized host. The injection of CkPDV plus venom after oviposition in L5 host larvae facilitated C. ruficrus development and increased the rate of successful parasitism from 9% to 62%. This suggests that the two gregarious parasitoid wasps exhibit strong phylogenetic affinity, favoring their coexistence and success in multiparasitized hosts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-2 SYSTEM BY THE APOSTLE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Andrew C.; Kundurthy, Praveen; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rose, Amy E. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present transit observations of the WASP-2 exoplanet system by the Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) program. Model fitting to these data allows us to improve measurements of the hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-2b and its orbital parameters by a factor of {approx}2 over prior studies; we do not find evidence for transit depth variations. We do find reduced {chi}{sup 2} values greater than 1.0 in the observed minus computed transit times. A sinusoidal fit to the residuals yields a timing semi-amplitude of 32 s and a period of 389 days. However, random rearrangements of the data provide similar quality fits, and we cannot with certainty ascribe the timing variations to mutual exoplanet interactions. This inconclusive result is consistent with the lack of incontrovertible transit timing variations (TTVs) observed in other hot-Jupiter systems. This outcome emphasizes that unique recognition of TTVs requires dense sampling of the libration cycle (e.g., continuous observations from space-based platforms). However, even in systems observed with the Kepler spacecraft, there is a noted lack of transiting companions and TTVs in hot-Jupiter systems. This result is more meaningful, and indicates that hot-Jupiter systems, while they are easily observable from the ground, do not appear to be currently configured in a manner favorable to the detection of TTVs. The future of ground-based TTV studies may reside in resolving secular trends, and/or implementation at extreme quality observing sites to minimize atmospheric red noise.

  7. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ramírez-Benavides

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC. It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host. We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F. citrifolia, in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females’ sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 605-621. Epub 2009 September 30.

  8. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  9. Flee or fight: ontogenetic changes in the behavior of cobweb spiders in encounters with spider-hunting wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Divya B; Weiss, Martha R

    2012-12-01

    An animal's body size plays a predominant role in shaping its interspecific interactions, and, in encounters between two predators, often determines which shall be predator and which shall be prey. Spiders are top predators of insects, yet can fall prey to mud-dauber wasps that provision their larval nests with paralyzed spiders. Here we examined predator-prey interactions between Chalybion californicum (Saussure) (Sphecidae), a mud-dauber wasp, and Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L. Koch (Theridiidae), a cobweb spider. We examined whether a spider's size influences its response to an attacking wasp, and report a size-dependent change in spider behavior: small-sized spiders fled, whereas medium- and large-sized spiders fought in response to wasp attacks. From the wasps' perspective, we examined whether spider size influences a wasp's hunting behavior and capture success. We found that wasps commonly approached small spiders, but were much less likely to approach medium and large spiders. However, wasp capture success did not vary with spider size. We also report a strategy used by Chalybion wasps toward cobweb spiders that is consistent with an interpretation of aggressive mimicry.

  10. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae) en Tumbes, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Marina; Martínez, Rosa; Tantaleán V, Manuel; Cadenillas, Richard; Pacheco, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, Tricholeiperia peruensis. n sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) is described on the basis of 25 collected specimens from 5 bat intestines of the Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis species from Angostura, district of Pampas de Hospital, department of Tumbes, Peru. The new species is characterized by the morphology of the cephalic vesicle in the form of hood with recesses, for the size and form of spikes whose distal end of the external branch is divided in 2 from which the internal...

  11. Endosymbiont interference and microbial diversity of the Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis, in San Diego County, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Gurfield

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, is found throughout California and can harbor agents that cause human diseases such as anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and rickettsiosis 364D. Previous studies have demonstrated that nonpathogenic endosymbiotic bacteria can interfere with Rickettsia co-infections in other tick species. We hypothesized that within D. occidentalis ticks, interference may exist between different nonpathogenic endosymbiotic or nonendosymbiotic bacteria and Spotted Fever group Rickettsia (SFGR. Using PCR amplification and sequencing of the rompA gene and intergenic region we identified a cohort of SFGR-infected and non-infected D. occidentalis ticks collected from San Diego County. We then amplified a partial segment of the 16S rRNA gene and used next-generation sequencing to elucidate the microbiomes and levels of co-infection in the ticks. The SFGR R. philipii str. 364D and R. rhipicephali were detected in 2.3% and 8.2% of the ticks, respectively, via rompA sequencing. Interestingly, next generation sequencing revealed an inverse relationship between the number of Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLE 16S rRNA sequences and Rickettsia 16S rRNA sequences within individual ticks that is consistent with partial interference between FLE and SFGR infecting ticks. After excluding the Rickettsia and FLE endosymbionts from the analysis, there was a small but significant difference in microbial community diversity and a pattern of geographic isolation by distance between collection locales. In addition, male ticks had a greater diversity of bacteria than female ticks and ticks that weren’t infected with SFGR had similar microbiomes to canine skin microbiomes. Although experimental studies are required for confirmation, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that FLEs and, to a lesser extent, other bacteria, interfere with the ability of D. occidentalis to be infected with

  12. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Akoth Ogada

    Full Text Available Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant, as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector.

  13. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: Preference between Lettuce Aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ? 1? C and 70 ? 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar...

  14. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borodina

    Full Text Available Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A. All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST. Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy.

  15. Proximate, Anti-Nutrient and Vitamin Composition of Full-Fat and Defatted Seed Flour of Telfairia occidentalis

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    Yetunde Alozie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine the proximate and anti-nutrient composition of full-fat and defatted seed flour of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin using standard procedures. The defatted seed flour (DSF indicated higher protein content (46.55% while the full-fat seed flour (FSF presented a value of 10.20%. The lipid (35.78%, carbohydrate (42.27%, and caloric values (531.90 Kcal/100 g obtained for FSF were respectively higher than values of similar determinations for DSF. The anti-nutritional analyses of the FSF showed slightly higher oxalate content (44.00 mg/100 g while cyanide, phytate and tannin levels were higher in DSF. The vitamin A composition of FSF (9.18 mg/100 g was higher than that of DSF (0.84 mg/100 g while DSF indicated higher vitamin C (74.44 mg/100g content. These results revealed that the seed flour of Telfairia occidentalis contains an appreciable amount of nutrients and vitamins. The levels of toxicants in both FSF and DSF samples were low and below toxic levels. The seed flour of Telfairia occidentalis can be exploited as a cheap and valuable source of vegetable protein in fortified food products formulation.

  16. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Craig A., E-mail: craig.a.mcfarland@us.army.mi [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Quinn, Michael J [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Boyce, John [Biotechnics, LLC, Hillsborough, NC 27278 (United States); LaFiandra, Emily M; Bazar, Matthew A [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Mark S [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD{sub 50} values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at {>=}15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: Oral LD{sub 50} (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at {>=}5 mg/kg-d. Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  17. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, Craig A.; Quinn, Michael J.; Boyce, John; LaFiandra, Emily M.; Bazar, Matthew A.; Talent, Larry G.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD 50 values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at ≥15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: → Oral LD 50 (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. → Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at ≥5 mg/kg-d. → Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. → Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  18. Croissance de Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Pisces, Claroteidae dans le Delta Central du Niger (Mali, Afrique de l'ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaré, T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Pisces, Claroteidae in the Central Delta of Niger River Flood Plain (Mali, West Africa. Growth biology of Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Valenciennes, 1840 is studied from individuals monthly sampled on two different annual cycles (1991 and 1997 in the fishing port of Mopti. Individual age of fishes was determined by squelettochronology. Chronological follow-up of relative margin diameter (dr of spine ray section was used for validation of the periodicity of annulus formation. Only one annulus is formed annually. Period of growth recovery shows an individual variability with an early starting up from the lowwater level, in May. The seasonal cycle of growth of this benthic fish, A. occidentalis, depends more on the availability of the trophic resources than of abiotic factors. However, the optimal period of growth always remains the high-water one in this river with flood plain. Fishes condition factor's varies between 1.97±0.27 à 2.57±0.41. Year x season interaction affects this parameter. Growth realized during the first year (189.17±4.57 and 261.25±12.19 mm as well as the later growths depend on hydrological conditions and are influenced by fishing pressure. Presence of 3+ age class fishes shows that demographic structure is not qualitatively modified despite changes arisen in the Delta.

  19. Comparative genome sequence analysis of Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman and C. rosaceana Harris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae alphabaculoviruses.

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    David K Thumbi

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequences of Choristoneura occidentalis and C. rosaceana nucleopolyhedroviruses (ChocNPV and ChroNPV, respectively (Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus were determined and compared with each other and with those of other baculoviruses, including the genome of the closely related C. fumiferana NPV (CfMNPV. The ChocNPV genome was 128,446 bp in length (1147 bp smaller than that of CfMNPV, had a G+C content of 50.1%, and contained 148 open reading frames (ORFs. In comparison, the ChroNPV genome was 129,052 bp in length, had a G+C content of 48.6% and contained 149 ORFs. ChocNPV and ChroNPV shared 144 ORFs in common, and had a 77% sequence identity with each other and 96.5% and 77.8% sequence identity, respectively, with CfMNPV. Five homologous regions (hrs, with sequence similarities to those of CfMNPV, were identified in ChocNPV, whereas the ChroNPV genome contained three hrs featuring up to 14 repeats. Both genomes encoded three inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP-1, IAP-2, and IAP-3, as reported for CfMNPV, and the ChocNPV IAP-3 gene represented the most divergent functional region of this genome relative to CfMNPV. Two ORFs were unique to ChocNPV, and four were unique to ChroNPV. ChroNPV ORF chronpv38 is a eukaryotic initiation factor 5 (eIF-5 homolog that has also been identified in the C. occidentalis granulovirus (ChocGV and is believed to be the product of horizontal gene transfer from the host. Based on levels of sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis, both ChocNPV and ChroNPV fall within group I alphabaculoviruses, where ChocNPV appears to be more closely related to CfMNPV than does ChroNPV. Our analyses suggest that it may be appropriate to consider ChocNPV and CfMNPV as variants of the same virus species.

  20. Modeling stem increment in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, S.; Bevilacqua, E.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most common and important tree characteristics used in forest management decision-making is tree diameter-at-breast height (DBH). This paper presents results on an evaluation of two growth functions developed to model stem diameter increases in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic. The first model was developed in order to predict future DBH (FDM) at different intervals of time and the other for predicting growth, that is, periodic annual diameter increment (PADIM). Each model employed two statistical techniques for fitting model parameters: stepwise ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and mixed models. The two statistical approaches varied in how they accounted for the repeated measurements on individual trees over time, affecting standard error estimates and statistical inference of model parameters. Each approach was evaluated based on six goodness of- fit statistics, using both calibration and validation data sets. The objectives were 1) to determine the best model for predicting future tree DBH; 2) to determine the best model for predicting periodic annual diameter increment, both models using tree size, age, site index and different indices of competitive status; and 3) compare which of these two modeling approaches predicts better the future DBH. OLS provided a better fit for both of the growth functions, especially in regards to bias. Both models showed advantages and disadvantages when they were used to predict growth and future diameter. For the prediction of future diameter with FDM, accuracy of predictions were within one centimeter for a five-year projection interval. The PADIM presented negligible bias in estimating future diameter, although there was a small increase in bias as time of prediction increased. As expected, each model was the best in estimating the response variable it was developed for.. However, a closer examination of the distribution of errors showed a slight advantage of the FDM

  1. Sub-Chronic Toxicity of the Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f. (Cucurbitaceae in Male Rats

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    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to its nutritional and medicinal values, the leaf of Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. (Cucurbitaceae is consumed in different parts of Nigeria. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis were investigated in this study. Methods: Sixty-four male rats were randomized into four different groups of 16 animals each and were separately administered 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg T. occidentalis orally (p.o. for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. Vital organs were harvested and evaluated for in vivo antioxidants and histopathological changes. Results: A significant (p < 0.05 reduction in weight of the testes, compared to the control group, was observed in the group treated with 2000 mg/kg extract. No significant change was observed in the weight of other vital organs relative to the control group. There were significant (p < 0.01 increases in sperm motility and count in the group administered 80 mg/kg extract and significant (p < 0.001 reductions in both parameters at 2000 mg/kg. There were significant increases in the levels of hemoglobin and packed cell volume at 80 and 2000 mg/kg of the extract. In respect of liver function parameters, significant reductions in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels at doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg relative to control were observed. Compared to control, the extract significantly reduced (p < 0.05 the level of total cholesterol (400 mg/kg and caused a significant increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein (80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg. Significant (p < 0.05 increase in the level of malondialdehyde, decrease in superoxide dismutase level and histopathological abnormalities were observed in the testes at 2000 mg/kg. Upon cessation of treatment with T. occidentalis for 30 days, the observed effects were reversed. Conclusions: The findings showed that the hydroethanolic

  2. Flower-Visiting Social Wasps and Plants Interaction: Network Pattern and Environmental Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Aparecido Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis as a tool for ecological interactions studies has been widely used since last decade. However, there are few studies on the factors that shape network patterns in communities. In this sense, we compared the topological properties of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants in two distinct phytophysiognomies in a Brazilian savanna (Riparian Forest and Rocky Grassland. Results showed that the landscapes differed in species richness and composition, and also the interaction networks between wasps and plants had different patterns. The network was more complex in the Riparian Forest, with a larger number of species and individuals and a greater amount of connections between them. The network specialization degree was more generalist in the Riparian Forest than in the Rocky Grassland. This result was corroborated by means of the nestedness index. In both networks was found asymmetry, with a large number of wasps per plant species. In general aspects, most wasps had low niche amplitude, visiting from one to three plant species. Our results suggest that differences in structural complexity of the environment directly influence the structure of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants.

  3. Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human-wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Evans, Joshua D

    2017-02-08

    Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan. Fieldwork comprised participant observation, semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys and a review of resources including the personal and public records of wasp collectors. The practice of keeping wasps in hive boxes has historical roots and has changed significantly within living memory. Current attempts to further develop the practice involve collectors' great efforts to keep new queens during their hibernation. Collectors have also tried, still without success, to keep wasps living within a human-made enclosure for their entire life cycle. These and other practices are costly in both time and money for collectors, who emphasise enjoyment as their primary motivation. At the same time, they also engage in practices such as pesticide use that they recognise as damaging to wasp ecology. These practices can be understood to some extent in domesticatory terms, and in terms of care. We develop a framework for understanding domesticatory practices of insect care, discuss how this case contributes to ongoing debates within domestication studies, and recommend further research to be pursued.

  4. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  5. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  6. Revisiting the Phase Curves of WASP-43b: Confronting Re-analyzed Spitzer Data with Cloudy Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendonça, João M.; Malik, Matej; Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2018-01-01

    red noise due to intra-pixel sensitivity, which leads to greater fluxes emanating from the nightside of WASP-43b, thus reducing the tension between theory and data. On the theoretical front, we construct cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres of WASP-43b using our Global Circulation Model (GCM), THOR...

  7. Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP8): Upgrades to the Advanced Toxicant Module for Simulating Dissolved Chemicals, Nanomaterials, and Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) is a dynamic, spatially-resolved, differential mass balance fate and transport modeling framework. WASP is used to develop models to simulate concentrations of environmental contaminants in surface waters and sediments. As a mo...

  8. Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua W; Smithers, Cherice; Irvin, Allyn; Kimmel, Chase B; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Daniels, Jaret C; Ellis, James D

    2017-10-10

    Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds ( Bambusa sp.) were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots) to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots) did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis , Euodynerus megaera , Parancistrocerus pedestris , and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile . The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs). The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes.

  9. Three-dimensional organization of the glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the parasitoid wasps Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Bleeker, M.A.K.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, differ in their use of associative learning. To investigate the neural basis underlying these differences, it is necessary to describe the olfactory pathway of both wasp species. This paper focuses on the organization of

  10. Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W. Campbell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds (Bambusa sp. were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis, Euodynerus megaera, Parancistrocerus pedestris, and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile. The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs. The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes.

  11. Reward value determines memory consolidation in parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruidhof, H Marjolein; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Fatouros, Nina E; Figueroa, Ilich A; Vet, Louise E M; Smid, Hans M; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that two parasitic wasp species belonging to different families, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Trichogramma evanescens (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae), similarly adjust the memory form they consolidate to a fitness-determining reward: egg-laying into a host-insect that serves as food for their offspring. Protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) was consolidated after single-trial conditioning with a high-value host. However, single-trial conditioning with a low-value host induced consolidation of a shorter-lasting memory form. For Cotesia glomerata, we subsequently identified this shorter-lasting memory form as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) because it was not sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors or anesthesia. Associative conditioning using a single reward of different value thus induced a physiologically different mechanism of memory formation in this species. We conclude that the memory form that is consolidated does not only change in response to relatively large differences in conditioning, such as the number and type of conditioning trials, but is also sensitive to more subtle differences, such as reward value. Reward-dependent consolidation of exclusive ARM or LTM provides excellent opportunities for within-species comparison of mechanisms underlying memory consolidation.

  12. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Perrichot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New material of the wasp family Maimetshidae (Apocrita is presented from four Cretaceous amber deposits – the Neocomian of Lebanon, the Early Albian of Spain, the latest Albian/earliest Cenomanian of France, and the Campanian of Canada. The new record from Canadian Cretaceous amber extends the temporal and paleogeographical range of the family. New material from France is assignable to Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica Perrichot et al. including the first females for the species, while a series of males and females from Spain are described and figured as Iberomaimetsha Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel gen. n., with the two new species Iberomaimetsha rasnitsyni Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel sp. n. and I. nihtmara Ortega-Blanco, Delclòs, and Engel sp. n.; a single female from Lebanon is described and figured as Ahiromaimetsha najlae Perrichot, Azar, Nel, and Engel gen. et sp. n., and a single male from Canada is described and figured as Ahstemiam cellula McKellar and Engel gen. et sp. n. The taxa are compared with other maimetshids, a key to genera and species is given, and brief comments made on the family.

  13. Biogenic Nanoparticles from Schwanniomyces occidentalis NCIM 3459: Mechanistic Aspects and Catalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Pallavi; Apte, Mugdha; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2016-06-01

    When cells of Schwanniomyces occidentalis NCIM 3459 were incubated with 1 mM tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) or silver nitrate (AgNO3), cell-associated nanoparticles were obtained. Their presence was confirmed by scanning electron microscope observations. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of the yeast mediated the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. On account of the difficulties associated with the use of cell-bound nanoparticles, further work was restricted to extracellular nanoparticles. It was hypothesized that the CFS contained thermostable biomolecule(s) that mediated metal reduction reactions. Extraction of the CFS with chloroform/methanol (2:1) and subsequent separation by preparative thin layer chromatography led to the activity-guided purification of a glycolipid. The glycolipid was hydrolyzed and the glycone (glucose) and aglycone components (palmitic acid and oleic acid) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The purified glycolipid mediated the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles that were characterized by using an X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The extracellular nanoparticles displayed catalytic activities and reduced 4-nitroaniline to benzene-1,4-diamine. This paper thus highlights nanoparticle synthesis by a hitherto unreported yeast culture, identifies the biomolecules involved in the process, and describes a potential application of the nanostructures.

  14. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae: A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Naser

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L. is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections.

  15. Esterase inhibition by synergists in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soler, Neus; Cervera, Amelia; Quinto, Vicente; Abellán, Jaime; Bielza, Pablo; Martínez-Pardo, Rafael; Garcerá, Maria Dolores

    2011-12-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is among the most important crop pests in the south-eastern region of Spain. Its increasing resistance to insecticides constitutes a serious problem, and understanding the mechanisms involved is therefore of great interest. Use of synergists to inhibit the enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification is widely used to determine their responsibility for insecticide resistance. However, they do not always act as intended or expected, and caution must be exercised when interpreting synergist results. Laboratory-selected strains of WFT were used to analyse the effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and methiocarb on total esterase activity. Significant differences were found, indicating esterase activity inhibition by DEF, a lower effect for methiocarb and a small inhibition of the activity by PBO. Esterase isoenzyme inhibition by these compounds showed a similar result; this assay revealed an extreme sensitivity of Triplet A (resistance-associated esterases) to DEF. In an in vivo assay carried out with these compounds at different incubation times, only DEF caused posterior in vitro esterase activity inhibition, with a maximum effect 1 h after treatment. In this work, only DEF shows true synergistic inhibition of WFT esterases. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Somatic aberration induction in Tradescantia occidentalis by neutrons, X- and γ-radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Biological results, including statistical features, are described for the irradiation of Tradescantia occidentalis 250 kVp X-rays, cobalt-60 γ-radiation and monoenergetic neutrons with energies between 0.08 and 15 MeV. The effect studied was that of the induction of pink sectors in the otherwide blue staminal hairs of the flowers at low doses of radiation. Statistical aspects of the results suggest that a fraction of the asynchronous cell population in the hairs is very sensitive to neutron radiation, but not necessarily to lower LET radiations. All the results were fitted by a least-squares method by polynominals of different degrees. Best fits to X- and γ-ray data were provided by second-degree polynominals, and to the neutron data by either second- or third-degree polynominals. Limiting r.b.e. and o.e.r. values at low doses are derived. Some computed microdosimetric parameters are presented in comparison with the r.b.e. values. It is concluded that the effect studied is complex and may not provide a critical test of bio-physical theories of radiation effects. (author)

  17. Lead pollution due to exhaust gases. [Celtis occidentalis; fraxinus angustifolia; aesculus hippocastanum; hedera helix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinscek, P

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to establish the changes in the lead content of trees and shrubs on the Margaret island in Budapest as a response to the reduction in motor-vehicle traffic introduced in 1974. Compared to samples of the control area (Vacratot) the Margaret island samples were found to have a considerable higher lead content. As a consequence of the traffic modifying measure a 30% decrease in the lead content of the samples was verified. The lead pollution did not involve changes in the chlorophyll content of samples. Accumulation of lead pollution is a specific feature. Lead pollution is accumulated to a great extent (multiple of other plants) by the pilose-leaved CELTIS occidentalis, the pinnate-leaved FRAXINUS angustifolia, ssp. pannonica and the undulate-leaved AESCULUS hippocastanum as well as from among the evergreen by the stellate-hair HEDERA helix. The green belt bordering the roads by its active lead cumulation plays an important role in lessening the plumb pollution of areas more distant from the road. 14 references 3 tables.

  18. Role and structural mechanism of WASP-triggered conformational changes in branched actin filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnick-Smith, Max; Luan, Qing; Liu, Su-Ling; Nolen, Brad J

    2016-07-05

    The Arp2/3 (Actin-related proteins 2/3) complex is activated by WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) family proteins to nucleate branched actin filaments that are important for cellular motility. WASP recruits actin monomers to the complex and stimulates movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into a "short-pitch" conformation that mimics the arrangement of actin subunits within filaments. The relative contribution of these functions in Arp2/3 complex activation and the mechanism by which WASP stimulates the conformational change have been unknown. We purified budding yeast Arp2/3 complex held in or near the short-pitch conformation by an engineered covalent cross-link to determine if the WASP-induced conformational change is sufficient for activity. Remarkably, cross-linked Arp2/3 complex bypasses the need for WASP in activation and is more active than WASP-activated Arp2/3 complex. These data indicate that stimulation of the short-pitch conformation is the critical activating function of WASP and that monomer delivery is not a fundamental requirement for nucleation but is a specific requirement for WASP-mediated activation. During activation, WASP limits nucleation rates by releasing slowly from nascent branches. The cross-linked complex is inhibited by WASP's CA region, even though CA potently stimulates cross-linking, suggesting that slow WASP detachment masks the activating potential of the short-pitch conformational switch. We use structure-based mutations and WASP-Arp fusion chimeras to determine how WASP stimulates movement toward the short-pitch conformation. Our data indicate that WASP displaces the autoinhibitory Arp3 C-terminal tail from a hydrophobic groove at Arp3's barbed end to destabilize the inactive state, providing a mechanism by which WASP stimulates the short-pitch conformation and activates Arp2/3 complex.

  19. Long-term spatial memory in Vespula germanica social wasps: the influence of past experience on foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreyra, Sabrina; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2017-10-01

    Social insects exhibit complex learning and memory mechanisms while foraging. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is an invasive social wasp that frequently forages on undepleted food sources, making several flights between the resource and the nest. Previous studies have shown that during this relocating behavior, wasps learn to associate food with a certain site, and can recall this association 1 h later. In this work, we evaluated whether this wasp species is capable of retrieving an established association after 24 h. For this purpose, we trained free flying individuals to collect proteinaceous food from an experimental plate (feeder) located in an experimental array. A total of 150 individuals were allowed 2, 4, or 8 visits. After the training phase, the array was removed and set up again 24 h later, but this time a second baited plate was placed opposite to the first. After 24 h we recorded the rate of wasps that returned to the experimental area and those which collected food from the previously learned feeding station or the nonlearned one. During the testing phase, we observed that a low rate of wasps trained with 2 collecting visits returned to the experimental area (22%), whereas the rate of returning wasps trained with 4 or 8 collecting visits was higher (51% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, wasps trained with 8 feeding visits collected food from the previously learned feeding station at a higher rate than those that did from the nonlearned one. In contrast, wasps trained 2 or 4 times chose both feeding stations at a similar rate. Thus, significantly more wasps returned to the previously learned feeding station after 8 repeated foraging flights but not after only 2 or 4 visits. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of long-term spatial memory in V. germanica wasps. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Molecular phylogenies of figs and fig-pollinating wasps in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rhett D; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) is one of the most specific mutualisms, and thus is a model system for studying coevolution and cospeciation. In this study we focused on figs and their associated fig-wasps found in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Japan, because it has been suggested that breakdown in the specificity may occur in islands or at edge of a species' distribution. We collected 136 samples of 15 native fig species and 95 samples of 13 associated fig-wasps from all major islands in the Ryukyu Islands, including two fig species and one fig-wasp species endemic to the Bonin Islands. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using plastid DNA and nuclear ITS sequences for the figs and nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes for the fig-wasps to investigate the interspecific phylogenies and intraspecific variation within the mutualism. Our phylogenetic analyses using multiple samples per species show the single clade of each fig (except the Bonin endemic species) and fig-pollinating wasp species. Fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed well-supported clades in both plastid and ITS trees, except for the subgenus Urostigma. Likewise, fig wasps emerging from host fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed mostly well supported clades in both 28S and COI trees. Host specificity between the figs and fig-wasps functions strictly in these islands. There was very little sequence variation within species, and that no major geographic structure was found. The two Bonin endemic species (F. boninsimae and F. nishimurae) or their common ancestor and the associated fig-wasps (Blastophaga sp.) are apparently derived from F. erecta and its associated fig-wasps (B. nipponica), respectively, and probably migrated from the Ryukyu Islands.

  1. New Types of Behavioral Manipulation of Host Spiders by a Parasitoid Wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of the parasitic wasp Zatypota sp. nr. solanoi induces its host spiders Anelosimus spp. to modify its web in ways not seen in normal webs of this species or in any other species, providing apparent protection and support for the wasp's cocoon by covering the entire web with a protective sheet and adding a central platform and opening a space below in the enclosed tangle, where the larva suspends its cocoon. These modifications differ qualitatively from those induced by a congeneric wasp. Parasitized spiders appeared to adjust modified web construction behavior to local conditions, implying that larval manipulations may occur at higher rather than lower levels of behavioral control (e.g., eliciting overall design decisions, rather than particular motor patterns.

  2. Nest Architectural Patterns by Three Wasp Species ( and with Reference to Their Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the nest architectural patterns, elemental analysis and their behavior were carried out in three wasp species: Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, Polistes flavus (Cresson and Sceliphron formosum (Smith from the different localities of the Mansehra, Pakistan. The V. velutina nest was completely closed except for one opening for entry or exit with 1–10 layers of hexagonal cells inside the nest. The nests of P. flavus were found among bunches of leaves of trees with 1–5 layers and hexagonal cells same as in V. velutina. Nests of the S. formosum were pitcher-shaped, found in muddy places, and consisted of 1–10 cells. Social behavior of wasps showed strong foraging, defensive behaviors, pseudo-attack, subsequent erratic flight, wing buzzing, mandibular pecking, abdominal pumping and abdominal twisting with highly developed parental care. It was concluded that the behaviors of these 3 wasp species was highly developed as compared with other insects.

  3. Hierarchical genetic structure of the introduced wasp Vespula germanica in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodisman, M A; Matthews, R W; Crozier, R H

    2001-06-01

    The wasp Vespula germanica is a highly successful invasive pest. This study examined the population genetic structure of V. germanica in its introduced range in Australia. We sampled 1320 workers and 376 males from 141 nests obtained from three widely separated geographical areas on the Australian mainland and one on the island of Tasmania. The genotypes of all wasps were assayed at three polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers. Our analyses uncovered significant allelic differentiation among all four V. germanica populations. Pairwise estimates of genetic divergence between populations agreed with the results of a model-based clustering algorithm which indicated that the Tasmanian population was particularly distinct from the other populations. Within-population analyses revealed that genetic similarity declined with spatial distance, indicating that wasps from nests separated by more than approximately 25 km belonged to separate mating pools. We suggest that the observed genetic patterns resulted from frequent bottlenecks experienced by the V. germanica populations during their colonization of Australia.

  4. Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevanandam, Nanthinee; Goh, Alexander G R; Corlett, Richard T

    2013-06-23

    Figs (Ficus) have a reciprocally obligate mutualism with tiny, short-lived (1-2 days) fig wasps (Agaonidae). The small size and short life of these pollinators is expected to make them more vulnerable to climate change than their larger and longer-lived hosts. We experimentally tested the thermal tolerances of four species of adult female fig wasp from equatorial Singapore. The results suggest that an increase of 3°C or more above the current temperatures experienced across much of the equatorial tropics would markedly decrease the active adult lifespan of all four species. Fig plants are the centre of an intricate web of specialist and generalist animals. Unless fig wasps can acclimate or adapt to warmer temperatures in time, these responses may disrupt the mutualism, potentially affecting multiple trophic levels.

  5. Expression of Enzymatically Inactive Wasp Venom Phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M.; Wagner, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain...... and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect...

  6. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M.; Wagner, Tim

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain...... and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification. Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect...

  7. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M; Wagner, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain...... and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect...

  8. Does size matter? - Thermoregulation of 'heavyweight' and 'lightweight' wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-09-15

    In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (T(a): ~0-40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights.Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on T(a) on their arrival (mean T(th) = 30-40°C) and departure (mean T(th) = 33-40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (T(th)-T(a)) above ambient air of about 5-18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the T(th) on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.

  9. Ultraviolet anomalies of the WASP-12 and HD 189733 systems: Trojan satellites as a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakova, Kristina; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Funk, Barbara; Lammer, Helmut; Fossati, Luca; Eggl, Siegfried; Schwarz, Richard; Boudyada, Mohammed; Erkaev, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    We suggest an additional possible plasma source in the WASP-12 and HD189733b systems to explain part of the phenomena observed in ultraviolet (UV) light curves during planetary transits. In the proposed scenario, material originates from the molten surface of Trojan satellites on orbits near the Lagrange points L4 and L5. We show that the temperature at the orbital location of WASP-12b is high enough to melt the surface of rocky Trojans and to form shallow lava oceans on them. At the orbital distance of WASP-12b, this leads to the release of elements such as Mg and Ca, which are expected to surround the system. The predicted Mg and Ca outgassing rates from two Io-sized WASP-12b Trojans are ≈ 2.2 × 1027 s-1 and ≈ 2.2 × 1026 s-1, respectively. Trojan outgassing can lead to the observed lack of emission in MgII h&k and CaII H&K line cores of WASP-12. For HD 189733b, the mechanism is only marginally possible due to the lower temperature. The early ingress of HD 189733b observed in the far-UV (FUV) CII doublet couldn't be explained by this mechanism due to absence of carbon within elements outgassed by molten lava. We investigate the long-term stability region of WASP-12b and HD 189733b in case of planar and inclined motion of these satellites and show that unlike the classical exomoons orbiting the planet, Io-sized Trojans can be stable for the whole systems life time.

  10. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  11. Recombinant allergen-based IgE testing to distinguish bee and wasp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermann, Irene; Zidarn, Mihaela; Silar, Mira; Markovic-Housley, Zora; Aberer, Werner; Korosec, Peter; Kosnik, Mitja; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-06-01

    The identification of the disease-causing insect in venom allergy is often difficult. To establish recombinant allergen-based IgE tests to diagnose bee and yellow jacket wasp allergy. Sera from patients with bee and/or wasp allergy (n = 43) and patients with pollen allergy with false-positive IgE serology to venom extracts were tested for IgE reactivity in allergen extract-based tests or with purified allergens, including nonglycosylated Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant (r) Api m 1, rApi m 2, rVes v 5, and insect cell-expressed, glycosylated rApi m 2 as well as 2 natural plant glycoproteins (Phl p 4, bromelain). The patients with venom allergy could be diagnosed with a combination of E coli-expressed rApi m 1, rApi m 2, and rVes v 5 whereas patients with pollen allergy remained negative. For a group of 29 patients for whom the sensitizing venom could not be identified with natural allergen extracts, testing with nonglycosylated allergens allowed identification of the sensitizing venom. Recombinant nonglycosylated allergens also allowed definition of the sensitizing venom for those 14 patients who had reacted either with bee or wasp venom extracts. By IgE inhibition studies, it is shown that glycosylated Api m 2 contains carbohydrate epitopes that cross-react with natural Api m 1, Ves v 2, natural Phl p 4, and bromelain, thus identifying cross-reactive structures responsible for serologic false-positive test results or double-positivity to bee and wasp extracts. Nonglycosylated recombinant bee and wasp venom allergens allow the identification of patients with bee and wasp allergy and should facilitate accurate prescription of venom immunotherapy. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive selection on bracovirus genomes drives the specialization of Cotesia parasitoid wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Jancek

    Full Text Available The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome

  13. HST HOT-JUPITER TRANSMISSION SPECTRAL SURVEY: CLEAR SKIES FOR COOL SATURN WASP-39b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Patrick D.; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sing, David K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Burrows, Adam S. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Showman, Adam P.; Ballester, Gilda E. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Aigrain, Suzanne [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred [CNRS, Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2016-08-10

    We present the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 μ m, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear H{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere, or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in our HST STIS survey. Despite this similarity, WASP-39b appears to be largely cloud-free, while the transmission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-6b both indicate the presence of high altitude clouds or hazes. These observations further emphasize the surprising diversity of cloudy and cloud-free gas giant planets in short-period orbits and the corresponding challenges associated with developing predictive cloud models for these atmospheres.

  14. Experience with the Agency's WASP for nuclear power planning in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    An Advisory Group Meeting to discuss recent experience with, and to suggest improvements to, Wien Automatic System Planning Program (WASP), was held in Vienna in September 1985. It was clear from the meeting that WASP is a very useful tool as an aid in planning electric power generation systems. It is widely used in both developed and developing countries and its use will continue particularly if some of the suggestions for its improvements are implemented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 presentations of this meeting

  15. The implementation and application of the WASP-III at CNEN/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, L.H.; Lima, J.O.V.; Silva, R.C.O. da.

    1983-09-01

    The main dificulties faced in the implementation of the WASP-III on the Honeywell Bull DPS 6/64 computer at CNEN, are discribed. After the implementation, tests making use of input data provided by International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA were performed and comparative results from accomplishment peiods of time are presented with the basic characteristics of the computer employed and the modifications carried out to adapt the programm. The WASP-III was applied to middle-sized electric system based upon the Brazilian North/Northeast System. (Author) [pt

  16. Stocktype and Vegetative Competition Influences on Pseudotsuga menziesii and Larix occidentalis Seedling Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mayr Franco, and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt. are species of ecological and commercial importance that occur throughout the Western United States. Effective reforestation of these species relies on successful seedling establishment, which is affected by planting stock quality, stocktype size, and site preparation techniques. This study examined the effects of container volume (80, 130, 200, and 250 cm3 and vegetative competition on seedling survival and physiological and morphological responses for two years, post-outplanting. Glyphosate application (GS and grass planting (HC were used to achieve low and high levels of competition. For all measured attributes, the container volume × vegetative competition was not significant. Mortality was strongly influenced by competition, with higher mortality observed for Douglas fir and western larch planted in HC plots one (28% and 98% and two (61% and 99% years following outplanting. When competition was controlled, seedlings of both species exhibited greater net photosynthesis (>9 μmol m−2 s−1, greater predawn water potential (>−0.35 MPa, and lower mortality (2–3% following one year in the field, indicating establishment success. The 80 cm3 stocktype remained significantly smaller and exhibited lower growth rates for the duration of the study, while all other stocktypes were statistically similar. Our results demonstrate the importance of controlling vegetative competition regardless of stocktype, especially for western larch, and suggest that benefits to post-planting seedling physiology and growth in relation to container size plateau beyond 130 cm3 among the investigated stocktypes.

  17. Attraction and antennal response of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), to selected synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Manning, Lee-Anne; Unelius, C Rikard; Park, Kye Chung; Stringer, Lloyd D; White, Nicola; Bunn, Barry; Twidle, Andrew; Suckling, David M

    2009-09-01

    The common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), and the German wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), are significant problems in New Zealand beech forests (Nothofagus spp.), adversely affecting native birds and invertebrate biodiversity. This work was undertaken to develop synthetic attractants for these species to enable more efficient monitoring and management. Seven known wasp attractants (acetic acid, butyl butyrate, isobutanol, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and 2,4-hexadienyl butyrate) were field tested, and only heptyl butyrate and octyl butyrate attracted significantly higher numbers of wasps than a non-baited trap. Accordingly, a series of straight-chain esters from methyl to decyl butyrate were prepared and field tested for attraction of social wasps. Peak biological activity occurred with hexyl butyrate, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and nonyl butyrate. Polyethylene bags emitting approximately 18.4-22.6 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate were more attractive than polyethylene bags emitting approximately 14.7-16.8 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate in the field. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies indicated that queens and workers of V. vulgaris had olfactory receptor neurons responding to various aliphatic butyrates. These results are the first to be reported on the EAG response and the attraction of social wasps to synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests and will enable monitoring of social wasp activity in beech forests. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae) en Tumbes, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Marina; Martínez, Rosa; Tantaleán, Manuel; Cadenillas, Richard; Pacheco, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide...

  19. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The small societies of primitively eusocial wasps have provided interesting testing grounds for reproductive skew theory because all individuals have similar reproductive potential, which is unusual in social insects but common in vertebrate societies. Aggression is a key parameter in testing the...

  20. Associative learning in two closely related parasitoid wasps: a neuroecological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Insects are useful model organisms to study learning and memory. Their brains are less complex than vertebrate brains, but the basic mechanisms of learning and memory are similar in both taxa. In this thesis I study learning and subsequent memory formation in two parasitoid wasp species that differ

  1. How does an invasive social wasp deal with changing contextual cues while foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, M; D'Adamo, P

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we explore how an invasive social wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), deals with contextual changes while searching for a food source that is no longer available. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different degrees of context modification on wasp behavior. Learning sessions consisted of a variable number of feeding trials during which an individual wasp fed from a landmark array made up of a feeder surrounded by four cylinders of the same color. The food and cylinders were subsequently removed from the training site, and this learned landmark array was modified in such a way that information relating to color and/or location of the resulting feeding arrays varied from that previously learned. The results indicate that the color most recently associated with food is prioritized over a formerly learned color, and this pattern is also maintained when wasps have learned the alternative color during a higher number of feeding experiences. This highlights the high plasticity with which V. germanica responds to unpredictable contextual changes while foraging.

  2. The influence of past experience on wasp choice related to foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Moreyra; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Memory has been little studied in social wasps. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) frequently revisits nondepleted food sources, making several trips between the resource and the nest. In this study, we analyzed this relocating behavior in order to evaluate whether this species is capable of remembering an established association after 1 h. To this end, we trained wasps to feed from a certain array. Then it was removed, setting it up again 1 h later, but this time 2 baited feeders were put in place, one at the original feeding site and the other opposite the first. We recorded the proportion of returning foragers, and their choice of feeder, after either 1 or 4 feeding trials. After 1 h, 78% of wasps trained with 4 feeding trials and 65% trained with 1, returned to the experimental area. Furthermore, during the testing phase, wasps trained with 4 feeding trials collected food from the previously learned feeder significantly more frequently than from the nonlearned one (P germanica is capable of remembering an association 1 h after the last associative event, demonstrating that 1 h does not impair memory retention if 4 feeding experiences have occurred. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. New potent antimicrobial peptides from the venom of Polistinae wasps and their analogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovský, Václav; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Hulačová, Hana; Borovičková, Lenka; Ježek, Rudolf; Bednárová, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2008), s. 992-1003 ISSN 0196-9781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * wasp venom * circular dichroism * hemolytic activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2008

  4. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  5. Selfish element maintains sex in natural populations of a parasitoid wasp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, R.; Tilborg, van M.; Jong, de J.H.; Nunney, L.; Luck, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    Genomic conflicts between heritable elements with different modes of inheritance are important in the maintenance of sex and in the evolution of sex ratio. Generally, we expect sexual populations to exhibit a 1:1 sex ratio. However, because of their biology, parasitoid wasps often exhibit a

  6. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Danny; Buter, Jeffrey; van Beek, Teris A.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  7. Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Huigens, M.E.; Orr, D.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex

  8. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  9. Quantitative trait locus analysis of mating behavior and male sex pheromones in Nasonia wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Wenwen; Mousset, Mathilde; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Vermeulen, Cornelis J.; Johannes, Frank; van de Zande, Louis; Ritchie, Michael G.; Schmitt, Thomas; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation.

  10. Generation of a Circumstellar Gas Disk by Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrecht, Alex; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan; Frank, Adam; Fossati, Luca; Blackman, Eric G.; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Observations of transiting extra-solar planets provide rich sources of data for probing the in-system environment. In the WASP-12 system, a broad depression in the usually-bright MgII h&k lines has been observed, in addition to atmospheric escape from the extremely hot Jupiter WASP-12b. It has been hypothesized that a translucent circumstellar cloud is formed by the outflow from the planet, causing the observed signatures. We perform 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the full system environment of WASP-12, injecting a planetary wind and stellar wind from their respective surfaces. We find that a torus of density high enough to account for the lack of MgII h&k line core emission in WASP-12 can be formed in approximately 13 years. We also perform synthetic observations of the Lyman-alpha spectrum at different points in the planet's orbit, which demonstrate that significant absorption occurs at all points in the orbit, not just during transits, as suggested by the observations.

  11. Life-history strategies in parasitoid wasps: a comparative analysis of 'ovigeny'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jervis, M.A.; Heimpel, G.E.; Ferns, P.N.; Harvey, J.A.; Kidd, N.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    1. Ecologists concerned with life-history strategies of parasitoid wasps have recently focused on interspecific variation in the fraction of the maximum potential lifetime egg complement that is mature when the female emerges into the environment. Species that have all of this complement mature upon

  12. Are population differences in plant quality reflected in the preference and performance of two endoparasitoid wasps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Dam, van N.M.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Dicke, M.; Harvey, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid in exploring the role of direct plant defence, through the production of allelochemicals, on the performance of parasitoid wasps and their hosts. However, few studies have determined if parasitoids can detect differences in plant quality and thus

  13. A ground-based optical transmission spectrum of WASP-6b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Rabus, Markus; Eyheramendy, Susana; Sing, David K.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a ground-based optical transmission spectrum of the inflated sub-Jupiter-mass planet WASP-6b. The spectrum was measured in 20 spectral channels from 480 nm to 860 nm using a series of 91 spectra over a complete transit event. The observations were carried out using multi-object differential spectrophotometry with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We model systematic effects on the observed light curves using principal component analysis on the comparison stars and allow for the presence of short and long memory correlation structure in our Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis of the transit light curves for WASP-6. The measured transmission spectrum presents a general trend of decreasing apparent planetary size with wavelength and lacks evidence for broad spectral features of Na and K predicted by clear atmosphere models. The spectrum is consistent with that expected for scattering that is more efficient in the blue, as could be caused by hazes or condensates in the atmosphere of WASP-6b. WASP-6b therefore appears to be yet another massive exoplanet with evidence for a mostly featureless transmission spectrum, underscoring the importance that hazes and condensates can have in determining the transmission spectra of exoplanets.

  14. WICH, a member of WASP-interacting protein family, cross-links actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masayoshi; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2005-01-01

    In yeast, Verprolin plays an important role in rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. There are three mammalian homologues of Verprolin, WIP, CR16, and WICH, and all of them bind actin and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and/or neural-WASP. Here, we describe a novel function of WICH. In vitro co-sedimentation analysis revealed that WICH not only binds to actin filaments but also cross-links them. Fluorescence and electron microscopy detected that this cross-linking results in straight bundled actin filaments. Overexpression of WICH alone in cultured fibroblast caused the formation of thick actin fibers. This ability of WICH depended on its own actin cross-linking activity. Importantly, the actin cross-linking activity of WICH was modified through a direct association with N-WASP. Taken together, these data suggest that WICH induces a bundled form of actin filament with actin cross-linking activity and the association with N-WASP suppresses that activity. WICH thus appears to be a novel actin bundling protein

  15. Development of microsatellite markers and estimation of inbreeding frequency in the parasitoid wasp Melittobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, Jun; Pannebakker, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using

  16. Colony stage and not facultative policing explains pattern of worker reproduction in the Saxon wasp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonckaert, W.; van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera headed by a multiple-mated queen, workers should benefit from policing eggs laid by other workers. Foster & Ratnieks provided evidence that in the vespine wasp Dolichovespula saxonica, workers police other workers’ eggs only...

  17. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...

  18. WAsP for offshore sites in confined coastal waters - the influence of the sea fetch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hoejstrup, J [NEG Micon, Randers (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The increasing interest in harvesting wind energy offshore requires reliable tools for the wind resource estimation at these sites. Most commonly used for wind resource predictions on land as well as offshore is the WAsP program. This program has been validated extensively for sites on land and at the coast. However, due to the lack of suitable measurements there is still a need for further validation for offshore sites. New data from ongoing measurements in the Danish Baltic Sea region are available now. The wind resources estimated from these measurements are compared to WAsP-predictions. They are found to agree well. The only deviation found is for two sites with comparable distance to the coast but with a different distribution of land. Here the measurements show slightly different wind resources which are not predicted by WAsP. Wind speed ratios of several pairs of stations are modelled with WAsP for 12 directional sectors and compared with the measurements. Deviations in the directional wind speed predictions were found to be dependent on the corresponding sea fetches: For smaller sea fetches WAsP seems to slightly overpredict the wind speed, while for long fetches of more than 30 km an underprediction is found. (au)

  19. Wind profile modelling using WAsP and "tall" wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Kelly, Mark C.; Troen, Ib

    2015-01-01

    extrapolations (the wind profile) this is done using the Weibull distribution and the geostrophic drag law. Wind lidar measurements obtained during the ’Tall wind’ campaign at three different sites are used to evaluate the assumptions and equations that are used in the WAsP vertical extrapolation strategy...

  20. Sexual dimorphism in the parasitoid wasps Aphidius balcanicus, Aphidius rosae, and Aphidius urticae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrović, A.; Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Mitrovski Bogdanović, A.; Starý, Petr; Ivanović, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 5 (2014), s. 1027-1032 ISSN 0013-8746 Grant - others:The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : geometric morphometric * parasitoid wasp * sexual size dimorphism Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2014

  1. Wind resource assessment using the WAsP software (DTU Wind Energy E-0135)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given each year at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  2. 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms: Wind resource assessment using the WAsP software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given each year at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  3. Analysis of Genetic Variation across the Encapsidated Genome of Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus in Parasitoid Wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelen R Burke

    Full Text Available Insect parasitoids must complete part of their life cycle within or on another insect, ultimately resulting in the death of the host insect. One group of parasitoid wasps, the 'microgastroid complex' (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, engage in an association with beneficial symbiotic viruses that are essential for successful parasitism of hosts. These viruses, known as Bracoviruses, persist in an integrated form in the wasp genome, and activate to replicate in wasp ovaries during development to ultimately be delivered into host insects during parasitism. The lethal nature of host-parasitoid interactions, combined with the involvement of viruses in mediating these interactions, has led to the hypothesis that Bracoviruses are engaged in an arms race with hosts, resulting in recurrent adaptation in viral (and host genes. Deep sequencing was employed to characterize sequence variation across the encapsidated Bracovirus genome within laboratory and field populations of the parasitoid wasp species Microplitis demolitor. Contrary to expectations, there was a paucity of evidence for positive directional selection among virulence genes, which generally exhibited signatures of purifying selection. These data suggest that the dynamics of host-parasite interactions may not result in recurrent rounds of adaptation, and that adaptation may be more variable in time than previously expected.

  4. Optimal development path for the Slovenian electrical power system using the WASP and ELBIVIM models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregar, Z; Kosnjek, Z; Potecnik, F [Milan Vidmar Electric Power Research Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the WASP study conducted for Slovenia. A thorough analysis shows that the model is applicable to the Slovenian power system. Parallel operation with the domestic ELBIVIM model is nevertheless recommended in order to extract the maximum benefits from both models. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs.

  5. Intrinsic competition among solitary and gregarious endoparasitoid wasps and phenomenon of resource sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magdaraog, P.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Tanaka, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Intrinsic competition was compared in three species of braconid wasps, the solitary Meteorus pulchricornis Wesmael, and the gregarious Cotesia kariyai (Watanabe) and Cotesia ruficrus Haliday in caterpillars of their common host, the armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. Competition was determined in

  6. Intrinsic competition among solitary and gregarious endoparasitoid wasps and the phenomenon of ‘resource sharing’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magdaraog, P.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Tanaka, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Intrinsic competition was compared in three species of braconid wasps, the solitary Meteorus pulchricornis Wesmael, and the gregarious Cotesia kariyai (Watanabe) and Cotesia ruficrus Haliday in caterpillars of their common host, the armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. Competition was determined in

  7. Putting your sons in the right place: the spatial distribution of fig wasp offspring inside figs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavodna, M.; Compton, S.G.; Biere, A.; Gilmartin, P.M.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    1. Pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae) display sex ratio adjustment, producing less female-biased combined sex ratios as the number of ovipositing females (foundresses) inside a fig increases. Because males have low mobility, the oviposition sites (galled ovules) chosen by each foundress

  8. Recognition of human face images by the free flying wasp Vespula vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Avarguès-Weber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to recognize perceptually similar complex visual stimuli such as human faces has classically been thought to require a large primate, and/or mammalian brain with neurobiological adaptations. However, recent work suggests that the relatively small brain of a paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, possesses specialized face processing capabilities. In parallel, the honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been shown to be able to rely on configural learning for extensive visual learning, thus converging with primate visual processing. Therefore, the honeybee may be able to recognize human faces, and show sophisticated learning performance due to its foraging lifestyle involving visiting and memorizing many flowers. We investigated the visual capacities of the widespread invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris, which is unlikely to have any specialization for face processing. Freely flying individual wasps were trained in an appetitive-aversive differential conditioning procedure to discriminate between perceptually similar human face images from a standard face recognition test. The wasps could then recognize the target face from novel dissimilar or similar human faces, but showed a significant drop in performance when the stimuli were rotated by 180°, thus paralleling results acquired on a similar protocol with honeybees. This result confirms that a general visual system can likely solve complex recognition tasks, the first stage to evolve a visual expertise system to face recognition, even in the absence of neurobiological or behavioral specialization.

  9. The genomic features of parasitism, Polyembryony and immune evasion in the endoparasitic wasp Macrocentrus cingulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chuanlin; Li, Meizhen; Hu, Jian; Lang, Kun; Chen, Qiming; Liu, Jinding; Guo, Dianhao; He, Kang; Dong, Yipei; Luo, Jiapeng; Song, Zhenkun; Walters, James R; Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Fei; Chen, Xuexin

    2018-05-30

    Parasitoid wasps are well-known natural enemies of major agricultural pests and arthropod borne diseases. The parasitoid wasp Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has been widely used to control the notorious insect pests Ostrinia furnacalis (Asian Corn Borer) and O. nubilalis (European corn borer). One striking phenomenon exhibited by M. cingulum is polyembryony, the formation of multiple genetically identical offspring from a single zygote. Moreover, M. cingulum employs a passive parasitic strategy by preventing the host's immune system from recognizing the embryo as a foreign body. Thus, the embryos evade the host's immune system and are not encapsulated by host hemocytes. Unfortunately, the mechanism of both polyembryony and immune evasion remains largely unknown. We report the genome of the parasitoid wasp M. cingulum. Comparative genomics analysis of M. cingulum and other 11 insects were conducted, finding some gene families with apparent expansion or contraction which might be linked to the parasitic behaviors or polyembryony of M. cingulum. Moreover, we present the evidence that the microRNA miR-14b regulates the polyembryonic development of M. cingulum by targeting the c-Myc Promoter-binding Protein 1 (MBP-1), histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2E (KMT2E) and segmentation protein Runt. In addition, Hemomucin, an O-glycosylated transmembrane protein, protects the endoparasitoid wasp larvae from being encapsulated by host hemocytes. Motif and domain analysis showed that only the hemomucin in two endoparasitoids, M. cingulum and Venturia canescens, possessing the ability of passive immune evasion has intact mucin domain and similar O-glycosylation patterns, indicating that the hemomucin is a key factor modulating the immune evasion. The microRNA miR-14b participates in the regulation of polyembryonic development, and the O-glycosylation of the mucin domain in the hemomucin confers the passive immune evasion in this wasp. These key findings provide

  10. Clinical features of severe wasp sting patients with dominantly toxic reaction: analysis of 1091 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive wasp stings have been greatly underestimated and have not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and treatment strategies of severe wasp stings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multicenter retrospective study was undertaken in 35 hospitals and medical centers including 12 tertiary care hospitals and 23 secondary care hospitals in the Hubei Province, China. The detailed clinical data of 1091 hospitalized wasp sting patients were investigated. Over three-fourths (76.9% of the cases had 10 or more stings and the in-hospital mortality of patients was 5.1%. Forty-eight patients died of organ injury following toxic reactions to the stings, whereas six died from anaphylactic shock. The in-hospital mortality in patients with >10 stings was higher than that of ≤10 stings (5.2% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.02. Acute kidney injury (AKI was seen in 21.0% patients and most patients required blood purification therapy. Rhabdomyolysis was seen in 24.1% patients, hemolysis in 19.2% patients, liver injury in 30.1% patients, and coagulopathy in 22.5% patients. Regression analysis revealed that high creatinine level, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. Blood purification therapy was beneficial for patients with ≥20 stings and delayed hospital admission of patients (≥4 hours after sting. CONCLUSIONS: In China, most patients with multiple wasp stings presented with toxic reactions and multiple organ dysfunction caused by the venom rather than an anaphylactic reaction. AKI is the prominent clinical manifestation of wasp stings with toxic reaction. High creatinine levels, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death.

  11. THE HOMOGENEOUS STUDY OF TRANSITING SYSTEMS (HoSTS). I. THE PILOT STUDY OF WASP-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Faedi, Francesca; Pollacco, Don [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Doyle, Amanda P.; Smalley, Barry [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Ghezzi, Luan; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V. [Observatorio Nacional, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Sousa, Sergio; Santos, Nuno C. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Barros, Susana C. C. [LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, F-13388 Marseille (France); Schuler, Simon C. [Stewart Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Collier Cameron, Andrew, E-mail: yilen.gomez@vanderbilt.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    We present the fundamental stellar and planetary properties of the transiting planetary system WASP-13 within the framework of the Homogeneous Study of Transiting Systems (HoSTS). HoSTS aims to derive the fundamental stellar (T{sub eff}, [Fe/H], M{sub *}, R{sub *}) and planetary (M{sub pl}, R{sub pl}, T{sub eq}) physical properties of known transiting planets using a consistent methodology and homogeneous high-quality data set. Four spectral analysis techniques are independently applied to a Keck+HIRES spectrum of WASP-13 considering two distinct cases: unconstrained parameters and constrained log g from transit light curves. We check the derived stellar temperature against that from a different temperature diagnostic based on an INT+IDS H{alpha} spectrum. The four unconstrained analyses render results that are in good agreement, and provide an improvement of 50% in the precision of T{sub eff}, and of 85% in [Fe/H] with respect to the WASP-13 discovery paper. The planetary parameters are then derived via the Monte Carlo Markov Chain modeling of the radial velocity and light curves, in iteration with stellar evolutionary models to derive realistic uncertainties. WASP-13 (1.187 {+-} 0.065 M{sub Sun }; 1.574 {+-} 0.048 R{sub Sun }) hosts a Saturn-mass, transiting planet (0.500 {+-} 0.037 M{sub Jup}; 1.407 {+-} 0.052 R{sub Jup}), and is at the end of its main-sequence lifetime (4-5.5 Gyr). Our analysis of WASP-13 showcases that both a detailed stellar characterization and transit modeling are necessary to well determine the fundamental properties of planetary systems, which are paramount in identifying and determining empirical relationships between transiting planets and their hosts.

  12. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  13. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  14. Comparison of Inoculation with the InoqulA and WASP Automated Systems with Manual Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Dijkstra, Klaas; Prod'hom, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The quality of sample inoculation is critical for achieving an optimal yield of discrete colonies in both monomicrobial and polymicrobial samples to perform identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Consequently, we compared the performance between the InoqulA (BD Kiestra), the WASP (Copan), and manual inoculation methods. Defined mono- and polymicrobial samples of 4 bacterial species and cloudy urine specimens were inoculated on chromogenic agar by the InoqulA, the WASP, and manual methods. Images taken with ImagA (BD Kiestra) were analyzed with the VisionLab version 3.43 image analysis software to assess the quality of growth and to prevent subjective interpretation of the data. A 3- to 10-fold higher yield of discrete colonies was observed following automated inoculation with both the InoqulA and WASP systems than that with manual inoculation. The difference in performance between automated and manual inoculation was mainly observed at concentrations of >106 bacteria/ml. Inoculation with the InoqulA system allowed us to obtain significantly more discrete colonies than the WASP system at concentrations of >107 bacteria/ml. However, the level of difference observed was bacterial species dependent. Discrete colonies of bacteria present in 100- to 1,000-fold lower concentrations than the most concentrated populations in defined polymicrobial samples were not reproducibly recovered, even with the automated systems. The analysis of cloudy urine specimens showed that InoqulA inoculation provided a statistically significantly higher number of discrete colonies than that with WASP and manual inoculation. Consequently, the automated InoqulA inoculation greatly decreased the requirement for bacterial subculture and thus resulted in a significant reduction in the time to results, laboratory workload, and laboratory costs. PMID:25972424

  15. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  16. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared—(R p /R * ) 2 = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 μm, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F day /F * = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 μm, but our parameter uncertainties—estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo—keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 μm, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 μm ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 μm transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 μm depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 μm eclipse depth, consistent with a solar composition and modest

  17. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Machalek, Pavel [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Croll, Bryce [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Deming, Drake [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Greene, Tom [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hora, Joseph L., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth

  18. The NSs protein of tomato spotted wilt virus is required for persistent infection and transmission by Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaria, P; Bosco, L; Vallino, M; Ciuffo, M; Mautino, G C; Tavella, L; Turina, M

    2014-05-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type member of tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus), plant-infecting viruses that cause severe damage to ornamental and vegetable crops. Tospoviruses are transmitted by thrips in the circulative propagative mode. We generated a collection of NSs-defective TSWV isolates and showed that TSWV coding for truncated NSs protein could not be transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunostaining of individual insects detected the mutant virus in second-instar larvae and adult insects, demonstrating that insects could acquire and accumulate the NSs-defective virus. Nevertheless, adults carried a significantly lower viral load, resulting in the absence of transmission. Genome sequencing and analyses of reassortant isolates showed genetic evidence of the association between the loss of competence in transmission and the mutation in the NSs coding sequence. Our findings offer new insight into the TSWV-thrips interaction and Tospovirus pathogenesis and highlight, for the first time in the Bunyaviridae family, a major role for the S segment, and specifically for the NSs protein, in virulence and efficient infection in insect vector individuals. Our work is the first to show a role for the NSs protein in virus accumulation in the insect vector in the Bunyaviridae family: demonstration was obtained for the system TSWV-F. occidentalis, arguably one of the most damaging combination for vegetable crops. Genetic evidence of the involvement of the NSs protein in vector transmission was provided with multiple approaches.

  19. The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea: preference between lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3(rd) instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in laboratory experiments at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH with five prey ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 25 aphids:65 thrips, 45 aphids:45 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips, and 80 aphids:10 thrips). Third instar C. carnea larvae readily preyed upon both thrips and aphids, with thrips mortality varying between 40 and 90%, and aphid mortality between 52 and 98%. Chrysoperla carnea had a significant preference for N. ribisnigri at two ratios (10 aphids:80 thrips, 65 aphids:25 thrips), but no preference for either prey at the other ratios. There was no significant linear relationship between preference index and prey ratio, but a significant intercept of the linear regression indicated an overall preference of C. carnea for aphids with a value of 0.651 ± 0.054. The possible implications of these findings for control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis by C. carnea are discussed.

  20. Detection limits for close eclipsing and transiting sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in the WASP survey

    OpenAIRE

    Faedi, F.; West, R. G.; Burleigh, M. R.; Goad, M. R.; Hebb, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have performed extensive simulations to explore the possibility of detecting eclipses and transits of close, sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in WASP light-curves. Our simulations cover companions $\\sim0.3\\Re

  1. Interactions to the fifth trophic level: secondary and tertiary parasitoid wasps show extraordinary efficiency in utilizing host resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Wagenaar, R.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Parasitoid wasps are highly efficient organisms at utilizing and assimilating limited resources from their hosts. This study explores interactions over three trophic levels, from the third (primary parasitoid) to the fourth (secondary parasitoid) and terminating in the fifth (tertiary

  2. Evaluating elevated levels of crown dieback among northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) trees in Maine and Michigan: a summary of evaluation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph; William A. Bechtold; Randall S. Morin; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of crown condition data for the 2006 national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, exposed clusters of phase 3 plots (by the Forest Inventory and Analysis [FIA] Program of the Forest Service) with northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) crown dieback...

  3. Rearing Glypta Fumiferanae [hym.:Ichneumonida] on a multivoltine laboratory colony of the Western Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura Occidentalis) [LEP.:Tortricidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Rappaport; Marion Page

    1985-01-01

    Methods were devloped for rearing Glypta fumiferanae Viereck on a nondiapausing laboratory colony of the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman. Both host and parasite are univoltine and undergo diapause in nature. In this study, the parasite's voltinism was synchronized with that of a nondiapausing...

  4. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  5. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,

  6. No transmission of Potato spindle tuber viroid shown in experiments with thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci), honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Enkegaard, Annie; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    and Thrips tabaci by leaf sucking. The F. occidentalis experiments also included feeding on pollen prior to feeding on PSTVd-infected leaf. No thrips-mediated transmission of PSTVd was recorded. The possibility of PSTVd transmission by Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris during their feeding...

  7. An Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no Detrimental Effect on the Predatory Mite Neoseiulus barkeri: Evidence from Laboratory Bioassay and Scanning Electron Microscopic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2014-01-01

    Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×107 mL−1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×107 conidia mL−1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite. PMID:24454744

  8. Influence of primary prey on home-range size and habitat-use patterns of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia J. Zabel; Kevin S. McKelvey; James P. Ward

    1995-01-01

    Correlations between the home-range size of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and proportion of their range in old-growth forest have been reported, but there are few data on the relationship between their home-range size and prey. The primary prey of spotted owls are wood rats and northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus). Wood...

  9. Mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity of Senna occidentalis (Cassiae) and Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Maruthamalai hills against Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Aarthi, Narayanan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Nicoletti, Marcello; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Each year, mosquito-borne diseases infect nearly 700 million people, resulting to more than 1 million deaths. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and smoke toxicity of Senna occidentalis and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts was evaluated against chloroquine (CQ)-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments, S. occidentalis LC50 ranged from 31.05 (I instar larvae) to 75.15 ppm (pupae), and O. basilicum LC50 ranged from 29.69 (I instar larvae) to 69 ppm (pupae). Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against adults showed that S. occidentalis and O. basilicum coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the pyrethrin-based positive control (38, 52, and 42%, respectively). In antiplasmodial assays, Senna occidentalis 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) were 48.80 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 54.28 μg/ml (CQ-r), while O. basilicum IC50 were 68.14 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 67.27 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, these botanicals could be considered as potential sources of metabolites to build newer and safer malaria control tools.

  10. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  11. Transcriptome and target DNA enrichment sequence data provide new insights into the phylogeny of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Sarah; Sann, Manuela; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. The phylogenetic relationships of the major vespid wasp lineages (i.e., subfamilies and tribes) have been investigate...... studies on species of the family Vespidae, including their genomes, life styles, evolution of sociality, and co-evolution with other organisms....

  12. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATION MEASUREMENTS OF WASP-12b AND QATAR-1b: NO EVIDENCE OF ADDITIONAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Karen A.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kielkopf, John F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  13. Chemical camouflage: a key process in shaping an ant-treehopper and fig-fig wasp mutualistic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lu, Min; Cook, James M; Yang, Da-Rong; Dunn, Derek W; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2018-01-30

    Different types of mutualisms may interact, co-evolve and form complex networks of interdependences, but how species interact in networks of a mutualistic community and maintain its stability remains unclear. In a mutualistic network between treehoppers-weaver ants and fig-pollinating wasps, we found that the cuticular hydrocarbons of the treehoppers are more similar to the surface chemical profiles of fig inflorescence branches (FIB) than the cuticular hydrocarbons of the fig wasps. Behavioral assays showed that the cuticular hydrocarbons from both treehoppers and FIBs reduce the propensity of weaver ants to attack treehoppers even in the absence of honeydew rewards, suggesting that chemical camouflage helps enforce the mutualism between weaver ants and treehoppers. High levels of weaver ant and treehopper abundances help maintain the dominance of pollinating fig wasps in the fig wasp community and also increase fig seed production, as a result of discriminative predation and disturbance by weaver ants of ovipositing non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs). Ants therefore help preserve this fig-pollinating wasp mutualism from over exploitation by NPFWs. Our results imply that in this mutualistic network chemical camouflage plays a decisive role in regulating the behavior of a key species and indirectly shaping the architecture of complex arthropod-plant interactions.

  14. Foraging Behavior Interactions Between Two non-Native Social Wasps, Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Implications for Invasion Success?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Julia; Pirk, Gabriela I.; Corley, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded ? 35 yrs earlier ? by another wasp, Vespula germanica. Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion proc...

  15. Impact of sulfur on density of Tetranychus pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in a central California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur is the oldest and most widely used fungicide in the vineyards of California, where it is used for control of powdery mildew (Uncinula necator [Schw.] Burr). For decades, sulfur use has been associated with outbreaks of Tetranychus pacificus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cultivated grapes in the San Joaquin Valley. I undertook large-scale field studies to test this association, to evaluate the impact of sulfur on Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbit) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a major predator of T. pacificus, and to determine if timing of sulfur applications with respect to grape bloom has an impact on T. pacificus density. The studies took place in a 32 ha vineyard in Fresno County, and all fungicide applications were made with commercial-scale equipment. In 1998 a 'high sulfur' treatment, a combination of wettable sulfur and sulfur dust, was compared to 'low sulfur,' in which demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides partially substituted for sulfur. In 1999 treatments were 'sulfur,' 'DMI,' 'sulfur pre-bloom' (here sulfur was applied prior to grape bloom, in late May, and then DMIs were applied until mid-season) and 'sulfur post-bloom' (the reverse of 'sulfur pre-bloom'). In each year, the T. pacificus population increase came after the end of fungicide applications, and results clearly show a relationship between sulfur use and T. pacificus density. In 1998, mean T. pacificus density was 2.7 times higher and mean G. occidentalis density 2.5 times higher in 'high sulfur' compared to 'low sulfur.' In 1999, the highest T. pacificus counts were in the 'sulfur' and 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatments, 4.8 times higher than 'sulfur post-bloom' and 2 times higher than 'DMIs.' Density of G. occidentalis was 2.3 times as high in 'sulfur' or 'sulfur pre-bloom' than 'DMIs.' The predator/prey ratio was not significantly different among treatments in 1998, but in 1999 it was highest in the 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatment. In 1999, density of Homeopronematus anconai (Baker) (Acari

  16. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.

  17. Permissive and instructive anterior patterning rely on mRNA localization in the wasp embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Ava E; Yucel, Gozde; Small, Stephen; Desplan, Claude

    2007-03-30

    The long-germ mode of embryogenesis, in which segments arise simultaneously along the anteriorposterior axis, has evolved several times in different lineages of the holometabolous, or fully metamorphosing, insects. Drosophila's long-germ fate map is established largely by the activity of the dipteran-specific Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen gradient, which operates both instructively and permissively to accomplish anterior patterning. By contrast, all nondipteran long-germ insects must achieve anterior patterning independently of bcd. We show that bcd's permissive function is mimicked in the wasp by a maternal repression system in which anterior localization of the wasp ortholog of giant represses anterior expression of the trunk gap genes so that head and thorax can properly form.

  18. z'-BAND GROUND-BASED DETECTION OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE OF WASP-19b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. R.; Watson, C. A.; Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Littlefair, S. P.; Dhillon, V. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gibson, N. P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Marsh, T. R., E-mail: jburton04@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    We present the ground-based detection of the secondary eclipse of the transiting exoplanet WASP-19b. The observations were made in the Sloan z' band using the ULTRACAM triple-beam CCD camera mounted on the New Technology Telescope. The measurement shows a 0.088% {+-} 0.019% eclipse depth, matching previous predictions based on H- and K-band measurements. We discuss in detail our approach to the removal of errors arising due to systematics in the data set, in addition to fitting a model transit to our data. This fit returns an eclipse center, T{sub 0}, of 2455578.7676 HJD, consistent with a circular orbit. Our measurement of the secondary eclipse depth is also compared to model atmospheres of WASP-19b and is found to be consistent with previous measurements at longer wavelengths for the model atmospheres we investigated.

  19. Partial avoidance of female inflorescences of a dioecious fig by their mutualistic pollinating wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, M. C.; Gibernau, M.; Hossaert-McKey, M.

    1998-01-01

    Every dioecious species of fig is pollinated by a specific wasp that only reproduces within the inflorescences of male trees. Pollinators usually die within the closed urn-shaped inflorescence (fig or syconium) they visit. Thus pollinators that enter female syconia allow seed production but die without reproducing. In a previous study, pollinators of one dioecious fig where male and female trees flower synchronously, Ficus hispida, did not exhibit differential attraction or choice between inflorescences of the two sexes. Here we show that Blastophaga psenes, the pollinator of another dioecious species of different lineage, the common fig (F. carica), significantly avoided female syconia, when we experimentally induce a situation of choice. Paradoxically, choosiness can be demonstrated in F. carica where usually wasps do not face a choice because male and female trees do not flower synchronously. We discuss how the mutualism may be stable despite this discrimination and hypothesize why the two species of fig-pollinators exhibit different behaviour on dioecious figs.

  20. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis following a wasp sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Xu, X; Ran, Y

    2017-04-10

    We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia spp. is relatively uncommon in clinics, but it was the distance of the lesions from the affected area of the wasp sting that has made this an even rarer case and of interest to report. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of a parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nedoluzhko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of multicellular organisms coexist with bacterial symbionts that may play various roles during their life cycle. Parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae belongs to the smallest known insects whose size is comparable with some bacteria. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS, we described microbiota diversity for this arthropod and its potential impact on their lifecycle. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX2363723 and SRX2363724. We found that small body size and limited lifespan do not lead to a significant reduction of bacterial symbionts diversity. At the same time, we show here a specific feature of microbiota composition in M. amalphitanum – the absence of the Rickettsiaceae family representatives that are known to cause sex-ratio distortion in arthropods and well represented in other populations of parasitoid wasps.

  2. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  3. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  4. Sleeping site ecology, but not sex, affect ecto- and hemoparasite risk, in sympatric, arboreal primates (Avahi occidentalis and Lepilemur edwardsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokan, May; Strube, Christina; Radespiel, Ute; Zimmermann, Elke

    2017-01-01

    A central question in evolutionary parasitology is to what extent ecology impacts patterns of parasitism in wild host populations. In this study, we aim to disentangle factors influencing the risk of parasite exposure by exploring the impact of sleeping site ecology on infection with ectoparasites and vector-borne hemoparasites in two sympatric primates endemic to Madagascar. Both species live in the same dry deciduous forest of northwestern Madagascar and cope with the same climatic constraints, they are arboreal, nocturnal, cat-sized and pair-living but differ prominently in sleeping site ecology. The Western woolly lemur ( Avahi occidentalis ) sleeps on open branches and frequently changes sleeping sites, whereas the Milne-Edward's sportive lemur ( Lepilemur edwardsi ) uses tree holes, displaying strong sleeping site fidelity. Sleeping in tree holes should confer protection from mosquito-borne hemoparasites, but should enhance the risk for ectoparasite infestation with mites and nest-adapted ticks. Sex may affect parasite risk in both species comparably, with males bearing a higher risk than females due to an immunosuppressive effect of higher testosterone levels in males or to sex-specific behavior. To explore these hypotheses, ectoparasites and blood samples were collected from 22 individuals of A. occidentalis and 26 individuals of L. edwardsi during the dry and rainy season. L. edwardsi, but not A. occidentalis , harbored ectoparasites, namely ticks ( Haemaphysalis lemuris [Ixodidae], Ornithodoros sp. [Argasidae]) and mites ( Aetholaelaps trilyssa , [Laelapidae]), suggesting that sleeping in tree holes promotes infestation with ectoparasites. Interestingly, ectoparasites were found solely in the hot, rainy season with a prevalence of 75% ( N  = 16 animals). Blood smears were screened for the presence and infection intensity of hemoparasites. Microfilariae were detected in both species. Morphological characteristics suggested that each lemur species

  5. Development of a regional capacity expansion plan in the Russian Federation. Application of the WASP Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Yu.; Kononov, S.; Zakharova, E.; Kagramanyan, V.; Malenkov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is used for the development of optimal capacity expansion plans in Russia. The object of the WASP study is the Central power pool, which is the largest power pool in Russia and has an essential share of nuclear power in electricity generation. The objective of the study is to assess the long-term competitiveness of nuclear power in the region. The major features of the power system analyzed with WASP are the following: 1) four types of electricity generators are considered: condensity fossil fuel plants, cogeneration fossil fuel plants, nuclear power plants and hydraulic plants; 2) nine fuel categories are considered: gas/fuel oil fuel, several types of coal and several nuclear fuels; 3) escalation of capital, operation and maintenance, and fuel costs as a result of economic transition is explicitly modeled. Under these assumptions, a regional optimal capacity expansion plan is developed that showed the following: (a) Until 2004 there is no need for new electricity generation capacities due to the drop in demand in the 90s, certain lifetime margin of existing capacities, committed additions of co-generators and planned refurbishment/repowering measures; (b) The structure of the optimal capacity mix confirms that nuclear power can retain its role as one of the major electricity generation sources in the region. The most important factor with a positive of effect upon the competitiveness of nuclear power plants is the projected escalation of the prices of fossil fuels; (c) The application of WASP has proved that the model can serve as a valuable planning tool at the power pool level in Russia. (author). 14 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  6. Novel insights into the ontogeny of nestmate recognition in Polistes social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorotti, Lisa; Cappa, Federico; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Cervo, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The importance of early experience in animals' life is unquestionable, and imprinting-like phenomena may shape important aspects of behaviour. Early learning typically occurs during a sensitive period, which restricts crucial processes of information storage to a specific developmental phase. The characteristics of the sensitive period have been largely investigated in vertebrates, because of their complexity and plasticity, both in behaviour and neurophysiology, but early learning occurs also in invertebrates. In social insects, early learning appears to influence important social behaviours such as nestmate recognition. Yet, the mechanisms underlying recognition systems are not fully understood. It is currently believed that Polistes social wasps are able to discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates following the perception of olfactory cues present on the paper of their nest, which are learned during a strict sensitive period, immediately after emergence. Here, through differential odour experience experiments, we show that workers of Polistes dominula develop correct nestmate recognition abilities soon after emergence even in absence of what have been so far considered the necessary cues (the chemicals spread on nest paper). P. dominula workers were exposed for the first four days of adult life to paper fragments from their nest, or from a foreign conspecific nest or to a neutral condition. Wasps were then transferred to their original nests where recognition abilities were tested. Our results show that wasps do not alter their recognition ability if exposed only to nest material, or in absence of nest material, during the early phase of adult life. It thus appears that the nest paper is not used as a source of recognition cues to be learned in a specific time window, although we discuss possible alternative explanations. Our study provides a novel perspective for the study of the ontogeny of nestmate recognition in Polistes wasps and in other social insects.

  7. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  8. Implementation of large-scale average geostrophic wind shear in WAsP12.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Troen, Ib; Kelly, Mark C.

    The vertical extrapolation model described in the European Wind Atlas Troen and Petersen (1989) is modified to take into account large-scale average geostrophic wind shear to describe the effect of horizontal temperature gradients on the geostrophic wind. The method is implemented by extracting...... the average geostrophic wind shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data and the values of nearest grid point are automatically used in the WAsP 12.1 user interface to provide better AEP predictions....

  9. Revisiting the Energy Budget of WASP-43b: Enhanced Day–Night Heat Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Dylan; Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2017-11-01

    The large day–night temperature contrast of WASP-43b has so far eluded explanation. We revisit the energy budget of this planet by considering the impact of reflected light on dayside measurements and the physicality of implied nightside temperatures. Previous analyses of the infrared eclipses of WASP-43b have assumed reflected light from the planet is negligible and can be ignored. We develop a phenomenological eclipse model including reflected light, thermal emission, and water absorption, and we use it to fit published Hubble and Spitzer eclipse data. We infer a near-infrared geometric albedo of 24% ± 1% and a cooler dayside temperature of 1483 ± 10 K. Additionally, we perform light curve inversion on the three published orbital phase curves of WASP-43b and find that each suggests unphysical, negative flux on the nightside. By requiring non-negative brightnesses at all longitudes, we correct the unphysical parts of the maps and obtain a much hotter nightside effective temperature of 1076 ± 11 K. The cooler dayside and hotter nightside suggest a heat recirculation efficiency of 51% for WASP-43b, essentially the same as for HD 209458b, another hot Jupiter with nearly the same temperature. Our analysis therefore reaffirms the trend that planets with lower irradiation temperatures have more efficient day–night heat transport. Moreover, we note that (1) reflected light may be significant for many near-IR eclipse measurements of hot Jupiters, and (2) phase curves should be fit with physically possible longitudinal brightness profiles—it is insufficient to only require that the disk-integrated light curve be non-negative.

  10. Diapriinae Wasps (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae Associated with Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Loiácono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of diapriid wasps associated with ants in Argentina and the diversity of interactions they have developed with their hosts. As a result, we report 16 species of nine genera of Diapriinae, two new geographic distributions, three new association records, illustrations, and photographs. We highlight myrmecophile symphylic species, with a high degree of integration with the host ants, adaptation being morphological and behavioral. A table with diapriid species and ant hosts is given.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transiting planet WASP-6b (Tregloan-Reed+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregloan-Reed, J.; Southworth, J.; Burgdorf, M.; Calchi Novati, S.; Dominik, M.; Finet, F.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Maier, G.; Mancini, L.; Prof, S.; Ricci, D.; Snodgrass, C.; Bozza, V.; Browne, P.; Dodds, P.; Gerner, T.; Harpsoe, K.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Liebig, C.; Penny, M. T.; Rahvar, S.; Sahu, K.; Scarpetta, G.; Schafer, S.; Schonebeck, F.; Skottfelt, J.; Surdej, J.

    2018-05-01

    Four light curves of transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-6 are presented. They were obtained using the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO La Silla, Chile, in the Bessell R passband. The errorbars for each transit have been scaled so the best-fitting model (obtained using the JKTEBOP code and without accounting for the presence of starspots) has a reduced chi-squared value of 1.0. (1 data file).

  12. Photosynthesis and sink activity of wasp-induced galls in Acacia pycnantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchin, Netta; Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, John H

    2006-07-01

    Although insect galls are widely known to influence source-sink relationships in plants, the relationship between photosynthesis and gall activity has not been extensively studied. In this study we used 14CO2, photosynthesis, and respiration measurements to examine the capacity of bud galls induced by the wasp Trichilogaster signiventris (Pteromalidae) as carbon sinks in Acacia pycnantha. Galls of this species develop either in vegetative or reproductive buds, depending on the availability of tissues at different times of the year, and effectively eliminate seed production by the plant. Photosynthetic rates in phyllodes subtending clusters of galls were greater than rates in control phyllodes, a result we attributed to photosynthesis compensating for increased carbon demand by the galls. Contrary to previous studies, we found that photosynthesis within galls contributed substantially to the carbon budgets of the galls, particularly in large, mature galls, which exhibited lower specific respiration rates allowing for a net carbon gain in the light. To determine the sink capacity and competitive potential of galls, we measured the proportion of specific radioactivity in galls originating from either vegetative or reproductive buds and found no difference between them. The proportion of the total amount of phyllode-derived 14C accumulated in both clustered and solitary galls was less than that in fruits. Galls and fruits were predominantly reliant on subtending rather than on distant phyllodes for photosynthate. Solitary galls that developed in vegetative buds constituted considerably stronger sinks than galls in clusters on inflorescences where there was competition between galls or fruits for resources from the subtending phyllode. Wasps developing in solitary vegetative galls were correspondingly significantly larger than those from clustered galls. We conclude that, in the absence of inflorescence buds during summer and fall, the ability of the wasps to cause gall

  13. Genomics and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones present in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Neupert, Susanne; Williamson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones constitute a very important group of signaling molecules, regulating central physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and behavior. Using a bioinformatics approach, we screened the recently sequenced genome of the parasitic wasp, Nasonia vitrip...... melanogaster, Aedes aegypti (both Diptera), Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera). This lower number of neuropeptide genes might be related to Nasonia's parasitic life....

  14. Social Complexity and Nesting Habits Are Factors in the Evolution of Antimicrobial Defences in Wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggard, Stephen J.; Wilson, Peter D.; Beattie, Andrew J.; Stow, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial diseases are important selective agents in social insects and one major defense mechanism is the secretion of cuticular antimicrobial compounds. We hypothesized that given differences in group size, social complexity, and nest type the secretions of these antimicrobials will be under different selective pressures. To test this we extracted secretions from nine wasp species of varying social complexity and nesting habits and assayed their antimicrobial compounds against cultures of S...

  15. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  16. FIRST RECORDS OF THE INVASIVE AMERICAN WASP ISODONTIA MEXICANA (HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE) IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ćetković, Aleksandar; Čubrilović, Branka; Plećaš, Milan; Popović, Anđelka; Savić, Dragiša; Stanisavljević, Ljubiša

    2012-01-01

    The first verified occurrences of the invasive American sphecid wasp, Isodontia mexicana (Saussure, 1867), in Serbia are reported. It was first collected from a trap-nest sample in the northern surroundings of Belgrade in 2010. During 2012, we recorded well-established, abundant populations in the central city area of Belgrade, its surroundings, and also at a single site on the Fruška Gora Mt. We briefly review the circumstances and course of its recent eastward and northeastward spreading in...

  17. Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Hisatomo; Kevan, Peter G.; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Silva, Fabiana O.; Buck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 225-229 To evaluate the role that a trap-nest cover might have on sampling methodologies, the abundance of each species of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and the parasitism rate in a Canadian forest were compared between artificially covered and uncovered traps. Of trap tubes exposed at eight forest sites in six trap-nest boxes, 531 trap tubes were occupied and 1216 individuals of 12 wasp species of four predatory families, Vespidae (Eumeninae), Crabronidae...

  18. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A P; Sérsic, A N; Marino, S; Simões, A O; Cocucci, A A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators in other regions outside South

  19. Variation in the diversity and richness of parasitoid wasps based on sampling effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Thomas E; Ward, Darren F

    2018-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are a mega-diverse, ecologically dominant, but poorly studied component of global biodiversity. In order to maximise the efficiency and reduce the cost of their collection, the application of optimal sampling techniques is necessary. Two sites in Auckland, New Zealand were sampled intensively to determine the relationship between sampling effort and observed species richness of parasitoid wasps from the family Ichneumonidae. Twenty traps were deployed at each site at three different times over the austral summer period, resulting in a total sampling effort of 840 Malaise-trap-days. Rarefaction techniques and non-parametric estimators were used to predict species richness and to evaluate the variation and completeness of sampling. Despite an intensive Malaise-trapping regime over the summer period, no asymptote of species richness was reached. At best, sampling captured two-thirds of parasitoid wasp species present. The estimated total number of species present depended on the month of sampling and the statistical estimator used. Consequently, the use of fewer traps would have caught only a small proportion of all species (one trap 7-21%; two traps 13-32%), and many traps contributed little to the overall number of individuals caught. However, variation in the catch of individual Malaise traps was not explained by seasonal turnover of species, vegetation or environmental conditions surrounding the trap, or distance of traps to one another. Overall the results demonstrate that even with an intense sampling effort the community is incompletely sampled. The use of only a few traps and/or for very short periods severely limits the estimates of richness because (i) fewer individuals are caught leading to a greater number of singletons; and (ii) the considerable variation of individual traps means some traps will contribute few or no individuals. Understanding how sampling effort affects the richness and diversity of parasitoid wasps is a useful

  20. Suppressed Far-UV Stellar Activity and Low Planetary Mass Loss in the WASP-18 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Koskinen, T.; France, K.; Cubillos, P. E.; Haswell, C. A.; Lanza, A. F.; Pillitteri, I.

    2018-03-01

    WASP-18 hosts a massive, very close-in Jupiter-like planet. Despite its young age (extinction (E(B-V) ≈ 0.01 mag) and then the interstellar medium (ISM) column density for a number of ions, concluding that ISM absorption is not the origin of the anomaly. We measure the flux of the four stellar emission features detected in the COS spectrum (C II, C III, C IV, Si IV). Comparing the C II/C IV flux ratio measured for WASP-18 with that derived from spectra of nearby stars with known age, we see that the far-UV spectrum of WASP-18 resembles that of old (>5 Gyr), inactive stars, in stark contrast with its young age. We conclude that WASP-18 has an intrinsically low activity level, possibly caused by star–planet tidal interaction, as suggested by previous studies. Re-scaling the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the Si IV line, yields an XUV integrated flux at the planet orbit of 10.2 erg s‑1 cm‑2. We employ the rescaled XUV solar fluxes to models of the planetary upper atmosphere, deriving an extremely low thermal mass-loss rate of 10‑20 M J Gyr‑1. For such high-mass planets, thermal escape is not energy limited, but driven by Jeans escape. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from MAST at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13859. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 092.D-0587.

  1. Development of a regional capacity expansion plan in the Russian Federation. Application of the WASP Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernilin, Yu; Kononov, S; Zakharova, E [Russian Research Inst. ` ` Kurchatov Inst.` ` , Moscow (Russian Federation); Kagramanyan, V; Malenkov, A [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is used for the development of optimal capacity expansion plans in Russia. The object of the WASP study is the Central power pool, which is the largest power pool in Russia and has an essential share of nuclear power in electricity generation. The objective of the study is to assess the long-term competitiveness of nuclear power in the region. The major features of the power system analyzed with WASP are the following: 1) four types of electricity generators are considered: condensity fossil fuel plants, cogeneration fossil fuel plants, nuclear power plants and hydraulic plants; 2) nine fuel categories are considered: gas/fuel oil fuel, several types of coal and several nuclear fuels; 3) escalation of capital, operation and maintenance, and fuel costs as a result of economic transition is explicitly modeled. Under these assumptions, a regional optimal capacity expansion plan is developed that showed the following: (a) Until 2004 there is no need for new electricity generation capacities due to the drop in demand in the 90s, certain lifetime margin of existing capacities, committed additions of co-generators and planned refurbishment/repowering measures; (b) The structure of the optimal capacity mix confirms that nuclear power can retain its role as one of the major electricity generation sources in the region. The most important factor with a positive of effect upon the competitiveness of nuclear power plants is the projected escalation of the prices of fossil fuels; (c) The application of WASP has proved that the model can serve as a valuable planning tool at the power pool level in Russia. (author). 14 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs.

  2. Structure elucidation of female-specific volatiles released by the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Tröger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce the putative polydeoxypropionates (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-diene and (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-dien-1-ol or their enantiomers as sex specific volatiles. The structures were assigned on the basis of GC–MS investigations using synthetic reference compounds.

  3. Adaptations to different habitats in sexual and asexual populations of parasitoid wasps: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, I; Kacelnik, A; van Alphen, JJM; Desouhant, E; Bernstein, C

    2017-01-01

    Background Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals in...

  4. Within-Crop Air Temperature and Humidity Outcomes on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of the Key Rose Pest Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Hicham; Pizzol, Jeannine; Senoussi, Rachid; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Poncet, Christine; Boulard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a key pest of various crops worldwide. In this study, we analyse the dependence of the infestation of this pest on spatially distributed micro climatic factors in a rose greenhouse. Despite the importance of this subject, the few existing studies have been realized in laboratory rather than in greenhouse conditions. However, recent progress on greenhouse microclimate characterisation has highlighted the strong indoor climate heterogeneity that may influence the within-crop pest distribution. In this study, both microclimate (air temperature and humidity) and thrips distribution were simultaneously mapped in a rose greenhouse. The measurements were sensed in a horizontal plane situated at mid-height of the rose crop inside the greenhouse. Simultaneously, thrips population dynamics were assessed after an artificial and homogeneous infestation of the rose crop. The spatio-temporal distribution of climate and thrips within the greenhouse were compared, and links between thrips infestation and climatic conditions were investigated. A statistical model was used to define the favourable climate conditions for thrips adults and larvae. Our results showed that (i) the air temperature and air humidity were very heterogeneously distributed within the crop, (ii) pest populations aggregated in the most favourable climatic areas and (iii) the highest population density of thrips adults and larvae were recorded at 27°C and 22°C for temperature and 63% and 86% for humidity, respectively. These findings confirm, in real rose cropping conditions, previous laboratory studies on the F. occidentalis climatic optimum and provide a solid scientific support for climatic-based control methods against this pest.

  5. Within-Crop Air Temperature and Humidity Outcomes on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of the Key Rose Pest Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Fatnassi

    Full Text Available Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande is a key pest of various crops worldwide. In this study, we analyse the dependence of the infestation of this pest on spatially distributed micro climatic factors in a rose greenhouse. Despite the importance of this subject, the few existing studies have been realized in laboratory rather than in greenhouse conditions. However, recent progress on greenhouse microclimate characterisation has highlighted the strong indoor climate heterogeneity that may influence the within-crop pest distribution. In this study, both microclimate (air temperature and humidity and thrips distribution were simultaneously mapped in a rose greenhouse. The measurements were sensed in a horizontal plane situated at mid-height of the rose crop inside the greenhouse. Simultaneously, thrips population dynamics were assessed after an artificial and homogeneous infestation of the rose crop. The spatio-temporal distribution of climate and thrips within the greenhouse were compared, and links between thrips infestation and climatic conditions were investigated. A statistical model was used to define the favourable climate conditions for thrips adults and larvae. Our results showed that (i the air temperature and air humidity were very heterogeneously distributed within the crop, (ii pest populations aggregated in the most favourable climatic areas and (iii the highest population density of thrips adults and larvae were recorded at 27°C and 22°C for temperature and 63% and 86% for humidity, respectively. These findings confirm, in real rose cropping conditions, previous laboratory studies on the F. occidentalis climatic optimum and provide a solid scientific support for climatic-based control methods against this pest.

  6. Actividad de rastreo en Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae, un mecanismo de localización de la especie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Cervantes, Raquel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se experimentó sobre la habilidad de Boa constrictor occidentalis para discriminar y seguir olores feromonales conespecíficos y heteroespecíficos. Las hembras presentaron elevada frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua hacia los estímulos de olor de piel de macho, piel de hembra y glándula de hembra, mostrando un mayor desplazamiento hacia el estímulo piel de hembra. Los machos respondieron con un incremento en el número de lengüeteos y búsqueda activa de los rastros frente a las secreciones de macho. Ambos sexos manifestaron preferencia por los olores conespecíficos aumentando la intensidad del lengüeteo y el seguimiento activo de rastros, mientras que exhibieron una marcada disminución de la frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua y escaso desplazamiento frente al estímulo heteroespecífico. Los resultados sugieren la estrecha relación existente entre la identificación de un estímulo mediante el lengüeteo y la actividad de rastreo. The ability in adult Boa constrictor occidentalis to discriminate between species and sexes and follow pheromonal trails was tested. Females presented elevated tongue flick rate (T.F.R. to male skin odor, female skin odor and female cloacal secretion. Trailing activity was higher to female skin odor. Males answered with elevated T.F.R. and exhibited active movements and searching of trails to their own secretions —male skin and male cloacal musk—. Both sexes had preferences to conespecific stimuli showing higher T.F.R. and active trailing while they were not interested in heterospecific trails presenting lower T.F.R. and limited movements. Results suggest the relationship between stimuli recognition by tongue flicking and trailing activity.

  7. WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b are Members of Triple Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Morton, Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M ⊙ using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  8. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M ☉ using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  9. Trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) with acetic acid and saturated short chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, P J; Smithhisler, C S; Reed, H C; McDonough, L M

    2000-12-01

    Nineteen compounds were evaluated in combination with a solution of acetic acid as baits for trapping the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.), the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica (Sausssure), and the golden paper wasp Polistes aurifer Saussure. Compounds with three to six carbon chains or branched chains and with a hydroxy functional group were selected for testing based on their similarity to isobutanol. They were compared with isobutanol with acetic acid, which is a known wasp attractant. None of the compounds tested were superior to isobutanol when presented with acetic acid as a lure for these species of wasps. However, traps baited with either the S-(-)- or the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol in combination with acetic acid captured similar numbers of both species of yellowjackets, compared with isobutanol with acetic acid. Polistes aurifer responded strongly to the S-(-)-enantiomer and to the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol with acetic acid and not to the R-(+)-enantiomer with acetic acid.

  10. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic β cell delamination and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant; Öhlin, Zarah Löf; Johansson, Jenny Kristina; Li, Wan-Chun; Lommel, Silvia; Greiner, Thomas Uwe; Semb, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell delamination and differentiation. These processes are normally associated with junctional actin and cell-cell junction disassembly and the expression of fate-determining transcription factors, such as Isl1 and MafA. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of N-WASP in β cells expressing constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis. PMID:24449844

  11. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher [Department of Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: ebechter@nd.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  12. EXAMINING THE BROADBAND EMISSION SPECTRUM OF WASP-19b: A NEW z-BAND ECLIPSE DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel D. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy, E-mail: george@mso.anu.edu.au [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-09-10

    WASP-19b is one of the most irradiated hot-Jupiters known. Its secondary eclipse is the deepest of all transiting planets and has been measured in multiple optical and infrared bands. We obtained a z-band eclipse observation with a measured depth of 0.080% {+-} 0.029%, using the 2 m Faulkes Telescope South, which is consistent with the results of previous observations. We combined our measurement of the z-band eclipse with previous observations to explore atmosphere models of WASP-19b that are consistent with its broadband spectrum. We use the VSTAR radiative transfer code to examine the effect of varying pressure-temperature profiles and C/O abundance ratios on the emission spectrum of the planet. We find that models with super-solar carbon enrichment best match the observations, which is consistent with previous model retrieval studies. We also include upper atmosphere haze as another dimension in the interpretation of exoplanet emission spectra and find that particles <0.5 {mu}m in size are unlikely to be present in WASP-19b.

  13. ENPEP and the microcomputer version of WASP-III: Overview and recent experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehring, W.A.; Wolsko, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a microcomputer-based energy planning package entitled ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP). It consists of seven technical modules, four commercial software packages, and an executive system that conveniently integrates the many options associated with performing energy studies. The seven technical modules and their functions are as follows: MACRO allows the user to specify macroeconomic growth (global or sectoral) that will be the drivers of energy demand. DEMAND projects energy demand based upon the macroeconomic growth information supplied in MACRO. PLANTDATA provides a library of technical data on electric generating plants that is used by BALANCE and ELECTRIC. BALANCE computes marketplace energy supply/demand balances over the study period. LOAD computes detailed electric load forecast information for use in ELECTRIC. ELECTRIC, the microcomputer (PC) version of WASP-III, calculates a minimum cost electric supply system to meet electric demand and reliability goals. IMPACTS calculates environmental impacts and resource requirements associated with energy supply system options. ENPEP provides the potential for energy planners in developing countries to carry out important studies without access to inconvenient and/or expensive mainframe computers. The ELECTRIC module of ENPEP provides electric system planners the opportunity to use the WASP-III model for expansion planning of electrical generating systems. Extensive efforts have been made in converting WASP-III to the microcomputer to provide user-friendly data entry forms and options for operations. (author). 3 refs, 20 figs

  14. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  15. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Devanshu; Karsai, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  16. Eocene and not Cretaceous origin of spider wasps: Fossil evidence from amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spider wasps had long been proposed to originate in the mid-Cretaceous based on the Burmese amber fossil Bryopompilus interfector Engel and Grimaldi, 2006. We performed a morphological examination of this fossil and determined it does not belong to Pompilidae or any other described hymenopteran family. Instead, we place it in the new family Bryopompilidae. The oldest verifiable member of the Pompilidae is from Baltic amber, which suggests the family probably originated in the Eocene, not in the mid-Cretaceous as previously proposed. The origin of spider wasps appears to be correlated with an increase in spider familial diversity in the Cenozoic. We also we add two genera to the extinct pompilid fauna: Tainopompilus gen. nov., and Paleogenia gen. nov., and describe three new species of fossil spider wasps: Anoplius planeta sp. nov., from Dominican amber (Burdigalian to Langhian; Paleogenia wahisi sp. nov., from Baltic amber (Lutetian to Priabonian; and Tainopompilus argentum sp. nov, from Dominican amber (Chattian to Langhian.

  17. Essential oils and their compositions as spatial repellents for pestiferous social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R

    2013-04-01

    The study objectives were: (1) to field test potential repellency of common essential oils against several pestiferous social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), using attractant-baited traps; (2) to identify vespid antennally active compounds from the repellent essential oils; (3) to determine potential repellency of these electroantennographic detection (EAD) active compounds in the field. Of the 21 essential oils tested, 17 showed significant repellency on yellowjackets [mainly Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] and paper wasps [mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ)]: clove, pennyroyal, lemongrass, ylang ylang, spearmint, wintergreen, sage, rosemary, lavender, geranium, patchouli, citronella, Roman chamomile, thyme, fennel seed, anise and peppermint. Two essential oil mixtures - 3EO-mix (clove, geranium and lemongrass) and 4EO-mix (clove, geranium, lemongrass and rosemary) - totally blocked the attraction of vespid workers. Twenty-nine vespid antennally active compounds were identified from solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samples of 11 strongly repellent essential oils by GC-EAD/MS techniques. Among the synthetic EAD-active compounds field tested, eugenol, P/I-menthone, pulegone, α/β-thujone, l-carvone, E/Z-citral, citronellal, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate and 3-octanol showed a significant repellency on vespid workers. These compounds are likely responsible for the repellency of their corresponding essential oils. These repellent essential oils and their active compositions have great potential for efficient, environmentally sound semiochemical-based IPM of pestiferous vespid wasps. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. WASP-121b: An ultrahot gas-giant exoplanet with a stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M.; Sing, David; Goyal, Jayesh; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R.; Deming, Drake; Marley, Mark S.; PanCET Team

    2018-01-01

    Stratospheres are ubiquitous in the atmospheres of solar system planets, and provide crucial information about an atmosphere’s chemical composition, vertical temperature structure, and energy budget. While it has been suggested that stratospheres could form in highly irradiated exoplanets, the extent to which this occurs has so far been unresolved both theoretically and observationally. Here we present secondary eclipse observations of the ultra-hot (Teq ~ 2500 K) gas giant exoplanet WASP-121b made using HST/WFC3 in spectroscopic mode across the 1.12-1.64 micron wavelength range. The spectrum is inconsistent with an isothermal atmosphere and has spectrally-resolved water features in emission, providing a detection of an exoplanet stratosphere at 5-sigma confidence. WASP-121b is one of the standout exoplanets available for atmospheric characterization, both in transmission and emission, due to its large radius (1.8 Rjup), high temperature, and bright host star (H=9.4mag). As such, we will also discuss follow-up observations of WASP-121b with HST and JWST to probe the longitudinal extent of its stratosphere, and the molecular absorbers that may produce it.

  19. Wasp sting induced STEMI with complete coronary artery occlusion: a case of Kounis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benjamin; Choudhury, Tawfiqur Rahman; Hindle, Mark; Galasko, Gavin

    2017-09-07

    A 45-year-old previously healthy man with minimal coronary artery disease on imaging presented with an acute MI after sustaining a wasp sting following previous non-eventful exposures throughout his life. This is the first case of Kounis syndrome with optical coherence tomography imaging and proven IgE wasp venom hypersensitivity. The Hymenoptera venom is composed of allergenic proteins and vasoactive amines which are responsible for venom toxicity. This patient also has a history of atopy giving a predisposition for developing IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Hymenoptera stings can be severe in atopic individuals and anaphylaxis may ensue. However, it is a rare cause of myocardial infarction (MI) (Kounis syndrome). Multiple wasp stings in the past may have contributed to sensitisation. Kounis syndrome is a rare clinical manifestation which should remain in the minds of physicians, especially with younger patients with no history of ischaemic heart disease or few risk factors. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  1. What do foraging wasps optimize in a variable environment, energy investment or body temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Vespine wasps (Vespula sp.) are endowed with a pronounced ability of endothermic heat production. To show how they balance energetics and thermoregulation under variable environmental conditions, we measured the body temperature and respiration of sucrose foragers (1.5 M, unlimited flow) under variable ambient temperature (T a = 20-35 °C) and solar radiation (20-570 W m(-2)). Results revealed a graduated balancing of metabolic efforts with thermoregulatory needs. The thoracic temperature in the shade depended on ambient temperature, increasing from ~37 to 39 °C. However, wasps used solar heat gain to regulate their thorax temperature at a rather high level at low T a (mean T thorax ~ 39 °C). Only at high T a they used solar heat to reduce their metabolic rate remarkably. A high body temperature accelerated the suction speed and shortened foraging time. As the costs of foraging strongly depended on duration, the efficiency could be significantly increased with a high body temperature. Heat gain from solar radiation enabled the wasps to enhance foraging efficiency at high ambient temperature (T a = 30 °C) by up to 63 %. The well-balanced change of economic strategies in response to environmental conditions minimized costs of foraging and optimized energetic efficiency.

  2. Learning in an exotic social wasp while relocating a food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; D'Adamo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review several studies on Vespulagermanica behavioral plasticity while relocating a food source in natural environments. This exotic social wasp, which has become established in many parts of the world, displays diverse cognitive abilities when foraging. Given its successful invasiveness worldwide, our initial hypothesis was that this species has great behavioral plasticity, which enables it to face environmental uncertainty. In our work we have analyzed foraging behavior associated with undepleted resources. Throughout several experiments, rapid learning was observed in this species; after few learning experiences they associate diverse contextual cues with a food source. However, by exploring wasp behavior when food suddenly disappeared, either because it had been removed or displaced, we found that they continued searching over a no longer rewarding site for a considerable period of time, suggesting that past experience can hinder new learning. Particularly surprising is the fact that when food was displaced nearby, wasps persisted in searching over the empty dish, ignoring the presence of food close by. We propose that this species could be a suitable model for studying cognitive plasticity in relation to environmental uncertainty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana pollination in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Perez-Balam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although avocado is native to Mexico, there are no comparative measures in this country on the performance of its flower visitors as pollinators. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to the pollination of avocado from tropical Mexico was assessed by comparing abundance, speed of flower visitation, quantity of pollen carried per individual and pollen deposited on virgin flowers after single visits. The values of abundance and frequency of flower visitation with pollen deposition were combined to obtain a measure of pollinator performance (PP. The most abundant insects on avocado were flies (mean ± SE: 15. 2 ± 6.2, followed by honey bees (9.4 ± 6.3 and wasps (4.2 ± 3.1 (ANOVA F = 91.71, d.f. = 2,78; P P P = 0.001, the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma after a single visit was similar for the three taxa (2-5. There was evidence for a significant and similarly positive PP of both honey bees and flies as avocado pollinators over wasps, given their abundance, potential for pollen transport and deposition of pollen on stigmas.

  4. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [es

  5. SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR A TEMPERATURE INVERSION IN THE DAYSIDE ATMOSPHERE OF HOT JUPITER WASP-33b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Korey; Mandell, Avi M. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather, E-mail: khaynes0112@gmail.com [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    We present observations of two occultations of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is the most highly irradiated hot Jupiter discovered to date, and the only exoplanet known to orbit a δ-Scuti star. We observed in spatial scan mode to decrease instrument systematic effects in the data, and removed fluctuations in the data due to stellar pulsations. The rms for our final, binned spectrum is 1.05 times the photon noise. We compare our final spectrum, along with previously published photometric data, to atmospheric models of WASP-33b spanning a wide range in temperature profiles and chemical compositions. We find that the data require models with an oxygen-rich chemical composition and a temperature profile that increases at high altitude. We find that our measured spectrum displays an excess in the measured flux toward short wavelengths that is best explained as emission from TiO. If confirmed by additional measurements at shorter wavelengths, this planet would become the first hot Jupiter with a thermal inversion that can be definitively attributed to the presence of TiO in its dayside atmosphere.

  6. TRAP-NESTING BEES AND WASPS (HYMENOPTERA, ACULEATA IN A SEMIDECIDUAL SEASONAL FOREST FRAGMENT, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trap-nesting bee and wasp inventories are common in Brazil but many phytophysiognomies are still poorly studied. The main objective of this study is to survey trap-nesting bees and wasps in a Semidecidual Seasonal Forest fragment. Also, we test the differences on nesting between interior and edge transects. A sum of 1,500 trap nests was made with bamboo cane internodes and two consecutive years were monitored. In the first year 46 nests were occupied by Pachodynerus grandis (19 nests, Pachodynerus guadulpensis (19, Centris analis (two, and Centris tarsata, Megachile fiebrigi, Megachile guaranitica, Megachile susurrans, Trypoxylon sp and Zethus smithii with one nest each. No statistical differences were found between interior and edge transects for richness and occupation rate, but the species composition was different. In the second year 39 nests were occupied by four species, three previously recorded, C. analis (seven nests, P. guadulpensis and P. grandis (six nests each, plus Monobia angulosa with 15 nests. Parasitoids from four families and one cleptoparasite were recorded and the mortality rate was higher in bees than in wasps. These findings reinforce the notion that trap nests assemblages from different studies are not directly comparable for richness and composition.

  7. The Optical Transmission Spectrum of the Inflated Hot Jupiter WASP-94Ab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Osip, David; McDonald, Michael; Triaud, Amaury; Hellier, Coel; Gillon, Michael; Delrez, Laetitia; Queloz, Didier; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exoplaneteers study the color of sunset on other planets, by measuring the wavelength-dependence of the fraction of starlight transmitted through the planets' atmospheres during transit. These transmission spectroscopy observations can reveal the molecular composition and aerosol distribution along the planet's day-night terminator. Here, we present new observations of the transmission spectrum of WASP-94Ab, an inflated hot Jupiter in a 3.95 day orbit around a bright 6200K, V=10.1 dwarf star. The star is in a visual binary with a nearly identical star (6100K, V=10.5) located 15" away. We observed three transits of WASP-94Ab with the Magellan/LDSS3C multiobject spectrograph, taking advantage of the nearby companion to correct for temporal variations in Earth's telluric spectrum. Thanks to the Magellan Clay telescope's large 6.5m aperture and WASP-94Ab's low surface gravity, we achieve a spectrophotometric precision (in units of atmospheric scale heights) that rivals Hubble/STIS spectroscopy of the famous and much brighter hot Jupiter system HD209458b. We highlight the valuable role ground-based telescopes can play for exoplanetary characterization in the TESS era.

  8. Transmission spectroscopy of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b from 0.7 to 5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Kreidberg, Laura [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 170-25 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Bergmann, Marcel [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Homeier, Derek, E-mail: kbs@uchicago.edu [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-06-01

    Since the first report of a potentially non-solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in its dayside atmosphere, the highly irradiated exoplanet WASP-12b has been under intense scrutiny and the subject of many follow-up observations. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 has obfuscated interpretation of the observational data. Here we present new ground-based multi-object transmission-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b that we acquired over two consecutive nights in the red optical with Gemini-N/GMOS. After correcting for the influence of WASP-12's stellar companions, we find that these data rule out a cloud-free H{sub 2} atmosphere with no additional opacity sources. We detect features in the transmission spectrum that may be attributed to metal oxides (such as TiO and VO) for an O-rich atmosphere or to metal hydrides (such as TiH) for a C-rich atmosphere. We also reanalyzed NIR transit-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b from HST/WFC3 and broadband transit photometry from Warm Spitzer. We attribute the broad spectral features in the WFC3 data to either H{sub 2}O or CH{sub 4} and HCN for an O-rich or C-rich atmosphere, respectively. The Spitzer data suggest shallower transit depths than the models predict at infrared wavelengths, albeit at low statistical significance. A multi-instrument, broad-wavelength analysis of WASP-12b suggests that the transmission spectrum is well approximated by a simple Rayleigh scattering model with a planet terminator temperature of 1870 ± 130 K. We conclude that additional high-precision data and isolated spectroscopic measurements of the companion stars are required to place definitive constraints on the composition of WASP-12b's atmosphere.

  9. Efeito de vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus - vespas de figos Effect of non-pollinating fig wasps over fig-fig wasp mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa G. Elias

    Full Text Available Relações ecológicas interespecíficas, que resultam em benefício para todos os organismos participantes, são conhecidas como mutualismo. No entanto, tal cooperação abre espaço para o surgimento de estratégias oportunistas (ou de trapaça, representadas por indivíduos parasitas do mutualismo, que recebem o benefício de um dos parceiros sem oferecer nada em troca. A interação figueiras - vespas - de - figo é um sistema adequado para o estudo do mutualismo e de estratégias oportunistas (parasitas de mutualismos. Representantes do gênero Ficus (Moraceae apresentam uma relação mutualística com pequenas vespas polinizadoras (Agaonidae e são explorados por outras espécies de vespas não-polinizadoras. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto das vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus citrifolia e suas vespas polinizadoras, Pegoscapus tonduzi Grandi, 1919. Para tal, foi comparada a produção de aquênios (função feminina e de fêmeas da espécie polinizadora (função masculina entre amostras de sicônios altamente infestados e pouco infestados por vespas não-polinizadoras, coletadas nos municípios de Londrina (Paraná, Campinas e Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo, Brasil. Nossos resultados apontaram que as vespas não-polinizadoras exercem impacto negativo nos componentes feminino e masculino da planta, sendo maior no masculino. A produção de vespas polinizadoras foi cerca de sete vezes menor nos figos infestados, ao passo que a produção de aquênios foi 1,5 vez menor nesses mesmos figos. Hipóteses sobre a estabilidade do mutualismo na presença das espécies oportunistas são discutidas.Mutualism is the name given to interspecific interactions which result in benefit for all partners involved. However, such cooperation is open to opportunistic strategies: individuals that extract the benefit from the partner, but do not offer any benefit in exchange. The fig-fig wasp interaction is an appropriate case to

  10. Signs of strong Na and K absorption in the transmission spectrum of WASP-103b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Hagelberg, J.; Müller, A.; Juvan, I.; Fossati, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Transmission spectroscopy has become a prominent tool for characterizing the atmospheric properties on close-in transiting planets. Recent observations have revealed a remarkable diversity in exoplanet spectra, which show absorption signatures of Na, K and H2O, in some cases partially or fully attenuated by atmospheric aerosols. Aerosols (clouds and hazes) themselves have been detected in the transmission spectra of several planets thanks to wavelength-dependent slopes caused by the particles' scattering properties. Aims: We present an optical 550-960 nm transmission spectrum of the extremely irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-103b, one of the hottest (2500 K) and most massive (1.5 MJ) planets yet to be studied with this technique. WASP-103b orbits its star at a separation of less than 1.2 times the Roche limit and is predicted to be strongly tidally distorted. Methods: We have used Gemini/GMOS to obtain multi-object spectroscopy throughout three transits of WASP-103b. We used relative spectrophotometry and bin sizes between 20 and 2 nm to infer the planet's transmission spectrum. Results: We find that WASP-103b shows increased absorption in the cores of the alkali (Na, K) line features. We do not confirm the presence of any strong scattering slope as previously suggested, pointing towards a clear atmosphere for the highly irradiated, massive exoplanet WASP-103b. We constrain the upper boundary of any potential cloud deck to reside at pressure levels above 0.01 bar. This finding is in line with previous studies on cloud occurrence on exoplanets which find that clouds dominate the transmission spectra of cool, low surface gravity planets while hot, high surface gravity planets are either cloud-free, or possess clouds located below the altitudes probed by transmission spectra. The spectrophotometric time series data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  11. Revisiting the Phase Curves of WASP-43b: Confronting Re-analyzed Spitzer Data with Cloudy Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, João M.; Malik, Matej; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Heng, Kevin

    2018-04-01

    Recently acquired Hubble and Spitzer phase curves of the short-period hot Jupiter WASP-43b make it an ideal target for confronting theory with data. On the observational front, we re-analyze the 3.6 and 4.5 μm Spitzer phase curves and demonstrate that our improved analysis better removes residual red noise due to intra-pixel sensitivity, which leads to greater fluxes emanating from the nightside of WASP-43b, thus reducing the tension between theory and data. On the theoretical front, we construct cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres of WASP-43b using our Global Circulation Model (GCM), THOR, which solves the non-hydrostatic Euler equations (compared to GCMs that typically solve the hydrostatic primitive equations). The cloud-free atmosphere produces a reasonable fit to the dayside emission spectrum. The multi-phase emission spectra constrain the cloud deck to be confined to the nightside and have a finite cloud-top pressure. The multi-wavelength phase curves are naturally consistent with our cloudy atmospheres, except for the 4.5 μm phase curve, which requires the presence of enhanced carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of WASP-43b. Multi-phase emission spectra at higher spectral resolution, as may be obtained using the James Webb Space Telescope, and a reflected-light phase curve at visible wavelengths would further constrain the properties of clouds in WASP-43b.

  12. Partial venom gland transcriptome of a Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina heterotoma, reveals novel and shared bioactive profiles with stinging Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Mary E.; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Rajwani, Roma; Pagan, Pedro E.; Small, Chiyedza; Govind, Shubha

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of natural host-parasite relationships reveals the evolutionary forces that shape the delicate and unique specificity characteristic of such interactions. The accessory long gland-reservoir complex of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Figitidae) produces venom with virus-like particles. Upon delivery, venom components delay host larval development and completely block host immune responses. The host range of this Drosophila endoparasitoid notably includes the highly-studied model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Categorization of 827 unigenes, using similarity as an indicator of putative homology, reveals that approximately 25% are novel or classified as hypothetical proteins. Most of the remaining unigenes are related to processes involved in signaling, cell cycle, and cell physiology including detoxification, protein biogenesis, and hormone production. Analysis of L. heterotoma’s predicted venom gland proteins demonstrates conservation among endo- and ectoparasitoids within the Apocrita (e.g., this wasp and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis) and stinging aculeates (e.g., the honey bee and ants). Enzyme and KEGG pathway profiling predicts that kinases, esterases, and hydrolases may contribute to venom activity in this unique wasp. To our knowledge, this investigation marks the first functional genomic study for a natural parasitic wasp of Drosophila. Our findings will help explain how L. heterotoma shuts down its hosts’ immunity and shed light on the molecular basis of a natural arms race between these insects. PMID:23688557

  13. Performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens at finisher stage to oral supplementation with fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi ALABI; Mathew AYOOLA; Oyebola AKINOSO

    2017-01-01

    The performance characteristics and physiological response of broiler chickens to oral supplementation with Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract (TOLE) at finisher stage were investigated. One hundred and twenty unsexed broilers of Arbor Acre strain at 28-day-old were randomly divided into four treatment groups of oral supplementation each with three replicates. The treatment groups are: T1=Water (control), T2=Vitalyte, T3=15% TOLE, and T4=30% TOLE. The experiment lasted for 70 days, during wh...

  14. Thujone-Rich Fraction of Thuja occidentalis Demonstrates Major Anti-Cancer Potentials: Evidences from In Vitro Studies on A375 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Raktim; Mandal, Sushil Kumar; Dutta, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Crude ethanolic extract of Thuja occidentalis (Fam: Cupressaceae) is used as homeopathic mother tincture (TOΦ) to treat various ailments, particularly moles and tumors, and also used in various other systems of traditional medicine. Anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing properties of TOΦ and the thujone-rich fraction (TRF) separated from it have been evaluated for their possible anti-cancer potentials in the malignant melanoma cell line A375. On initial trial by S-diphenyltetrazolium brom...

  15. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysa...

  16. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzner Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae. Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Results Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow. In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula. The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only. We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and

  17. Does size matter? – Thermoregulation of ‘heavyweight’ and ‘lightweight’ wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Summary In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (Ta: ∼0–40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights. Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on Ta on their arrival (mean Tth  =  30–40°C) and departure (mean Tth  =  33–40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (Tth−Ta) above ambient air of about 5–18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the Tth on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg. PMID:23162695

  18. THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF THE HOT JUPITER WASP-43b: COMPARING THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS TO SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Line, Michael R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Stevenson, Kevin B.; Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel, E-mail: tkataria@astro.ex.ac.uk [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    The hot Jupiter WASP-43b (2 M{sub J}, 1 R{sub J}, T {sub orb} = 19.5 hr) has now joined the ranks of transiting hot Jupiters HD 189733b and HD 209458b as an exoplanet with a large array of observational constraints. Because WASP-43b receives a similar stellar flux as HD 209458b but has a rotation rate four times faster and a higher gravity, studying WASP-43b probes the effect of rotation rate and gravity on the circulation when stellar irradiation is held approximately constant. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation models of WASP-43b, exploring the effects of composition, metallicity, and frictional drag. We find that the circulation regime of WASP-43b is not unlike other hot Jupiters, with equatorial superrotation that yields an eastward-shifted hotspot and large day-night temperature variations (∼600 K at photospheric pressures). We then compare our model results to Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 spectrophotometric phase curve measurements of WASP-43b from 1.12 to 1.65 μm. Our results show the 5× solar model light curve provides a good match to the data, with a peak flux phase offset and planet/star flux ratio that is similar to observations; however, the model nightside appears to be brighter. Nevertheless, our 5× solar model provides an excellent match to the WFC3 dayside emission spectrum. This is a major success, as the result is a natural outcome of the 3D dynamics with no model tuning. These results demonstrate that 3D circulation models can help interpret exoplanet atmospheric observations, even at high resolution, and highlight the potential for future observations with HST, James Webb Space Telescope, and other next-generation telescopes.

  19. Does size matter? – Thermoregulation of ‘heavyweight’ and ‘lightweight’ wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kovac

    2012-07-01

    In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro, the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica in the entire range of ambient temperature (Ta: ∼0–40°C where the insects exhibited foraging flights. Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg, they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on Ta on their arrival (mean Tth  =  30–40°C and departure (mean Tth  =  33–40°C at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (Tth−Ta above ambient air of about 5–18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the Tth on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.

  20. Oocyte-specific deletion of N-WASP does not affect oocyte polarity, but causes failure of meiosis II completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Ma, Xue-Shan; Hu, Meng-Wen; Jiang, Zong-Zhe; Meng, Tie-Gang; Dong, Ming-Zhe; Fan, Li-Hua; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Snapper, Scott B; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    There is an unexplored physiological role of N-WASP (neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) in oocyte maturation that prevents completion of second meiosis. In mice, N-WASP deletion did not affect oocyte polarity and asymmetric meiotic division in first meiosis, but did impair midbody formation and second meiosis completion. N-WASP regulates actin dynamics and participates in various cell activities through the RHO-GTPase-Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3 complex) pathway, and specifically the Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42)-N-WASP-Arp2/3 pathway. Differences in the functions of Cdc42 have been obtained from in vitro compared to in vivo studies. By conditional knockout of N-WASP in mouse oocytes, we analyzed its in vivo functions by employing a variety of different methods including oocyte culture, immunofluorescent staining and live oocyte imaging. Each experiment was repeated at least three times, and data were analyzed by paired-samples t-test. Oocyte-specific deletion of N-WASP did not affect the process of oocyte maturation including spindle formation, spindle migration, polarity establishment and maintenance, and homologous chromosome or sister chromatid segregation, but caused failure of cytokinesis completion during second meiosis (P meiosis completion and failures in this process that affect oocyte quality. None. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2012CB944404) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos 30930065, 31371451, 31272260 and 31530049). There are no potential conflicts of interests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Temporal Activity Patterns of the Spider Wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a Disturbed Lower Montane Rainforest (Manizales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Restrepo-Giraldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the temporal activity pattern of the spider wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a disturbed lower montane rainforest, which is located in the city of Manizales, Colombia, at an altitude of 2,150 m. Females of this species are diurnal with two peaks of activity: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon. During the morning, nectar foraging occurred at Baccharis latifolia. During the afternoon, females hunted for tarantulas of the genus Pamphobeteus (Araneae: Theraphosidae, which were dragged backwards to the nest by the wasp. The nest was excavated before hunting. This is the first description of the behavior of Pepsis montezuma.

  2. Observations and modeling of the transiting exoplanets XO-2b, HAT-P-18b, and WASP-80b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva Diana P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present photometric observations and transit solutions of the exoplanets XO-2b, HAT-P-18b and WASP 80b. Our solution of the XO-2b transit gave system parameters whose values are close to those of the previous studies. The solutions of the new transits of HAT-P-18b and WASP 80b differ from the previous ones by bigger stellar and planet radii. We obtained new values of the target initial epochs corresponding to slightly different periods. Our investigation reaffirmed that small telescopes can be used successfully for the study of exoplanets orbiting stars brighter than 13 mag.

  3. Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids.The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers.Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be used to improve the precision of the host location by the parasitoids.

  4. A Comparison of BLISS and PLD on Low-SNR WASP-29b Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, Ryan; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Deming, Drake; Hellier, Coel

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis of Spitzer secondary eclipse observations of exoplanet WASP-29b. WASP-29b is a Saturn-sized, short-period exoplanet with mass 0.24 ± 0.02 Jupiter masses and radius 0.84 ± 0.06 Jupiter radii (Hellier et al., 2010). We measure eclipse depths and midpoints using our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits (POET) code, which does photometry and light-curve modeling with a BiLinearly Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity (BLISS) map, and our Zen Eliminates Noise (ZEN) code, which takes POET photometry and applies Pixel-Level Decorrelation (PLD). BLISS creates a physical map of pixel gain variations, and is thereby independent of any astrophysical effects. PLD takes a mathematical approach, using relative variations in pixel values near the target to eliminate position-correlated noise. The results are consistent between the methods, except in one outlier observation where neither model could effectively remove correlated noise in the light curve. Using the eclipse timings, along with previous transit observations and radial velocity data, we further refine the orbit of WASP-29b, and, when excluding the outlier, determine an eccentricity between 0.037 and 0.056. We performed atmospheric retrieval with our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code but find that, when the outlier is discarded, the planet is consistent with a blackbody, and molecular abundances cannot be constrained. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  5. Multifaceted defense against antagonistic microbes in developing offspring of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Weiss

    Full Text Available Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R-(--mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R-(--mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R-(--mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum. We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R-(--mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several

  6. Can soda ash dumping grounds provide replacement habitats for digger wasps (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Spheciformes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Twerd

    Full Text Available Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species.In the years 2007-2010 we carried out investigations in postindustrial soda ash dumping grounds located in Central Poland. We demonstrated that these areas serve as replacement habitats for thermophilic species of Spheciformes and, indirectly, for their potential prey. The studies were conducted in three microhabitat types, varying in soil moisture, salinity and alkalinity, that were changing in the course of ecological succession. We trapped 2571 specimens belonging to 64 species of digger wasps. Species typical of open sunny spaces comprised 73% of the whole inventory. The obtained results suggest that the stage of succession determines the richness, abundance and diversity of Spheciformes. The most favorable conditions for digger wasps were observed in habitats at late successional stages.Our results clearly showed that these habitats were replacement habitats for thermophilous Spheciformes, including rare taxa that require genetic, species and ecosystem protection, according to the Biodiversity Convention. We showed that some types of industry might play a positive role in the preservation of taxa in the landscape, and that even degraded industrial wasteland can replace habitats under anthropopressure, serving as refugia of biological diversity, especially for disturbance-dependent species.

  7. Seeing in the dark: vision and visual behaviour in nocturnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2008-06-01

    In response to the pressures of predation, parasitism and competition for limited resources, several groups of (mainly) tropical bees and wasps have independently evolved a nocturnal lifestyle. Like their day-active (diurnal) relatives, these insects possess apposition compound eyes, a relatively light-insensitive eye design that is best suited to vision in bright light. Despite this, nocturnal bees and wasps are able to forage at night, with many species capable of flying through a dark and complex forest between the nest and a foraging site, a behaviour that relies heavily on vision and is limited by light intensity. In the two best-studied species - the Central American sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae) and the Indian carpenter bee Xylocopa tranquebarica (Apidae) - learned visual landmarks are used to guide foraging and homing. Their apposition eyes, however, have only around 30 times greater optical sensitivity than the eyes of their closest diurnal relatives, a fact that is apparently inconsistent with their remarkable nocturnal visual abilities. Moreover, signals generated in the photoreceptors, even though amplified by a high transduction gain, are too noisy and slow to transmit significant amounts of information in dim light. How have nocturnal bees and wasps resolved these paradoxes? Even though this question remains to be answered conclusively, a mounting body of theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that the slow and noisy visual signals generated by the photoreceptors are spatially summed by second-order monopolar cells in the lamina, a process that could dramatically improve visual reliability for the coarser and slower features of the visual world at night.

  8. Deciphering the atmospheric composition of WASP-12b: A comprehensive analysis of its dayside emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Harrington, Joseph, E-mail: kbs@uchicago.edu [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    WASP-12b was the first planet reported to have a carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) greater than one in its dayside atmosphere. However, recent work to further characterize its atmosphere and confirm its composition has led to incompatible measurements and divergent conclusions. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 further complicates the analyses and subsequent interpretations. We present a uniform analysis of all available Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope secondary-eclipse data, including previously unpublished Spitzer measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The primary controversy in the literature has centered on the value and interpretation of the eclipse depth at 4.5 μm. Our new measurements and analyses confirm the shallow eclipse depth in this channel, as first reported by Campo and collaborators and used by Madhusudhan and collaborators to infer a carbon-rich composition. To explain WASP-12b's observed dayside emission spectrum, we implemented several recent retrieval approaches. We find that when we exclude absorption due to C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN, which are not universally considered in the literature, our models require implausibly large atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances, regardless of the C/O. By including C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN in our models, we find that a physically plausible carbon-rich solution achieves the best fit to the available photometric and spectroscopic data. In comparison, the best-fit oxygen-rich models have abundances that are inconsistent with the chemical equilibrium expectations for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and are 670 times less probable. Our best-fit solution is also 7.3 × 10{sup 6} times more probable than an isothermal blackbody model.

  9. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - VII. The ultrashort period planet WASP-103

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.

    2015-01-01

    for these calculations. The planet has a Roche lobe filling factor of 0.58, leading to a significant asphericity; we correct its measured mass and mean density for this phenomenon. A high-resolution Lucky Imaging observation shows no evidence for faint stars close enough to contaminate the point spread function of WASP......-103. Our data were obtained in the Bessell $RI$ and the SDSS $griz$ passbands and yield a larger planet radius at bluer optical wavelengths, to a confidence level of 7.3 sigma. Interpreting this as an effect of Rayleigh scattering in the planetary atmosphere leads to a measurement of the planetary...

  10. Protolytic properties of polyamine wasp toxin analogues studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Piazzi, Lorna; Olsen, Christian A

    2006-01-01

    Acid-base properties of the natural polyamine wasp toxin PhTX-433 (1) and seven synthetic analogues [PhTX-343 (2), PhTX-334 (3), PhTX-443 (4), PhTX-434 (5), PhTX-344 (6), PhTX-444 (7), and PhTX-333 (8)], each having four protolytic sites, were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy. Nonlinear......, multiparameter, simultaneous fit of all chemical shift data obtained from the NMR titration curves yielded macroscopic pKa values as well as intrinsic chemical shift data of all differently protonated macrospecies. Analyses of the chemical shift data demonstrated strong interactions between all four sites...

  11. WAsP engineering flow model for wind over land and sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the basic wind flow model of WAsP Engineering. The model consists in principle of three parts: the LINCOM model for neutrally stable flow over terrain with hills and varying surface roughness, a sea surface roughness model, and anobstacle model. To better predict flow over...... of literature data for the Charnock parameter as function of the so called wave age, the ratio between wave velocity and friction velocity, plus a correlation ofwave age to the geometrically obtainable water fetch. A model for the influence on the wind of multiple, finite size, interacting obstacles with any...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transiting extrasolar planet WASP-33b (Kovacs+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, G.; Kovacs, T.; Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Bieryla, A.; Latham, D.; Noyes, R. W.; Regaly, Zs.; Esquerdo, G. A.

    2013-03-01

    Light curves (LCs) used in the time series analysis of WASP-33 are presented. All LCs are on magnitude scale. The material constitutes of: (1) the TFA-filtered/reconstructed (see Kovacs, Bakos & Noyes, 2005MNRAS.356..557K) HATNet LC in approximate Ic (Cousins) color; (2) LCs given in Table 1: except for the FLWO data (lc02) all LCs are corrected for linear trends, shifted to zero magnitude at the out-of-transit level. Time is in Heliocentric Julian Date, colors are given in Table 1. (3) Grand-averaged LC, as shown in Fig. 10 of the paper. (4 data files).

  13. Sugary secretions of wasp galls: a want-to-be extrafloral nectar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Rothen, Carolina; Diez, Patricia; González, Ana María; Marazzi, Brigitte

    2017-11-10

    The most widespread form of protective mutualisms is represented by plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) that attract ants and other arthropods for indirect defence. Another, but less common, form of sugary secretion for indirect defence occurs in galls induced by cynipid wasps. Until now, such galls have been reported only for cynipid wasps that infest oak trees in the northern hemisphere. This study provides the first evidence of galls that exude sugary secretions in the southern hemisphere and asks whether they can be considered as analogues of plants' EFNs. The ecology and anatomy of galls and the chemical composition of the secretion were investigated in north-western Argentina, in natural populations of the host trees Prosopis chilensis and P. flexuosa . To examine whether ants protect the galls from natural enemies, ant exclusion experiments were conducted in the field. The galls produce large amounts of sucrose-rich, nectar-like secretions. No typical nectary and sub-nectary parenchymatic tissues or secretory trichomes can be observed; instead there is a dense vascularization with phloem elements reaching the gall periphery. At least six species of ants, but also vespid wasps, Diptera and Coleoptera, consumed the gall secretions. The ant exclusion experiment showed that when ants tended galls, no differences were found in the rate of successful emergence of gall wasps or in the rate of parasitism and inquiline infestation compared with ant-excluded galls. The gall sugary secretion is not analogous to extrafloral nectar because no nectar-producing structure is associated with it, but is functionally equivalent to arthropod honeydew because it provides indirect defence to the plant parasite. As in other facultative mutualisms mediated by sugary secretions, the gall secretion triggers a complex multispecies interaction, in which the outcome of individual pair-wise interactions depends on the ecological context in which they take place. © The Author

  14. Effects of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holem, Ryan R. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); ENTRIX, Inc., Okemos, MI 48864 (United States); Hopkins, William A. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)], E-mail: hopkinsw@vt.edu; Talent, Larry G. [Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100 mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81 day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.079) and 85% of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group exhibited clinical symptoms of poisoning. Growth, food consumption, body condition index, and terrestrial locomotor performance were not significantly influenced by malathion. However, arboreal sprint velocity was significantly reduced in lizards receiving 100 mg/kg. Fifty percent of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group also refused to sprint in the arboreal setting (p = 0.085). Based on these results, arboreal locomotor performance was the most sensitive metric of exposure we evaluated. Further study of compounds such as malathion is warranted due to highly variable application rates and exposure scenarios. - Repeated exposure of western fence lizards to malathion caused reduced arboreal performance and some mortality but growth, food consumption, and terrestrial performance were not affected.

  15. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae en Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vargas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide en dos, de las cuales la rama interna sufre una nueva división; por la disposición de las costillas de la bolsa copulatríz donde, entre otros detalles, las antero y postero-ventrales están separadas y las externo-dorsales nacen cerca de la parte media del tronco dorsal y son gruesas.

  16. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms.

  17. Effect of new and old pesticides on Orius armatus (Gross) - an Australian predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Sonya; Harrison, Jessica; Rahman, Touhidur

    2014-03-01

    Orius armatus (Gross) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Australian glasshouse grown sweet pepper. The failure of O. armatus to establish in some glasshouses has been attributed to the use of newer, more non-selective pesticides, some of which are regarded to be compatible with integrated pest management. The residual toxicity (via direct and indirect contact) of several older and newer chemistry pesticides were evaluated. In addition, the effect of several systemic insecticides through insecticide-treated food-chain uptake was tested. Older chemistry pesticides (methamidophos, dimethoate) were toxic to Orius armatus, except pirimicarb which was non-toxic. Newer chemistry pesticides differed in their suitability. Abamectin was toxic to adults and nymphs. Chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid and spirotetramat were non-toxic. Spinosad and spinetoram were moderately toxic to O. armatus. Spinosad also reduced fecundity by 20% compared to the untreated control. Pymetrozine was non-toxic, but females exposed to treated beans produced 30% fewer eggs and 20% fewer nymphs hatched compared to the untreated control. The selective pesticides do not necessarily facilitate the conservation of beneficials, and further assessment of the various developmental stages and other sub-lethal effects of chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid, pymetrozine, spinetoram, and spirotetramat is recommended. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats using a food-based therapy containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Ezeanyika, Lawrence U S

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for 28 days. Rats in the test group were placed on the test diet for 7 days following disease induction. One control group (DC) was fed on a normal diet for 7 days following disease induction. Two other control groups, HC and HDC, were given sub-cutaneous olive oil (vehicle) for the same duration, and placed on the test diet and normal diet, respectively. Markers of BPH, and hormone profile were determined using standard methods. The results show that relative prostate weight and protein content of the prostates were lower [albeit not significantly (p>0.05)] in the test group, relative to the DC group. Serum prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations (U/L) decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 2.9 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 2.1 ± 0.7 in the test group. Histological findings corroborate these data. The testosterone: estradiol ratio (× 10(3)) was increased from 4.0 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 4.6 ± 0.2 in the test group. The test diet reduced the mass and secretory activity of the enlarged prostate and may act by increasing the testosterone: estradiol ratio.

  19. Effects of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holem, Ryan R.; Hopkins, William A.; Talent, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100 mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81 day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.079) and 85% of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group exhibited clinical symptoms of poisoning. Growth, food consumption, body condition index, and terrestrial locomotor performance were not significantly influenced by malathion. However, arboreal sprint velocity was significantly reduced in lizards receiving 100 mg/kg. Fifty percent of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group also refused to sprint in the arboreal setting (p = 0.085). Based on these results, arboreal locomotor performance was the most sensitive metric of exposure we evaluated. Further study of compounds such as malathion is warranted due to highly variable application rates and exposure scenarios. - Repeated exposure of western fence lizards to malathion caused reduced arboreal performance and some mortality but growth, food consumption, and terrestrial performance were not affected

  20. Health assessments of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings from colonies in South Carolina and Georgia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, L.M.; Norton, Terry M.; Cray, Carolyn; Oliva, M.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Health evaluations of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings from three colonies along the Atlantic coast of the southeastern United States were performed in 2005, 2007, and 2008. The primary objective of this study was to establish baseline data for hematologic, biochemical, and serologic values from a relatively healthy population of free-living pelicans during early chick development. Relationships among health variables and colony site, ectoparasite infestation, sex, and body condition index were also evaluated. Reference intervals are presented for health variables, including novel analytes for the species, as well as a comparison of these results with previously published values for wild pelicans. No significant relationships were found between health variables and nestling sex or body condition; however, differences between colony sites and the presence of ectoparasites were detected. The inclusion of health assessments as a regular component of management programs for seabirds can provide data to better understand the effect to species of concern when drastic changes occur to the population and its environment.

  1. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A.; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  2. Performance of laboratories analysing welding fume on filter samples: results from the WASP proficiency testing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Peter; Butler, Owen

    2008-06-01

    This paper emphasizes the need for occupational hygiene professionals to require evidence of the quality of welding fume data from analytical laboratories. The measurement of metals in welding fume using atomic spectrometric techniques is a complex analysis often requiring specialist digestion procedures. The results from a trial programme testing the proficiency of laboratories in the Workplace Analysis Scheme for Proficiency (WASP) to measure potentially harmful metals in several different types of welding fume showed that most laboratories underestimated the mass of analyte on the filters. The average recovery was 70-80% of the target value and >20% of reported recoveries for some of the more difficult welding fume matrices were welding fume trial filter samples. Consistent rather than erratic error predominated, suggesting that the main analytical factor contributing to the differences between the target values and results was the effectiveness of the sample preparation procedures used by participating laboratories. It is concluded that, with practice and regular participation in WASP, performance can improve over time.

  3. Reproduction and recruitment in perennial colonies of the introduced wasp Vespula germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodisman, M A; Matthews, R W; Spradbery, J P; Carew, M E; Crozier, R H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the genetic structure of perennial colonies of the yellowjacket wasp (Vespula germanica) in its introduced range in Australia and New Zealand. The nuclear genotypes of 712 gynes from 21 colonies, 147 workers from 5 colonies, and 81 males from 4 colonies were assayed at three polymorphic microsatellite loci. The mitochondrial haplotypes of all wasps also were determined for a 450-bp region of the mtDNA using double-stranded conformational polymorphism (DSCP) analysis. We found that multiple reproductives were needed to explain the genotypes of gynes, workers, and males in 7 of 21, 2 of 5, and 2 of 4 colonies, respectively, and that nestmate relatedness of these three castes equaled 0.42, 0.16, and 0.22, respectively. The mitochondrial data revealed that all individuals shared the same mtDNA haplotype in 20 of the 21 colonies. However, in one colony, gynes and workers displayed multiple mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that nonnestmate recruitment had occurred. Overall the genetic structure within the majority of perennial colonies conformed to expectations based on the biology of V. germanica and kin selection theory for polygyne colonies; multiple reproductives successfully produced offspring and were recruited into their natal nests, thereby maintaining relatively high relatedness between interacting individuals.

  4. Control experiments with yellow jacket wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) injuring cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Yeruham, I; Kolsky, O; Saran, A

    1998-04-01

    Injuries caused by the German yellow jacket Vespula germanica F. to dry and lactating dairy cows (Bos tourus) in 5 herds in Israel were monitored and adversely affected < or = 65% of the cows. Elimination of large alternative protein sources (placentas, sewage containing milk from the milking parlor), and prebaiting with high-quality minced meat (or fish) in adequate numbers of baiting cages around the dairy farm for several days, are necessary for successful control. Significant control was achieved after a shorter period of time when the dairy farm was surrounded by a smaller area of uncultivated land than by a larger area. At some dairy farms there were significant differences among numbers of wasps visiting the various cage sites and significant variability between baiting days. Efficient and significant control was achieved by minced meat bait containing 1.5% acephate (orthene) and 2% microencapsulated diazinon (Antikan). Wasps were totally repelled by minced meat bait containing 2.25% of a plant-derived bioinsecticide derived from Meliaceae (Ag1000). The potential of using Ag 1000 for repelling yellow jackets from teats and udders of dairy cows is discussed.

  5. Two new bradykinin-related peptides from the venom of the social wasp Protopolybia exigua (Saussure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Maria Anita; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2006-11-01

    Two bradykinin-related peptides (Protopolybiakinin-I and Protopolybiakinin-II) were isolated from the venom of the social wasp Protopolybia exigua by RP-HPLC, and sequenced by Edman degradation method. Peptide sequences of Protopolybiakinin-I and Protopolybiakinin-II were DKNKKPIRVGGRRPPGFTR-OH and DKNKKPIWMAGFPGFTPIR-OH, respectively. Synthetic peptides with identical sequences to the bradykinin-related peptides and their biological functions were characterized. Protopolybiakinin-I caused less potent constriction of the isolated rat ileum muscles than bradykinin (BK). In addition, it caused degranulation of mast cells which was seven times more potent than BK. This peptide causes algesic effects due to the direct activation of B(2)-receptors. Protopolybiakinin-II is not an agonist of rat ileum muscle and had no algesic effects. However, Protopolybiakinin-II was found to be 10 times more potent as a mast cell degranulator than BK. The amino acid sequence of Protopolybiakinin-I is the longest among the known wasp kinins.

  6. DAY-SIDE z'-BAND EMISSION AND ECCENTRICITY OF WASP-12b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Rogers, Justin C.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Sing, David K.; Burrows, Adam; Spiegel, David S.; Apai, Daniel; Adams, Elisabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the eclipse of the very hot Jupiter WASP-12b via z'-band time-series photometry obtained with the 3.5 m Astrophysical Research Consortium telescope at Apache Point Observatory. We measure a decrease in flux of 0.082% ± 0.015% during the passage of the planet behind the star. That planetary flux is equally well reproduced by atmospheric models with and without extra absorbers, and blackbody models with f ≥ 0.585 ± 0.080. It is therefore necessary to measure the planet at other wavelengths to further constrain its atmospheric properties. The eclipse appears centered at phase φ = 0.5100 +0.0072 -0.0061 , consistent with an orbital eccentricity of |ecos ω| = 0.016 +0.011 -0.009 (see note at the end of Section 4). If the orbit of the planet is indeed eccentric, the large radius of WASP-12b can be explained by tidal heating.

  7. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE 0.94-DAY PERIOD TRANSITING PLANETARY SYSTEM WASP-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, John; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.; Mathiasen, M.; Browne, P.; Glitrup, M.; Joergensen, U. G.; Harpsoee, K.; Liebig, C.; Maier, G.; Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Mancini, L.; Burgdorf, M.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F.; Hundertmark, M.; Finet, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of five consecutive transits of WASP-18, an extrasolar planetary system with one of the shortest orbital periods known. Through the use of telescope defocusing we achieve a photometric precision of 0.47-0.83 mmag per observation over complete transit events. The data are analyzed using the JKTEBOP code and three different sets of stellar evolutionary models. We find the mass and radius of the planet to be M b = 10.43 ± 0.30 ± 0.24 M Jup and R b = 1.165 ± 0.055 ± 0.014 R Jup (statistical and systematic errors), respectively. The systematic errors in the orbital separation and the stellar and planetary masses, arising from the use of theoretical predictions, are of a similar size to the statistical errors and set a limit on our understanding of the WASP-18 system. We point out that seven of the nine known massive transiting planets (M b > 3 M Jup ) have eccentric orbits, whereas significant orbital eccentricity has been detected for only four of the 46 less-massive planets. This may indicate that there are two different populations of transiting planets, but could also be explained by observational biases. Further radial velocity observations of low-mass planets will make it possible to choose between these two scenarios.

  8. Gastral drumming: a nest-based food-recruitment signal in a social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin J.; Jeanne, Robert L.

    2018-04-01

    Many social insect species produce signals that either recruit foragers to a specific food source or simply activate more nestmates to become foragers. Both are means of enhancing resource exploitation by increasing the number of individuals devoted to gathering profitable resources. Gastral drumming (GD) has been documented in several species of yellowjackets and hornets (Vespidae: Vespinae). It has been hypothesized that it is a hunger signal, but there is little empirical evidence to support this claim. An alternative hypothesis is that GD recruits workers to forage for food. Here, we report the results of a test between the hunger-signal and food-recruitment hypotheses in the German yellowjacket wasp, Vespula germanica. We show that the rate of performance of GD decreased when colonies were deprived of food and increased when supplemental food was provided. Playback of GD caused increased rates of (1) movement in the nest, (2) trophallaxis, and (3) worker departures from the nest. Together, these results support the conclusion that GD is not a hunger signal as previously asserted but instead is a nest-based food-recruitment signal, the first to be reported for a social wasp.

  9. The function of dart behavior in the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumana, A; Starks, Philip T

    2004-05-01

    Dominance behavior in Polistes wasps is a composite trait consisting of various discrete behaviors such as darts, lunges, bites, and mounts. The majority of these behaviors are considered "aggressive", and these aggressive behaviors are considered to form a continuum from mild (e.g., darts) to severe (e.g., falling fights). In this paper we focus on darts, the most common of the dominance behaviors, and investigate their function in un-manipulated post-emergent colonies of the primitively eusocial wasp P. fuscatus. Here we show that darts are correlated with the more severe dominance behaviors, and that dominance ranks do not change with the addition or exclusion of darts. We find no correlation, however, between receiving darts and receiving more severe dominance behaviors. This result suggests that darts are not indicative of aggressive reinforcement of dominance, but rather may serve a different function. Our data suggest that the function of darts is to regulate activity on nests. Both foundresses and workers dart inactive workers significantly more often than by chance, and workers respond to a foundress's (but not a worker's) dart by becoming less inactive. We also found that active workers who receive a dart from either a foundress or worker respond mostly by switching from one activity to another. Thus, our data suggest that darts are not aggressive behaviors, that foundresses use this signal to initiate activity, and that foundresses and workers both use the signal to regulate worker activity.

  10. Social dominance molds cuticular and egg chemical blends in a paper wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapporto, Leonardo; Romana Dani, Francesca; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2007-07-03

    Hamilton's theory [1] for the evolution of social behaviour predicts that helpers may renounce direct reproduction to help their more fertile kin. Intra-colony recognition among queens and helpers (subordinate queens or workers) is consequently a central issue in insect sociobiology. In social insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are involved in recognition, and egg-laying and non-egg-laying individuals often differ in CHC composition. These differences are assumed to be directly determined by fertility status [2,3]. In several ants and in Polistes wasps, when egg-layers disappear they are substituted by helpers, which develop their ovaries and become chemically similar to their former queens [2,3]. Sometimes helpers lay eggs in the presence of queens, which recognize and destroy the subordinates' eggs [4]. In ponerine ants, eggs often have the same chemical signature as the maternal cuticle [2]. If chemical signatures depend on fertility, egg-laying subordinates should match the queen's signature even when she is present, making egg recognition and differential oophagy impossible. In the study reported here, we experimentally separated fertility from dominance and analyzed the dynamics of hydrocarbon profiles of the cuticle of Polistes dominulus foundresses and the shell surface of their eggs. We have demonstrated that, contrary to the widely accepted view, dominance, rather than fertility, determines chemical signatures in Polistes wasps. This explains why queens can recognize their own eggs and police reproduction by subordinates if they become fertile and lay eggs.

  11. Evidence for a Dayside Thermal Inversion and High Metallicity for the Hot Jupiter WASP-18b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kyle; Mandell, Avi M.; Tamburo, Patrick; Gandhi, Siddarth; Pinhas, Arazi; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake

    2018-01-01

    Hot Jupiters have been vital in revealing the structural and atmospheric diversity of gas-rich planets. Since they are exposed to extreme conditions and relatively easy to observe through transit and eclipse spectroscopy, hot Jupiters provide a window into a unique part of parameter space, allowing us to better understand both atmospheric physics and planetary structure. Additionally, constraints on the structure and composition of exoplanetary atmospheres allow us to test and generalize planetary formation models. We find evidence for a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of the highly irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-18b (Teq=2400K, M=10MJ) based on Hubble Space Telescope secondary eclipse observations and Spitzer eclipse photometry. We report a 4.7σ detection of CO, and a non-detection of water vapor as well as all other relevant species (e.g., TiO, VO). The most probable atmospheric retrieval solution indicates a C/O ratio of 1 and an extremely high metallicity (C/H=~283x solar). If confirmed with future observations, WASP-18b would be the first example of a planet with a non-oxide driven thermal inversion and an atmospheric metallicity inconsistent with that predicted for Jupiter-mass planets.

  12. Investigation of the lethal and behavioral effects of commercial insecticides on the parasitoid wasp Copidosoma truncatellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rodrigo S; de Araújo, Vitor C R; Pereira, Renata R; Martins, Júlio C; Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Silva, Ricardo S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-01-01

    Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an important parasitoid wasp of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by the application of certain insecticides. Therefore, to identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with C. truncatellum, the lethal and behavioral effects of nine chemicals used to control the soybean looper were evaluated for their toxicity to the wasp. Chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb were the least toxic insecticides to the parasitoid, resulting in mortalities of less than 25%. In contrast, cartap, deltamethrin, and methomyl caused 100% mortality, and acephate and spinosad caused 76% and 78% mortality, respectively. At least one of the detoxifying enzymes (monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase, and/or esterases) may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the selectivity of chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb for the parasitoid based on the results for the insecticide plus synergist treatment. Changes in the behavioral patterns (walking time and resting time) of the parasitoid were found with exposure to acephate, flubendiamide, indoxacarb and methomyl, but behavioral avoidance was not observed. Our results indicate that the insecticides chlorantraniliprole and chlorfenapyr are the most suitable for inclusion in integrated pest management strategies for the control of C. includens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity isolated from paper wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Anne A; Grassetti, Andrew; Soriano, Jonathan-Andrew N; Starks, Philip T

    2013-08-01

    Actinomycetes-a group of antimicrobial producing bacteria-have been successfully cultured and characterized from the nest material of diverse arthropods. Some are symbionts that produce antimicrobial chemicals found to protect nest brood and resources from pathogenic microbes. Others have no known fitness relationship with their associated insects, but have been found to produce antimicrobials in vitro. Consequently, insect nest material is being investigated as a new source of novel antimicrobial producing actinomycetes, which could be harnessed for therapeutic potential. To extend studies of actinomycete-insect associations beyond soil-substrate dwelling insects and wood boring excavators, we conducted a preliminary assessment of the actinomycetes within the nests of the paper wasp, Polistes dominulus (Christ). We found that actinomycetes were readily cultured from nest material across multiple invasive P. dominulus populations-including members of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Actinoplanes. Thirty of these isolates were assayed for antimicrobial activity against the challenge bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, and Bacillus subtilis. Sixty percent of isolates inhibited the growth of at least one challenge strain. This study provides the first assessment of bacteria associated with nests of P. dominulus, and the first record of antimicrobial producing actinomycetes isolated from social wasps. We provide a new system to explore nest associated actinomycetes from a ubiquitous and cosmopolitan group of insects.

  14. The effect of juvenile hormone on Polistes wasp fertility varies with cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Sheehan, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Social insects provide good models for studying how and why the mechanisms that underlie reproduction vary, as there is dramatic reproductive plasticity within and between species. Here, we test how the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on fertility covaries with cooperative behavior in workers and nest-founding queens in the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus. P. metricus foundresses and workers appear morphologically similar and both are capable of reproduction, though there is variation in the extent of social cooperation and the probability of reproduction across castes. Do the endocrine mechanisms that mediate reproduction co-vary with cooperative behavior? We found dramatic differences in the effect of JH on fertility across castes. In non-cooperative nest-founding queens, all individuals responded to JH by increasing their fertility. However, in cooperative workers, the effect of JH on fertility varies with body weight; large workers increase their fertility in response to JH while small workers do not. The variation in JH response may be an adaptation to facilitate resource allocation based on the probability of independent reproduction. This work contrasts with previous studies in closely related Polistes dominulus paper wasps, in which both foundresses and workers form cooperative associations and both castes show similar, condition-dependent JH response. The variation in JH responsiveness within and between species suggests that endocrine responsiveness and the factors influencing caste differentiation are surprisingly evolutionarily labile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety of specific immunotherapy using an ultra-rush induction regimen in bee and wasp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bożek, Andrzej; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof

    2018-02-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy to Hymenoptera venom (VIT) is a basic treatment for patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of an ultra-rush regimen compared with the rush and conventional protocols. In 31 patients with an allergy to bee venom and 82 with an allergy to wasp venom, the allergic adverse reactions during VIT were monitored. Patients were selected based on the criteria established by EAACI (European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology) recommendations. Adverse reactions during the ultra-rush immunotherapy were measured, documented and classified according to the criteria of Mueller. Ultra-rush, rush or conventional protocols of the initial phase VIT using the Venomenhal vaccine (Hal Allergy, Leiden, Netherlands) were conducted. Six (13.7%) patients on the ultra-rush regimen, 5 (14.3%) patients on the rush regimen and 9 (26.5%) on conventional VIT experienced an allergic reaction. There were no associations between the adverse allergic reactions and the following factors: gender, total IgE and allergen-specific IgE to wasp or bee venom before the VIT and cardiological drugs that were used. We found that the ultra-rush protocol (similar to the rush protocol) using the Venomenhal vaccine is safer than the conventional protocol.

  16. Transcriptome and Expression Patterns of Chemosensory Genes in Antennae of the Parasitoid Wasp Chouioia cunea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Zhao

    Full Text Available Chouioia cunea Yang is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Drury, an invasive moth species that severely damages forests in China. Chemosensory systems of insects are used to detect volatile chemical odors such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The antennae of parasite wasps are important for host detection and other sensory-mediated behaviors. We identified and documented differential expression profiles of chemoreception genes in C. cunea antennae. A total of 25 OBPs, 80 ORs, 10 IRs, 11 CSP, 1 SNMPs, and 17 GRs were annotated from adult male and female C. cunea antennal transcriptomes. The expression profiles of 25 OBPs, 16 ORs, and 17 GRs, 5 CSP, 5 IRs and 1 SNMP were determined by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for the antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen of male and female C. cunea. A total of 8 OBPs, 14 ORs, and 8 GRs, 1 CSP, 4 IRs and 1 SNMPs were exclusively or primarily expressed in female antennae. These female antennal-specific or dominant expression profiles may assist in locating suitable host and oviposition sites. These genes will provide useful targets for advanced study of their biological functions.

  17. Activity cycle of the pollen wasp, Trimeria howardi (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Southeastern Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Mech

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the wasps, the Masarinae are a peculiar subfamily. It is the only group of wasps that provisions brood cells with pollen and nectar. The studied species Trimeria howardi Bertoni, 1911, was until recently abundant in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. This paper deals with plant species visited by T. howardi, in relation to the species’ annual cycle of activity, based on periods of nest foundation, flight activity, and development stages of immatures present in the cells. During the study period (five years T. howardi visited four species of plants in two botanical families: Bidens pilosa L.(Asteraceae; Xanthium spinosum L. (Asteraceae; Stylosanthes guianensis (Aulb. Sw. (Leguminosae, and Zornia diphylla (L. Pers. (Leguminosae. Based on the number of visited families, T. howardi can be considered a narrow polylectic species. In general, the species annual activity cycle consists of three phases: Active phase: January to July; Inactive phase: August - September; Active phase: October to December. The annual cycle is bivoltine or multivoltine and the diapause is facultative, because it occurs in a single generation during the year.

  18. Compositional changes in bee and wasp communities along Neotropical mountain altitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Neves Perillo

    Full Text Available Climate conditions tend to differ along an altitudinal gradient, resulting in some species groups' patterns of lower species richness with increasing altitude. While this pattern is well understood for tropical mountains, studies investigating possible determinants of variation in beta-diversity at its different altitudes are scarce. We sampled bee and wasp communities (Hymenoptera: Aculeata along an altitudinal gradient (1,000-2,000 m.a.s.l. in a tropical mountainous region of Brazil. Trap nests and Moericke traps were established at six sampling points, with 200 m difference in altitude between each point. We obtained average climate data (1970-2000 from Worldclim v2 for altitudes at each sampling site. Nest traps captured 17 bee and wasp species from six families, and Moericke traps captured 124 morphospecies from 13 families. We found a negative correlation between altitude and species richness and abundance. Temperature, precipitation, water vapor pressure, and wind speed influenced species richness and abundance, and were correlated with altitude. β-diversity was primarily determined by species turnover as opposed to nestedness, and Aculeate community similarity was higher for more similar altitudinal ranges. Moericke traps seem to be more efficient for altitudinal surveys compared to nest traps. We found high occurrence of singleton and doubleton species at all altitudes, highlighting the need for long-term studies to efficiently assess hymenopteran diversity in these environments.

  19. Simulating Exposure Concentrations of Engineered Nanomaterials in Surface Water Systems: Release of WASP8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, C. D.; Bouchard, D.; Zepp, R. G.; Henderson, W. M.; Han, Y.; Hsieh, H. S.; Avant, B. K.; Acrey, B.; Spear, J.

    2017-12-01

    The unique properties of engineered nanomaterials led to their increased production and potential release into the environment. Currently available environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants are limited in their ability to simulate nanomaterials' environmental behavior. This is due to an incomplete understanding and representation of the processes governing nanomaterial distribution in the environment and by scarce empirical data quantifying the interaction of nanomaterials with environmental surfaces. The well-known Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was updated to incorporate nanomaterial-specific processes, specifically hetero-aggregation with particulate matter. In parallel with this effort, laboratory studies were used to quantify parameter values parameters necessary for governing processes in surface waters. This presentation will discuss the recent developments in the new architecture for WASP8 and the newly constructed Advanced Toxicant Module. The module includes advanced algorithms for increased numbers of state variables: chemicals, solids, dissolved organic matter, pathogens, temperature, and salinity. This presentation will focus specifically on the incorporation of nanomaterials, with the applications of the fate and transport of hypothetical releases of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and Graphene Oxide (GO) into the headwaters of a southeastern US coastal plains river. While this presentation focuses on nanomaterials, the advanced toxicant module can also simulate metals and organic contaminants.

  20. A search for transit timing variations and orbital decay in WASP-46b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, R.; Jofré, E.; Ferrero, L. V.; Cúneo, V.; Saker, L.; Lovos, F.; Gómez, M.; Mauas, P.

    2018-02-01

    We present 12 new transit observations of the exoplanet WASP-46b obtained with the 1.54-m telescope at Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre (EABA, Argentina) and the 0.40-m Horacio Ghielmetti and 2.15-m Jorge Sahade telescopes at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina). We analyse them together with 37 light curves from the literature to re-determine the physical parameters and search for additional planets via transit timing variations (TTVs). We consider the 31 transits with uncertainties in their mid-transit times (e_T0) activity could be affecting the measured mid-transit times. This value of dispersion allows us to rule out the presence of additional bodies with masses larger than 2.3, 4.6, 7 and 9.3 M_{\\oplus} at the first-order mean-motion resonances 2:1, 3:2, 4:3 and 5:4 with the transiting planet, respectively. Despite the 6 yr baseline and a typical light-curve precision of 2 × 10-3, we find that we cannot significantly demonstrate a slow decrease of the orbital period of WASP-46b. We place a lower limit of Q⋆ > 7 × 103 on the tidal quality factor and determine that an additional 6 yr baseline is required to rule out Q⋆ < 105.

  1. A Contribution to Insect Studies in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia: Vespid Wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batchuluun Buyanjargal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikh Nart Nature Reserve remains poorly studied for invertebrates, especially for vespid wasps. A total of 14 vespid species belonging to seven genera of the subfamily Eumeninae were recorded from diff erent habitats (rocky outcrops, springs, tall vegetation habitats, shrub-lands and short grass steppes in the nature reserve during three-year studies (2015-2017. These species represent 27 percent of the vespid fauna of the desert-steppe zone of Mongolia. We found the highest species richness in areas where water was available (near springs and wells, and the lowest richness in habitats with tall vegetation. Among the diff erent habitat types, vespid species composition was most similar (91% shared species between rocky outcrops and spring habitats. Six vespid species range from Kazakhstan to Mongolian, and one species is sub-endemic to Mongolia. Availability of water sources and nesting sites were possibly the main factors infl uencing the distribution of vespid wasps. It is necessary to conduct comprehensive research into the insect community of Ikh Nart Nature Reserve.

  2. Adaptations to different habitats in sexual and asexual populations of parasitoid wasps: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Isabelle; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Kacelnik, Alex; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Bernstein, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals instead are common in anthropic environments (e.g., grain stores) where host outbreaks offer periods when egg-load is the main constraint on reproductive output. We present a meta-analysis of known adaptations to these habitats. Differences in behavior, physiology and life-history traits between sexual and asexual wasps were standardized in term of effect size (Cohen's d value; Cohen, 1988). Seeking consilience from the differences between multiple traits, we found that sexuals invest more in longevity at the expense of egg-load, are more mobile, and display higher plasticity in response to thermal variability than asexual counterparts. Thus, each form has consistent multiple adaptations to the ecological circumstances in the contrasting environments.

  3. Adaptations to different habitats in sexual and asexual populations of parasitoid wasps: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Amat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals instead are common in anthropic environments (e.g., grain stores where host outbreaks offer periods when egg-load is the main constraint on reproductive output. Methods We present a meta-analysis of known adaptations to these habitats. Differences in behavior, physiology and life-history traits between sexual and asexual wasps were standardized in term of effect size (Cohen’s d value; Cohen, 1988. Results Seeking consilience from the differences between multiple traits, we found that sexuals invest more in longevity at the expense of egg-load, are more mobile, and display higher plasticity in response to thermal variability than asexual counterparts. Discussion Thus, each form has consistent multiple adaptations to the ecological circumstances in the contrasting environments.

  4. Sand dune of Ruby, Arizona, an anthropogenically created biodiversity hotspot for wasps and their velvet ant parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin O. Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    A large artificial sand dune composed of finely crushed mine tailings was produced by deep mining operations at Ruby, Arizona. Today, the ghost town of Ruby is an important historical location and biodiversity refuge, with the newly formed dune forming the core of the refuge. The dune provides ideal nesting habitat for at least 13 species of sand-loving wasps,...

  5. CREB expression in the brains of two closely related parasitic wasp species that differ in long-term memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.; Verbaarschot, P.; Hontelez, S.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA signalling pathway and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) play key roles in long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, which were previously shown to be different in LTM

  6. Nasonia Parasitic Wasps Escape from Haller's Rule by Diphasic, Partially Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling and Selective Neuropil Adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Jitte; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Haller's rule states that brains scale allometrically with body size in all animals, meaning that relative brain size increases with decreasing body size. This rule applies both on inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Only 1 species, the extremely small parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens, is

  7. Identification of three novel peptides isolated from the venom of the neotropical social wasp Polistes major major

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovský, Václav; Pohl, J.; Yang, Z.; Alam, N.; Attygalle, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2007), s. 445-450 ISSN 1075-2617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : mastoparans * wasp kinins * chemotactic peptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.768, year: 2007

  8. The origin of a selfish B chromosome triggering paternal sex ratio in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Stouthamer, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses molecular and cytogenetic methods to determine the origin of a B chromosome in some males of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai. This so-called paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome transmits only through sperm and shortly after fertilization triggers degeneration of the paternal genome,

  9. Sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea) : A critical consideration of models and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Kamping, Albert; van de Zande, Louis

    Sex determining mechanisms are highly diverse. Like all Hymenoptera, the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis reproduces by haplodiploidy: males are haploid and females are diploid. Sex in Nasonia is not determined by complementary alleles at sex loci. Evidence for several alternative models is

  10. Natural variation in learning and memory dynamics studied by artificial selection on learning rate in parasitic wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.; Duivenvoorde, L.; Wang, G.; Tribuhl, S.; Bukovinszky, T.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Animals form memory types that differ in duration and stability. The initial anaesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) can be replaced by anaesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), and/or by protein synthesis-dependent, long-term memory (LTM). We previously showed that two closely related parasitic wasp species

  11. Differentially expressed genes linked to natural variation in long-term memory formation in Cotesia parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hoedjes, K.M.; Geest, van de H.C.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Even though learning and memory are universal traits in the Animal Kingdom, closely related species reveal substantial variation in learning rate and memory dynamics. To determine the genetic background of this natural variation, we studied two congeneric parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata

  12. Differentially expressed genes linked to natural variation in long-term memory formation in Cotesia parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, Joke J. F. A.; Hoedjes, Katja M.; Van de Geest, Henri C.; Schijlen, Elio W. G. M.; Vet, Louise E. M.; Smid, Hans M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Even though learning and memory are universal traits in the Animal Kingdom, closely related species reveal substantial variation in learning rate and memory dynamics. To determine the genetic background of this natural variation, we studied two congeneric parasitic wasp species, Cotesia

  13. The Einstein Genome Gateway using WASP - a high throughput multi-layered life sciences portal for XSEDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Aaron; McLellan, Andrew S; Dubin, Robert A; Jing, Qiang; O Broin, Pilib; Moskowitz, David; Zhang, Zhengdong; Suzuki, Masako; Hargitai, Joseph; Calder, R Brent; Greally, John M

    2012-01-01

    Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies and their diverse applications in genomics and epigenomics research have yielded enormous new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of the human genome. The biggest hurdle remains the magnitude and diversity of the datasets generated, compromising our ability to manage, organize, process and ultimately analyse data. The Wiki-based Automated Sequence Processor (WASP), developed at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (hereafter Einstein), uniquely manages to tightly couple the sequencing platform, the sequencing assay, sample metadata and the automated workflows deployed on a heterogeneous high performance computing cluster infrastructure that yield sequenced, quality-controlled and 'mapped' sequence data, all within the one operating environment accessible by a web-based GUI interface. WASP at Einstein processes 4-6 TB of data per week and since its production cycle commenced it has processed ~ 1 PB of data overall and has revolutionized user interactivity with these new genomic technologies, who remain blissfully unaware of the data storage, management and most importantly processing services they request. The abstraction of such computational complexity for the user in effect makes WASP an ideal middleware solution, and an appropriate basis for the development of a grid-enabled resource - the Einstein Genome Gateway - as part of the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) program. In this paper we discuss the existing WASP system, its proposed middleware role, and its planned interaction with XSEDE to form the Einstein Genome Gateway.

  14. Elevated and cross‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells in bee and wasp venom allergic individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sumithra; Aslam, Aamir; Misbah, Siraj A.; Salio, Mariolina; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Moody, D Branch

    2015-01-01

    The role of CD1a‐reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a‐reactive T cells recognize neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a‐transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. T‐cell response was evaluated based on IFNγ, GM‐CSF, and IL‐13 cytokine production. Venom allergic individuals showed significantly higher frequencies of IFN‐γ, GM‐CSF, and IL‐13 producing CD1a‐reactive T cells responsive to venom and venom‐derived phospholipase than healthy individuals. Venom‐responsive CD1a‐reactive T cells were cross‐responsive between wasp and bee suggesting shared pathways of allergenicity. Frequencies of CD1a‐reactive T cells were initially induced during subcutaneous immunotherapy, peaking by weeks 5, but then reduced despite escalation of antigen dose. Our current understanding of venom allergy and immunotherapy is largely based on peptide and protein‐specific T cell and antibody responses. Here, we show that lipid antigens and CD1a‐reactive T cells associate with the allergic response. These data have implications for mechanisms of allergy and approaches to immunotherapy. PMID:26518614

  15. Octopamine-like immunoreactive neurons in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of the parasitic wasps Nasonia vitripennis and N. giraulti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, A.; Smid, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Octopamine is an important neuromodulator in the insect nervous system, influencing memory formation, sensory perception and motor control. In this study, we compare the distribution of octopamine-like immunoreactive neurons in two parasitic wasp species of the Nasonia genus, N. vitripennis and N.

  16. Gemini/GMOS Transmission Spectral Survey: Complete Optical Transmission Spectrum of the Hot Jupiter WASP-4b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitson, C. M.; Désert, J.-M.; Bean, J. L.; Fortney, J. J.; Stevenson, K. B.; Bergmann, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present the complete optical transmission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-4b from 440 to 940 nm at R ˜ 400-1500 obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrometers (GMOS); this is the first result from a comparative exoplanetology survey program of close-in gas giants conducted with GMOS. WASP-4b has an equilibrium temperature of 1700 K and is favorable to study in transmission due to its large scale height (370 km). We derive the transmission spectrum of WASP-4b using four transits observed with the MOS technique. We demonstrate repeatable results across multiple epochs with GMOS, and derive a combined transmission spectrum at a precision about twice above photon noise, which is roughly equal to one atmospheric scale height. The transmission spectrum is well fitted with a uniform opacity as a function of wavelength. The uniform opacity and absence of a Rayleigh slope from molecular hydrogen suggest that the atmosphere is dominated by clouds with condensate grain sizes of ˜1 μm. This result is consistent with previous observations of hot Jupiters since clouds have been seen in planets with similar equilibrium temperatures to WASP-4b. We describe a custom pipeline that we have written to reduce GMOS time-series data of exoplanet transits, and present a thorough analysis of the dominant noise sources in GMOS, which primarily consist of wavelength- and time-dependent displacements of the spectra on the detector, mainly due to a lack of atmospheric dispersion correction.

  17. ß-Glucosidase: an elicitor of herbivore-induced plant odor that attracts host-searching parasitic wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiacci, L.; Dicke, M.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cabbage plants respond to caterpillar (Pieris brassicae) herbivory by releasing a mixture of volatiles that makes them highly attractive to parasitic wasps (Cotesia glomerata) that attack the herbivores. Cabbage leaves that are artificially damaged and subsequently treated with gut regurgitant of P.

  18. Differing success of defense strategies in two parasitoid wasps in protecting their pupae against a secondary hyperparasitoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-01-01

    During their larval development, endoparasitoids are known to dispose of host resources in several different ways. Some parasitoid wasps consume most or all tissues of the host, whereas others consume a small fraction of host resources and either ensure that the host moves away from the pupation

  19. Differing Success of Defense Strategies in Two Parasitoid Wasps in Protecting Their Pupae Against a Secondary Hyperparasitoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.; Tanaka, T.

    2011-01-01

    During their larval development, endoparasitoids are known to dispose of host resources in several different ways. Some parasitoid wasps consume most or all tissues of the host, whereas others consume a small fraction of host resources and either ensure that the host moves away from the pupation

  20. N-WASP is a novel regulator of hair-follicle cycling that controls antiproliferative TGF{beta} pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefever, Tine; Pedersen, Esben; Basse, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    alopecia and prolonged catagen and telogen phases. The delayed anagen onset correlated with an increased expression of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21CIP, and increased activity of the TGFbeta pathway, a known inducer of p21CIP expression. Primary N-WASP-null keratinocytes showed reduced growth compared...

  1. Epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of mastitis associated with yellow-jacket wasps (Vespula germanica) in a dairy cattle herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Schwimmer, A; Brami, Y

    2002-12-01

    The German wasp, Vespula germanica has been observed to injure teats of dairy cows, causing lesions that are associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis. The presence of skin lesions on the teats, caused by the wasps, was recorded in a dairy cattle herd located in the Samaria foothills during July-October 1999. Wasp-inflicted injuries were found in 43.6% (58 of 133) of the adult cows and 1.4% (one of 71) of the first-calving cows. They were located in 42.4% of cows (n = 25) on all quarters, 18 cows (30.5%) had lesions on the front quarters and 27.1% (n = 16) of cows on the hind quarters only. Clinical and subclinical mastitis were diagnosed in 61% (36 of 59) and 28.8% (17 of 59), respectively, of the injured adult and first-calving cows. The most common bacterial isolates from the mastitic cows were Staphylococcus aureus 45.1% (n = 14), Streptococcus dysgalactiae 16.1% (n = 5), Streptococcus spp. 19.4% (n = 7) and others 13.9% (n = 5). The loss of milk production was estimated at 300 kg milk for each cow injured by wasps and exhibiting clinical mastitis. An increase in the bulk-milk somatic cell count, from 186 x 103 at 1 month prior to the outbreak to a peak of 1200 x 10(3) in the post-outbreak month, was noted. The culling rate reached 13.6% (eight of 59) of the affected cows. In summary, the considerable economic losses caused by the wasp infestation resulted from decreased milk production and a decline in milk quality, culling of affected cows, and increased demand for use of drugs and veterinary care.

  2. New Insights on Planet Formation in WASP-47 from a Simultaneous Analysis of Radial Velocities and Transit Timing Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lauren M.; Deck, Katherine M.; Sinukoff, Evan; Petigura, Erik A.; Agol, Eric; Lee, Eve J.; Becker, Juliette C.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Hirsch, Lea; Benneke, Björn

    2017-06-01

    Measuring precise planet masses, densities, and orbital dynamics in individual planetary systems is an important pathway toward understanding planet formation. The WASP-47 system has an unusual architecture that motivates a complex formation theory. The system includes a hot Jupiter (“b”) neighbored by interior (“e”) and exterior (“d”) sub-Neptunes, and a long-period eccentric giant planet (“c”). We simultaneously modeled transit times from the Kepler K2 mission and 118 radial velocities to determine the precise masses, densities, and Keplerian orbital elements of the WASP-47 planets. Combining RVs and TTVs provides a better estimate of the mass of planet d (13.6+/- 2.0 {M}\\oplus ) than that obtained with only RVs (12.75+/- 2.70 {M}\\oplus ) or TTVs (16.1+/- 3.8 {M}\\oplus ). Planets e and d have high densities for their size, consistent with a history of photoevaporation and/or formation in a volatile-poor environment. Through our RV and TTV analysis, we find that the planetary orbits have eccentricities similar to the solar system planets. The WASP-47 system has three similarities to our own solar system: (1) the planetary orbits are nearly circular and coplanar, (2) the planets are not trapped in mean motion resonances, and (3) the planets have diverse compositions. None of the current single-process exoplanet formation theories adequately reproduce these three characteristics of the WASP-47 system (or our solar system). We propose that WASP-47, like the solar system, formed in two stages: first, the giant planets formed in a gas-rich disk and migrated to their present locations, and second, the high-density sub-Neptunes formed in situ in a gas-poor environment.

  3. Differentially expressed genes linked to natural variation in long-term memory formation in Cotesia parasitic wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke J. F. A. Van Vugt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though learning and memory are universal traits in the Animal Kingdom, closely related species reveal substantial variation in learning rate and memory dynamics. To determine the genetic background of this natural variation, we studied two congeneric parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, which lay their eggs in caterpillars of the large and small cabbage white butterfly. A successful egg laying event serves as an unconditioned stimulus in a classical conditioning paradigm, where plant odors become associated to the encounter of a suitable host caterpillar. Depending on the host species, the number of conditioning trials and the parasitic wasp species, three different types of transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM and one type of transcription-independent, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM can be distinguished. To identify transcripts underlying these differences in memory formation, we isolated mRNA from parasitic wasp heads at three different time points between induction and consolidation of each of the four memory types, and for each sample three biological replicates, where after strand-specific paired-end 100 bp deep sequencing. Transcriptomes were assembled de novo and differential expression was determined for each memory type and time point after conditioning, compared to unconditioned wasps. Most differentially expressed (DE genes and antisense transcripts were only DE in one of the LTM types. Among the DE genes that were DE in two or more LTM types, were many protein kinases and phosphatases, small GTPases, receptors and ion channels. Some genes were DE in opposing directions between any of the LTM memory types and ARM, suggesting that ARM in Cotesia requires the transcription of genes inhibiting LTM or vice versa. We discuss our findings in the context of neuronal functioning, including RNA splicing and transport, epigenetic regulation, neurotransmitter/peptide synthesis and antisense transcription. In

  4. THE CURIOUS CASE OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE DIFFERENCES IN THE DUAL HOT JUPITER HOSTS WASP-94A AND B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teske, Johanna K. [Carnegie Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Khanal, Sandhya; Ramírez, Ivan, E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1402, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Binary stars provide an ideal laboratory for investigating the potential effects of planet formation on stellar composition. Assuming that the stars formed in the same environment/from the same material, any compositional anomalies between binary components might indicate differences in how material was sequestered in planets, or accreted by the star in the process of planet formation. We present here a study of the elemental abundance differences between WASP-94A and B, a pair of stars that each host a hot Jupiter exoplanet. The two stars are very similar in spectral type (F8 and F9), and their ∼2700 au separation suggests that their protoplanetary disks were likely not influenced by stellar interactions, but WASP-94Ab’s orbit—misaligned with the host star spin axis and likely retrograde—points toward a dynamically active formation mechanism, perhaps different from that of WASP-94Bb, which is not misaligned and has a nearly circular orbit. Based on our high-quality spectra and strictly relative abundance analysis, we detect a depletion of volatiles (∼−0.02 dex, on average) and enhancement of refractories (∼0.01 dex) in WASP-94A relative to B (standard errors are ∼0.005 dex). This is different from every other published case of binary host star abundances, in which either no significant abundance differences are reported or there is some degree of enhancement in all elements, including volatiles. Several scenarios that may explain the abundance trend are discussed, but none can be definitively accepted or rejected. Additional high-contrast imaging observations to search for companions that may be dynamically affecting the system, as well as a larger sample of binary host star studies, are needed to better understand the curious abundance trends we observe in WASP-94A and B.

  5. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis from Manso Dam, Mato Grosso, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As well as malaria and yellow fever, schistosomiasis is one of the main endemic diseases associated to environments which suffered some impact related to the development of great economic projects, as for example the construction of hydroelectric power stations. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area which suffered impact from the Manso hydroelectric power station a survey was performed during the period of 2002 to 2003 and revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria amazonica and Biomphalaria occidentalis. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using five B. amazonica colonies (Barão de Melgaço, Poconé, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Manso and Casca rivers, and four B. occidentalis colonies (Cuiabá, Santo Antônio do Leverger, and Chapada dos Guimarães, in the Água Fria district and Casca river were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. Of 257 snails of B. amazonica used, 17 became infected (infection index of 6.61% and all specimens of B. occidentalis proved unsusceptible. According to the strains used, of the 158 snails exposed to BH miracidia, 6 became infected (3.79%; of the 44 exposed to SJ miracidia, 6 became infected (13.63%; and of the 55 snails of B. amazonica exposed to EC miracidia, 5 became infected (9.09%. These results point out the low possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis in those areas, but we believe it can not be discarded as due the presence of B. amazonica.

  6. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F. Methanol Leaf Extract on the Haematological Indices and Histomorphology of the Endometrium and Liver of Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Nwabuisi OKOYE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook f. methanol leaf extract on some hematological indices and histomorphology of the uterus and liver of female albino rats. Acute toxicity study of the extract was performed with female rats, following standard procedure. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The first group (A served as the untreated control and received distilled water, while the second group (B and third (C received 200 and 800 mg/kg mg/kg body weight of the methanol leaf extract of T. occidentalis respectively. Administration of the extract was done daily via the oral route for 21 days. Blood was collected for hematological evaluation at weekly intervals. Hematological parameters assessed were the packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration (HB and total white blood cell (TWBC count. At the end of the study period uterine and liver tissues were excised and prepared for histological examination. Results showed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the mean PCV, RBC and HB values of the treatment groups, but only at the end of the second week of administration of the extract. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 in the mean total WBC throughout the duration of the study. Histological examination of uterine and liver tissues of the different groups did not show any lesions. It was concluded that the T. occidentalis leaf methanolic extract does not adversely affect the reproductive functions of the uterus.

  7. Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2015-01-01

    Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.

  8. Expression patterns of a circadian clock gene are associated with age-related polyethism in harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingram Krista K

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in sociogenomics allow for comparative analyses of molecular mechanisms regulating the development of social behavior. In eusocial insects, one key aspect of their sociality, the division of labor, has received the most attention. Age-related polyethism, a derived form of division of labor in ants and bees where colony tasks are allocated among distinct behavioral phenotypes, has traditionally been assumed to be a product of convergent evolution. Previous work has shown that the circadian clock is associated with the development of behavior and division of labor in honeybee societies. We cloned the ortholog of the clock gene, period, from a harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex occidentalis and examined circadian rhythms and daily activity patterns in a species that represents an evolutionary origin of eusociality independent of the honeybee. Results Using real time qPCR analyses, we determined that harvester ants have a daily cyclic expression of period and this rhythm is endogenous (free-running under dark-dark conditions. Cyclic expression of period is task-specific; foragers have strong daily fluctuations but nest workers inside the nest do not. These patterns correspond to differences in behavior as activity levels of foragers show a diurnal pattern while nest workers tend to exhibit continuous locomotor activity at lower levels. In addition, we found that foragers collected in the early fall (relative warm, long days exhibit a delay in the nightly peak of period expression relative to foragers collected in the early spring (relative cold, short days. Conclusion The association of period mRNA expression levels with harvester ant task behaviors suggests that the development of circadian rhythms is associated with the behavioral development of ants. Thus, the circadian clock pathway may represent a conserved 'genetic toolkit' that has facilitated the parallel evolution of age-related polyethism and task allocation in

  9. Using detection dogs to conduct simultaneous surveys of northern spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina and barred owls (Strix varia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia-a significant threat to northern spotted owls-can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km × 2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the

  10. Draft Genomes, Phylogenetic Reconstruction, and Comparative Genomics of Two Novel Cohabiting Bacterial Symbionts Isolated from Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Paul D; Méric, Guillaume; Hitchings, Matthew D; Pachebat, Justin A; Hegarty, Matt J; Chen, Xiaorui; Morgan, Laura V A; Hoeppner, James E; Whitten, Miranda M A; Kirk, William D J; Dyson, Paul J; Sheppard, Sam K; Del Sol, Ricardo

    2015-07-15

    Obligate bacterial symbionts are widespread in many invertebrates, where they are often confined to specialized host cells and are transmitted directly from mother to progeny. Increasing numbers of these bacteria are being characterized but questions remain about their population structure and evolution. Here we take a comparative genomics approach to investigate two prominent bacterial symbionts (BFo1 and BFo2) isolated from geographically separated populations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Our multifaceted approach to classifying these symbionts includes concatenated multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) phylogenies, ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST), construction of whole-genome phylogenies, and in-depth genomic comparisons. We showed that the BFo1 genome clusters more closely to species in the genus Erwinia, and is a putative close relative to Erwinia aphidicola. BFo1 is also likely to have shared a common ancestor with Erwinia pyrifoliae/Erwinia amylovora and the nonpathogenic Erwinia tasmaniensis and genetic traits similar to Erwinia billingiae. The BFo1 genome contained virulence factors found in the genus Erwinia but represented a divergent lineage. In contrast, we showed that BFo2 belongs within the Enterobacteriales but does not group closely with any currently known bacterial species. Concatenated MLSA phylogenies indicate that it may have shared a common ancestor to the Erwinia and Pantoea genera, and based on the clustering of rMLST genes, it was most closely related to Pantoea ananatis but represented a divergent lineage. We reconstructed a core genome of a putative common ancestor of Erwinia and Pantoea and compared this with the genomes of BFo bacteria. BFo2 possessed none of the virulence determinants that were omnipresent in the Erwinia and Pantoea genera. Taken together, these data are consistent with BFo2 representing a highly novel species that maybe related to known Pantoea. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by

  11. Physical properties of the WASP-67 planetary system from multi-colour photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Ciceri, S.; Calchi Novati, S.; Dominik, M.; Henning, Th.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Korhonen, H.; Nikolov, N.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Galianni, P.; Gu, S.-H.; Harpsøe, K.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Juncher, D.; Kains, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Street, R.; Surdej, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Vilela, C.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The extrasolar planet WASP-67 b is the first hot Jupiter definitively known to undergo only partial eclipses. The lack of the second and third contact points in this planetary system makes it difficult to obtain accurate measurements of its physical parameters. Aims: By using new high-precision photometric data, we confirm that WASP-67 b shows grazing eclipses and compute accurate estimates of the physical properties of the planet and its parent star. Methods: We present high-quality, multi-colour, broad-band photometric observations comprising five light curves covering two transit events, obtained using two medium-class telescopes and the telescope-defocusing technique. One transit was observed through a Bessel-R filter and the other simultaneously through filters similar to Sloan g'r'i'z'. We modelled these data using jktebop. The physical parameters of the system were obtained from the analysis of these light curves and from published spectroscopic measurements. Results: All five of our light curves satisfy the criterion for being grazing eclipses. We revise the physical parameters of the whole WASP-67 system and, in particular, significantly improve the measurements of the planet's radius (Rb = 1.091 ± 0.046 RJup) and density (ρb = 0.292 ± 0.036 ρJup), as compared to the values in the discovery paper (Rb = 1.4 -0.2+0.3 RJup and ρb = 0.16 ± 0.08 ρJup). The transit ephemeris was also substantially refined. We investigated the variation of the planet's radius as a function of the wavelength, using the simultaneous multi-band data, finding that our measurements are consistent with a flat spectrum to within the experimental uncertainties. Based on data collected with GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope and DFOSC at the Danish 1.54 m telescope.Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A127

  12. Systemically applied insecticides for treatment of erythrina gall wasp, quadrastichus erythrinae kim hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doccola, J.J.; Smith, S.L.; Strom, B.L.; Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host trees causing severe defoliation and tree death. The first detection of EGW in the United States was in O'ahu, Hawai'i in April 2005. It quickly spread through the Hawai'ian island chain (U.S.) killing ornamental and native Erythrina in as little as two years. At risk are endemic populations of Erythrinaas well as ornamental landscape species in the same genus, the latter of which have already been killed and removed from O'ahu at a cost of more than USD $1 million. Because EGW are so small and spread so quickly, host injury is usually detected before adult wasps are observed, making prophylactic treatments less likely than therapeutic ones. This study evaluates two stem-injected insecticides, imidacloprid (IMA-jet??) and emamectin benzoate, delivered through Arborjet Tree I.V.?? equipment, for their ability to affect E. sandwicensis (wiliwili) canopy demise under severe EGW exposure. IMA-jet, applied at a rate of 0.16 g AI/cm basal diameter (0.4 g AI/in. dia.), was the only effective treatment for maintaining canopy condition of wiliwili trees. Emamectin benzoate, applied at a rate of -0.1 g AI/cm basal diameter (-0.25 g AI/in. dia.), was not effective in this application, although it was intermediate in effect between IMA-jet and untreated trees. The relatively high concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves, and its durability for at least 13 months in native wiliwili growing on a natural, dryland site, suggest that treatment applications against EGW can impact canopy recovery even under suboptimal site and tree conditions. ?? 2009 International Society of Arboriculture.

  13. Expression and evolutionary divergence of the non-conventional olfactory receptor in four species of fig wasp associated with one species of fig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jinhua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of fig wasps and their host figs provide a model for investigating co-evolution. Fig wasps have specialized morphological characters and lifestyles thought to be adaptations to living in the fig's syconium. Although these aspects of natural history are well documented, the genetic mechanism(s underlying these changes remain(s unknown. Fig wasp olfaction is the key to host-specificity. The Or83b gene class, an unusual member of olfactory receptor family, plays a critical role in enabling the function of conventional olfactory receptors. Four Or83b orthologous genes from one pollinator (PFW (Ceratosolen solmsi and three non-pollinator fig wasps (NPFWs (Apocrypta bakeri, Philotrypesis pilosa and Philotrypesis sp. associated with one species of fig (Ficus hispida can be used to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the fig wasp's adaptation to its host. We made a comparison of spatial tissue-specific expression patterns and substitution rates of one orthologous gene in these fig wasps and sought evidence for selection pressures. Results A newly identified Or83b orthologous gene was named Or2. Expressions of Or2 were restricted to the heads of all wingless male fig wasps, which usually live in the dark cavity of a fig throughout their life cycle. However, expressions were widely detected in the antennae, legs and abdomens of all female fig wasps that fly from one fig to another for oviposition, and secondarily pollination. Weak expression was also observed in the thorax of PFWs. Compared with NPFWs, the Or2 gene in C. solmsi had an elevated rate of substitutions and lower codon usage. Analyses using Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F* tests indicated a non-neutral pattern of nucleotide variation in all fig wasps. Unlike in NPFWs, this non-neutral pattern was also observed for synonymous sites of Or2 within PFWs. Conclusion The sex- and species-specific expression patterns of Or2 genes detected beyond

  14. Food poisoning associated with ingestion of wild wasp broods in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tian

    2018-04-01

    Food poisoning due to wild wasp broods ingestion has long been noted in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China. This study describes the epidemiological and clinical features of the poisoning and possible causes. Surveillance data collected between 2008 and 2016 were analyzed to produce demographic data on patients, information on clinical presentations, wasp species identification, and estimations of possible risk factors for symptomatic cases. Eleven poisoning events were associated with the ingestion of wild wasp broods, including 46 exposed persons with 31 symptomatic living cases and 8 deceased cases that were reported in the Yunnan province between 2008 and 2016. Poisoning cases were only detected in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley in the autumn. The severity of the symptoms was correlated with an evident dose-effect relationship regarding the quantity ingested. The mean latent period from wild wasp broods ingestion to the onset of the symptoms was 10 h for symptomatic living cases and 7 h for deceased cases, respectively. Both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms were commonly observed in the poisoning cases. The toxin source may be indirectly caused by the wasp broods due to the prevalence of local poisonous plants, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Educational programs at the start of wasp harvest season in September in the high-risk area should be carried out to reduce the incidence of poisonings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Socially selected ornaments and fitness: Signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Taylor; Vernier, Cassondra; Jinn, Judy; Madagame, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests, are more likely to survive harsh winters, and obtain higher dominance rank than wasps that signal lower fighting ability. In comparison, body weight was not associated with fitness. Larger wasps were dominant over smaller wasps, but showed no difference in nest size or survival. Overall, the positive relationship between wasp facial patterns and fitness indicates that receivers can obtain diverse information about a signaler's phenotypic quality by paying attention to socially selected ornaments. Therefore, there are surprisingly strong parallels between the information conveyed by socially and sexually selected signals. Similar fitness relationships in social and sexually selected signals may be one reason it can be difficult to distinguish the role of social versus sexual selection in ornament evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Ten unique and charismatic new species of Microgastrinae wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae from North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten new species within four genera of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae are described from Canada and United States: Diolcogaster ichiroi, Diolcogaster miamensis, Glyptapanteles pseudotsugae, Microgaster archboldensis, Microgaster syntopic, Microplitis altissimus, Microplitis jorgeluisi, Microplitis juanmanueli, Microplitis julioalbertoi, and Microplitis mariamargaritae. The new taxa are significant because they represent the first North American records of a tropical group (species of the basimacula group in Diolcogaster, exemplify interesting ecological cases (niche-based host selection in Glyptapanteles, syntopic species in Microgaster, and showcase unique morphological features and/or altitudinal records (Microplitis. Most of the new species were collected in protected areas or areas with strong research programs (Archbold Biological Station and hammock forests near Miami, Florida; Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, and Mount Evans Wilderness Area, Colorado; Sapelo Island, Georgia; Tonto National Forest, Arizona, and thus are also of value and interest for conservation and research efforts.

  17. Analysis of Wind Data, Calculation of Energy Yield Potential, and Micrositing Application with WAsP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Topaloğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters required for building a wind power plant have been calculated using the fuzzy logic method by means of Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP in this study. Overall objectives of the program include analysis of raw data, evaluation of wind and climate, construction of a wind atlas, and estimation of wind power potential. With the analysis performed in the application, the average wind velocity, average power density, energy potential from micrositing, capacity factor, unit cost price, and period of redemption have been calculated, which are needed by the project developer during the decision-making stage and intended to be used as the input unit in the fuzzy logic-based system designed. It is aimed at processing the parameters calculated by the designed fuzzy logic-based decision-making system at the rule base and generating a compatibility factor that will allow for making the final decision in building wind power plants.

  18. Social Hackers: Integration in the Host Chemical Recognition System by a Paper Wasp Social Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, S.; Sledge, M. F.; Dani, F. R.; Cervo, R.; Massolo, A.; Fondelli, L.

    Obligate social parasites in the social insects have lost the worker caste and the ability to establish nests. As a result, parasites must usurp a host nest, overcome the host recognition system, and depend on the host workers to rear their offspring. We analysed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of live parasite females of the paper wasp social parasite Polistes sulcifer before and after usurpation of host nests, using the non-destructive technique of solid-phase micro-extraction. Our results reveal that hydrocarbon profiles of parasites change after usurpation of host nests to match the cuticular profile of the host species. Chemical evidence further shows that the parasite queen changes the odour of the nest by the addition of a parasite-specific hydrocarbon. We discuss the possible role of this in the recognition and acceptance of the parasite and its offspring in the host colony.

  19. Modelling the phase curve and occultation of WASP-43b with SPIDERMAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Tom

    2017-06-01

    Presenting SPIDERMAN, a fast code for calculating exoplanet phase curves and secondary eclipses with arbitrary two dimensional surface brightness distributions. SPIDERMAN uses an exact geometric algorithm to calculate the area of sub-regions of the planet that are occulted by the star, with no loss in numerical precision. The speed of this calculation makes it possible to run MCMCs to marginalise effectively over the underlying parameters controlling the brightness distribution of exoplanets. The code is fully open source and available over Github. We apply the code to the phase curve of WASP-43b using an analytical surface brightness distribution, and find an excellent fit to the data. We are able to place direct constraints on the physics of heat transport in the atmosphere, such as the ratio between advective and radiative timescales at different altitudes.

  20. Specific attraction of fig-pollinating wasps: role of volatile compounds released by tropical figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison-Pigé, Laure; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2002-02-01

    Floral scents often act as pollinator attractants. In the case of obligate and specific plant-pollinator relationships, the role of floral signals may be crucial in allowing the encounter of the partners. About 750 Ficus species (Moraceae) are involved in such interactions, each with a distinct species of pollinating wasp (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae). Several species have been shown to release volatile compounds, but their role in pollinator attraction has rarely been simultaneously tested. We investigated the floral scents of four tropical fig species and combined chemical analysis with biological tests of stimulation of insects. Pollinators of three species were stimulated by the odor of their associated fig species and generally not by the odor of another species. The fourth actually comprised two distinct varieties. The main compound was often a different one in each species. Floral blends of different species always shared compounds, but ratios of these compounds varied among species.

  1. A new optical transmission spectrum of WASP-43b from ACCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian; University of Arizona, Católica, Carnegie

    2018-01-01

    We present a new ground-based optical transmission spectrum of the Hot Jupiter WASP--43b obtained with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. These observations were made as part of the Arizona-CfA-Catolica+Carnegie Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey (ACCESS), which aims at providing a uniform, large sample of visible transmission spectra of gaseous exoplanets that will become key in the era of JWST and comparative exoplanetology. Using multi-object differential spectrophotometry, we produce a high precision spectrum of this planet between 400 and 900 nm, combining three different transit epochs. In this analysis, we search for signals of Na I, H-alpha, and K I, as well as for the presence of hazes/clouds.

  2. Mucor nidicola sp. nov., a fungal species isolated from an invasive paper wasp nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, A A; Stchigel, A M; Guarro, J; Sutton, D; Starks, P T

    2012-07-01

    A strain of a novel mucoralean fungus was isolated from a nest of the invasive paper wasp, Polistes dominulus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and 5.8S rRNA gene sequences, along with physiological tests, revealed that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mucor. The novel species also includes a representative that had previously been characterized as part of the Mucor hiemalis complex. Unlike the type strain of M. hiemalis, these two strains can grow at 37 °C and sporulate at 35 °C. Here, we present a partial resolution of the M. hiemalis species complex and propose the novel species Mucor nidicola sp. nov. to accommodate the isolate; the type strain of M. nidicola is F53(T) (=NRRL 54520(T)=UAMH 11442(T)=CBS 130359(T)).

  3. Assured fitness returns in a social wasp with no worker caste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Eric R; Field, Jeremy

    2011-10-07

    The theory of assured fitness returns proposes that individuals nesting in groups gain fitness benefits from effort expended in brood-rearing, even if they die before the young that they have raised reach independence. These benefits, however, require that surviving nest-mates take up the task of rearing these young. It has been suggested that assured fitness returns could have favoured group nesting even at the origin of sociality (that is, in species without a dedicated worker caste). We show that experimentally orphaned brood of the apoid wasp Microstigmus nigrophthalmus continue to be provisioned by surviving adults for at least two weeks after the orphaning. This was the case for brood of both sexes. There was no evidence that naturally orphaned offspring received less food than those that still had mothers in the nest. Assured fitness returns can therefore represent a real benefit to nesting in groups, even in species without a dedicated worker caste.

  4. Testing the Role of Habitat Isolation among Ecologically Divergent Gall Wasp Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Egan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat isolation occurs when habitat preferences lower the probability of mating between individuals associated with differing habitats. While a potential barrier to gene flow during ecological speciation, the effect of habitat isolation on reproductive isolation has rarely been directly tested. Herein, we first estimated habitat preference for each of six populations of the gall wasp Belonocnema treatae inhabiting either Quercus virginiana or Q. geminata. We then estimated the importance of habitat isolation in generating reproductive isolation between B. treatae populations that were host specific to either Q. virginiana or Q. geminata by measuring mate preference in the presence and absence of the respective host plants. All populations exhibited host preference for their native plant, and assortative mating increased significantly in the presence of the respective host plants. This host-plant-mediated assortative mating demonstrates that habitat isolation likely plays an important role in promoting reproductive isolation among populations of this host-specific gall former.

  5. Classification of endosymbiont Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in opiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muhamad Azmi; Zuki, Ameyra Aman; Yusof, Suhana; Othman, Nurul Wahida; Zain, Badrul Munir Md; Yaakop, Salmah

    2018-04-01

    Endosymbiont Wolbachia has always been a hot topic of discussion among entomologists and microbiologists as it can manipulate the reproductive system of their arthropod hosts. In this study, a total of 10 sequences which consist of concatenate data from three genetic markers of Wolbachia (groEL, gltA, and wsp) were obtained from opiine wasps from five localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Among the 10 sequences, six were isolated from Fopius arisanus, one from F. vandenboschi, and three from Psyttalia sp. SY2013. Based on Neighbour-Joining (NJ) analysis of the concatenate data and genetic distances, four variants of Wolbachia have been successfully identified. Our data thus provide an insight on Wolbachia infections in oriental insects as Wolbachia research is still considered as in early stage in Malaysia.

  6. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, B. M.; Søndergaard, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Background: Yeast surface display is a technique, where the proteins of interest are expressed as fusions with yeast surface proteins and thus remain attached to the yeast cell wall after expression. Our purpose was to study whether allergens expressed on the cell surface of baker's yeast...... were expressed on the surface as fusions with a-agglutinin complex protein AGA2. The expression was confirmed by fluorescent cytometry (FACS) after staining the cells with antibody against a C-tag attached to the C-terminal end of the allergens. Phospholipase A1 and hyaluronidase retained...... their enzymatic activities. Phospholipase A1 severely inhibited the growth of the yeast cells. Antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells bound IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patient sera but not from control sera as demonstrated by FACS. Moreover, antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells were capable of mediating...

  7. Exocrine glands in the legs of the social wasp Vespula vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Catherine; Billen, Johan

    2015-09-01

    This study brings a survey of the exocrine glands in the legs of Vespula vulgaris wasps. We studied workers, males, virgin queens as well as mated queens. A variety of 17 glands is found in the different leg segments. Among these, five glands are novel exocrine structures for social insects (trochanter-femur gland, ventrodistal tibial gland, distal tibial sac gland, ventral tibial gland, and ventral tarsomere gland). Most leg glands are present in the three leg pairs of all castes. This may indicate a mechanical function. This is likely for the numerous glands that occur near the articulation between the various leg segments, where lubricant production may be expected. Other possible functions include antenna cleaning, acting as a hydraulic system, or pheromonal. Further research including leg-related behavioural observations and chemical analyses may help to clarify the functions of these glandular structures in the legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diversification and spatial structuring in the mutualism between Ficus septica and its pollinating wasps in insular South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lillian Jennifer; Bain, Anthony; Chou, Lien-Siang; Conchou, Lucie; Cruaud, Astrid; Gonzales, Regielene; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Kjellberg, Finn

    2017-08-29

    Interspecific interactions have long been assumed to play an important role in diversification. Mutualistic interactions, such as nursery pollination mutualisms, have been proposed as good candidates for diversification through co-speciation because of their intricate nature. However, little is known about how speciation and diversification proceeds in emblematic nursery pollination systems such as figs and fig wasps. Here, we analyse diversification in connection with spatial structuring in the obligate mutualistic association between Ficus septica and its pollinating wasps throughout the Philippines and Taiwan. Ceratosolen wasps pollinating F. septica are structured into a set of three vicariant black coloured species, and a fourth yellow coloured species whose distribution overlaps with those of the black species. However, two black pollinator species were found to co-occur on Lanyu island. Microsatellite data on F. septica indicates the presence of three gene pools that broadly mirrors the distribution of the three black clades. Moreover, receptive fig odours, the specific message used by pollinating wasps to locate their host tree, varied among locations. F. septica and its black pollinator clades exhibited similar geographic structuring. This could be due originally to geographic barriers leading to isolation, local adaptation, and finally co-structuring. Nevertheless, the co-occurrence of two black pollinator species on Lanyu island suggests that the parapatric distribution of the black clades is now maintained by the inability of migrating individuals of black pollinators to establish populations outside their range. On the other hand, the distribution of the yellow clade strongly suggests an initial case of character displacement followed by subsequent range extension: in our study system, phenotypic or microevolutionary plasticity has allowed the yellow clade to colonise hosts presenting distinct odours. Hence, while variation in receptive fig odours

  9. WASP: a Web-based Allele-Specific PCR assay designing tool for detecting SNPs and mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assawamakin Anunchai

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allele-specific (AS Polymerase Chain Reaction is a convenient and inexpensive method for genotyping Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and mutations. It is applied in many recent studies including population genetics, molecular genetics and pharmacogenomics. Using known AS primer design tools to create primers leads to cumbersome process to inexperience users since information about SNP/mutation must be acquired from public databases prior to the design. Furthermore, most of these tools do not offer the mismatch enhancement to designed primers. The available web applications do not provide user-friendly graphical input interface and intuitive visualization of their primer results. Results This work presents a web-based AS primer design application called WASP. This tool can efficiently design AS primers for human SNPs as well as mutations. To assist scientists with collecting necessary information about target polymorphisms, this tool provides a local SNP database containing over 10 million SNPs of various populations from public domain databases, namely NCBI dbSNP, HapMap and JSNP respectively. This database is tightly integrated with the tool so that users can perform the design for existing SNPs without going off the site. To guarantee specificity of AS primers, the proposed system incorporates a primer specificity enhancement technique widely used in experiment protocol. In particular, WASP makes use of different destabilizing effects by introducing one deliberate 'mismatch' at the penultimate (second to last of the 3'-end base of AS primers to improve the resulting AS primers. Furthermore, WASP offers graphical user interface through scalable vector graphic (SVG draw that allow users to select SNPs and graphically visualize designed primers and their conditions. Conclusion WASP offers a tool for designing AS primers for both SNPs and mutations. By integrating the database for known SNPs (using gene ID or rs number

  10. Molecular components and toxicity of the venom of the solitary wasp, Anoplius samariensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisada, Miki; Satake, Honoo; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Aoyama, Masato; Murata, Kazuya; Shinada, Testuro; Iwashita, Takashi; Ohfune, Yasufumi; Nakajima, Terumi

    2005-01-01

    The solitary spider wasp, Anoplius samariensis, is known to exhibit a unique long-term, non-lethal paralysis in spiders that it uses as a food source for its larvae. However, neither detailed venom components nor paralytic compounds have ever been characterized. In this study, we examined the components in the low molecular weight fraction of the venom and the paralytic activity of the high molecular weight fraction. The major low molecular weight components of the venom were identified as γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid by micro-liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry analysis. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass analysis revealed that the A. samariensis venom contained the various proteins with weights of 4-100 kDa. A biological assay using Joro spiders (Nephila clavata) clearly showed that the high molecular weight fraction of the venom prepared by ultrafiltration exerted as potent non-lethal long-term paralysis as the whole venom, whereas the low molecular weight fraction was devoid of any paralytic activity. These results indicated that several venomous proteins in the high molecular weight fraction are responsible for the paralytic activity. Furthermore, we determined the primary structure of one component designated As-fr-19, which was a novel multiple-cysteine peptide with high sequence similarity to several sea anemone and snake toxins including dendrotoxins, rather than any insect toxic peptides identified so far. Taken together, our data showed the unprecedented molecular and toxicological profiles of wasp venoms

  11. Multi-band, multi-epoch observations of the transiting warm Jupiter WASP-80b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Akihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Kawashima, Yui; Ikoma, Masahiro; Kurosaki, Kenji [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Narita, Norio; Nishiyama, Shogo; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Nagayama, Shogo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onitsuka, Masahiro; Baba, Haruka; Ryu, Tsuguru [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ita, Yoshifusa; Onozato, Hiroki [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hirano, Teruyuki; Kawauchi, Kiyoe [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hori, Yasunori [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tamura, Motohide [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki, E-mail: afukui@oao.nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Oookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); and others

    2014-08-01

    WASP-80b is a warm Jupiter transiting a bright late-K/early-M dwarf, providing a good opportunity to extend the atmospheric study of hot Jupiters toward the lower temperature regime. We report multi-band, multi-epoch transit observations of WASP-80b by using three ground-based telescopes covering from optical (g', R{sub c}, and I{sub c} bands) to near-infrared (NIR; J, H, and K{sub s} bands) wavelengths. We observe 5 primary transits, each in 3 or 4 different bands simultaneously, obtaining 17 independent transit light curves. Combining them with results from previous works, we find that the observed transmission spectrum is largely consistent with both a solar abundance and thick cloud atmospheric models at a 1.7σ discrepancy level. On the other hand, we find a marginal spectral rise in the optical region compared to the NIR region at the 2.9σ level, which possibly indicates the existence of haze in the atmosphere. We simulate theoretical transmission spectra for a solar abundance but hazy atmosphere, finding that a model with equilibrium temperature of 600 K can explain the observed data well, having a discrepancy level of 1.0σ. We also search for transit timing variations, but find no timing excess larger than 50 s from a linear ephemeris. In addition, we conduct 43 day long photometric monitoring of the host star in the optical bands, finding no significant variation in the stellar brightness. Combined with the fact that no spot-crossing event is observed in the five transits, our results confirm previous findings that the host star appears quiet for spot activities, despite the indications of strong chromospheric activities.

  12. Rush immunotherapy for wasp venom allergy seems safe and effective in patients with mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, M; Oldhoff, J M; Klemans, R J B; Lahey-de Boer, A; de Bruin-Weller, M S; Röckmann, H; Sanders, C; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Pasmans, S G M A; Knulst, A C

    2015-11-01

    Patients with mastocytosis and wasp venom allergy (WA) may benefit from venom immunotherapy (VIT). However, fatal insect sting reactions have been described in mastocytosis patients despite previous immunotherapy. We investigated the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. We describe nine patients with cutaneous mastocytosis and WA who received VIT. Cutaneous mastocytosis was confirmed by histopathology and systemic mastocytosis was diagnosed according to World Health Organization criteria. VIT was given according to a rush protocol. Given the difference in safety and efficacy of VIT in patients with WA and honeybee venom allergy, we reviewed the literature for VIT with the focus on WA patients with mastocytosis and addressed the difference between patients with cutaneous versus systemic mastocytosis. Nine patients had WA and mastocytosis, of whom six had cutaneous mastocytosis, two combined cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis and one systemic mastocytosis. All patients received rush IT with wasp venom. Most patients had only mild local side effects, with no systemic side effects during the course of VIT. One patient had a systemic reaction upon injection on one occasion, during the updosing phase, with dyspnoea and hypotension, but responded well to treatment. Immunotherapy was continued after temporary dose adjustment without problems. Two patients with a previous anaphylactic reaction were re-stung, without any systemic effects. VIT is safe in cutaneous mastocytosis patients with WA, while caution has to be made in case of systemic mastocytosis. VIT was effective in the patients who were re-stung.

  13. Tournament ABC analysis of the western Palaearctic population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Graham N; White, Sarah C; Csóka, György; Melika, George; Mutun, Serap; Pénzes, Zsolt; Sadeghi, S Ebrahim; Schönrogge, Karsten; Tavakoli, Majid; Nicholls, James A

    2017-12-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful and widely used approach in inference of population history. However, the computational effort required to discriminate among alternative historical scenarios often limits the set that is compared to those considered more likely a priori. While often justifiable, this approach will fail to consider unexpected but well-supported population histories. We used a hierarchical tournament approach, in which subsets of scenarios are compared in a first round of ABC analyses and the winners are compared in a second analysis, to reconstruct the population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) across the Western Palaearctic. We used 4,233 bp of sequence data across seven loci to explore the relationships between four putative Pleistocene refuge populations in Iberia, Italy, the Balkans and Western Asia. We compared support for 148 alternative scenarios in eight pools, each pool comprising all possible rearrangements of four populations over a given topology of relationships, with or without founding of one population by admixture and with or without an unsampled "ghost" population. We found very little support for the directional "out of the east" scenario previously inferred for other gall wasp community members. Instead, the best-supported models identified Iberia as the first-regional population to diverge from the others in the late Pleistocene, followed by divergence between the Balkans and Western Asia, and founding of the Italian population through late Pleistocene admixture from Iberia and the Balkans. We compare these results with what is known for other members of the oak gall community, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of using a tournament approach to explore phylogeographic model space. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Enzymes inhibitory and radical scavenging potentials of two selected tropical vegetable (Moringa oleifera and Telfairia occidentalis leaves relevant to type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudeen O. Jimoh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, and Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f., Curcubitaceae, leaves are two tropical vegetables of medicinal properties. In this study, the inhibitory activities and the radical scavenging potentials of these vegetables on relevant enzymes of type 2-diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase were evaluated in vitro. HPLC-DAD was used to characterize the phenolic constituents and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's pancreas was investigated. Various radical scavenging properties coupled with metal chelating abilities were also determined. However, phenolic extracts from the vegetables inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and chelated the tested metals (Cu2+ and Fe2+ in a concentration-dependent manner. More so, the inhibitory properties of phenolic rich extracts from these vegetables could be linked to their radical scavenging abilities. Therefore, this study may offer a promising prospect for M. oleifera and T. occidentalis leaves as a potential functional food sources in the management of type 2-diabetes mellitus.

  15. Quelques vertus médicinales de Cassia occidentalis L. (Césalpiniacées en basse Cóte d’Ivoire

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    L. Aké Assi

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available SOME MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS  L. (CAESALPINIACEAE IN THE LOWER IVORY COAST About 40 species of Cassia, a great number of which have been introduced, grow in different parts of intertropical Africa, in all types o f vegetation. The 14 species in the Ivory Coast are herbs, shrubs or trees. The local pharmacopoeia uses six of these species for various therapeutic preparations. The currently most used species is Cassia occidentalis L. commonly called Faux Kinkéliba. In the forest area of the Lower Ivory Coast, 11 medical preparations made from different parts of the plant are used. With its considerable ability to spread, this South American plant has become a pantropical one. It is found chiefly in the vicinity of villages. C. occidentalis is used for the relief and treatment of a variety of pains and diseases, for example as a cicatrizant, abortifacient, febrifuge, diuretic, laxative or cholagogue and tonic, and in cases of asthma, cataract, jaundice and kwashiorkor.

  16. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

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    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  17. Potencial alelopático da parte aérea de Senna occidentalis (L. Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae: bioensaios em laboratório Allelopathic potential of aerial parts of Senna occidentalis (L. Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae: Laboratory bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carina da Silva Cândido

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade das frações semipurificadas (hexânica, acetato de etila e etanol-água do extrato etanólico das partes aérea de S. occidentalis foi avaliada através de ensaios de germinação e de crescimento de Lactuca sativa (alface, Lycopersicon esculentum (tomate, Allium cepa (cebola e Triticum aestivum (trigo, em laboratório. Foram utilizadas três concentrações (250, 500, 1000 mg L-1 de cada fração e um controle não tratado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os bioensaios de germinação revelaram que todas as frações atrasaram a germinação de alface, tomate e cebola, e as frações hexânica e acetato de etila reduziram a germinabilidade de tomate e cebola. Nos bioensaios de crescimento, a fração hexânica estimulou o crescimento da raiz e inibiu o crescimento do hipocótilo das eudicotiledôneas. A mesma fração inibiu o crescimento da raiz e do coleóptilo das monocotiledôneas. A fração acetato de etila inibiu o crescimento da raiz das plântulas-alvo e o hipocótilo/coleóptilo de tomate e cebola. A fração etanol-água estimulou o crescimento da raiz de tomate e do hipocótilo de alface e inibiu o crescimento da raiz de cebola e trigo e, também, do coleóptilo de cebola, na concentração de 1000 mg L-1. Nos bioensaios com herbicidas comerciais foram observados efeitos semelhantes àqueles obtidos na germinação pelas frações e no crescimento pelas frações hexânica e acetato de etila. Na cromatografia em camada delgada, foram detectados terpenos na fração hexânica, compostos fenólicos e alcalóides na fração acetato de etila. A análise espectrofotométrica revelou que a fração acetato de etila possui o maior conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e flavonóides.The bioactivity of semipurified fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol-water obtained from S. occidentalis aerial-part ethanol extract was evaluated by germination and growth bioassays using Lactuca sativa (lettuce, Lycopersicon

  18. Application of 16S rDNA-DGGE to examine the microbial ecology associated with a social wasp Vespula germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeson, A F; Jankovic, T; Kasper, M L; Rogers, S; Austin, A D

    2003-02-01

    Invertebrates host numerous bacteria, with interactions ranging from pathogenesis to symbiosis. While certain symbiotic relationships have been well studied, little is known about the dynamics of these bacterial communities. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to examine the bacterial microflora associated with the eusocial wasp Vespula germanica. DGGE profiles of larval guts revealed a variable microflora, suggesting that V. germanica is not dependent on a particular suite of mutualists. The variation in profiles was not related to season, nest size or macrohabitat. Sequences corresponding to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, a novel Leuconostoc and two Rickettsiella grylli strains were obtained. DGGE proved to be a useful technique for characterizing the wasp microflora. Given the importance of microbial communities to invertebrates, there is much to be gained from the application of such techniques.

  19. Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prey identification in nests of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae using DNA barcodes. Geometrid larvae are the only prey known for larvae of the Neotropical potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 was amplified from geometrid larvae collected from cells of H. andeus in the Azapa Valley, Arica Province, and used to provide taxonomic identifications. Two species, Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 and Macaria mirthae Vargas, Parra & Hausmann, 2005 were identified, while three others could be identified only at higher taxonomic levels, because the barcode reference library of geometrid moths is still incomplete for northern Chile.

  20. VLT FORS2 COMPARATIVE TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY: DETECTION OF Na IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF WASP-39b FROM THE GROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sing, David K.; Evans, Thomas M. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Gibson, Neale P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Barstow, Joanna K. [Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Kataria, Tiffany [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wilson, Paul A., E-mail: nikolay@astro.ex.ac.uk [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2016-12-01

    We present transmission spectroscopy of the warm Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b made with the Very Large Telescope FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) across the wavelength range 411–810 nm. The transit depth is measured with a typical precision of 240 parts per million (ppm) in wavelength bins of 10 nm on a V  = 12.1 mag star. We detect the sodium absorption feature (3.2 σ ) and find evidence of potassium. The ground-based transmission spectrum is consistent with Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) optical spectroscopy, supporting the interpretation that WASP-39b has a largely clear atmosphere. Our results demonstrate the great potential of the recently upgraded FORS2 spectrograph for optical transmission spectroscopy, with which we obtained HST -quality light curves from the ground.